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1

Pilocarpine Ophthalmic  

MedlinePLUS

... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the gel. Remove ... or have ever had asthma, intestinal disease, ulcers, high blood pressure, ... it at least 10 minutes before or after you instill pilocarpine eye drops.

2

Effect of Pilocarpine on impaired salivary secretion in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze resting whole saliva (RWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) flow rates before and after administration of Pilocarpine in secondary Sjögren's Syndrome patients. Fifty-one patients (49 women, 2 men, mean age 61 years, range 38-85), all with a resting saliva < or =0.1 ml/min, participated. Volumes of RWS and SWS collected over periods of 15 and 5 min, respectively, using standardized protocols were measured and the same procedure was repeated after oral administration of Pilocarpine (0.7 mg per 10 kg body weight). The sample was then divided into two groups, according to those in whom Pilocarpine stimulation had caused RWS flow to reach >0.1 ml/min (responders) and those who remained at values < or =0.1 ml/min (non-responders). All participants completed a questionnaire related to general and oral health status, as well as their subjective intraoral complaints before and after administration of Pilocarpine. Thirteen patients (25%) were classified as non-responders and the remaining 38 (75%) as responders. No statistically significant differences between the non-responders and responders were detected as regards general health parameters or intake of medicines with anticholinergic affect. As regards intraoral subjective complaints, no difference between the groups was found before Pilocarpine administration. After administration of Pilocarpine, complaints were significantly fewer among the responders (p<0.01). Both groups exhibited a significant decrease of intraoral symptoms after administration of Pilocarpine (responders P<0.001 and non-responders P<0.05) compared to baseline. For the whole group, more severe intraoral complaints were significantly associated with a lower SWS (P<0.05), but not a RWS, rate at baseline. It is concluded that a subgroup of Sjögren patients do not respond to Pilocarpine stimulation. The clinical implications of this finding need further investigation. PMID:18700333

Jorkjend, Lars; Bergenholtz, Axel; Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Johansson, Anders

2008-01-01

3

Comparative oral bioavailability advantage from curcumin formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to study the oral bioavailability of seven different formulations of curcumin (CRM). CRM\\u000a formulations viz. aqueous suspension, micronized suspension, nanosuspension, amorphous solid dispersion, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin\\u000a (HP-?-CD) inclusion complex, combination with piperine, and spray-dried CRM–milk composite were compared for oral bioavailability\\u000a in male Sprague–Dawley rats at a CRM dose of 250 mg\\/kg body weight using a

Bhushan Munjal; Yogesh Bapurao Pawar; Sarsvatkumar Babulal Patel; Arvind Kumar Bansal

4

Analysis of pilocarpine and its trans epimer, isopilocarpine, by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for the separation of pilocarpine from its epimer, isopilocarpine, using coated fused-silica capillaries of 20 cm x 25 microm I.D., 8 kV running voltage, migration buffer of 0.1 M sodium dihydrogenphosphate pH 8, detection at 217 nm and injection by electromigration. Injections of aqueous, acid and basic solutions were compared. Linearity of the signal for pilocarpine hydrochloride up to 200 microg ml(-1) in 0.05 M hydrochloric acid was obtained, using naphazoline nitrate as internal standard. Optimization of migration buffer pH using coated silica capillaries of 50 cm x 50 microm I.D. showed that at pH 6.9 pilocarpine can be separated from ++isopilocarpine. Inclusion of beta-cyclodextrin in the buffer allows full baseline separation of both epimers. The method was applied to the analysis of a commercial ophthalmic pilocarpine solution. PMID:8331141

Baeyens, W; Weiss, G; Van Der Weken, G; Van Den Bossche, W

1993-05-28

5

A Phase III Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Pilocarpine for Vaginal Dryness: NCCTG study N04CA1  

PubMed Central

Purpose Vaginal dryness is a common problem, for which effective and safe non-estrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, to a placebo. Vaginal dryness was recorded by patient-completed questionnaires at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks after study initiation. The primary endpoint for this study was the area under the curve (AUC) summary statistic comprised of the longitudinal responses obtained at baseline and through the six weeks of treatment to a numerical analogue scale asking patients to rate their perceived amount of vaginal dryness. The primary analysis was carried out by a single t-test using a two-sided alternative to compare the collective pilocarpine treatment arms versus the collective placebo arms. Results A total of 201 patients enrolled in this trial. The primary analysis, comparing vaginal dryness symptoms in the collective pilocarpine arms against the placebo arm, did not reveal any benefit for the pilocarpine treatment. This finding was confirmed by other secondary analyses. Toxicity evaluation revealed more nausea, sweating, rigors, and urinary frequency with the pilocarpine arms compared to the placebo arm. Conclusion Pilocarpine did not alleviate vaginal dryness. PMID:21702402

Loprinzi, Charles L.; Balcueva, Ernie P.; Liu, Heshan; Sloan, Jeff A.; Kottschade, Lisa A.; Stella, Philip J.; Carlson, Mark D.; Moore, Dennis F.; Zon, Robin T.; Levitt, Ralph; Jaslowski, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

6

Comparative Effectiveness of Instructional Methods: Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Examination  

PubMed Central

This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students’ baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p < 0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. PMID:24706693

Clark, Nereyda P.; Marks, John G.; Sandow, Pamela R.; Seleski, Christine E.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2014-01-01

7

Role of TGF-? signaling pathway on Tenascin C protein upregulation in a pilocarpine seizure model.  

PubMed

Seizures have been shown to upregulate the expression of numerous extracellular matrix molecules. Tenascin C (TNC) is an extracellular matrix protein involved in several physiological roles and in pathological conditions. Though TNC upregulation has been described after excitotoxins injection, to date there is no research work on the signal transduction pathway(s) participating in TNC protein overproduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TGF-? signaling pathway on TNC upregulation. In this study, we used male rats, which were injected with saline or pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus (SE) and killed 24h, 3 and 7 days after pilocarpine administration. For evaluating biochemical changes, we measured protein content of TNC, TGF-?1 and phospho-Smad2/3 for localization of TNC in coronal brain hippocampus at 24h, 3 and 7 days after pilocarpine-caused SE. We found a significant increase of TNC protein content in hippocampal homogenates after 1, 3, and 7 days of pilocarpine-caused SE, together with an enhancement of TNC immunoreactivity in several hippocampal layers and the dentate gyrus field where more dramatic changes occurred. We also observed a significant enhancement of protein content of both the TGF-?1 and the critical downstream transduction effector phospho-Smad2/3 throughout the chronic exposure. Interestingly, animals injected with SB-431542, a TGF-?-type I receptor inhibitor, decreased TNC content in cytosolic fraction and diminished phospho-Smad2/3 content in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fraction compared with pilocarpine vehicle-injected. These findings suggest the participation of TGF-? signaling pathway on upregulation of TNC which in turn support the idea that misregulation of this signaling pathway produces changes that may contribute to disease. PMID:25445237

Mercado-Gómez, Octavio; Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Arriaga-Avila, Virginia; Nebreda-Corona, Adriana; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

2014-12-01

8

Modulation of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures by Cannabinoid Receptor 1  

PubMed Central

Administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is commonly used to induce seizures in rodents for the study of epilepsy. Activation of muscarinic receptors has been previously shown to increase the production of endocannabinoids in the brain. Endocannabinoids act at the cannabinoid CB1 receptors to reduce neurotransmitter release and the severity of seizures in several models of epilepsy. In this study, we determined the effect of CB1 receptor activity on the induction in mice of seizures by pilocarpine. We found that decreased activation of the CB1 receptor, either through genetic deletion of the receptor or treatment with a CB1 antagonist, increased pilocarpine seizure severity without modifying seizure-induced cell proliferation and cell death. These results indicate that endocannabinoids act at the CB1 receptor to modulate the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures. Administration of a CB1 agonist produced characteristic CB1-dependent behavioral responses, but did not affect pilocarpine seizure severity. A possible explanation for the lack of effect of CB1 agonist administration on pilocarpine seizures, despite the effects of CB1 antagonist administration and CB1 gene deletion, is that muscarinic receptor-stimulated endocannabinoid production is acting maximally at CB1 receptors to modulate sensitivity to pilocarpine seizures. PMID:24752144

Kow, Rebecca L.; Jiang, Kelly; Naydenov, Alipi V.; Le, Joshua H.; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

9

Central mechanisms involved in pilocarpine-induced pressor response.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine (cholinergic muscarinic agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally to produce pressor responses; in the present study, using c-fos immunoreactive expression, we investigated the forebrain and brainstem areas activated by pressor doses of intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine. In addition, the importance of vasopressin secretion and/or sympathetic activation and the effects of lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region in awake rats were also investigated. In male Holtzman rats, pilocarpine (0.04 to 4?mol/kg b.w.) i.v. induced transitory hypotension followed by long lasting hypertension. Sympathetic blockade with prazosin (1mg/kg b.w.) i.v. or AV3V lesions (1 day) almost abolished the pressor response to i.v. pilocarpine (2?mol/kg b.w.), whereas the vasopressin antagonist (10?g/kg b.w.) i.v. reduced the response to pilocarpine. Pilocarpine (2 and 4?mol/kg b.w.) i.v. increased the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, organ vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla. These data suggest that i.v. pilocarpine activates specific forebrain and brainstem mechanisms increasing sympathetic activity and vasopressin secretion to induce pressor response. PMID:21689994

Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Borella, Thais L; Paulin, Renata F; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

2011-10-28

10

Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats Involves Ischemic and Excitotoxic Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The neuron loss characteristic of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy patients is thought to be the result of excitotoxic, rather than ischemic, injury. In this study, we assessed changes in vascular structure, gene expression, and the time course of neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex during the acute period after onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Immediately after 2 hr SE, the subgranular layers of somatosensory cortex exhibited a reduced vascular perfusion indicative of ischemia, whereas the immediately adjacent supragranular layers exhibited increased perfusion. Subgranular layers exhibited necrotic pathology, whereas the supergranular layers were characterized by a delayed (24 h after SE) degeneration apparently via programmed cell death. These results indicate that both excitotoxic and ischemic injuries occur during pilocarpine-induced SE. Both of these degenerative pathways, as well as the widespread and severe brain damage observed, should be considered when animal model-based data are compared to human pathology. PMID:17971868

Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Merigo, Flavia; Galič, Mirco; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Farace, Paolo; Nicolato, Elena; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea

2007-01-01

11

The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30) or 60 days (group C60) or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo). The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30) or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30); fluoxetine (group FS60) or venlafaxine (group VS60) with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60) or venlafaxine (group VP60) with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05). RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60) induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days. PMID:22179167

Mattioli, Tatiana Maria Folador; da Silva, Silvana; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

2011-01-01

12

Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) adversely effects on pilocarpine seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal death.  

PubMed

Citicoline (CDP-choline; cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. Citicoline serves as a choline donor in the biosynthetic pathways of acetylcholine and neuronal membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. The ability of citicoline to reverse neuronal injury has been tested in animal models of cerebral ischemia and clinical trials have been performed in stroke patients. However, no studies have examined the effect of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death. To clarify the potential therapeutic effects of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death, we used an animal model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25mg/kg) in adult male rats. Citicoline (100 or 300mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space two hours after seizure onset and a second injection was performed 24h after the seizure. Citicoline was injected once per day for one week after pilocarpine- or kainate-induced seizure. Neuronal injury and microglial activation were evaluated at 1 week post-seizure. Surprisingly, rather than offering protection, citicoline treatment actually enhanced seizure-induced neuronal death and microglial activation in the hippocampus compared to vehicle treated controls. Citicoline administration after seizure-induction increased immunoglobulin leakage via BBB disruption in the hippocampus compared with the vehicle-only group. To clarify if this adverse effect of citicoline is generalizable across alternative seizure models, we induced seizure by kainate injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) and then injected citicoline as in pilocarpine-induced seizure. We found that citicoline did not modulate kainate seizure-induced neuronal death, BBB disruption or microglial activation. These results suggest that citicoline may not have neuroprotective effects after seizure and that clinical application of citicoline after seizure needs careful consideration. PMID:25446447

Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Lee, Song Hee; Choi, Hui Chul; Ki Song, Hong; Suh, Sang Won

2015-01-21

13

Pilot study of prescription-event monitoring in Japan comparing troglitazone with alternative oral hypoglycemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine adverse events reported in a pilot study of the prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM) scheme, comparing troglitazone with other oral hypoglycemics. Methods: We used a cohort study with a concurrent control in which information was gathered from both doctors and pharmacists. Crude event rates were calculated and compared between troglitazone (T) and alternative oral hypoglycemics (control drugs,

Kiyoshi Kubota; Eri Kawabe; Shiro Hinotsu; Chikuma Hamada; Yasuo Ohashi; Kiyoshi Kurokawa

2001-01-01

14

ORIGINAL ARTICLE SKIN AND EYE DISEASES Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE SKIN AND EYE DISEASES Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I, Athanasiadis GI, Behrendt H, Ring J, Darsow U, Napadow V. Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Allergy 2012; 67: 566­573. Keywords acupuncture; allergen

Napadow, Vitaly

15

Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: a study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p?compared to 1% of dentists (p?oral health behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists. PMID:24655533

2014-01-01

16

Pilocarpine-Induced Dilation of Schlemm's Canal and Prevention of Lumen Collapse at Elevated Intraocular Pressures in Living Mice Visualized by OCT  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The goal was to assess effects of IOP and pilocarpine-induced ciliary muscle contraction on conventional outflow pathway tissues in living anesthetized mice. Methods. Intraocular pressure was controlled by intracameral cannulation of mouse eyes while imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Time-lapse sagittal SD-OCT sections through Schlemm's canal (SC) were acquired while changing IOP stepwise between 10 and 45 mm Hg. After topical application of 1% pilocarpine, the series of IOP steps and imaging were repeated. Effects of pilocarpine on IOP and outflow facility in living mice were verified by rebound tonometry and flow measurements at three different IOPs, respectively. In vivo OCT images were compared with eyes analyzed by standard histology. Results. In living mice imaged by SD-OCT, the lumen of SC progressively collapsed with increasing IOP, reaching near complete closure at 20 mm Hg. Schlemm's canal collapse was reversible, with the lumen opening within minutes after returning IOP from 45 to 10 mm Hg. Pilocarpine-induced ciliary muscle contraction changed SC lumen area by 131.6% ± 21.0% compared with untreated controls at 10 mm Hg, opened the trabecular meshwork, and prevented complete collapse of the SC lumen at higher pressures. Similar results were observed by standard histology. Pilocarpine increased outflow facility 4-fold (P = 0.02) and lowered IOP (16.46 ± 2.23 vs. 11.08 ± 2.28 mm Hg, P = 0.03). Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT was effective at visualizing changes in SC lumen in living mice. Results with pilocarpine are consistent with the concept that a primary role for the ciliary muscle is to prevent collapse of SC. PMID:24595384

Li, Guorong; Farsiu, Sina; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Gonzalez, Pedro; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Overby, Darryl R.; Stamer, W. Daniel

2014-01-01

17

Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. METHODS: A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women)

Anne Nordrehaug Ĺstrřm

2002-01-01

18

Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes  

PubMed Central

The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

2014-01-01

19

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex. Participants The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Methods The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed. Results Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE. PMID:22915898

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette

2012-01-01

20

An analytical chemical study of pilocarpine hydrochloride and its hydrolysis products  

E-print Network

of the requirements i' or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1956 Major Su'bject: Chemilstry AK AEALYTICAL CHEMICAL STUDY GF PILOCARPINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ITS HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS EDWARD R, IBERT APPROVED AS TO STYLE AED CONTEND BY: Chairman of Committee...'e. . . . . . ~ ~ . 20 22 lII. ? Hydrolysis of commercial preparations versus shelf life in months. o ~ ~ ~ 25 Chapter I Introduction Pilocarpine is a medicinal alkaloid. . Pilocarpine hydrochloride is an official entry in the U. S. P. (United States Pharmacopeia...

Ibert, Edward R

1956-01-01

21

Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

2015-03-01

22

Characterisation of the membrane transport of pilocarpine in cell suspension cultures of Pilocarpus microphyllus.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Pilocarpus genus, with important pharmaceutical applications. Previous reports have investigated the production of pilocarpine by Pilocarpus microphyllus cell cultures and tried to establish the alkaloid biosynthetic route. However, the site of pilocarpine accumulation inside of the cell and its exchange to the medium culture is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the intracellular accumulation of pilocarpine and characterise its transport across membranes in cell suspension cultures of P. microphyllus. Histochemical analysis and toxicity assays indicated that pilocarpine is most likely stored in the vacuoles probably to avoid cell toxicity. Assays with exogenous pilocarpine supplementation to the culture medium showed that the alkaloid is promptly uptaken but it is rapidly metabolised. Treatment with specific ABC protein transporter inhibitors and substances that disturb the activity of secondary active transporters suppressed pilocarpine uptake and release suggesting that both proteins may participate in the traffic of pilocarpine to inside and outside of the cells. As bafilomicin A1, a specific V-type ATPase inhibitor, had little effect and NH4Cl (induces membrane proton gradient dissipation) had moderate effect, while cyclosporin A and nifedipine (ABC proteins inhibitors) strongly inhibited the transport of pilocarpine, it is believed that ABC proteins play a major role in the alkaloid transport across membranes but it is not the exclusive one. Kinetic studies supported these results. PMID:25474486

Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mazzafera, Paulo

2014-11-20

23

Do pilocarpine drops help dry mouth in palliative care patients: a protocol for an aggregated series of n-of-1 trials  

PubMed Central

Background It is estimated that 39,000 Australians die from malignant disease yearly. Of these, 60% to 88% of advanced cancer patients suffer xerostomia, the subjective feeling of mouth dryness. Xerostomia has significant physical, social and psychological consequences which compromise function and quality of life. Pilocarpine is one treatment for xerostomia. Most studies have shown some variation in individual response to pilocarpine, in terms of dose used, and timing and extent of response. We will determine a population estimate of the efficacy of pilocarpine drops (6 mg) three times daily compared to placebo in relieving dry mouth in palliative care (PC) patients. A secondary aim is to assess individual patients’ response to pilocarpine and provide reports detailing individual response to patients and their treating clinician. Methods/Design Aggregated n-of-1 trials (3 cycle, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials using standardized measures of effect). Individual trials will identify which patients respond to the medication. To produce a population estimate of a treatment effect, the results of all cycles will be aggregated. Discussion Managing dry mouth with treatment supported by the best possible evidence will improve functional status of patients, and improve quality of life for patients and carers. Using n-of-1 trials will accelerate the rate of accumulation of high-grade evidence to support clinical therapies used in PC. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: 12610000840088. PMID:24176001

2013-01-01

24

Feasibility study comparing oral paracetamol and oral non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs for treating pain after musculoskeletal injury: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy and safety of oral paracetamol compared with oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or combination therapy in relieving pain after limb injury in an emergency department. Design: Double blind, randomised, controlled study. Setting: Emergency department of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong. Subjects: 50 adult patients with painful isolated limb injuries. Main

SY Man; WK Woo; PKW Lam

25

Mandarin Oral Narratives Compared with English: The Pear/Guava Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)…

Erbaugh, Mary S.

1990-01-01

26

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

27

A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

2010-12-01

28

A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

2011-08-01

29

A comparative study of the cytotoxicity of skin irritants on cultured human oral and skin keratinocytes.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of irritants on human oral and skin keratinocyte culture models was compared. Keratinocytes were exposed to sodium lauryl sulphate and benzalkonium chloride at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-7) M for 24 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity (MTT assay) and plasma membrane integrity (LDH leakage). Our results showed that oral and skin keratinocytes are equally sensitive to the irritants tested. There were marked similarities in susceptibility between each cell type cultured from six individuals. The immunohistochemical staining pattern of both cell types resembled that of the basal cell. These observations suggest that the skin keratinocyte culture model may be useful in evaluating the cytotoxicity of agents which are irritants on either the skin or oral mucosa. PMID:7508256

Eun, H C; Chung, J H; Jung, S Y; Cho, K H; Kim, K H

1994-01-01

30

Comparative pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel after oral administration of Taxus yunnanensis extract and pure paclitaxel to rats.  

PubMed

Taxus yunnanensis (T. yunnanensis) is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer, diabetic ailments and others. Paclitaxel is a representative antitumor compound in the Taxus species. The pharmacokinetic behavior of paclitaxel after oral administration of the crude extract of T. yunnanensis has not been investigated. This study attempts to compare the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel after an oral administration of the crude extract of the twigs and leaves of T. yunnanensis and pure paclitaxel. A UPLC and a UPLC/MS/MS analysis method were developed for the determination of paclitaxel in T. yunnanensis extract and in the comparative pharmacokinetic study. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate the transport profile of paclitaxel in vitro. In the pharmacokinetic study, rats were randomly grouped and administered with T. yunnanensis extract or pure paclitaxel. The results showed that the AUC and C(max) of paclitaxel in rats receiving the T. yunnanensis extract were significantly increased than those receiving the pure paclitaxel, and the in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer transport study found that the coexisting constituents in the extract of T. yunnanensis could inhibit the efflux of paclitaxel. These findings suggested that the oral absorption and bioavailability of paclitaxel in T. yunnanensis extract were remarkably higher when compared with the pure paclitaxel, and the coexisting constituents in the T. yunnanensis extract might play an important role for the enhancement of the oral absorption and bioavailability of paclitaxel. PMID:23811429

Jin, Jing; Cai, Dake; Bi, Huichang; Zhong, Guoping; Zeng, Hang; Gu, Lianquan; Huang, Zhiying; Huang, Min

2013-10-01

31

Nucleotide excision repair is reduced in oral epithelial tissues compared with skin.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to internal tissues for diagnostic, therapeutic and cosmetic procedures has increased dramatically over the past decade. The greatest increase in UVR exposure of internal tissues occurs in the cosmetic industry where it is combined with oxidizing agents for teeth whitening, often in conjunction with indoor tanning. To address potential carcinogenic risks of these procedures, we analyzed the formation and repair of the DNA photoproducts associated with the signature mutations of UVR. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify the induction and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts in DNA purified from three reconstructed tissues, EpiDerm(TM) , EpiGingival(TM) and EpiOral(TM) . We observed comparable levels of DNA damage in all tissues immediately after UVR exposure. In contrast, repair was significantly reduced in both oral tissues compared with EpiDerm(TM) . Our data suggest that UVR exposure of oral tissues can result in accumulation of DNA damage and increase the risk for carcinoma and melanoma of the mouth. Because NER is a broad-spectrum defense against DNA damage caused by a variety of agents in addition to UVR, our data suggest that the relatively low NER efficiency observed in oral tissues may have wide-ranging consequences in this highly exposed environment. PMID:22519509

Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Godar, Dianne

2012-01-01

32

A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Intravenous 5- Fluorouracil and Oral Doxifluridine As Postoperative Adjuvant Treatment for Advanced Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation treatment after curative resection for rectal cancer was needed to reduce recurrence and improve a survival rate. Intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin has been a mainstay of chemotherapy, but oral 5-FU derivatives have been shown a comparable antitumor activity. Intravenous 5-FU and oral doxifluridine were compared with respect to therapeutic efficacy, drug toxicity, and quality of

Jin Sik Min; Nam Kyu Kim; Jea Kun Park; Seong Hyun Yun; Jae Kyung Noh

2000-01-01

33

Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.  

PubMed

This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice. PMID:24060558

Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Milán; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidán, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

2013-09-01

34

Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.  

PubMed

Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides-triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features-have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7 % lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8 % lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P?

Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvăo, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

2015-02-01

35

Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. Results: The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Conclusion: Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health. PMID:25374836

Damle, Satyawan G.; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

2014-01-01

36

Comparing the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone on behaviors by undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation.  

PubMed

Complex healthcare, less resources, high-level medical equipment, and fewer available clinical settings have led many health professionals to use simulation as a method to further augment educational experiences for nursing students. While debriefing is recommended in the literature as a key component of simulation, the optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. This pre- and posttest two-group randomized quasi-experimental design compared the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing (VAOD) and oral debriefing alone (ODA) on behaviors of 48 undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Further, this study examined whether roles (e.g., team leader, medication nurse), type of scenarios (i.e., pulmonary and cardiac scenarios), and student simulation team membership (i.e., VAOD and ODA groups) influenced these behaviors. Behaviors observed in this study related to patient safety, communication among team members, basic- and problem-focused assessment, prioritization of care, appropriate interventions, and delegation to healthcare team members. Both human patient simulator practice and guidance using video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone appeared to be comparable regarding behaviors, regardless of roles, type of scenarios, and student simulation team membership. These findings suggest that nurse educators may use either video-assisted oral debriefing or oral debriefing alone to debrief undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. PMID:24929548

Grant, Joan S; Dawkins, Denise; Molhook, Lori; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E

2014-09-01

37

Muscarinic receptor binding, plasma concentration and inhibition of salivation after oral administration of a novel antimuscarinic agent, solifenacin succinate in mice.  

PubMed

1 A novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, solifenacin succinate, inhibited specific binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]-scopolamine ([(3)H]-NMS) in the mouse bladder, submaxillary gland and heart in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was greatest in the submaxillary gland, followed by the bladder and heart. 2 After oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1 micromol kg(-1)) or solifenacin (62.4, 208 micromol kg(-1)), a significant dose- and time-dependent increase in K(D) values for specific [(3)H]-NMS binding was seen in the bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart, colon and lung, compared with control values. The increase in K(D) induced by oxybutynin in each tissue reached a maximum 0.5 h after oral administration and then rapidly declined, while that induced by solifenacin was greatest 2 h after administration and was maintained for at least 6 or 12 h, depending on the dose. The muscarinic receptor binding of oral solifenacin was slower in onset and of a longer duration than that of oxybutynin. 3 Plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and its active metabolite (N-desethyl-oxybutynin, DEOB) were maximum 0.5 h after its oral administration and then declined rapidly. Oral solifenacin persisted in the blood for longer than oxybutynin. 4 Pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion in mice was significantly reduced by oral administration of solifenacin and was completely abolished 0.5 h after oral oxybutynin. Although the suppression induced by solifenacin was more persistent than that due to oxybutynin, the antagonistic effect of solifenacin on the dose-response curves to pilocarpine was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. It is concluded that oral solifenacin persistently binds to muscarinic receptors in tissues expressing the M(3) subtype, such as the bladder. PMID:15753946

Oki, Tomomi; Sato, Shuichi; Miyata, Keiji; Yamada, Shizuo

2005-05-01

38

Muscarinic receptor binding, plasma concentration and inhibition of salivation after oral administration of a novel antimuscarinic agent, solifenacin succinate in mice  

PubMed Central

A novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, solifenacin succinate, inhibited specific binding of [N-methyl-3H]-scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in the mouse bladder, submaxillary gland and heart in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was greatest in the submaxillary gland, followed by the bladder and heart. After oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1??mol?kg?1) or solifenacin (62.4, 208??mol?kg?1), a significant dose- and time-dependent increase in KD values for specific [3H]-NMS binding was seen in the bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart, colon and lung, compared with control values. The increase in KD induced by oxybutynin in each tissue reached a maximum 0.5?h after oral administration and then rapidly declined, while that induced by solifenacin was greatest 2?h after administration and was maintained for at least 6 or 12?h, depending on the dose. The muscarinic receptor binding of oral solifenacin was slower in onset and of a longer duration than that of oxybutynin. Plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and its active metabolite (N-desethyl-oxybutynin, DEOB) were maximum 0.5?h after its oral administration and then declined rapidly. Oral solifenacin persisted in the blood for longer than oxybutynin. Pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion in mice was significantly reduced by oral administration of solifenacin and was completely abolished 0.5?h after oral oxybutynin. Although the suppression induced by solifenacin was more persistent than that due to oxybutynin, the antagonistic effect of solifenacin on the dose–response curves to pilocarpine was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. It is concluded that oral solifenacin persistently binds to muscarinic receptors in tissues expressing the M3 subtype, such as the bladder. PMID:15753946

Oki, Tomomi; Sato, Shuichi; Miyata, Keiji; Yamada, Shizuo

2005-01-01

39

A randomized, controlled trial comparing IV iron sucrose to oral iron in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, controlled trial comparing IV iron sucrose to oral iron in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD.BackgroundAlthough iron deficiency frequently complicates anemia in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD (ND-CKD), the comparative treatment value of IV iron infusion and oral iron supplementation has not been established.MethodsIn a randomized, controlled multicenter trial, we compared the efficacy of iron sucrose, given as 1 g

David B. Van Wyck; MICHAEL ROPPOLO; Carlos O. Martinez; Richard M. Mazey; STEPHEN MCMURRAY

2005-01-01

40

Altered expression and function of small-conductance (SK) Ca2+-activated K+ channels in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Small conductance calcium (Ca2+) activated SK channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability in hippocampus. Accordingly, these channels are thought to play a key role in controlling neuronal activity in acute models of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate the expression and function of SK channels in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. For this purpose, protein expression was assessed using western blotting assays and gene expression was analyzed using TaqMan-based probes and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) comparative method delta-delta cycle threshold (??CT) in samples extracted from control and epileptic rats. In addition, the effect of SK channel antagonist UCL1684 and agonist NS309 on CA1 evoked population spikes was studied in hippocampal slices. Western blotting analysis showed a significant reduction in the expression of SK1 and SK2 channels at 10 days following status epilepticus (SE), but levels recovered at 1 month and at more than 2 months after SE. In contrast, a significant down-regulation of SK3 channels was detected after 10 days of SE. Analysis of gene expression by qPCR revealed a significant reduction of transcripts for SK2 (Kcnn1) and SK3 (Kcnn3) channels as early as 10 days following pilocarpine-induced SE and during the chronic phase of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, bath application of UCL1684 (100 nM for 15 min) induced a significant increase of the population spike amplitude and number of spikes in the hippocampal CA1 area of slices obtained control and chronic epileptic rats. This effect was obliterated by co-administration of UCL1684 with SK channel agonist NS309 (1 ?M). Application of NS309 failed to modify population spikes in the CA1 area of slices taken from control and epileptic rats. These data indicate an abnormal expression of SK channels and a possible dysfunction of these channels in experimental MTLE. PMID:20553876

Oliveira, Mauro S.; Skinner, Frank; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Garcia, Ileana; Mello, Carlos F.; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

2010-01-01

41

Acute Neuroprotection to Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures is Not Sustained After Traumatic Brain Injury in the Developing Rat: “Neuroprotection Following Traumatic Brain Injury”  

PubMed Central

Following central nervous system injury there is a period of vulnerability when cells will not easily tolerate a secondary insult. However recent studies have shown that following traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as hypoxic-ischemic injuries, the central nervous system may experience a period of protection termed “preconditioning.” While there is literature characterizing the properties of vulnerability and preconditioning in the adult rodent, there is an absence of comparable literature in the developing rat. To determine if there is a window of vulnerability in the developing rat, post-natal day 19 animals were subjected to a severe lateral fluid percussion injury followed by pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus at 1, 6 or 24-hours post TBI. During the first 24 hours after TBI, the dorsal hippocampus exhibited less status epilepticus-induced cell death than that normally seen following pilocarpine administration alone. Instead of producing a state of hippocampal vulnerability to activation, TBI produced a state of neuroprotection. However, in a second group of animals evaluated 20-weeks post-injury, double-injured animals were statistically indistinguishable in terms of seizure threshold, mossy fiber sprouting and cell survival when compared to those treated with pilocarpine alone. TBI, therefore, produced a temporary state of neuroprotection from seizure-induced cell death in the developing rat; however, this ultimately conferred no long-term protection from altered hippocampal circuit rearrangements, enhanced excitability or later convulsive seizures. PMID:19695311

Gurkoff, Gene G.; Giza, Christopher C.; Shin, Don; Auvin, Stephane; Sankar, Raman; Hovda, David A.

2009-01-01

42

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) dose of 10?mg?kg?1?bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(?)) and mean residence time (MRT) were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot) in renal damaged ducks (0.20?L?kg?1?h?1) was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41?L?kg?1?h?1). Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax) was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax) of 2.47 and 2.05?h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el)) at a significant slower rate (3.94?h) in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89?h). The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10?mg?kg?1?bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks. PMID:24707439

Soliman, Ahmed

2014-01-01

43

In Vivo Imaging of mGluR5 Changes during Epileptogenesis Using [11C]ABP688 PET in Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) that regulates glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to pathophysiology of epilepsy. In this study, we monitored the changes of mGluR5 in vivo using [11C]ABP688 PET during the epileptogenesis in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model. Methods In vivo mGluR5 images were acquired using [11C]ABP688 microPET/CT in pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy rat models and controls. We also acquired microPET/CT at acute, subacute as well as chronic periods after status epilepticus. Non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) of [11C]ABP688 was calculated using simplified reference tissue model in a voxel-based manner. mGluR5 BPND of the rat brains of epilepsy models and controls were compared. Results Status epilepticus developed after pilocarpine administration and was followed by recurrent spontaneous seizures for more than 3 weeks. In chronic epilepsy rat model, BPND in hippocampus and amygdala was reduced on a voxel-based analysis. Temporal changes of mGluR5 BPND was also found. In acute period after status epilepticus, mGluR5 BPND was reduced in the whole brain. BPND of caudate-putamen was restored in subacute period, while BPND of the rest of the brain was still lower. In chronic period, global BPND was normalized except in hippocampus and amygdala. Conclusions In vivo imaging of mGluR5 using [11C]ABP688 microPET/CT could successfully reveal the regional changes of mGluR5 binding potential of the rat brain in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. The temporal and spatial changes in mGluR5 availability suggest [11C]ABP688 PET imaging in epilepsy provide abnormal glutamatergic network during epileptogenesis. PMID:24663806

Choi, Hongyoon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Oh, So Won; Im, Hyung-Jun; Hwang, Do Won; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, E. Edmund; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

2014-01-01

44

Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Oral Fluconazole and Intravaginal Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vaginal Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Objective: A study was carried out to compare 3 treatment regimens for vaginal candidiasis. Methods: A total of 150 women with clinical and mycological evidence of vaginal candidiasis were randomized to receive 50 mg of oral fluconazole daily for 6 days (50 women), a single oral 150 mg dose of fluconazole (50 women), or 100 mg of intravaginal clotrimazole daily for 6 days (50 women). They were assessed at 5–15 days (short-term assessment) and again at 30–60 days (long-term assessment) after the completion of treatment. Results: Candida species were completely eradicated from the vagina in 88% or 80% in the 6-day oral fluconzaole group, 76% or 70% in the single oral fluconazole group, and 72% or 60% in the intravaginal clotrimazole group at short-term or long-term assessment, respectively. The rates of clinical effectiveness were 92% or 88% in the 6-day oral fluconzaole group, 80% or 76% in the single oral fluconazole group, and 72% or 58% in the intravaginal clotrimazole group at the short-term or long-term assessment, respectively. Treatment-related side effects were not found in any group. Conclusions: This study suggests that the treatment of vaginal candidiasis with oral fluconazole is effective and that a single oral fluconazole dose might be one choice in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. PMID:18475414

Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

1995-01-01

45

Comparative Efficacy of Oil Pulling and Chlorhexidine on Oral Malodor: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral malodor affects a large section of population. Traditional Indian folk remedy, oil pulling not only reduces it but can also bring down the cost of treatment. Aims: To compare the efficacy of oil pulling and chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes. Materials and Methods: Three week randomized controlled trial was conducted among 60 students of three hostels of Maharani College of science and arts and commerce and Smt V.H.D.College of Home Science. The hostels were randomized into two intervention groups namely chlorhexidine group, sesame oil and one control (placebo) group. Twenty girls were selected from each hostel based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The parameters recorded at the baseline (day 0) and post intervention on day 22 were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), objective (ORG1) and subjective (ORG2) organoleptic scores and anaerobic bacterial colony (ABC) count. Intra and inter group comparisons were made using Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxan sign rank test, ANOVA and student t-test. Results: There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters within sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Among the groups significant difference was observed in objective and subjective organoleptic scores. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean organoleptic scores of sesame oil and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Conclusion: Oil pulling with sesame oil is equally efficacious as chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes causing it. It should be promoted as a preventive home care therapy. PMID:25584309

Devi M, Aruna; Narang, Ridhi; V, Swathi; Makkar, Diljot Kaur

2014-01-01

46

Academic Oral English Development Among Spanish-speaking English Language Learners: Comparing Transitional Bilingual and Structured English Immersion Models  

E-print Network

Academic Oral English Development Among Spanish-speaking English Language Learners: Comparing Transitional Bilingual and Structured English Immersion Models Introduction ? Nation-wide: 11.3 million immigrants, among most recent arrivals (2000...% from 1990, and accounting for 15.8% of the entire school population (TEA, 2006) ? Challenges for Hispanic population ? Challenges schools face ?Which program type, or instructional model that best accelerates oral English development? Review...

Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly; Mathes, Patricia; Kwok, Oi-man

2010-10-22

47

Oral Health Status and Oromucosal Lesions in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in India: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Oral health status of HIV positive individuals is in poor condition which may be a sequela of variety of factors. This study was aimed at assessing and comparing the oral health status and oromucosal lesions between HIV positive and negative individuals in India. A total of 126 HIV positive and 532 HIV negative individuals were recruited for the study. Oral health status and oromucosal lesions were recorded using WHO oral health assessment form (1997). Data was analyzed using chi-square and independent sample student's t test. Majority (85.7%) of people suffering from HIV belonged to lower socioeconomic status. The mean for DMFT score was found to be significantly higher in HIV positive individuals (12.83 ± 9.6) as compared to HIV negative individuals (8.34 ± 7.6) (P value < 0.0001). Nearly 75% of HIV positive individuals showed oromucosal lesions with candidiasis (36%) being the most common. Nearly 50% of HIV positive individuals had community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) score >2. In conclusion HIV positive individuals have poor oral health status and poor periodontal status compared to control group. Effective policies need to be drafted to take care of the oral health of this high risk group. PMID:25215229

Mishra, Prashant; Warhekar, Shilpa; Airen, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Deepika; Godha, Shaijal

2014-01-01

48

Triheptanoin partially restores levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anticonvulsant in various epilepsy models. It is thought to improve energy metabolism in the epileptic brain by re-filling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with C4-intermediates (anaplerosis). Here, we injected mice with [1,2-(13) C]glucose 3.5-4 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) fed either a control or triheptanoin diet. Amounts of metabolites and incorporations of (13) C were determined in extracts of cerebral cortices and hippocampal formation and enzyme activity and mRNA expression were quantified. The percentage enrichment with two (13) C atoms in malate, citrate, succinate, and GABA was reduced in hippocampal formation of control-fed SE compared with control mice. Except for succinate, these reductions were not found in triheptanoin-fed SE mice, indicating that triheptanoin prevented a decrease of TCA cycle capacity. Compared to those on control diet, triheptanoin-fed SE mice showed few changes in most other metabolite levels and their (13) C labeling. Reduced pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in forebrains and decreased [2,3-(13) C]aspartate amounts in cortex suggest a pyruvate carboxylation independent source of C-4 TCA cycle intermediates. Most likely anaplerosis was kept unchanged by carboxylation of propionyl-CoA derived from heptanoate. Further studies are proposed to fully understand triheptanoin's effects on neuroglial metabolism and interaction. PMID:24236946

Hadera, Mussie G; Smeland, Olav B; McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

2014-04-01

49

Effect of pilocarpine on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats  

PubMed Central

In this study, the effects of subcutaneous (SC) injection of pilocarpine (a cholinomimetic agent) and atropine (a muscarinic receptors antagonist) were investigated on a tonic model of orofacial pain in rats. The contribution of the endogenous analgesic opioid system was assessed using naloxone (an opioid receptors antagonist). Tonic orofacial pain was induced by SC injection of a diluted formalin solution (1%, 50 ?L) in the right upper lip, and the time spent face rubbing was measured in five min blocks for 1 h. Formalin induced a biphasic (first phase: 0-5 min and second phase: 15-35 min) pain response. Pilocarpine significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed both phases of orofacial pain. Atropine did not have any effect and naloxone non-significantly increased the intensity of pain when used alone. In the pre-injection examinations, atropine prevented, but naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of pilocarpine. The results indicated that SC injection of formalin in the orofacial region induced a marked biphasic pain. Pilocarpine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced antinociceptive effect in the orofacial formalin-induced pain. The endogenous opioid analgesic system may not have a role in pilocarpine-induced antinociception.

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Erfanparast, Amir; Khalilzadeh, Emad

2012-01-01

50

The Inhibitory Effects of Npas4 on Seizures in Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Rats  

PubMed Central

To explore the effects of neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 4 (Npas4) on seizures in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats, Npas4 expression was detected by double-label immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting in the brains of pilocarpine-induced epileptic model rats at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d, and 60 d after status epilepticus. Npas4 was localized primarily in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of neurons. The Npas4 protein levels increased in the acute phase of seizures (between 6 h and 72 h) and decreased in the chronic phases (between 7 d and 60 d) in the rat model. Npas4 expression was knocked down by specific siRNA interference. Then, the animals were treated with pilocarpine, and the effects on seizures were evaluated on the 7th day. The onset latencies of pilocarpine-induced seizures were decreased, while the seizure frequency, duration and attack rate increased in these rats. Our study indicates that Npas4 inhibits seizure attacks in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. PMID:25536221

Guo, Jiamei; Yang, Guang; Long, Xianghua; Hu, Rong; Shen, Wenjing; Wang, Xuefeng; Zeng, Kebin

2014-01-01

51

Vigabatrin protects against hippocampal damage but is not antiepileptogenic in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the nature of the structures involved in the development of the epileptogenic circuit is still not clearly identified. In the lithium-pilocarpine model, neuronal damage occurs both in the structures belonging to the circuit of initiation and maintenance of the seizures (forebrain limbic system) as well as in the propagation areas (cortex and thalamus) and in the circuit of remote control of seizures (substantia nigra pars reticulata). In order to determine whether protection of some brain areas could prevent the epileptogenesis induced by status epilepticus (SE) and to identify the cerebral structures involved in the genesis of TLE, we studied the effects of the chronic exposure to Vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA, GVG) on neuronal damage and epileptogenesis induced by lithium-pilocarpine SE. The animals were subjected to SE and GVG treatment (250 mg/kg) was initiated at 10 min after pilocarpine injection and maintained daily for 45 days. These pilo-GVG rats were compared with rats subjected to SE followed by a daily saline treatment (pilo-saline) and to control rats not subjected to SE (saline-saline). GVG treatment induced a marked, almost total neuroprotection in CA3, an efficient protection in CA1 and a moderate one in the hilus of the dentate gyrus while damage in the entorhinal cortex was slightly worsened by the treatment. All pilo-GVG and pilo-saline rats became epileptic after the same latency. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) immunoreactivity was restored in pilo-GVG rats compared with pilo-saline rats in all areas of the hippocampus, while it was increased over control levels in the optical layer of the superior colliculus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, the present data indicate that neuroprotection of principal cells in the Ammon's horn of the hippocampus is not sufficient to prevent epileptogenesis, suggesting that the hilus and extra-hippocampal structures, that were not protected in this study, may play a role in the genesis of spontaneous recurrent seizures in this model. Furthermore, the study performed in non-epileptic rats indicates that chronic treatment with a GABAmimetic drug upregulates the expression of the protein GAD67 in specific areas of the brain, independently from the seizures. PMID:11673025

André, V; Ferrandon, A; Marescaux, C; Nehlig, A

2001-11-01

52

How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

2012-01-01

53

Oral verrucous carcinoma – a misnomer? Immunohistochemistry based comparative study of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinico-histopathological diagnosis of oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is often exclusionary and extremely difficult. Distinction from the classical oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequent problem for both clinicians and pathologists because of the extensive nature of the lesion mimicking an invasive cancer. Immunohistochemistry in this case provides a platform for studying distinct molecular mechanism by variation in expression of

Jay Gopal Ray; Sanjit Mukherjee; Keya Chaudhuri

2011-01-01

54

Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies  

PubMed Central

Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 ?g/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (p<0.05, significant) but statistical difference between efficacy of topical Permethrin and oral Ivermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

2014-01-01

55

Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC ®) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC®; Actiq®) is a drug delivery formulation used for management of breakthrough cancer pain. Previous studies with open-label comparisons indicated OTFC was more effective than patients’ usual opioid for breakthrough pain. The objective of this study was to compare OTFC and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR®) for management of breakthrough pain in patients receiving a fixed

Paul H Coluzzi; Lee Schwartzberg; John D Conroy; Steve Charapata; Mason Gay; Michael A Busch; Jana Chavez; Jeri Ashley; Dixie Lebo; Maureen McCracken; Russell K Portenoy

2001-01-01

56

An Open, Randomized, Comparative Study of Oral Finasteride and 5% Topical Minoxidil in Male Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aim: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is undoubtedly the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a condition which may cause cosmetic and psychosocial problems in androgen-dependent cases. In this open, randomized and comparative study we evaluated the efficacy of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil treatment for 12 months in 65 male patients with mild to

Ercan Arca; Osman Köse; Zafer Kurumlu

2004-01-01

57

Oral Analgesic Efficacy of Suprofen Compared to Aspirin, Aspirin plus Codeine, and Placebo in Patients with Postoperative Dental Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of single oral doses of suprofen 200 and 400 mg, compared with aspirin 650 plus codeine 60 mg, aspirin 650 mg, and placebo in the relief of moderate to severe pain resulting from the surgical removal of impacted third molars. 157 patients completed a randomized, double-blind, single-dose,

Abraham Sunshine; Ivan Marrero; Nancy Z. Olson; Eugene M. Laska; Nilda McCormick

1983-01-01

58

A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front. PMID:18320346

Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

2008-06-01

59

Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean OHI-S (2.52±1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (p<0.05). The highest and lowest mean number of healthy sextants were found among those with only lower limb disability (4.53±2.05) and among those with both upper and lower limb disability (0.77±1.39), respectively (p<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictor for oral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. Conclusion: The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research. Key words:Poliomyelitis, upper limb disability, lower limb disability, oral hygiene, periodontal status. PMID:22549671

Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

2012-01-01

60

Altered hippocampal myelinated fiber integrity in a lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy: a histopathological and stereological investigation.  

PubMed

The damage of white matter, primarily myelinated fibers, in the central nervous system (CNS) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients has been recently reported. However, limited data exist addressing the types of changes that occur to myelinated fibers inside the hippocampus as a result of TLE. The current study was designed to examine this issue in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model. Investigated by electroencephalography (EEG), Gallyas silver staining, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and stereological methods, the results showed that hippocampal myelinated fibers of the epilepsy group were degenerated with significantly less myelin basic protein (MBP) expression relative to those of control group rats. Stereological analysis revealed that the total volumes of hippocampal formation, myelinated fibers, and myelin sheaths in the hippocampus of epilepsy group rats were decreased by 20.43%, 49.16%, and 52.60%, respectively. In addition, epilepsy group rats showed significantly greater mean diameters of myelinated fibers and axons, whereas the mean thickness of myelin sheaths was less, especially for small axons with diameters from 0.1 to 0.8µm, compared to control group rats. Finally, the total length of the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus of epilepsy group rats was significantly decreased by 56.92%, compared to that of the control group, with the decreased length most prominent for myelinated fibers with diameters from 0.4 to 0.8µm. This study is the first to provide experimental evidence that the integrity of hippocampal myelinated fibers is negatively affected by inducing epileptic seizures with pilocarpine, which may contribute to the abnormal propagation of epileptic discharge. PMID:23727401

Ye, Yuanzhen; Xiong, Jiajia; Hu, Jun; Kong, Min; Cheng, Li; Chen, Hengsheng; Li, Tingsong; Jiang, Li

2013-07-19

61

Comparative evaluation of transdermal diclofenac patch with oral diclofenac as an analgesic modality following root coverage procedures.  

PubMed

Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is effective in the management of pain following periodontal surgery. However, oral administration of diclofenac can lead to gastrointestinal (GI) complications. To overcome these drawbacks, diclofenac is formulated as a transdermal patch, which delivers the drug into systemic circulation through skin. Twenty patients were selected for root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts bilaterally. Following the surgical procedure on the control sites, oral diclofenac sodium 100 mg was administered QD for 3 days. Following the surgical procedure on the contralateral test site, a transdermal diclofenac patch (TDP) was applied every 24 hours for 3 days. The TDP was effective in postoperative pain control following root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts. Pain tolerance was higher with the TDP as compared to oral administration, as it did not cause any GI complications. PMID:24983174

Tejaswi, Devireddy Venkata; Prabhuji, M L V; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta

2014-01-01

62

Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

2011-07-01

63

Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in minipigs after oral dosing or transdermal administration via a newly developed patch.  

PubMed

1. A rasagiline transdermal patch was developed for the treatment of early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of rasagiline obtained after transdermal administration to minipigs were compared with those of rasagiline after oral administration. 2. A total of 18 minipigs were randomly divided into three groups (six animals for each group). A single dose of 1?mg rasagiline tablet was orally administrated to one group. Meanwhile, single dose of 1.25 and 2.5?mg (2 and 4?cm(2)) rasagiline patches were given (at the postauricular skin) to the other two groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life (t1/2), time to peak plasma-concentration (Tmax), mean residence time (MRT), area under the curve (AUC(0-t)) were significantly (p?oral administrations. 3. The plasma half-life (t1/2) of rasagiline (1.25?mg patch: 11.8?±?6.5?h, 2.5?mg patch: 12.5?±?4.7?h) in minipig following transdermal administration was significantly prolonged as compared with that following the oral administration (1?mg tablet: 4.7?±?2.5?h). The dose-normalized relative bioavailability of rasagiline patch in minipig were 178.5% and 156.4%, respectively, for 1.25 and 2.5?mg patches compared with 1?mg rasagiline tablet. The prolonged t1/2 and increased bioavailability of rasagiline patch suggested a possible longer dosing interval compared with oral tablet. PMID:23339547

Lin, Yu; Zou, Yanye; Lin, Jialiang; Zhang, Tao; Deng, Jie

2013-08-01

64

A gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) biodegradable in situ gelling delivery system for the intracameral administration of pilocarpine.  

PubMed

In this study, the aminated gelatin was grafted with carboxylic end-capped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PN) via a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction to fabricate biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. The chemical structure of the graft copolymers (GN) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. When the feed molar ratio of NH(2)/COOH was 0.36, the grafting ratio, efficiency and degree of grafting, and weight ratio of PN to aminated gelatin was 25.6, 18.6%, 52.6%, and 1.9, respectively. As compared to PN, the GN samples possessed better thermal gelation ability and adherence, indicating remarkable phase transition properties. Under gelatinase degradation, the remaining weight of GN was significantly lower than those of PN at each time point from 8 h to 4 weeks. Cytocompatibility studies showed that the culture of anterior segment cells with both in situ forming gels does not affect proliferation and has little effect on inflammation. Higher encapsulation efficiency (~62%) and cumulative release (~95%) were achieved for GN vehicles, which was attributed to initial fast temperature triggered capture of pilocarpine and subsequent progressive degradation of gelatin network. In a rabbit glaucoma model, the performance of delivery carriers was evaluated by biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), and pupil size change. Intracameral administration of pilocarpine using GN was found to be more effective than other methods such as instillation of eye drop and injection of free drug or PN containing drug in improving ocular bioavailability and extending the pharmacological responses (i.e., miosis and IOP lowering effect and preservation of corneal endothelial cell density). PMID:22182746

Lai, Jui-Yang; Hsieh, Ai-Ching

2012-03-01

65

Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Nimodipine has been shown to have an inhibitory action on seizures and brain damage in rodents. However, the pharmaceutical applicability of this drug is limited by its low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and high first-pass effect in the liver, which leads to low bioavailability. These difficulties can be overcome through the use of liposomes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine (NMD-Lipo) on pilocarpine-induced seizures. NMD-Lipo was prepared using the lipid-film hydration method. Central nervous system toxicity of NMD-Lipo was assessed by Hippocratic screening. Systemic toxicity was evaluated by analyses of biochemical and hematological parameters and by observing possible signs of toxicity. The possible anticonvulsant activity was tested by the pilocarpine model. The administration of the NMD-Lipo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10mg/kg caused no toxicity in animals. Furthermore, NMD-Lipo prevented the installation of 100% of the pilocarpine-induced seizures and prevented the death of 100% of the mice treated with pilocarpine. These data shown that NMD-Lipo has an anticonvulsant activity significantly superior to free NMD, suggesting that the liposomes promoted a drug controlled release by improving its bioavailability and consequently increasing its pharmacological activity. PMID:25445375

Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso E Almendra Ibiapina; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Satyal, Prabodh; Santos-Magalhăes, Nereide Stela; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

2015-01-12

66

Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model  

E-print Network

Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model disorders. Here, we examine two neuroprotective agents, the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist ketamine the ketamine-treated (Ket) LI­PILO rats performed equally in all respects to nonseized control rats

Turner, Ray

67

Optimization of pilocarpine-mediated seizure induction in immunodeficient NodScid mice.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been modeled in mice using pilocarpine induction, with variable results depending on specific strains. To allow efficient xenotransplantation for the purpose of optimizing potential cell-based therapy of human TLE, we have determined the optimal dosing strategy to produce spontaneous recurring seizures in immunodeficient NodScid mice. Multiple 100mg/kg injections of pilocarpine have been shown to be more effective than single 300-400mg/kg injections for inducing spontaneous seizures in NodScid mice. Under our optimal conditions, 88.1±2.9% of the mice experienced status epilepticus (SE) with a survival rate of 61.8±5.9%. Surviving SE mice displayed spontaneous recurrent seizures at a frequency of 2.8±0.9 seizures/day for a duration of 41.1±3.5s. The widely used method of a single injection of pilocarpine was significantly less efficient in inducing seizures in NodScid mice. Therefore, we have determined that a multiple injection "ramping up" of 100mg/kg of pilocarpine is optimal for inducing TLE-like spontaneous seizures in NodScid mice. Using this method, mice with SE efficiently developed SRS and expressed mossy fiber sprouting, a signature histopathological feature of TLE. PMID:25524850

Leung, Amanda; Ahn, Sandra; Savvidis, George; Kim, Yeachan; Iskandar, Danielle; Luna, Maria Jose; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cunningham, Miles; Chung, Sangmi

2015-01-01

68

Dexamethasone exacerbates cerebral edema and brain injury following lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory therapies are the current most plausible drug candidates for anti-epileptogenesis and neuroprotection following prolonged seizures. Given that vasogenic edema is widely considered to be detrimental for outcome following status epilepticus, the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone is sometimes used in clinic for alleviating cerebral edema. In this study we perform longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging in order to assess the contribution of dexamethasone on cerebral edema and subsequent neuroprotection following status epilepticus. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to induce status epilepticus in rats. Following status epilepticus, rats were either post-treated with saline or with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10mg/kg or 2mg/kg). Brain edema was assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging (T2 relaxometry) and hippocampal volumetry was used as a marker of neuronal injury. T2 relaxometry was performed prior to, 48 h and 96 h following status epilepticus. Volume measurements were performed between 18 and 21 days after status epilepticus. Unexpectedly, cerebral edema was worse in rats that were treated with dexamethasone compared to controls. Furthermore, dexamethasone treated rats had lower hippocampal volumes compared to controls 3 weeks after the initial insult. The T2 measurements at 2 days and 4 days in the hippocampus correlated with hippocampal volumes at 3 weeks. Finally, the mortality rate in the first week following status epilepticus increased from 14% in untreated rats to 33% and 46% in rats treated with 2mg/kg and 10mg/kg dexamethasone respectively. These findings suggest that dexamethasone can exacerbate the acute cerebral edema and brain injury associated with status epilepticus. PMID:24333865

Duffy, B A; Chun, K P; Ma, D; Lythgoe, M F; Scott, R C

2014-03-01

69

Antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 increase hippocampal pyramidal neuron spine volume in vivo and protect against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Emerging data support roles for microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of various neurologic disorders including epilepsy. MicroRNA-134 (miR-134) is enriched in dendrites of hippocampal neurons, where it negatively regulates spine volume. Recent work identified upregulation of miR-134 in experimental and human epilepsy. Targeting miR-134 in vivo using antagomirs had potent anticonvulsant effects against kainic acid-induced seizures and was associated with a reduction in dendritic spine number. In the present study, we measured dendritic spine volume in mice injected with miR-134-targeting antagomirs and tested effects of the antagomirs on status epilepticus triggered by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine. Morphometric analysis of over 6,400 dendritic spines in Lucifer yellow-injected CA3 pyramidal neurons revealed increased spine volume in mice given antagomirs compared to controls that received a scrambled sequence. Treatment of mice with miR-134 antagomirs did not alter performance in a behavioral test (novel object location). Status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine was associated with upregulation of miR-134 within the hippocampus of mice. Pretreatment of mice with miR-134 antagomirs reduced the proportion of animals that developed status epilepticus following pilocarpine and increased animal survival. In antagomir-treated mice that did develop status epilepticus, seizure onset was delayed and total seizure power was reduced. These studies provide in vivo evidence that miR-134 regulates spine volume in the hippocampus and validation of the seizure-suppressive effects of miR-134 antagomirs in a model with a different triggering mechanism, indicating broad conservation of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24874920

Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Engel, Tobias; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Reynolds, James; Reschke, Cristina R; Conroy, Ronan M; McKiernan, Ross C; deFelipe, Javier; Henshall, David C

2014-05-30

70

Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (? ?CT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20971086

Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S.; Dotson, Bianca Farrel; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F.; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

2010-01-01

71

Comparative evaluation of oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery with or without oral conscious sedation in anxious patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Stress and anxiety during dental procedure can alter respiratory rate and thereby alter oxygen saturation in the blood, leading to emergencies like syncope. It can be prevented by preoperative intravenous sedation. However, it can lead to respiratory depression. Hence, this study was carried out to analyze the effect of oral conscious sedation on oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery in anxious patients. Aim: The aim was to compare the oxygen saturation levels during periodontal surgery with and without oral conscious sedation using diazepam in anxious patients. Settings and Design: Randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 20 generalized periodontitis patients, identified as anxious for dental treatment with dental anxiety scale. A randomized split-mouth design was used with one quadrant of surgery involving preoperative oral sedation (diazepam), and the second without it. Oxygen saturation was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were recorded at 5 time periods during the surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: No statistically significant difference between sedated and nonsedated patients in oxygen saturation with P = 0.683. Conclusions: Oral conscious sedation can be used for anxious patients during periodontal surgery for alleviation of anxiety and for better patient acceptance during surgical procedures without significant respiratory depression.

Shivananda, Hiranya; Raghava, Kepu Vijay; Sudhakar, Sharath Karanth; Thomas, Biju; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath

2014-01-01

72

COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

73

Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

2011-01-01

74

Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas  

E-print Network

exist in incidence and survival rates in oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in rural and urban areas. Methods: Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data from 17 registries for the years 2000-2005 was used for this analysis. A Poisson...

Womack, Catherine Marie

2008-01-01

75

A randomized clinical trial comparing oral ondansetron with placebo in children with vomiting from acute gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Vomiting in children suffering from acute gastroenteritis interferes with the oral rehydration process and equally frustrates parents and health care providers. Adjuncts such as promethazine and metoclopramide are less than optimally effective and are associated with side effects. Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist marketed as Zofran, is a safe and effective antiemetic used extensively in oncology and postoperative

Chris Ramsook; Ivonne Sahagun-Carreon; Claudia A. Kozinetz; Donna Moro-Sutherland

2002-01-01

76

Long-term increases in BK potassium channel underlie increased action potential firing in dentate granule neurons following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of acquired epilepsy in adult. Since dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) play a critical role in hippocampal seizure generation, it is, therefore, important to understand changes in intrinsic properties of GCs in TLE. In this study, the electrophysiological properties of GCs obtained from epileptic rates were compared with the control group using whole cell patch-clamp recording. Results indicated a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) in depolarizing currents of 150pA, 200pA, and 250pA. In addition, there was a significant decrease in AP half-width of GCs. The amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) in epileptic group significantly decreased compared to control group. Blockade of large conductance calcium activated potassium channel (BK), channels with paxilline and iberiotoxin reversed pilocarpine-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs in epileptic group. These results suggest that the BK channel blockers by reversing the firing properties of GCs might have beneficial preventative effects on pilocarpine-induced electrophysiological changes. PMID:25434869

Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima

2015-01-12

77

Bisoprolol--comparative toxicokinetic study after oral and conjunctival administration in beagles.  

PubMed

Beagles were treated with bisoprolol, a beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist, for 30 days with the following daily doses: oral: 30 mg/kg; conjunctival: 0.5% solution (approx. 0.04 mg/kg) and 5% solution (approx. 0.4 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were determined in plasma and various eye tissues on days 1, 16, and 30, and on day 59, i.e. on day 29 of the follow-up period. Bisoprolol concentrations in plasma and most eye tissues were considerably higher after oral than after conjunctival treatment. The highest tissue concentrations were observed in the iris (+ciliary body) and retina (+choroid) with tissue/plasma concentration ratios between 100 and 150 after oral and 1000 to 3000 after conjunctival instillation (5% solution). In plasma no accumulation of the drug was observed which is in accordance with its plasma half-life of 4 to 5 h. In contrast to this, concentrations in the iris and retina increased from day 1 to day 16 and 30 by 3 to 8 times and the half-life of bisoprolol in these tissues was estimated to be between 3 to 5 days. PMID:1983105

Bühring, K U; Metallinos, A; Jakobs, N; von Landenberg, F; Merck, E

1990-01-01

78

Comparative kinetics of digoxin in serum and vitreous humor in a guinea pig model. II. Single oral dose administration.  

PubMed

In a continuation of work previously reported involving the comparative kinetics of digoxin in vitreous humor and serum after an intravenous dose, the present report describes the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in this model following the administration of a single oral dose. Serum and vitreous humor concentrations of digoxin were monitored by radioimmunoassay for 720 min after a single oral dose of 0.1 mg digoxin/kg. Serum concentrations peaked by 60 min and declined over the remaining observation period with a half-life of 360 min. Vitreous humor concentrations lagged behind the serum concentrations, peaked between 60 and 120 min, and then declined at a rate less than that of serum with convergence of concentration occurring in the 720-min samples. The vitreous humor-serum ratios ranged from a low of 0.003 (15 min) to a high of 0.98 at convergence. The impact of these findings upon forensic toxicologic practice is reviewed. PMID:1522706

Balkon, J; Donnelly, B

1992-01-01

79

Critical review of oral drug treatments for diabetic neuropathic pain-clinical outcomes based on efficacy and safety data from placebo-controlled and direct comparative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selection of oral treatments for the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. A literature review was conducted retrieving placebo-controlled and direct comparative studies with a selection of oral treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy. All studies were analyzed with regard to efficacy and tolerability. Efficacy was evaluated as the percentage

Hugo Adriaensen; Léon Plaghki; Chantal Mathieu; Alfred Joffroy; Kris Vissers

2005-01-01

80

The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg

1999-01-01

81

Evaluation of behavioral parameters and mortality in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by intracerebroventricular pilocarpine administration.  

PubMed

The pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a useful tool that is used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of seizures. Although this model has been modified significantly to reduce mortality and to promote the appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures, to date, no detailed evaluation has been performed of the behavioral parameters and mortality in TLE induced by intracerebroventricular pilocarpine administration; therefore, this was the goal of the present study. A single dose of pilocarpine hydrochloride (2.4?mg in a total volume of 2?µl) was injected into the right lateral brain ventricle of rats; the convulsive behavior was rated using the Racine scale and the mortality was analyzed in these animals. We found that 30-90?min after animals received intracerebroventricular pilocarpine injections, 73% developed status epilepticus (SE) with an activity score of 4/5 on the Racine scale. Moreover, these seizures were associated with the propagation of epileptiform activity to different hippocampal regions. Of the animals that developed SE, spontaneous recurrent seizures were observed in 32.5% at different times after SE induction. A 35% mortality rate was observed, which included animals that died during pilocarpine injection and after SE induction. On the basis of these findings, and given the observed latency between the insult (SE induction by pilocarpine injection) and the manifestation of spontaneous recurrent seizures, we propose that this model is a useful tool for basic biomedical research of SE and TLE. PMID:24911387

Medina-Ceja, Laura; Pardo-Peńa, Kenia; Ventura-Mejía, Consuelo

2014-06-01

82

Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine  

SciTech Connect

Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E. (Kansas) [Kansas; (HWMRI)

2013-11-20

83

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.  

PubMed

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ), elimination half-life (t1/2? ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 ?g/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·?g/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 ?g/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·?g/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. PMID:25427758

Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

2014-11-27

84

Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.  

PubMed Central

Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

1986-01-01

85

Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women receiving oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with that in women receiving oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel.Design Nested case-control and cohort study.Setting The study was based on information from PharMetrics, a United States based company that collects information on claims paid by managed care plans.Participants The study encompassed all women aged 15

Susan S Jick; Rohini K Hernandez

2011-01-01

86

Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

In searching for persistent seizure-induced alterations in brain function that might be causally related to epilepsy, presynaptic transmitter release has relatively been neglected. To measure directly the long-term effects of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on vesicular release and recycling in hippocampal mossy fibre presynaptic boutons, we used (i) two-photon imaging of FM1-43 vesicular release in rat hippocampal slices; and (ii) transgenic mice expressing the genetically encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent reporter synaptopHluorin preferentially at glutamatergic synapses. In this study we found that, 1–2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, there were significant increases in mossy fibre bouton size, faster rates of action potential-driven vesicular release and endocytosis. We also analysed the ultrastructure of rat mossy fibre boutons using transmission electron microscopy. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus led to a significant increase in the number of release sites, active zone length, postsynaptic density area and number of vesicles in the readily releasable and recycling pools, all correlated with increased release probability. Our data show that presynaptic release machinery is persistently altered in structure and function by status epilepticus, which could contribute to the development of the chronic epileptic state and may represent a potential new target for antiepileptic therapies. PMID:22344585

Upreti, Chirag; Otero, Rafael; Partida, Carlos; Skinner, Frank; Thakker, Ravi; Pacheco, Luis F.; Zhou, Zhen-yu; Maglakelidze, Giorgi; Velíšková, Jana; Velíšek, Libor; Romanovicz, Dwight; Jones, Theresa; Stanton, Patric K.

2012-01-01

87

A comparative analysis of pupil attitudes toward selected oral language activities used with fifth graders in the public schools of Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUPIL ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES USED WITH FIFTH GRADERS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis By FRANCES WILLIAMS BRUSSE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject Education A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUPIL ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES USED WITH FIFTH GRADERS IN THE PUBLIC...

Brusse, Frances Williams

1967-01-01

88

Comparative effectiveness of the cholera toxin B subunit and alkaline phosphatase as carriers for oral vaccines.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the B subunit of cholera toxin (CtxB) has adjuvant activity over and above serving as a carrier protein for orally administered vaccines. An oligonucleotide that encodes an antigenic determinant (GtfB.1) from the glucosyltransferase B gene (gtfB) of Streptococcus mutans was genetically fused to the 5' terminus of either the CtxB gene (ctxB) or the Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase gene (phoA). The resulting chimeric proteins were expressed in a phoA mutant strain of E. coli and then purified. The antigenicities of the proteins were confirmed by immunoblotting analysis using antisera specific for GtfB, CtxB, or PhoA. An equimolar amount of peptide on each carrier was administered by gastric intubation to mice three times at 10-day intervals. Antibody titers to the peptide, CtxB, and PhoA (in the serum, intestine, vagina, saliva, and bronchus) were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Antibody to the peptide was detected only in the sera of mice immunized with the peptide fused to CtxB. No antipeptide antibody was detected in mice immunized with the peptide fused to PhoA. The lack of detectable levels of antipeptide antibody in intestinal lavage fluid was attributed to dilution of the sample beyond the sensitivity of the assay. This was confirmed by cultivation of Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node tissue from mice orally immunized with the GtfB.1::CtxB chimera. Using this method, antipeptide antibody was detected in the culture fluid. We conclude that CtxB possesses unique properties that allow it to act as more than a simple carrier protein. Images PMID:8418065

Dertzbaugh, M T; Elson, C O

1993-01-01

89

A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n?=?10) and rectal lavage fluid (n?=?10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense against HIV. PMID:24978053

Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

2014-01-01

90

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Hypaconitine after Oral Administration of Pure Hypaconitine, Aconitum carmichaelii Extract and Sini Decoction to Rats.  

PubMed

Hypaconitine (HC) is one of the main aconitum alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaelii (AC), which is considered to be effective on cardiovascular disease, although it also has high toxicity. Sini Decoction (SND), composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Zingiber officinale, is a traditional Chinese multi-herbal formula for recuperating the depleted yang. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of HC in rat plasma after oral administration of HC, AC extract and SND, and investigate the effect of other two herbal ingredients on absorption, metabolism and elimination of HC. A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine HC in rat plasma. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: HC, AC and SND group. Plasma concentrations of HC were determined at designated points after oral administration, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there was obvious difference (p < 0.05) on the pharmacokinetic parameters among three groups. Compared with AC group, Tmax, Cmax, k, AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-?) decreased in SND group, while t1/2 and MRT had been lengthened, which indicated that the ingredients in other two herbs could influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of HC. PMID:25603501

Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Hai; Sun, Sen; Sun, Feng-Feng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Guo-Qing

2015-01-01

91

Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B versus Oral Minocycline in Treatment of Unstable Vitiligo: A Prospective Comparative Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. We have compared NB-UVB and oral minocycline in stabilizing vitiligo for the first time. Subjects and Methods. 42 patients were divided equally into two groups: the NB-UVB and minocycline groups. Phototherapy was administered twice a week on nonconsecutive days. In the minocycline group, patients were advised to take minocycline 100?mg once daily. The treatment period was 3 months. Vitiligo disease activity (VIDA) score was noted every 4 weeks for 12 months. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and monthly intervals. Results. Before the therapy, disease activity was present in 100% of the patients, which was reduced to 23.8% and 66.1% by the end of therapy in the NB-UVB and minocycline groups retrospectively (P < 0.05). 16 of the 21 (76/1%) patients with unstable disease in the NB-UVB group achieved stability, whereas this was the case for only 7 of the 21 (33.3%) in the minocycline group (P < 0.001). The diameter changes were statistically significant at the end of treatment in the NB-UVB group compared to the minocycline group (P = 0.031). Side effects in both groups were mild. Conclusion. NB-UVB was statistically more advantageous than oral minocycline in unstable vitiligo in terms of efficacy and the resulting stability. PMID:25221600

Siadat, Amir Hossein; Zeinali, Naser; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jamshidi, Kioumars; Khosravani, Parastoo

2014-01-01

92

Changes in MicroRNA Expression in the Whole Hippocampus and Hippocampal Synaptoneurosome Fraction following Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs regulate protein synthesis by binding non-translated regions of mRNAs and suppressing translation and/or increasing mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs play an important role in the nervous system including controlling synaptic plasticity. Their expression is altered in disease states including stroke, head injury and epilepsy. To better understand microRNA expression changes that might contribute to the development of epilepsy, microRNA arrays were performed on rat hippocampus 4 hours, 48 hours and 3 weeks following an episode of pilocarpine induced status epilepticus. Eighty microRNAs increased at one or more of the time points. No microRNAs decreased at 4 hours, and only a few decreased at 3 weeks, but 188 decreased 48 hours after status epilepticus. The large number of microRNAs with altered expression following status epilepticus suggests that microRNA regulation of translation has the potential to contribute to changes in protein expression during epileptogenesis. We carried out a second set of array’s comparing microRNA expression at 48 hours in synaptoneurosome and nuclear fractions of the hippocampus. In control rat hippocampi multiple microRNAs were enriched in the synaptoneurosomal fraction as compared to the nuclear fraction. In contrast, 48 hours after status epilepticus only one microRNA was enriched in the synaptoneurosome fraction. The loss of microRNAs enriched in the synaptoneurosomal fraction implies a dramatic change in translational regulation in synapses 48 hours after status epilepticus. PMID:23308228

Risbud, Rashmi M.; Porter, Brenda E.

2013-01-01

93

The anticonvulsant actions of carisbamate associate with alterations in astrocyte glutamine metabolism in the lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy model.  

PubMed

As reported previously, in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), carisbamate (CRS) produces strong neuroprotection, leads to milder absence-like seizures, and prevents behavioral impairments in a subpopulation of rats. To understand the metabolic basis of these effects, here we injected 90 mg/kg CRS or vehicle twice daily for 7 days starting 1 h after status epilepticus (SE) induction in rats. Two months later, we injected [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate followed by head microwave fixation after 15 min. (13) C incorporation into metabolites was analyzed using (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that SE reduced neuronal mitochondrial metabolism in the absence but not in the presence of CRS. Reduction in glutamate level was prevented by CRS and aspartate levels were similar to controls only in rats displaying absence-like seizures after treatment [CRS-absence-like epilepsy (ALE)]. Glutamine levels in CRS-ALE rats were higher compared to controls in hippocampal formation and limbic structures while unchanged in rats displaying motor spontaneous recurrent seizures after treatment (CRS-TLE). Astrocytic mitochondrial metabolism was reduced in CRS-TLE, and either enhanced or unaffected in CRS-ALE rats, which did not affect the transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons. In conclusion, CRS prevents reduction in neuronal mitochondrial metabolism but its effect on astrocytes is likely key in determining outcome of treatment in this model. To understand the metabolic basis of the strong neuroprotection and reduction in seizure severity caused by carisbamate (CRS) in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we injected CRS for 7 days starting 1 h after status epilepticus and 2 months later [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate. (13) C Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis was performed on brain extracts and we found that CRS prevented reduction in neuronal mitochondrial metabolism but its effect on astrocytes was likely key in determining outcome of treatment in this model. ALE = absence like epilepsy; acetyl CoA = acetyl coenzyme A; GS = glutamine synthetase; PAG = phosphate activated glutaminase; PC = pyruvate carboxylase; OAA = oxaloacetate; TCA cycle = tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:25345404

Hadera, Mussie Ghezu; Faure, Jean-Baptiste; Berggaard, Nina; Tefera, Tesfaye Wolde; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

2014-10-26

94

Comparative Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Oral Cholera Vaccination in Bangladesh: A Modeling Study  

PubMed Central

Background Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. Methods & Findings We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1–14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. Conclusions We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions. PMID:25473851

Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Chao, Dennis L.

2014-01-01

95

Evaluation of analgesic effect of skin-to-skin contact compared to oral glucose in preterm neonates.  

PubMed

Nonpharmacological interventions are important alternatives for pain relief during minor procedures in preterm neonates. Skin-to-skin contact or kangaroo mother care is a human and efficient way of caring for low-weight preterm neonates. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of kangaroo care compared to oral glucose on the response of healthy preterm neonates to a low-intensity acute painful stimulus. Ninety-five preterm neonates with a postmenstrual age of 28-36 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups in a single-blind manner. In group 1 (isolette, n=33), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette during heel lancing and did not receive analgesia. In group 2 (kangaroo method, n=31), the neonate was held in skin-to-skin contact for 10 min before and during the heel-lancing procedure. In group 3 (glucose, n=31), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette and received oral glucose (1 ml, 25%) 2 min before heel lancing. A smaller variation in heart rate (p=0.0001) and oxygen saturation (p=0.0012), a shorter duration of facial activity (brow bulge, eye squeeze and nasolabial furrowing) (p=0.0001), and a lower PIPP (Premature Infant Pain Profile) score (p=0.0001) were observed in group 2. In conclusion, skin-to-skin contact produced an analgesic effect in preterm newborns during heel lancing. PMID:18434021

Freire, Nájala Borges de Sousa; Garcia, Joăo Batista Santos; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho

2008-09-30

96

Treatment of Fast Breathing in Neonates and Young Infants With Oral Amoxicillin Compared With Penicillin–Gentamicin Combination  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization recommends hospitalization and injectable antibiotic treatment for young infants (0–59 days old), who present with signs of possible serious bacterial infection. Fast breathing alone is not associated with a high mortality risk for young infants and has been treated with oral antibiotics in some settings. This trial was designed to examine the safety and efficacy of oral amoxicillin for young infants with fast breathing compared with that of an injectable penicillin–gentamicin combination. The study is currently being conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods/Design: This is a randomized, open-label equivalence trial. All births in the community are visited at home by trained community health workers to identify sick infants who are then referred to a trial study nurse for assessment. The primary outcome is treatment failure by day 8 after enrollment, defined as clinical deterioration, development of a serious adverse event including death, persistence of fast breathing by day 4 or recurrence up to day 8. Secondary outcomes include adherence to study therapy, relapse, death between days 9 and 15 and adverse effects associated with the study drugs. Study outcomes are assessed on days 4, 8, 11 and 15 after randomization by an independent outcome assessor who is blinded to the treatment being given. Discussion: The results of this study will help inform the development of policies for the treatment of fast breathing among neonates and young infants in resource-limited settings. PMID:23945574

2013-01-01

97

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Naringin in Rat after Oral Administration of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San Aqueous Extract and Naringin Alone  

PubMed Central

Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula containing seven herbal medicines, has been used in the clinical treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome and depression in China. In order to explore the interaction between naringin and other constituents in CSGS, the pharmacokinetic difference of naringin in rats after oral administration of CSGS aqueous extract and naringin alone was investigated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of naringin in rats were achieved by quantification of its aglycone, naringenin by LC-MS/MS method. The double peaks phenomenon was observed in both serum profiles of rats after orally administered CSGS aqueous extract and naringin alone. However, the T1/2? was significantly decreased in rats given CSGS aqueous extract compared with naringin alone, and the mean residence time (MRT) and the area under the serum concentration–time curve (AUC0-?) were higher than those of naringin, which indicated that naringin in CSGS had higher bioavailability, longer term efficacy and somewhat faster metabolism and excretion than those of naringin. The results suggested that certain ingredients co-exist in CSGS could influence pharmacokinetic behavior of naringin. This also provides a reference for human studies. PMID:24958255

Li, Shu-Qi; Dong, Shu; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Peng, Jing-Bo; Yu, Chang-Yuan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

2013-01-01

98

Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

99

A comparative study of oral candidal species carriage in patients with type1 and type2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Context: Diabetes mellitus can have profound effects upon the oral tissues especially in patients with poor glycemic control being prone to severe and/or recurrent infections particularly candidiasis. The main aim was to study the association between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus and candidal carriage. Materials and Methods: The study design comprised of previously diagnosed 30 patients each with type 1 diabetes mellitus (Group A) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Group B) and 30 age-, sex- and dental status-matched healthy non-diabetic individuals as controls (Group C). The saliva samples were collected and inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar culture medium. Candidal colony forming units per ml (CFU/ml) values were determined. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by ?2 test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank correlation and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant higher positive candidal growth in Group A and Group B when compared to Group C. The CFU/ml values were significantly higher in Groups A and B as compared with Group C. Significant positive correlation of CFU/ml with fasting blood sugar level and HbA1c% in both Groups A and B was seen. Oral signs and symptoms observed in diabetics were dry mouth, burning sensation, fissuring and atrophic changes of tongue and erythematous areas, which positively correlated with candidal load. Conclusion: The glycemic control status of the diabetic patients may directly influence candidal colonization. The quantitative and biochemical characterization allows better insight into the study of association of diabetes mellitus and candida. PMID:25364182

Shenoy, Mangesh P; Puranik, Rudrayya S; Vanaki, Shrinivas S; Puranik, Surekha R; Shetty, Pushparaja; Shenoy, Radhika

2014-01-01

100

Increased dissolution and oral absorption of itraconazole/Soluplus extrudate compared with itraconazole nanosuspension.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to compare the in vitro and in vivo profiles of itraconazole (ITZ) extrudates and nanosuspension separately prepared by two different methods. And it was proved truly to form nanocrystalline and amorphous ITZ characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The release of ITZ/Soluplus solid dispersions with amorphous ITZ was almost complete while only 40% release was obtained with ITZ nanocrystals. The amorphous state need not to cross over the crystal lattice energy upon dissolution while the crystalline need to overcome it. In the in vivo assay, the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of ITZ/Soluplus were 6.9- and 11.6-time higher than those of pure ITZ. The formulation of the extrudate had an AUC(0-t) and C(max) similar to those of ITZ and also OH-ITZ compared with the commercial capsule (Sporanox®). The relative bioavailability values with their 95% confidence limit were calculated to be 98.3% (92.5-104.1%) and 101.3% (97.9-104.1%), respectively. The results of this study showed increased dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of Soluplus-based carrier loading ITZ prepared by HME compared with the ITZ nanosuspension prepared by wet milling. PMID:23562534

Zhang, Keru; Yu, Hongxia; Luo, Qing; Yang, Shenshen; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Bin; Tang, Xing

2013-11-01

101

Gating of hippocampal output by ?-adrenergic receptor activation in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Norepinephrine acting via ?-adrenergic receptors (?-ARs) plays an important role in hippocampal plasticity including the subiculum which is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cells and which controls information transfer from the hippocampus to other brain regions including the neighboring presubiculum and the entorhinal cortex (EC). Subicular pyramidal cells are classified as regular- (RS) and burst-spiking (BS) cells. Activation of ?-ARs at CA1-subiculum synapses induces long-term potentiation (LTP) in burst- but not in RS cells (Wójtowicz et al., 2010). To elucidate seizure-associated disturbances in the norepinephrine-dependent modulation of hippocampal output, we investigated the functional consequences of the ?-AR-dependent synaptic plasticity at CA1-subiculum synapses for the transfer of hippocampal output to the parahippocampal region in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Using single-cell and multi-channel field recordings in slices, we studied ?-AR-mediated changes in the functional connectivity between CA1, the subiculum and its target-structures. We confirm that application of the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induces LTP in subicular BS- but not RS cells. Due to the distinct spatial distribution of RS- and BS cells in the proximo-to-distal axis of the subiculum, in field recordings, LTP was significantly stronger in the distal than in the proximal subiculum. In pilocarpine-treated animals, ?-AR-mediated LTP was strongly reduced in the distal subiculum. The attenuated LTP was associated with a disturbed polysynaptic transmission from the CA1, via the subiculum to the presubiculum, but with a preserved transmission to the medial EC. Our findings suggest that synaptic plasticity may influence target-related information flow and that such regulation is disturbed in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats. PMID:25498224

Grosser, S; Hollnagel, J-O; Gilling, K E; Bartsch, J C; Heinemann, U; Behr, J

2015-02-12

102

Oral iron therapy in human subjects, comparative absorption between ferrous salts and iron polymaltose.  

PubMed

Iron absorption was directly compared between equivalent doses of ferrous salts and a polymaltose complex using a twin-isotope technique in which each individual acts as his own control. In the first study, bioavailability of iron from ferrous sulfate and the complex was defined at physiologic doses of 5 mg (Group 1: n = 14) and therapeutic doses of 50 mg (Group 2: n = 13). In Group 1, mean absorption from salt was 47.77% (SD 14.58%) and from polymaltose, 46.56% SD 17.07%). In Group 2, mean absorption from salt was 32.92% (SD 13.42%) and from polymaltose, 27.07% (SD 6.50%). In a second study, 100 mg of iron in a chewable formulation was used to compare absorption between equal doses of ferrous fumarate and the polymaltose complex. Mean absorption from salt was 10.25% (SD 6.89%) and from polymaltose 10.68% (SD 4.68%). At all three dosage levels, iron is equally available from salt or polymaltose for hemoglobin synthesis (p greater than 0.20), and absorption negatively correlated with plasma ferritin (p less than 0.01). These two materials may be used interchangeably in the treatment of patients with absolute iron deficiency. PMID:6599114

Jacobs, P; Johnson, G; Wood, L

1984-01-01

103

Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in North Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus.  

PubMed

Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

Ye, Yixin H; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F; O'Neill, Scott L; Beebe, Nigel W; McGraw, Elizabeth A

2014-03-01

104

Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

2014-01-01

105

Comparative study of the efficacy of herbal antioxdants oxitard and aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent due to areca nut, tobacco and their products. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of oxitard and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and Methods: 120 subjects with OSMF were included in the study. The patients were clinico-pathologically diagnosed and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (oxitard group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 2 oxitard capsules twice daily and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Different clinical parameters were evaluated at regular intervals. Data was analyzed using the Student’s paired t test and Chi-square test. P-value <0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening and tongue protrusion was significant in the oxitard group (p=0.0005). Subjective symptoms of pain associated with the lesion (p=0.0003), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000) and speech (p=0.0001) also significantly improved in the Group A. The improvement in burning sensation was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p=0.002). There was a mild to moderate decrease in the size of the lesion. Conclusions: Though there is no definitive treatment for the condition however, overall assessment of symptoms like mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in swallowing and speech and pain associated with the lesion showed that oxitard capsules can bring about significant clinical improvements than aloe vera gel in the treatment of OSMF. Key words:Oral submucous fibrosis, oxitard capsules, aloe vera, burning sensation, mouth opening. PMID:25136428

Halgatti, Vishal; Maheshwari, Sneha; Santosh, B S.

2014-01-01

106

Assessment of the prophylactic activity and pharmacokinetic profile of oral tafenoquine compared to primaquine for inhibition of liver stage malaria infections  

PubMed Central

Background As anti-malarial drug resistance escalates, new safe and effective medications are necessary to prevent and treat malaria infections. The US Army is developing tafenoquine (TQ), an analogue of primaquine (PQ), which is expected to be more effective in preventing malaria in deployed military personnel. Methods To compare the prophylactic efficacy of TQ and PQ, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing the bioluminescent reporter protein luciferase was utilized to visualize and quantify parasite development in C57BL/6 albino mice treated with PQ and TQ in single or multiple regimens using a real-time in vivo imaging system (IVIS). As an additional endpoint, blood stage parasitaemia was monitored by flow cytometry. Comparative pharmacokinetic (PK) and liver distribution studies of oral and intravenous PQ and TQ were also performed. Results Mice treated orally with three doses of TQ at 5 mg/kg three doses of PQ at 25 mg/kg demonstrated no bioluminescence liver signal and no blood stage parasitaemia was observed suggesting both drugs showed 100% causal activity at the doses tested. Single dose oral treatment with 5 mg TQ or 25 mg of PQ, however, yielded different results as only TQ treatment resulted in causal prophylaxis in P. berghei sporozoite-infected mice. TQ is highly effective for causal prophylaxis in mice at a minimal curative single oral dose of 5 mg/kg, which is a five-fold improvement in potency versus PQ. PK studies of the two drugs administered orally to mice showed that the absolute bioavailability of oral TQ was 3.5-fold higher than PQ, and the AUC of oral TQ was 94-fold higher than oral PQ. The elimination half-life of oral TQ in mice was 28 times longer than PQ, and the liver tissue distribution of TQ revealed an AUC that was 188-fold higher than PQ. Conclusions The increased drug exposure levels and longer exposure time of oral TQ in the plasma and livers of mice highlight the lead quality attributes that explain the much improved efficacy of TQ when compared to PQ. PMID:24731238

2014-01-01

107

Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day) was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE) reports and weight. AEs with rates ?5% and with a ?2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95) and risperidone trials (n = 122) groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768). Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179), risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113) or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129) were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159). PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p < 0.05) and similar to risperidone 4-6 mg/day (0.2; p = 0.927). Placebo-adjusted AEs more common with paliperidone ER were insomnia, sinus tachycardia and tachycardia; more common with risperidone were somnolence, restlessness, nausea, anxiety, salivary hypersecretion, akathisia, dizziness and nasal congestion. Weight changes with paliperidone ER and risperidone were similar (paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.489; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.236). Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg/day. The AE-adjusted incidence rates suggest differences between treatments that may be relevant for individual patients. Additional randomized, direct, head-to-head clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21299844

2011-01-01

108

Pilocarpine Seizures Cause Age-Dependent Impairment in Auditory Location Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this question using an animal model of status epilepticus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline on postnatal day (P) 20, or a convulsant dose of pilocarpine on P20 or P45. Pilocarpine on either day induced status epilepticus; status epilepticus at P45 resulted in CA3 cell loss and spontaneous seizures, whereas P20 rats had no cell loss or spontaneous seizures. Mature rats were trained with sound-source location and sound-silence discriminations. Control (saline P20) rats acquired both discriminations immediately. In status epilepticus (P20) rats, acquisition of the sound-source location discrimination was moderately impaired. Status epilepticus (P45) rats failed to acquire either sound-source location or sound-silence discriminations. Status epilepticus in rat causes an age-dependent, long-term impairment in auditory discrimination. This impairment may explain one cause of impaired auditory location discrimination in humans. PMID:16596970

Neill, John C; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L

2005-01-01

109

Minocycline inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence suggests that brain inflammation mediated by glial cells may contribute to epileptogenesis. Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline and has potent antiinflammatory effects independent of its antimicrobial action. The present study aimed to investigate whether minocycline could exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal patterns of microglial and astrocytic activation were examined in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings displayed that SE caused acute and persistent activation of microglia and astrocytes. Based on these findings, Minocycline was administered once daily at 45mg/kg for 14days following SE. Six weeks after termination of minocycline treatment, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were recorded by continuous video monitoring. Minocycline inhibited the SE-induced microglial activation and the increased production of interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex, without affecting astrocytic activation. In addition, Minocycline prevented the SE-induced neuronal loss in the brain regions examined. Moreover, minocycline significantly reduced the frequency, duration, and severity of SRS during the two weeks monitoring period. These results demonstrated that minocycline could mitigate SE-induced brain inflammation and might exert disease-modifying effects in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. These findings offer new insights into deciphering the molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis and exploring a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention of epilepsy. PMID:25541249

Wang, N; Mi, X; Gao, B; Gu, J; Wang, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, X

2015-02-26

110

Characterization of pharmacoresistance to benzodiazepines in the rat Li-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Status epilepticus is usually initially treated with a benzodiazepine such as diazepam. During prolonged seizures, however, patients often lose their sensitivity to benzodiazepines, thus developing pharmacoresistant seizures. In rats, administration of LiCl followed 20-24 h later by pilocarpine induces a continuous, self-sustained, and reproducible form of status epilepticus that can be terminated with diazepam when it is administered soon after the pilocarpine injection. However, when administered after a 45 min delay, diazepam is less effective. Previous findings have suggested that the development of pharmacoresistance is related to the stage of status epilepticus. In the present study, we characterized the seizure stage-dependence of diazepam pharmacoresistance. Following administration of different doses of diazepam at varying time intervals after specific behaviorally- and electrographically-defined seizure stages, stage-, time-, and dose-dependent pharmacoresistance to diazepam developed. We also studied two other antiepileptic drugs commonly used in the treatment of status epilepticus, phenobarbital and phenytoin. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated a similar relationship between stage, time and dose for phenobarbital, but not for phenytoin. Our data are consistent with rapid modulation of GABA(A) receptors during status epilepticus that may result in pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs that enhance GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition. PMID:12200221

Jones, Dorothy M; Esmaeil, Nadia; Maren, Stephen; Macdonald, Robert L

2002-08-01

111

Vigabatrin protects against hippocampal damage but is not antiepileptogenic in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the nature of the structures involved in the development of the epileptogenic circuit is still not clearly identified. In the lithium–pilocarpine model, neuronal damage occurs both in the structures belonging to the circuit of initiation and maintenance of the seizures (forebrain limbic system) as well as in the propagation areas (cortex and thalamus) and in

Véronique André; Arielle Ferrandon; Christian Marescaux; Astrid Nehlig

2001-01-01

112

MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124 PMID:23383037

Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

2013-01-01

113

Mental Symptoms and Drug Use in Maintenance Treatment with Slow-Release Oral Morphine Compared to Methadone: Results of a Randomized Crossover Study.  

PubMed

Background: Opioid maintenance treatment is the option of choice to stabilize opioid-dependent patients. Whilst efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine has been studied extensively, fewer data on slow-release oral morphine are available. Aims: This study analyzes the effects of slow-release oral morphine compared to methadone with regard to self-reported mental symptoms, drug use and satisfaction with treatment. Methods: The study was carried out as an open-label randomized crossover trial in 14 treatment sites in Switzerland and Germany. It comprised 2 crossover periods of 11 weeks each. For measuring mental symptoms, the Symptom Checklist-27 (SCL-27) was used. Drug and alcohol use was assessed by the number of consumption days, and treatment satisfaction by a visual analogue scale. Results: A total of 157 patients were included for the analyses (per-protocol sample). Statistically significantly better outcomes for morphine as compared to methadone treatment were found for overall severity of mental symptoms (SCL-27 Global Severity Index), as well as 5 of the 6 syndrome groups of the SCL-27, and for treatment satisfaction. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to drug or alcohol use between groups. Conclusions: This study supports positive effects of slow-release oral morphine compared to methadone on patient-reported outcomes such as mental symptoms and treatment satisfaction with comparable effects on concomitant drug use. Slow-release oral morphine represents a meaningful alternative to methadone for treatment of opioid dependence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25427944

Verthein, Uwe; Beck, Thilo; Haasen, Christian; Reimer, Jens

2014-11-22

114

Comparative pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer and racemic bambuterol after single-dose intravenous, oral administration in rats and beagle dogs.  

PubMed

This study was to compare pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer bambuterol with its racemate. Pharmacokinetics of R-enantiomer was investigated after single-dose intravenous and three doses of oral administration to rats and beagle dogs. To compare the pharmacokinetics with racemic bambuterol, the same oral doses of racemic bambuterol were also administrated; the blood and bile samples were collected by cannulation. A validated LC-MS/MS method was used to assess the level of bambuterol in plasma and bile. After single intravenous administration, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs in pharmacokinetic data. After oral dosing of R-bambuterol, the AUCs of R-enantiomer presented linear correlation. After same oral dosing of R-enantiomer and its racemate, all the pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. However, the clearance and apparent distribution had different results due to species and administration route difference. The bile transformation of these two compounds was similar and implicated that liver transformation accounted for the major metabolism of them. The bioavailability of R-enantiomer and racemate were comparative and relatively high in beagle dogs. Thus, R-enantiomer had a comparative pharmacokinetic profile and bile transformation with racemic bambuterol in rats and beagle dogs. These findings provided references for further clinical study. PMID:25281237

Guan, Su; Hu, Chun-Yun; He, Meng-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tang, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jie-di; Huang, Li-Jie; Tan, Wen

2014-10-01

115

A double-blind clinical trial comparing World Health Organization oral rehydration solution with a reduced osmolarity solution containing equal amounts of sodium and glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing 75 mmol\\/L of sodium and glucose each with the standard World Health Organization (WHO) ORS among Egyptian children with acute diarrhea. METHODS: One hundred ninety boys, ages 1 to 24 months, who were admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea and signs of dehydration were randomly

Mathuram Santosham; Ibrahim Fayad; Maha Abu Zikri; Abeer Hussein; Akwasi Amponsah; Christopher Duggan; Mohamed Hashem; Nermine El Sady; Mona Abu Zikri; Olivier Fontaine

1996-01-01

116

The effects of CTR-24, a biphasic oral contraceptive combination, compared to Diane-35 in women with acne.  

PubMed

One-hundred-and-eighty-three women were enrolled in an open, randomized, multicentre study in which the effects on acne of a low-dose biphasic oral contraceptive containing a daily dosage of 25 micrograms desogestrel and 40 micrograms ethinylestradiol (7 days) and a daily dosage of 125 micrograms desogestrel and 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol (15 days) were compared to Diane-35 containing a daily dosage of 2.0 mg cyproterone acetate and 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol (21 days) during four cycles of treatment. Clinical and photographic evaluation of acne plus laboratory assessments were done before treatment and at the end of cycle 4. A reduction with regard to the number of lesions and the degree of severity was observed in both groups. No differences were found between the two treatments in the clinical and photographic evaluation. In both treatment groups, a decrease in total testosterone and 3 alpha-17 beta-androstanediol glucuronide was observed and an increase in SHBG. The decrease in 3 alpha-17 beta-androstanediol was statistically significantly more pronounced in the Diane-35 group. PMID:7813225

Dieben, T O; Vromans, L; Theeuwes, A; Bennink, H J

1994-10-01

117

Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria  

PubMed Central

In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

2012-01-01

118

Expressional analysis of the astrocytic Kir4.1 channel in a pilocarpine–induced temporal lobe epilepsy model  

PubMed Central

The inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel Kir4.1 in brain astrocytes mediates spatial K+ buffering and regulates neural activities. Recent studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in the human gene KCNJ10 encoding Kir4.1 cause epileptic seizures, suggesting a close relationship between the Kir4.1 channel function and epileptogenesis. Here, we performed expressional analysis of Kir4.1 in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to explore the role of Kir4.1 channels in modifying TLE epileptogenesis. Treatment of rats with pilocarpine (350 mg/kg, i.p.) induced acute status epilepticus, which subsequently caused spontaneous seizures 7–8 weeks after the pilocarpine treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that TLE rats (interictal condition) showed significantly higher levels of Kir4.1 than the control animals in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. However, the expression of other Kir subunits, Kir5.1 and Kir2.1, remained unaltered. Immunohistochemical analysis illustrated that Kir4.1-immunoreactivity-positive astrocytes in the pilocarpine-induced TLE model were markedly increased in most of the brain regions examined, concomitant with an increase in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. In addition, Kir4.1 expression ratios relative to the number of astrocytes (Kir4.1-positive cells/GFAP-positive cells) were region-specifically elevated in the amygdala (i.e., medial and cortical amygdaloid nuclei) and sensory cortex. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the expression of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels was elevated in a pilocarpine-induced TLE model, especially in the amygdala, suggesting that astrocytic Kir4.1 channels play a role in modifying TLE epileptogenesis, possibly by acting as an inhibitory compensatory mechanism. PMID:23922547

Nagao, Yuki; Harada, Yuya; Mukai, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki; Okuda, Aoi; Fujimoto, Megumi; Ono, Asuka; Sakagami, Yoshihisa; Ohno, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

119

Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Intravenous Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Alone with Oral and Intravenous Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for the Prevention of a Surgical Site Infection in Colorectal Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The use of preoperative oral antibiotics during preparation for elective colorectal surgery remains controversial. This was\\u000a a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis alone with combined\\u000a oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing elective colorectal\\u000a surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Five hundred patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 491 were

Minako Kobayashi; Yasuhiko Mohri; Hitoshi Tonouchi; Chikao Miki; Keiji Nakai; Masato Kusunoki

2007-01-01

120

Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits  

E-print Network

The effects of a novel, modified ?-cyclodextrin (SBE4-?-CD; a variably substituted sulfobutyl ether with an average degree of substitution of four) on eye irritation and miotic response of an ophthalmically applied pilocarpine ...

Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

1995-01-01

121

Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.  

PubMed

A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2kg to 28.6kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12h post-infestation and removed and counted 24h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for Bravecto™. PMID:25564276

Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaďg

2015-01-30

122

Comparative study on toxic effects induced by oral or intravascular administration of commonly used disinfectants and surfactants in rats.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion or injection of household products sometimes occurs due to their accessibility, but the toxic manifestations have not been well characterized when they are internally administered. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects induced by ingestion or injection of different ionic surfactants and disinfectants in rats. The test drugs involved benzalkonium and benzethonium (BZK and BZT, both cationic surfactants used as disinfectants), alkyldiaminoethylglycine (AEG, an amphoteric surfactant used as a disinfectant), linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS, an anionic surfactant), polyoxyethylene cetylether (PEC, a nonionic surfactant), chlorhexidine (CHX, not a surfactant but a disinfectant) and saline (control). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered one of the test drugs orally (p.o.), intravenously (i.v.) or intraarterially (i.a.). The fatal effects appeared rapidly (<30?min) in i.v.-administered rats, while taking hours (>5?h) in i.a./p.o.-administered rats after a dose of around LD(50) , although the progress and degree of toxic effects varied among the drugs tested. In intravascular administration, BZK and BZT were fatal at doses of 15-20?mg kg(-1) . Higher concentrations in lung and kidney than in blood were determined. CHX showed a high toxic effect compared with cationic surfactants. The rats administered anionic (LAS) or amphoteric (AEG) surfactant died in less than 24?h at doses over 100?mg kg(-1) . In p.o. administration, the toxic effects were concentration/dose-dependent, and all rats administered high doses of surfactants except for PEC died at 5-20?h. The overall toxic ranks could be: cationic surfactant/CHX> anionic/amphoteric surfactant > nonionic surfactant. PMID:21387348

Xue, Yuying; Zhang, Shanshan; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Hieda, Yoko; Takeshita, Haruo

2012-07-01

123

A clinical multicenter study comparing efficacy and tolerability of topical combination therapy with clotrimazole (Canesten, two formats) with oral single dose fluconazole (Diflucan) in vulvovaginal mycoses.  

PubMed

Two topical formats containing clotrimazole [500 mg single dose vaginal tablet (VT) or 10% single dose vaginal cream (VC) for intravaginal use] combined with additional clotrimazole cream for topical application to the vulval area (Canesten 1 Combi, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) were compared with oral fluconazole 150 mg single dose treatment of vulvovaginal mycosis (VVM) in a single-blind clinical study. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the equivalent efficacy of the clotrimazole combination therapies (VT + 1% cream and VC + 2% cream), and fluconazole 150 mg oral capsule (Diflucan 1, Pfizer Gmbh, Karlsruhe, Germany) in terms of overall response defined as clinical cure and mycological resolution. Overall, combination therapies containing either clotrimazole 500 mg VTs or clotrimazole 10% VC were as effective as a single dose fluconazole 150 mg oral tablet in treating VVM with rates for overall response being 66%, 61% and 60%, respectively, after 14 days. There were no significant differences in the time to onset of symptom relief in the clotrimazole 500 mg tablet group and clotrimazole 10% VC compared with fluconazole 150 mg oral capsules. Only 50% of 88 patients across treatment groups with mycological recurrence also experienced return of symptoms over the entire 8 week follow-up period. All treatments administered were safe and well-tolerated and the number of patients experiencing adverse events was low. PMID:15078430

Mendling, Werner; Krauss, Christian; Fladung, Bernward

2004-04-01

124

Hippocampal CA field neurogenesis after pilocarpine insult: The hippocampal fissure as a neurogenic niche.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine model for temporal lobe epilepsy has shown aberrant neurogenesis, but mainly restricted to the dentate gyrus (DG). Herein, by using a modified protocol, combining pilocarpine with ipratropium bromide, we unexpectedly observed a heretofore-unrecognized distinct cellular population expressing the neuroprogenitor marker doublecortin (DCX) on post insult days (PID) 10, 14 and 18, mainly located in the temporal segment of the hippocampal fissure (hf). Some of these DCX+ cells possessed high morphological complexity and seemed to disperse toward the CA fields. Next, we injected bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in early (PID 2-4) and delayed (PID 5-7) fashions and killed the rats 7-35 days later for immunohistochemical and anatomical analysis. Massive increase of BrdU labeling was found in the delayed group and the neural stem cell-specific marker nestin was highly expressed in the same narrow band on PID7, so was glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Using double labeling with BrdU and a mature neuron marker NeuN, we found discrete but clear BrdU+/NeuN+ double labeled cells in the Cornu Ammonis (CA) pyramidal cell layer on PID35. Based on immunohistochemical and anatomical observations, as well as time-course analysis of BrdU, nestin, GFAP, DCX and NeuN expressions in this population of cells located in/near hf, we wish to suggest that this structure harbors neurogenic niches, in addition of the possible dispersion of neuroprogenitors from subgranular niches to CA fields also revealed by this study. Our results support the few previous reports demonstrating hippocampal CA field neurogenesis in adult rats. Mechanistic basis of the phenomenon is discussed. PMID:24607693

Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S; Estrada, Felipe S; Luján, Rafael

2014-03-01

125

The bioequivalence of nizatidine (Axid) in two extemporaneously and one commercially prepared oral liquid formulations compared with capsule.  

PubMed

Nizatidine (Axid) is an H2-receptor antagonist used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Given the frequency of these conditions in children and the potential for pediatric use of nizatidine, an oral liquid dosage formulation would provide an alternative treatment option for patients unable to swallow solid oral dosage forms. This study was designed as an open-label, single-dose, four-way crossover trial to investigate the bioequivalence of 150 mg nizatidine administered in three oral liquid formulations (a commercially prepared oral syrup, an extemporaneous solution in apple juice, and an extemporaneous suspension in infant formula) relative to the marketed capsule formulation. Twenty-four adult subjects (ages 31.2 +/- 7.5 years; weight 71.1 +/- 11.8 kg) were enrolled, and blood samples for determination of plasma nizatidine concentrations were collected prior to drug administration and at 19 discrete intervals over a 24-hour postdose interval. Nizatidine was quantitated from plasma using a validated HPLC-MS assay, and a noncompartmental approach was used to describe nizatidine biodisposition in all subjects. Significant treatment effects were observed for log-normalized Cmax, AUC0-n, and AUC0-infinity (p < 0.001). Further evaluation revealed that nizatidine prepared in apple juice was markedly less bioavailable than the reference capsule, with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.518-0.626, 0.682-0.751, and 0.696-0.763 for Cmax, AUC0-n, and AUC0-infinity, respectively. The remaining two oral formulations demonstrated 90% CI within the guidelines established by the Food and Drug Administration (e.g., 0.80-1.25). Thus, nizatidine in infant formula and the commercially prepared oral syrup can be considered bioequivalent to the reference capsule. PMID:12616667

Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Johnson, Franklin K; Gauthier-Dubois, Ginette; Weston, Irving E; Kearns, Gregory L

2003-02-01

126

A Canadian, Multicentre Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine System to an Oral Contraceptive in Women With Idiopathic Menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) compared with a combined oral contraceptive containing 1 mg norethindrone acetate and 20 g ethinyl estradiol (OC1\\/20) in reducing menstrual blood loss (MBL) in women with idiopathic menorrhagia. Methods: A prospective, randomized, open-label study was conducted in nine centres in Canada. Healthy women over 30 years of age suffering

Jan Endrikat; Heather Shapiro; Eeva Lukkari-Lax; Michael Kunz; Werner Schmidt; Michel Fortier; Bayer Schering Pharma Oy

127

Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Functionally Relevant Structural Alterations in Chronic Epilepsy after Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Purpose: After pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in rats, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals signifi- cant morphologic changes in functionally relevant structures of the brain. To relate structural changes to functional alteration, we studied the correlation of regional brain atrophy (e.g., of the hip- pocampus) with lesion-induced learning deficits in the Morris water maze. Methods: MRI experiments were performed on an

Heiko G. Niessen; Frank Angenstein; Stefan Vielhaber; Christian Frisch; Alexei Kudin; Christian E. Elger; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Henning Scheich; Wolfram S. Kunz

2005-01-01

128

Blockade of the sodium calcium exchanger exhibits anticonvulsant activity in a pilocarpine model of acute seizures in rats  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) may contribute to the etiology of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Here we further investigated the role of NCX in the etiology of seizures by quantifying the effects of KB-R7943 and SN-6, potent inhibitors of the reverse mode of NCX subtypes 3 (NCX3) and 1 (NCX1), respectively, on the occurrence of acute seizures and status epilepticus induced by intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Pretreatment with KB-R7943 significantly reduced the incidence of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus in 22–56% of treated animals. In the remaining animals that exhibited seizures, KB-R7943 pretreatment delayed the onset of seizures and status epilepticus, and reduced seizure severity. Delayed onset of seizures and reduced seizure severity also were seen following pretreatment with SN-6. These findings suggest that altered NCX activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus. PMID:20888801

Martinez, Yuris; N’Gouemo, Prosper

2010-01-01

129

Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application.  

PubMed

Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K

2015-01-01

130

A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label, non-inferiority study was conducted at 36 sites in Europe and India. Patients with known intolerance to oral iron were excluded. A total of 338 IBD patients in clinical remission or with mild disease, a hemoglobin (Hb) <12?g/dl, and a transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20% were randomized 2:1 to receive either IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 according to the Ganzoni formula (225 patients) or oral iron sulfate 200?mg daily (equivalent to 200?mg elemental iron; 113 patients). An interactive web response system method was used to randomize the eligible patient to the treatment groups. The primary end point was change in Hb from baseline to week 8. Iron isomaltoside 1,000 and iron sulfate was compared by a non-inferiority assessment with a margin of ?0.5?g/dl. The secondary end points, which tested for superiority, included change in Hb from baseline to weeks 2 and 4, change in s-ferritin, and TSAT to week 8, number of patients who discontinued study because of lack of response or intolerance of investigational drugs, change in total quality of life (QoL) score to weeks 4 and 8, and safety. Exploratory analyses included a responder analysis (proportion of patients with an increase in Hb ?2?g/dl after 8 weeks), the effect of regional differences and total iron dose level, and other potential predictors of the treatment response. RESULTS: Non-inferiority in change of Hb to week 8 could not be demonstrated. There was a trend for oral iron sulfate being more effective in increasing Hb than iron isomaltoside 1,000. The estimated treatment effect was ?0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.80, 0.06) with P=0.09 in the full analysis set (N=327) and ?0.45 (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.03) with P=0.04 in the per protocol analysis set (N=299). In patients treated with IV iron isomaltoside 1,000, the mean change in s-ferritin concentration was higher with an estimated treatment effect of 48.7 (95% CI: 18.6, 78.8) with P=0.002, whereas the mean change in TSAT was lower with an estimated treatment effect of ?4.4 (95% CI: ?7.4, ?1.4) with P=0.005, compared with patients treated with oral iron. No differences in changes of QoL were observed. The safety profile was similar between the groups. The proportion of responders with Hb ?2?g/dl (IV group: 67% oral group: 61%) were comparable between the groups (P=0.32). Iron isomaltoside 1,000 was more efficacious with higher cumulative doses of >1,000?mg IV. Significant predictors of Hb response to IV iron treatment were baseline Hb and C-reactive protein (CRP). CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate non-inferiority of IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 compared with oral iron in this study. Based on the dose–response relationship observed with the IV iron compound, we suggest that the true iron demand of IV iron was underestimated by the Ganzoni formula in our study. Alternative calculations including Hb and CRP should be explored to gauge iron stores in patients with IBD. PMID:24145678

Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K; Altorjay, Istvan; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Gratzer, Cornelia; Nijhawan, Sandeep; Thomsen, Lars L

2013-01-01

131

Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.  

PubMed

N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25?mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25069786

Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

2014-07-28

132

Meta-Analysis of Trials Comparing Oral Anticoagulation and Aspirin versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy after Coronary Stenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of oral anticoagulation (OAC) and aspirin was the antithrombotic treatment initially adopted after coronary stenting (PCI-S). Although dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine subsequently proved safer and more effective, OAC and aspirin combination is still used in patients with an indication for long-term OAC undergoing PCI-S. The absolute (AR) and relative (RR) risk of cardiac events

Andrea Rubboli; Milena Milandri; Cristina Castelvetri; Benilde Cosmi

2005-01-01

133

Comparison between the Effectiveness of Oral Phloroglucin and Cimetropium Bromide as Premedication for Diagnostic Esophagogastroduodenoscopy: An Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Suppression of gastrointestinal (GI) peristalsis during GI endoscopy commonly requires antispasmodic agents such as hyoscine butylbromide, atropine, glucagon, and cimetropium bromide. This study examined the efficacy of oral phloroglucin for the suppression of peristalsis, its impact on patient compliance, and any associated complications, and compared it with intravenous or intramuscular cimetropium bromide administration. Methods This was a randomized, investigator-blind, prospective comparative study. A total of 172 patients were randomized into two groups according to the following medications administered prior to upper endoscopy: oral phloroglucin (group A, n=86), and cimetropium bromide (group B, n=86). The numbers and the degrees of peristalsis events at the antrum and second duodenal portion were assessed for 30 seconds. Results A significantly higher number of gastric peristalsis events was observed in group A (0.49 vs. 0.08, p<0.001), but the difference was not clinically significant. No significant difference between both groups was found in the occurrence of duodenal peristalsis events (1.79 vs. 1.63, p=0.569). The incidence of dry mouth was significantly higher with cimetropium bromide than with phloroglucin (50% vs. 15.1%, p<0.001). Conclusions Oral phloroglucin can be used as an antispasmodic agent during upper endoscopy, and shows antispasmodic efficacy and adverse effects similar to those of cimetropium bromide.

Yun, Hye-Won; Na, Sun-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-In; Lee, Min-Jin; Song, Eun-Mi; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Hye-Kyoung; Jung, Sung-Ae

2015-01-01

134

A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Results: Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments. Conclusion: Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. PMID:24347774

Thaker, Saket J.; Mehta, Dimple S.; Shah, Hiral A.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Kikani, Kunjan M.

2013-01-01

135

A comparative study of the adjuvanticity of Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces cerevsiae and Yarrowia lipolytica in oral and nasal immunization with virus capsid antigens.  

PubMed

The adjuvanticity of Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces cerevsiae and Yarrowia lipolytica were compared for oral and nasal immunization with virus capsid antigens. Mice were immunized orally with human papillomavirus type 16 L1 virus-like particles (HPV16 L1 VLPs), or intra-nasally with formalin-inactivated influenza A virus (FIV), in combination with one or other yeast. Mice receiving HPV16 L1 VLPs combined with H. polymorpha had a significantly higher titer for serum anti-HPV16 L1 IgG and neutralizing activity than those receiving HPV16 L1 VLPs combined with either of the other two yeasts. Also, mice receiving FIV combined with H. polymorpha had not only a markedly higher anti-influenza A virus IgG titer but also a higher survival rate after a potentially lethal influenza A virus challenge. We suggest that H. polymorpha thus will be useful for enhancing immune responses in mucosal immunizations. PMID:23801124

Lee, Jae Young; Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hong-Jin

2013-11-01

136

Comparison of status epilepticus models induced by pilocarpine and nerve agents - a systematic review of the underlying aetiology and adopted therapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

Among potential radiological, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, cholinergic nerve agents from chemical weapons remain a realistic terrorist threat due to its combination of high lethality, demonstrated use and relative abundance of un-destroyed stockpiles in various militaries around the world. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute poisoning, effective neuroprotection in the field remains a challenge amongst subjects with established status epilepticus following nerve agent intoxication. Due to ethical, safety and surety issues, extensive preclinical and clinical research on cholinergic nerve agents is not possible. This may have been a contributory factor for the slow progress in uncovering new neuroprotectants for nerve agent casualties with established status epilepticus. To overcome this challenge, comparative research with surrogate chemicals that produce similar hypercholinergic toxicity but with less security concerns would be a useful approach forward. In this paper, we will systemically compare the mechanism of seizure generation, propagation and the subsequent clinical, hematologic, and metabolic, biochemical, neuroinflammatory changes and current therapeutic approaches reported in pilocarpine, soman, and sarin models of seizures. This review will be an important first step in closing this knowledge gap among different closely related models of seizures and neurotoxicity. Hopefully, it will spur further efforts in using surrogate cholinergic models by the wider scientific community to expedite the development of a new generation of antidotes that are better able to protect against delayed neurological effects inflicted by nerve agents. PMID:21182477

Tang, F R; Loke, W K; Ling, E A

2011-01-01

137

Comparative efficacy of oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol in eradicating conjunctival carriage of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.  

PubMed

Persistent conjunctival carriage of the Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) strain (BPF clone) responsible for Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) has been documented. Topical chloramphenicol is routinely used to treat conjunctivitis in areas affected by BPF in Brazil. Although the BPF clone is susceptible to chloramphenicol, we observed a number of children treated with topical chloramphenicol for conjunctivitis who still developed BPF. During an investigation of an outbreak of BPF in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, we compared oral rifampin (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) with topical chloramphenicol for eradication of conjunctival carriage of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius among children with presumed BPF clone conjunctivitis. Conjunctival samples were taken for culture on the day treatment was initiated and a mean of 8 and 21 days later. At 8 days the eradication rates for oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol were 100 and 44%, respectively (P = 0.003); at 21 days they were 100 and 50% (P = 0.01). Oral rifampin was more effective than topical chloramphenicol for eradication of the BPF clone and may be useful in prevention of BPF. PMID:1448311

Perkins, B A; Tondella, M L; Bortolotto, I M; Takano, O A; da Silva, G A; Irino, K; Brandileone, M C; Harrison, L H; Wenger, J D; Broome, C V

1992-09-01

138

Diagnostic Usefulness of the Serum-Specific IgE, the Skin Prick Test and the Atopy Patch Test Compared with That of the Oral Food Challenge Test  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is frequently associated with food allergies. In addition to the skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE, the atopy patch test (APT) has been introduced as a diagnostic procedure for food allergies. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the APT, the SPT and the serum-specific IgE levels compared with that of oral food challenge test against milk and egg in AD patients. Methods We conducted the SPT and APT, and determined the serum-specific IgE levels against milk and egg antigens for 101 patients. Oral food challenge tests were conducted for 86 out of 101 AD patients. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictable values were calculated for all the tests. Results Twenty-five patients were positive to oral food challenges. The sensitivity of the APT for milk was 66.7%, while the figures for the SPT and the serum-specific IgE were 35.5% and 14.2%. The sensitivity of the APT for egg was 50%, while that for the SPT and serum-specific IgE were 21.4% and 6.7%. Conclusion We were able to conclude that the APT test seems to be a valuable additional tool for the diagnostic method of food allergies in AD. PMID:21165209

Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One; Lee, Cheol Heon

2010-01-01

139

Progressive Dendritic HCN Channelopathy during Epileptogenesis in the Rat Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Ion channelopathy plays an important role in human epilepsy with a genetic cause and has been hypothesized to occur in epilepsy after acquired insults to the CNS as well. Acquired alterations of ion channel function occur after induction of status epilepticus (SE) in animal models of epilepsy, but it is unclear how they correlate with the onset of spontaneous seizures. We examined the properties of hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in conjunction with video-EEG (VEEG) recordings to monitor the development of spontaneous seizures in the rat pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Our results showed that dendritic HCN channels were significantly downregulated at an acute time point 1 week postpilocarpine, with loss of channel expression and hyperpolarization of voltage-dependent activation. This downregulation progressively increased when epilepsy was established in the chronic period. Surprisingly, VEEG recordings during the acute period showed that a substantial fraction of animals were already experiencing recurrent seizures. Suppression of these seizures with phenobarbital reversed the change in the voltage dependence of Ih, the current produced by HCN channels, but did not affect the loss of HCN channel expression. These results suggest two mechanisms of HCN channel downregulation after SE, one dependent on and one independent of recurrent seizures. This early and progressive downregulation of dendritic HCN channel function increases neuronal excitability and may be associated with both the process of epileptogenesis and maintenance of the epileptic state. PMID:18032674

Jung, Sangwook; Jones, Terrance D.; Lugo, Joaquin N.; Sheerin, Aaron H.; Miller, John W.; D’Ambrosio, Raimondo; Anderson, Anne E.; Poolos, Nicholas P.

2011-01-01

140

Involvement of Thalamus in Initiation of Epileptic Seizures Induced by Pilocarpine in Mice  

PubMed Central

Studies have suggested that thalamus is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the role of thalamus is still unclear. We obtained local filed potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activities from CA1 of hippocampus and parafascicular nucleus of thalamus during the development of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice. Two measures, redundancy and directionality index, were used to analyze the electrophysiological characters of neuronal activities and the information flow between thalamus and hippocampus. We found that LFPs became more regular during the seizure in both hippocampus and thalamus, and in some cases LFPs showed a transient disorder at seizure onset. The variation tendency of the peak values of cross-correlation function between neurons matched the variation tendency of the redundancy of LFPs. The information tended to flow from thalamus to hippocampus during seizure initiation period no matter what the information flow direction was before the seizure. In some cases the information flow was symmetrically bidirectional, but none was found in which the information flowed from hippocampus to thalamus during the seizure initiation period. In addition, inactivation of thalamus by tetrodotoxin (TTX) resulted in a suppression of seizures. These results suggest that thalamus may play an important role in the initiation of epileptic seizures. PMID:24778885

Li, Yong-Hua; Li, Jia-Jia; Lu, Qin-Chi; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

2014-01-01

141

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of four major components after oral administration of pure compounds, herbs and Si-Ni-San to rats.  

PubMed

1.?The pharmacokinetic differences of paeoniflorin, naringin, naringenin and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) following oral administration of pure compounds, single herbs and Si-Ni-San (SNS) decoction to rats were studied. Blood samples were analyzed with a validated UPLC-MS/MS method. Student's t-test was used for the statistical comparison. 2.?The Cmax and AUC0-? were 1470±434?ng/mL and 4663±916?ng?h/mL for paeoniflorin, 64.29±59.21?ng/mL and 311.8±131.8?ng?h/mL for naringin, 244.2±138.8?ng/mL and 4761±3167?ng?h/mL for naringenin, and 1183±294?ng/mL and 38 994±14 377?ng?h/mL for GA after oral administration of paeoniflorin, naringin and glycyrrhizic acid. The Cmax and AUC0-? were 812.6±259.6?ng/mL and 2489±817?ng?h/mL for paeoniflorin, 344.3±234.9?ng/mL and 1479±531?ng?h/mL for naringin, 981.9±465.4?ng/mL and 12?284±6378?ng?h/mL for naringenin, and 3164±742?ng/mL and 78 817±16?707?ng?h/mL for GA after oral administration of SNS decoction. 3.?There were significant differences between the pharmacokinetic behavior after oral administration of SNS decoction compared with pure components or herbs. The results indicated that some components in the other herbs of SNS had a pharmacokinetic interaction with paeoniflorin, naringin, naringenin and GA. PMID:24641106

Wen, Jing; Wang, Yanjuan; Yang, Lina; Zheng, Weihua; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Famei

2014-09-01

142

Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail. PMID:23772453

Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

2013-03-01

143

Comparing abilities of children with profound hearing impairments to learn consonants using electropalatography or traditional aural-oral techniques.  

PubMed

Two groups of nine children with profound hearing impairments and low intelligibility were taught to produce the consonants /t,d,k,g,s,z,S/ using either electropalatographic (palatometry) or traditional aural-oral techniques. Testing was completed pre-, immediately post-, and 6 months post-treatment by examining productions of CV syllables (V = /i,a/) using electropalatography-determined linguapalatal contacts and listener identifications. Intelligibility was also measured using the CID Picture Speech Intelligibility Evaluation (SPINE) test. Both groups improved their consonant productions as a result of 26 50-minute sessions. Sessions were given twice daily over 3- to 4-week training periods. Immediately post-treatment, the electropalatography-trained subjects produced better consonants as measured by linguapalatal contact patterns and listener identifications. The linguapalatal-contact patterns learned by the electropalatography-trained group better matched normal speaker productions than did those of the traditionally trained group. Both groups showed equal improvement for both post-treatment conditions when tested with the CID SPINE test. Although further research is needed, the results of this study suggest that electropalatographic techniques are, at least, equal alternatives to traditional aural-oral speech training techniques for speakers with profound hearing impairments. PMID:8084199

Dagenais, P A; Critz-Crosby, P; Fletcher, S G; McCutcheon, M J

1994-06-01

144

Comparative efficacy and safety of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban in preclinical and clinical development.  

PubMed

Therapeutic oral anticoagulation is still commonly achieved by administration of warfarin or other vitamin K antagonists that are associated with an untoward pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile leading to a high incidence of bleeding complications or therapeutic failure. Hence, there is an unmet medical need of novel easy-to-use oral anticoagulants with improved efficacy and safety. Recent developments include the identification of non-peptidic small-molecules that selectively inhibit certain serine proteases within the coagulation cascade. Of these, the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban have recently been licensed for thromboprophylaxis after orthopaedic surgery mainly in Europe. In addition, the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban is in late-stage clinical development. Each drug is prescribed at fixed doses without the need of anticoagulant monitoring. Phase III trials in orthopaedic patients essentially resulted in non-inferior efficacy of dabigatran and superior efficacy of rivaroxaban over enoxaparin without any marked differences of drug safety, while apixaban data is still controversial. However, alterations of rivaroxaban and apixaban pharmacokinetics upon interactions with inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein may complicate the use of these compounds in daily practice, whereas dabigatran elimination largely depends on renal function. Hence, this review reports PK/PD, efficacy and safety data of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban throughout preclinical and clinical development. PMID:20135071

Ufer, Mike

2010-03-01

145

Oral health Oral health  

E-print Network

Prams asks about the care of teeth during pregnancy: whether the mother had a dental problem, went to a dentist or dental clinic or discussed oral hygiene with a dentist or other healthcare worker. Public health importance A pregnant woman’s oral health affects the woman, her fetus and infant. In pregnant women, periodontal disease, which affects the gums and adjacent bone, is associated with pre-term and/or low birth-weight delivery. 1, 2, 3 After delivery, infants or young children may develop cavities from maternal oral bacteria. 4 All health care providers can promote oral health through oral examinations; advising patients about oral hygiene, diet and smoking cessation; and by making referrals to oral health practitioners. 5 Access to oral health services during pregnancy may be constrained by the American Dental Association recommendations to avoid elective dental care during the first trimester and last half of the third trimester. 6 In four PRAMS states, among mothers who reported having a dental problem, about one-half did not go for care. 7 NM PRAMS findings In 2002, 25 % of mothers recalled discussion of oral hygiene during prenatal care (Table 56 / Figure 28), 13% had a dental problem and 33 % had dental care (Table 57 / Figure 29). Among women with a dental problem, 56% had dental care (Table 58 / Figure 30). In 2001-2002, women who were more likely to have dental care included those with insurance, without public assistance or with more than high school education. Use of oral health

unknown authors

146

Randomized controlled trial of sequential intravenous (i.v.) and oral moxifloxacin compared with sequential i.v. and oral co-amoxiclav with or without clarithromycin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring initial parenteral treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of the present trial was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (400 mg) given intravenously (i.v.) once daily followed by oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) for 7 to 14 days with the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of co-amoxiclav (1.2 g) administered by i.v. infusion three times a day followed by oral co-amoxiclav (625 mg) three times a day, with or without clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily (i.v. or orally), for 7 to 14 days in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring initial parenteral therapy. A total of 628 patients were enrolled and assessed by evaluation of their clinical and bacteriological responses 5 to 7 days and 21 to 28 days after administration of the last dose of study medication. Although the trial was designed, on the basis of predefined outcomes, to demonstrate the equivalence of the two regimens, the results showed statistically significant higher clinical success rates (for moxifloxacin, 93.4%, and for comparator regimen, 85.4%; difference [Delta], 8.05%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91 to 13.19%; P = 0.004) and bacteriological success rates (for moxifloxacin, 93.7%, and for comparator regimen, 81.7%; Delta, 12.06%; 95% CI, 1.21 to 22.91%) for patients treated with moxifloxacin. This superiority was seen irrespective of the severity of the pneumonia and whether or not the combination therapy included a macrolide. The time to resolution of fever was also statistically significantly faster for patients who received moxifloxacin (median time, 2 versus 3 days), and the duration of hospital admission was approximately 1 day less for patients who received moxifloxacin. The treatment was converted to oral therapy immediately after the initial mandatory 3-day period of i.v. administration for a larger proportion of patients in the moxifloxacin group than patients in the comparator group (151 [50.2%] versus 57 [17.8%] patients). There were fewer deaths (9 [3.0%] versus 17 [5.3%]) and fewer serious adverse events (38 [12.6%] versus 53 [16.5%]) in the moxifloxacin group than in the comparator group. The rates of drug-related adverse events were comparable in both groups (38.9% in each treatment group). The overall incidence of laboratory abnormalities was similar in both groups. Thus, it is concluded that monotherapy with moxifloxacin is superior to that with a standard combination regimen of a beta-lactam and a beta-lactamase inhibitor, co-amoxiclav, with or without a macrolide, clarithromycin, in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to a hospital. PMID:12019085

Finch, R; Schürmann, D; Collins, O; Kubin, R; McGivern, J; Bobbaers, H; Izquierdo, J L; Nikolaides, P; Ogundare, F; Raz, R; Zuck, P; Hoeffken, G

2002-06-01

147

Comparative evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles of rifampicin comprising Gantrez and poly(ethylene sebacate) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and lung uptake following oral administration.  

PubMed

The present study reports the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation and biodistribution of rifampicin (RIF) following oral administration of nanoparticles of a bioadhesive polymer, Gantrez and a hydrophobic polymer poly(ethylene sebacate) (PES). A specific objective of the study was to evaluate lung uptake of the nanoparticles following oral administration. Nanoparticles were obtained in the size range 350-450 nm with rifampicin loading of 12-14% w/w. Zeta potential confirmed colloidal stability. PES nanoparticles revealed high macrophage uptake compared to Gantrez nanoparticles, and direct correlation was observed between hydrophobicity (contact angle) and macrophage uptake (r2 -0.940). Enhanced RIF uptake with folic acid anchoring suggested folate receptor mediated uptake. RIF nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher Cmax and AUC, delayed Tmax and sustained release compared to plain RIF. More importantly the plasma concentration of RIF with the nanoparticles was significantly greater than the MIC of RIF (0.25 microng/mL) over 24 h. While gamma scintigraphy revealed higher lung accumulation of nanoparticles, the concentration with Gantrez nanoparticles was significantly higher. HPLC evaluation of lung concentration correlated with scintigraphy data. The significantly higher bioavailability and lung accumulation with Gantrez nanoparticle over PES nanoparticles was attributed mucoadhesion and high affinity of Gantrez to the Peyer's patches. Our study suggests Gantrez nanoparticles as a promising carrier for enhancing lung accumulation of drugs. PMID:24734521

Patel, Mitesh D; Date, Praveen V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Malshe, Vinod C; Devarajan, Padma V

2014-04-01

148

Phototoxicity to sulphonamide-derived oral antidiabetics and diuretics: comparative in-vitro and in-vivo investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven oral antidiabetics (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, glipizide, gliquidone, glymidine, tolazamide, and tolbutamide), and 14 diuretics (bemetizide, bendroflumethiazide, benzylhydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, butizide, chlortalidone, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, piretanide, polythiazide, trichlormethiazide, and xipamide) were investigated for potential phototoxicity in vitro using a cell culture model and in vivo in hairless mice. After exposure to broad band UVA, the majority of the substances tested in vitro yielded phototoxic action leading to loss of culture forming ability. In vivo, all tested substances induced edema or ulceration, and lead to a significant increase in skin fold thickness of the mouse skin. In all a number of substances not described to induce clinical photosensitivity nor phototoxicity in vitro or in vivo were detected in our testing. In determining potential photosensitizers, it seems important to utilize different test methods, as not all substances will exhibit action in a given assay.

Selvaag, Edgar; Anholt, Helle; Moan, Johan; Thune, Per

1997-12-01

149

Comparative study of uptake and tissue distribution of methylmercury in female rats by inhalation and oral routes of administration  

SciTech Connect

The release of mercury to the environment from coal-fired power plants, mining, and smelting operations is of special concern since these sources are currently uncontrolled and the use of coal is expected to increase significantly. Mercury which is released into the environment becomes available for methylation. Methylation rates in ecosystems are a function of the mercury burden, bacterial population, and other physicochemical conditions. Analysis of mercury forms in the air around Tampa Bay, Florida, revealed that about 21% of mercury in the atmosphere is of methylmercury types. No detailed data concerning the uptake and absorption of inhaled vapor of methyl mercury compounds are available. This paper reports a study on the uptake and tissue accumulation of /sup 203/Hg-methylmercuric chloride following oral and inhalation administration in female rats.

Fang, S.C.

1980-01-01

150

Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 ?g levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 ?g ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 ?g EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 ?g LNG/30 ?g EE [Treatment 2] or 150 ?g desogestrel [DSG]/30 ?g EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [? 18.3 pmol/L] > ? 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

2014-01-01

151

Effect of perampanel, a novel AMPA antagonist, on benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the efficacy of diazepam, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists perampanel and GYKI52466 in a lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) model. SE was induced in rats using lithium chloride, scopolamine methyl bromide, and pilocarpine. Diazepam 10, 20, or 40 mg kg?1, or perampanel 1, 2.5, 5, or 8 mg kg?1 were administered intravenously at 10 or 30 min after seizure onset, and GYKI52466 50 mg kg?1, or combinations of diazepam 2.5–5 mg kg?1 and perampanel 0.5–1 mg kg?1, were administered intravenously at 30 min after seizure onset. Diazepam 20 mg kg?1 terminated seizures (based on electroencephalography and assessment of behavioral seizures) in 2/6 rats at 10 min and 0/6 rats at 30 min (ED50: 10 min, 30 mg kg?1; 30 min, not determined). Perampanel 8 mg kg?1 terminated seizures in 6/6 rats at both 10 and 30 min (ED50: 10 min 1.7 mg kg?1; 30 min, 5.1 mg kg?1). GYKI52466 50 mg kg?1 terminated seizures in 2/4 rats at 30 min. Co-administration of diazepam 5 mg kg?1 and perampanel 1 mg kg?1 terminated seizures in 9/9 rats at 30 min. In conclusion, perampanel and GYKI52466 provided efficacy in a lithium-pilocarpine SE model at 30 min after seizure onset, when SE was refractory to diazepam, supporting the therapeutic potential of AMPA receptor antagonists for refractory SE. The perampanel dose required to terminate seizures was reduced by combination with diazepam, suggesting synergy. PMID:25505607

Hanada, Takahisa; Ido, Katsutoshi; Kosasa, Takashi

2014-01-01

152

Effect of perampanel, a novel AMPA antagonist, on benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model.  

PubMed

This study assessed the efficacy of diazepam, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists perampanel and GYKI52466 in a lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) model. SE was induced in rats using lithium chloride, scopolamine methyl bromide, and pilocarpine. Diazepam 10, 20, or 40 mg kg(-1), or perampanel 1, 2.5, 5, or 8 mg kg(-1) were administered intravenously at 10 or 30 min after seizure onset, and GYKI52466 50 mg kg(-1), or combinations of diazepam 2.5-5 mg kg(-1) and perampanel 0.5-1 mg kg(-1), were administered intravenously at 30 min after seizure onset. Diazepam 20 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures (based on electroencephalography and assessment of behavioral seizures) in 2/6 rats at 10 min and 0/6 rats at 30 min (ED50: 10 min, 30 mg kg(-1); 30 min, not determined). Perampanel 8 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures in 6/6 rats at both 10 and 30 min (ED50: 10 min 1.7 mg kg(-1); 30 min, 5.1 mg kg(-1)). GYKI52466 50 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures in 2/4 rats at 30 min. Co-administration of diazepam 5 mg kg(-1) and perampanel 1 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures in 9/9 rats at 30 min. In conclusion, perampanel and GYKI52466 provided efficacy in a lithium-pilocarpine SE model at 30 min after seizure onset, when SE was refractory to diazepam, supporting the therapeutic potential of AMPA receptor antagonists for refractory SE. The perampanel dose required to terminate seizures was reduced by combination with diazepam, suggesting synergy. PMID:25505607

Hanada, Takahisa; Ido, Katsutoshi; Kosasa, Takashi

2014-10-01

153

Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2's catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity. PMID:25436236

How, Kah Yan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

154

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment  

SciTech Connect

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

2013-01-01

155

A new era of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: comparing a new generation of oral anticoagulants with warfarin  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but data from large, multinational, prospective, randomized studies suggest that novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be suitable alternatives. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. These data showed that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was more effective at preventing stroke than warfarin, with similar rates of major bleeding, while rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily was noninferior to warfarin, with no difference in major bleeding rates. In addition, apixaban 5 mg twice daily was shown to be superior to warfarin for preventing stroke, with lower bleeding rates. Currently, edoxaban is still in clinical trials. NOACs offer more predictable anticoagulant effects than warfarin and do not require regular monitoring; however, different NOACs are associated with varied drug interactions and limitations related to use in certain patient populations. Overall, the clinical data suggest that these novel agents will offer new options for stroke prevention in patients with AF. PMID:24171796

2013-01-01

156

Oral English development and its impact on emergent reading achievement: a comparative study of transitional bilingual and structured english immersion models  

E-print Network

) and control/experimental structured English immersion (SEI). The purpose of my study was (a) to capture the growth trajectory and rate of oral English acquisition, (b) to investigate the role of oral English development in acquiring English reading skills...

Tong, Fuhui

2009-05-15

157

Loss of keratin 13 in oral carcinoma in situ: a comparative study of protein and gene expression levels using paraffin sections.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical loss of keratin (K)13 is one of the most valuable diagnostic criteria for discriminating carcinoma in situ (CIS) from non-malignancies in the oral mucosa while K13 is stably immunolocalized in the prickle cells of normal oral epithelium. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for the loss of K13, we compared the immunohistochemical profiles for K13 and K16 which is not expressed in normal epithelia, but instead enhanced in CIS, with their mRNA levels by in-situ hybridization in formalin-fixed paraffin sections prepared from 23 CIS cases of the tongue, which were surgically removed. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was also performed using RNA samples extracted from laser-microdissected epithelial fragments of the serial paraffin sections in seven of the cases. Although more enhanced expression levels for K16 were confirmed at both the protein and gene levels in CIS in these seven cases, the loss of K13 was associated with repressed mRNA levels in four cases, but not in the other three cases. The results suggest that the loss of K13 is partly due to its gene repression, but may also be due to some unknown post-translational events. PMID:22301701

Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Maruyama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Yamazaki, Manabu; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

2012-06-01

158

Analysis of the outcome of concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with S-1 compared to super-selective intra-arterial infusion for oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

We introduced concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, as treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from October 2005. The clinical usefulness and medical safety of CCRT with S-1 (S-1 group) for OSCC were analyzed and compared with CCRT using super-selective intra-arterial infusion (AI group). The subjects in the S-1 group underwent external irradiation, at a total dose of 30 Gy, with S-1 chemotherapy. The AI group received cisplatin (CDDP) or carboplatin (CBDCA) combined with daily radiotherapy at a total dose of 40 Gy. The histological effects and disease-specific survival rates were almost equivalent in the S-1 and AI groups. Adverse events were less frequent in the S-1 group, while hematological toxicity, including anemia, thrombopenia and pharyngeal edema, was observed in the AI group. The results of this study indicate that CCRT combined with S-1 is a more effective and safer treatment for OSCC than AI. PMID:22783379

MIYAWAKI, AKIHIKO; HIJIOKA, HIROSHI; IKEDA, RYUJI; ISHIDA, TAKAYUKI; NOZOE, ETSURO; NAKAMURA, NORIFUMI

2012-01-01

159

A comparative study between Gd-DTPA and oral magnetic particles (OMP) as gastrointestinal (GI) contrast agents for MRI of the abdomen.  

PubMed

In the present study we compared two gastrointestinal contrast agents--Gd-DTPA, a positive signal, and oral magnetic particles (OMP), a negative signal contrast agent--in patients who were referred for MR imaging of the abdomen. Altogether 60 patients were examined with the former and 28 patients with the latter contrast before and after the administration of contrast media. Gd-DTPA was given either per os or per rectum. In comparing the results, it was shown that the diagnostic accuracy of postcontrast MRI in both groups was more or less similar to CT but much higher as compared with plain MRI. In the OMP series, first the contrast between the GI-filled lumen and the surrounding fat was much superior to that of the Gd-DTPA and, second, there was no evidence of any artifacts from bowel motion. However, the overall accuracy of the Gd-DTPA group was better compared with that of the OMP group. This was due to underfilling of the distal bowel because the OMP in those patients was administered only per os. Finally, Gd-DTPA had a more pleasant taste and fewer side effects. It is concluded that both contrast media are suitable for the upper abdomen because the results are comparable, whereas for the lower abdomen Gd-DTPA is superior because it can be used from both routes. PMID:7934658

Vlahos, L; Gouliamos, A; Athanasopoulou, A; Kotoulas, G; Claus, W; Hatziioannou, A; Kalovidouris, A; Papavasiliou, C

1994-01-01

160

Cost-effectiveness of oral ibandronate compared with intravenous (i.v.) zoledronic acid or i.v. generic pamidronate in breast cancer patients with metastatic bone disease undergoing i.v. chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ibandronate is the first third-generation bisphos- phonate to have both oral and intra- venous (i.v.) efficacy. An incremental cost-effectiveness model compared oral ibandronate with i.v. zoledronic acid and i.v. generic pamidronate in female breast cancer patients with metastatic bone disease, undergoing i.v. chemotherapy. Methods: A global economic model was adapted to the UK National Health Service (NHS), with primary

E. Cock; J. Hutton; P. Canney; J. J. Body; P. Barrett-Lee; M. P. Neary; G. Lewis

2005-01-01

161

Long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate versus oral paliperidone extended release: a comparative analysis from two placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. Methods This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46–4.35; p < 0.001]. Similarly, risk of relapse after withdrawal of paliperidone ER treatment (placebo group of the paliperidone ER study) was higher than after withdrawal of PP (paliperidone ER placebo/PP placebo HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.59–3.18; p < 0.001). Stabilised schizophrenic subjects treated with PP maintained functioning demonstrated by the same proportions of subjects with mild to no difficulties in functioning at DB baseline and end point [Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale total score >70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar. Conclusions This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23845018

2013-01-01

162

Expression of Bcl-2 and MIB-1 Markers in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)- A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Neoplasia results from various genetic and epigenetic factors. Our study focused on the pathogenesis which involved an imbalance in various molecular mechanisms which regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic mechanism is regulated by Bcl-2 gene, while Ki-67 is expressed exclusively in nuclei of proliferating cells. This study was done to evaluate the basic pathologic process which underlay well and poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods: Thirty cases of oscc were selected, out of which 11 were well differentiated, 9 were moderately differentiated and 10 were poorly differentiated. Three slides of 4?m thickness were prepared out of each sample, which were then subjected to Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E) staining and two types of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Immunohistochmical markers used were Ki-67 (proliferative marker using MIB-1 (Molecular Immunology Borstel 1) antibody) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic marker). The number of MIB-1 and Bcl-2 positive cells was calculated from ten different high power fields, by counting the number of positive cells per 50 cells in each field, by making a grid pattern. The overall percentage value for each case was evaluated for MIB-1 and Bcl-2 positive cells. Karl-Pearson’s co-relation coefficient was calculated between MIB-1 and Bcl-2 in each group. The aim of this study was to co-relate the expression of Ki-67, a proliferative marker, by using MIB-1 antibody and Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic marker in various grades of oscc and also to determine whether there was any co-relation between these two markers in the 30 cases of oscc . Results: A statistically significant increase for MIB-1 and a statistically significant decrease for Bcl-2 was found in well to moderately to poorly differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A statistically significant co-relation was also found between MIB-1 and Bcl-2 in poorly differentiated oscc . Conclusion: MIB-1 expression is predominant in well, moderate and poorly differentiated SCCs. Bcl-2 expression is predominant in well differentiated than in moderately and poorly differentiated oscc , which suggested that apoptosis probably played a major role in the early stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:25177617

Garewal, Ripin; Sircar, Keya

2014-01-01

163

Efficacy and tolerance of rifampicin-linezolid compared with rifampicin-cotrimoxazole combinations in prolonged oral therapy for bone and joint infections.  

PubMed

Both linezolid and cotrimoxazole are antibiotics that are well suited for oral therapy of bone and joint infections (BJI) caused by otherwise resistant Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (resistance to fluoroquinolones, maccolides, betalactamines). However, in this context, no data are currently available regarding the safety and tolerance of these antibiotics in combination with rifampicin. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a combination of rifampicin and linezolid (RLC) with those of a combination of rifampicin and cotrimoxazole (RCC) in the treatment of BJI. Between February 2002 and December 2006, 56 adult patients (RLC, n = 28; RCC, n = 28), including 36 with infected orthopaedic devices (RLC, n = 18; RCC, n = 18) and 20 with chronic osteomyelitis (RLC, n = 10; RCC, n = 10), were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. Patients who discontinued antibiotic therapy within 4 weeks of commencing treatment were considered to represent cases of treatment failure and were excluded. Rates of occurrence of adverse effects were similar in the two groups, at 42.9% in the RLC group and 46.4% in the RCC group (p = 1.00), and led to treatment discontinuation in four (14.3%) RLC and six (21.4%) RCC patients. Cure rates were found to be similar in the two groups (RLC, 89.3%, RCC, 78.6%; p = 0.47). Prolonged oral RLC and RCC therapy were found to be equally effective in treating patients with BJI caused by resistant GPC, including patients with infected orthopaedic devices. However, the lower cost of cotrimoxazole compared with linezolid renders RCC an attractive treatment alternative to RLC. Further larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:19438638

Nguyen, S; Pasquet, A; Legout, L; Beltrand, E; Dubreuil, L; Migaud, H; Yazdanpanah, Y; Senneville, E

2009-12-01

164

A comparative study of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus: a randomized clinical controlled trial.  

PubMed

Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as a new treatment option that is free from side effects for erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus (OLP). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (TB-PDT) with local corticosteroids on treatment of erosive-atrophic OLP. In this randomized clinical trial, 25 patients with keratotic-atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus were allocated randomly into two groups. Group 1 (experimental): topical application of toluidine blue with micropipette was applied, and after 10 min, the patients were treated with a 630-nm GaAlAs laser (power density: 10 mW/cm(2)) during two visits. Group 2 (control) used mouthwash diluted with dexamethasone (tab 0/5 in 5 ml water) for 5 min, and then, it was spat out, and after 30 min, the mouth was rinsed with 30 drops of nystatin 100,000 units for 5 min and again spat out. Demographic data, type, and severity of the lesions and pain were recorded before and after treatment and then at the 1-month follow-up visit. Response rate was defined based on changes in intensity of the lesions and pain. In the experimental and control groups, sign scores of changes significantly reduced after treatment respectively (p?=?0.021) and (p?=?0.002), but between the two groups, no significant difference was observed (p?=?0.72). In the experimental (p?=?0.005) and control groups (p?=?0.001), the intensity of lesions significantly reduced after treatment and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p?=?0.001). The mean amount of improvement in pain was significantly greater in the control group compared with the experimental group (p?

Jajarm, Hasan Hoseinpour; Falaki, Farnaz; Sanatkhani, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Meysam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Shafaee, Hooman

2014-12-01

165

Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia  

SciTech Connect

Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (?g Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ? 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ? 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ? Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ? Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ? Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ? Species-specific and divergent changes are consistent with species-specific tumors.

Kopec, Anna K. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX 77494 (United States)] [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2012-07-15

166

Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

2014-09-01

167

Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat  

PubMed Central

Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden. PMID:25419137

Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-jun

2014-01-01

168

Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail. PMID:23674915

Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

2011-01-01

169

A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed. PMID:23086987

Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia

2013-09-01

170

Comparative Effects of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Cholinesterase Activity and Muscarinic Receptor Binding in Neonatal and Adult Rat Heart  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M2 muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M2 receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor–mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M2 receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac ChE activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1 × LD10: neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1 × LD10, relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (? 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC50 values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that differential A-esterase activity was not responsible for the age-related difference in cholinesterase sensitivity between age groups. Pre-incubation of neonatal and adult tissues with selective inhibitors of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) indicated that a majority (82–90%) of ChE activity in the heart of both neonates and adults was BChE. The rapid onset (by 4 hours after dosing) of changes in muscarinic receptor binding in adult heart may be a reflection of the more potent direct binding to muscarinic receptors by chlorpyrifos oxon previously reported in adult tissues. The results suggest that ChE activity (primarily BChE) in neonatal heart may be inherently more sensitive to inhibition by some anticholinesterases and that toxicologically significant binding to muscarinic receptors may be possible with acute chlorpyrifos intoxication, potentially contributing to age-related differences in sensitivity. PMID:17644233

Howard, Marcia D.; Mirajkar, Nikita; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey N.

2010-01-01

171

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

172

Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

2010-01-01

173

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and ... Options? Is There a Danger of Interactions? How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? We Can Help (Long) - we-can-help-long. ...

174

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Berberine, Palmatine and Jatrorrhizine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine in rat plasma. Target compounds, together with the internal standard (metronidazole), were extracted from rat plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (1:2, v/v). Chromatography was carried out using a C18 column (150 × 4.6mm, 5?m) under isocratic elution with water (containing 0.3% formic acid)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in positive ionization mode. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/mL for all components. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 14.7% and the deviations were within ± 9.0%. The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were significantly different between different groups. PMID:24250523

Yan, Rui; Wang, Yin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

2012-01-01

175

Anticonvulsant effects of acute treatment with cyane-carvone at repeated oral doses in epilepsy models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy affects about 40 million people worldwide. Many drugs block seizures, but have little effect in preventing or curing this disease. So the search for new drugs for epilepsy treatment using animal models prior to testing in humans is important. Increasingly pharmaceutical industries invest in the Re?search & Drug Development area to seek safe and effective new therapeutic alternatives to the currently available epilepsy treatment. In this perspective, natural compounds have been investigated in epilepsy models, particularly the monoterpenes obtained from medicinal plants. In our study we investigated the effects of cyane-carvone (CC), a synthetic substance prepared from natural a monoterpene, carvone, against pilocarpine- (PILO), pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ) and picrotoxine (PTX)-induced seizures in mice after acute treatment with repeated oral doses (CC 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) for 14 days. CC in all doses tested showed increase in latency to first seizure, decrease in percentages of seizuring animals as well as reduction percentages of dead animals (p<0.05) in PILO, PTZ and PTX groups when compared with vehicle. However, these effects were not reversed by flumazenil, benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist used to investigate the CC action mechanism. Our results suggest that acute treatment with CC at the doses tested can exert anticonvulsant effects in PILO, PTZ and PTX epilepsy models. In addition, our data suggest that CC could act in an allosteric site of GABAA, which would be different from the site in which BDZ acts, since flumazenil was not able to reverse any of CC effects on the modulation of seizure parameters related with epilepsy models investigated. New studies should be conducted to investigate CC effects in other neurotransmitter systems. Nevertheless, our study reinforces the hypothesis that CC could be used, after further research, as a new pharmaceutical formulation and a promising alternative for epilepsy treatment, since it showed anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24967871

Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Marques, Maria Leonildes Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damiăo Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

2014-09-01

176

Perceived Oral Health in a Diverse Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of perceived oral health represent subjective, individual perspectives of one's health. One measure commonly used is the single-item perceived oral health rating: How would you rate your overall oral health? These analyses examine the associations among age, ethnicity, and perceived oral health within the context of a comprehensive battery of 21 predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The study compares

K. A. Atchison; H. C. Gift

1997-01-01

177

Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

Songhui, Zheng

2008-01-01

178

Lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in immature rats result in long-term deficits in spatial learning and hippocampal cell loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat pups age of 14 postnatal day (P14) were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PC) model of status epilepticus (SE). Control rats (n=6) were given an equivalent volume of saline intraperitoneally. Behavioral testing began on P60 including the Morris water maze, the radial arm maze, and the rotarod test. Brain were then analyzed with cresyl violet stain for histological lesions and evaluated

Chia-Lu Wu; Li-Tung Huang; Chia-Wei Liou; Tzu-Jou Wang; Yu-Ren Tung; Hsin-Yueh Hsu; Ming-Chi Lai

2001-01-01

179

Characterization, Localization and Patterning of Lymphatics and Blood Vessels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Using D2-40 and CD-34 IHC Marker  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Lymphatic metastasis has always been regarded as a major prognostic indicator for disease progression and as a guide for therapeutic strategies to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Differentiating lymphatic vessels from blood vessels is difficult, partly due to lack of specific method for identifying lymphatics. A new lymphatic vessel reactive antibody D2-40 has been introduced recently. Here we examined immunohistochemical localization of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels using D2-40 and CD-34 respectively in different histological grades of OSCC. Their expression in intra-tumoural and peri-tumoural region was also compared. Materials and Methods: Forty two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of excised specimens of OSCC were immunohistochemically evaluated using D2-40 and CD-34 antibodies. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) (D2-40 positivity) and micro vessel density (MVD) (CD34 positivity) in both intratumoural and peritumoural areas were assessed by hot spot method. Results: Regardless of histopathological differentiation, LVD–– and MVD in peritumoural areas were found greater than intratumoural areas (p>0.05). Interestingly, other than lymphatic vessels, D2-40 positivity was also detected in tumour cells as well as in basal layer of epithelium adjacent to OSCC. Two patterns of distribution of CD34 positive vessel - circumscribing type and penetrating type were also observed in the cancer nest area. Conclusion: D2-40 can be used as a marker to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. Lymphatic and blood vessel proliferation might be much more extensive in the peritumoural area. D2-40 expression in epithelium adjacent to tumour indicates its role in the process of differentiation. Further, its expression in potential malignant disorder may provide better insight in predicting prognosis and pathogenesis of these lesions. PMID:25478456

Agarwal, Deshant; Bajpai, Manas; Gupta, Shailendra; Mathur, Nikunj; Vanaki, S S; Puranik, R S; Mittal, Manoj

2014-01-01

180

A randomized clinical trial comparing doses and efficacy of lormetazepam tablets or oral solution for insomnia in a general practice setting.  

PubMed

Lormetazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotic which is beneficial in shortening the time to onset of sleep. The aim of the study was to assess a new formulation of lormetazepam (oral solution) in comparison with lormetazepam tablets in out-patients with insomnia. This trial was an open randomized parallel group study conducted by 30 general practitioners. One hundred and eight patients took 0.5 mg on the first night and were allowed to increase their dosage by 0.25 mg (for oral solution) and 0.5 mg (for tablets), respectively, each day and every 2 days. The patients assessed the efficacy, acceptability and tolerance of lormetazepam using a diary card and a set of visual analogue scales assessing their sleep. Over 14 days of treatment, the mean daily dose of lormetazepam was lower in the oral solution group than in the tablets group (0.78 mg versus 0.97 mg). The cumulated dose of lormetazepam was lower with the oral solution (18% reduction). No significant difference between the two groups was found in the assessment of sleep characteristics. The occurrence of side effects did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that a unitary dose as achieved by an oral solution of lormetazepam allows easier determination of the minimal individual effective dose. PMID:14994324

Ancolio, C; Tardieu, S; Soubrouillard, C; Alquier, C; Pradel, V; Micallef, J; Blin, O

2004-03-01

181

[Comparative epidemiological study in patients with rheumatic diseases illustrated in a example of a treatment with non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs versus an oral enzyme combination preparation].  

PubMed

To establish the safety and efficacy of an oral enzyme-combination product (OE; Phlogenzym, containing trypsin, bromelain and rutin) in the treatment of rheumatic diseases a retrolective cohort study with parallel groups was undertaken as an epidemiological study, in which the enzyme combination was compared with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Data of 3326 patients treated for rheumatic diseases between January 1993 and the end of March 1995 were registered by 380 physicians. From the patient file age, gender, indication for treatment (diagnostic group), anamnestic data (especially pre-treatment), complaints at the beginning and end of treatment, treatment duration, prescribed drugs (OE, NSAID), additional treatment and adverse events were transferred into case report forms (CRFs). The quality of the data was monitored and additionally checked by internal and external quality audits. Included in the efficacy analysis were 2139 patients which were treated either only with OE or only with NSAID and could be classified unambiguously into one of the following diagnostic groups: joint diseases, spinal diseases, rheumatic soft tissue diseases. As clinically relevant and reliably evaluable criterion freedom from rheumatic complaints at the end of treatment was considered. For evaluation of safety the documented adverse events of all patients were considered. Two thirds of the OE patients received the recommended dose of 6 tablets/day, taken for 23 to 35 days. The respective mean values for NSAID patients were 16 to 25 days, and the patients were treated with the recommended symptomatically effective doses of NSAID. As the allocation of the compared treatment options (OE or NSAID) to the patients was not randomized, a mixing of treatment effects with other factors cannot be excluded. For adjustment of these confounding factors two methods were applied: a) logistic regression of the relative ratio of the main criterion and all confounding factors and b) stratification of data according to the propensity score i.e. the probability of a treatment with OE. Both methods yielded similar results: A 50% higher success rate can be expected in total for OE than for NSAID at comparable initial and treatment situations (95% confidence interval with logistic regression = 1.218-1.96, with stratification according to propensity score = 1.16-1.84). As significant negative indicators for response age over 50 years, pre-treatment with antirheumatic or analgetic drugs, treatment duration more than 30 days and joint diseases or fibromyalgias could be revealed. Since there was no interaction between these indicators and the type of treatment also in patients presenting with these indicators a treatment success (freedom from symptoms) with OE can be expected with a higher probability than with NSAID. OE were well tolerated showing much less adverse events when compared with conventional doses of NSAID. PMID:10994157

Wittenborg, A; Bock, P R; Hanisch, J; Saller, R; Schneider, B

2000-08-01

182

A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner

2004-01-01

183

Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method  

PubMed Central

Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–? (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

2014-01-01

184

Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC0-? (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic "herb pair" has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

Ge, Zhaohui; Xie, Yuanyuan; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

2014-01-01

185

Randomised, phase II trial comparing oral capecitabine (Xeloda®) with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic\\/advanced breast cancer pretreated with anthracyclines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capecitabine, an oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate, was designed to generate 5-fluorouracil preferentially at the tumour site. This randomised, phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine or paclitaxel in patients with anthracycline-pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Outpatients with locally advanced and\\/or metastatic breast cancer whose disease was unresponsive or resistant to anthracycline therapy were randomised to 3-week cycles of intermittent

D C Talbot; V Moiseyenko; S Van Belle; S M O'Reilly; E Alba Conejo; S Ackland; P Eisenberg; D Melnychuk; T Pienkowski; H-U Burger; S Laws; B Osterwalder

2002-01-01

186

A comparative study of the potential of solid triglyceride nanostructures coated with chitosan or poly(ethylene glycol) as carriers for oral calcitonin delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported the formation and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated and chitosan (CS)-coated lipid nanoparticles. In the present work our goal was to study the interaction of these surface-modified lipid nanoparticles with Caco-2 cells and to evaluate the potential of these nanostructures as oral delivery systems for salmon calcitonin (sCT).The interaction of rhodamine®-loaded nanoparticles with the Caco-2 cell

M. Garcia-Fuentes; C. Prego; D. Torres; M. J. Alonso

2005-01-01

187

A randomized trial to compare pain control using oral analgesia with epidural analgesia after cesarean section following combined spinal-epidural anesthesia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate whether combined oral oxycodone hydrochloride-controlled release tablets plus paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride tablets are more effective than epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control and side effects after cesarean section. We randomly enrolled 60 patients scheduled for cesarean section into either: patient-controlled epidural analgesia with 0.1% ropivacaine+0.1 ?g/mL sufentanil (for postoperative 48 h)+injected pethidine on demand (E group); or controlled-release oxycodone (2x15 mg for the first postoperative 24 h; 2x10 mg for the second postoperative 24 h)+paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride tablets (8x1 tablet for the postoperative 48 h) orally+injected pethidine on demand (O group). The E group experienced more evoked pain and uterine cramping pain at all times postoperatively. The patients who received oral analgesia had less resting pain at 6, 12, 24, and 36 h after surgery. Two patients in the E group injected pethidine (150 mg total) during the oxytocin infusion, whereas none of the O group patients injected pethidine. Pruritus was more common in the E group (P<0.05). Maternal satisfaction with the analgesia regimen was lower in the E group (P<0.01). The median duration of hospital stay was about 5 days for both groups. Postoperative pain control after cesarean section with oral oxycodone hydrochloride-controlled release tablets plus paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride tablets is preferable to epidural analgesia, even when side effects and maternal satisfaction are taken into account. PMID:24682986

Zhong, T D; Liu, Q; Zhao, J N; Wang, H W; Konstantatos, A

2014-01-01

188

A randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous ferric carboxymaltose with oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency anaemia of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Iron deficiency is a common cause of anaemia and hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. Current intravenous iron agents cannot be administered in a single high dose because of adverse effects. Ferric carboxymaltose, a non-dextran parenteral iron preparation, can be rapidly administered in high doses. Methods. This open-label trial randomized 255 subjects with glomerular filtration rates ??45 mL/min/1.73 m2, haemoglobin ??11 g/dL, transferrin saturation ??25%, ferritin ??300 ng/mL, and stable ESA dose to either intravenous ferric carboxymaltose 1000 mg over 15 min (with up to two additional doses of 500 mg at 2-week intervals) or oral ferrous sulphate 325 mg thrice daily for a total of 195 mg elemental iron daily for 56 days. Results. In the modified intent-to-treat population, the proportion of subjects achieving a haemoglobin increase ??1 g/dL at any time was 60.4% with ferric carboxymaltose and 34.7% with oral iron (P < 0.001). At Day 42, mean increase in haemoglobin was 0.95 ± 1.12 vs 0.50 ± 1.23 g/dL (P = 0.005), mean increase in ferritin was 432 ± 189 ng/mL vs 18 ± 45 ng/mL (P < 0.001) and mean increase in transferrin saturation was 13.6 ± 11.9% vs 6.1 ± 8.1% (P < 0.001). Treatment-related adverse events were significantly fewer with ferric carboxymaltose than with oral iron (2.7% and 26.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions. We conclude that 1000 mg ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered, is more effective and is better tolerated than oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency in ND-CKD patients. PMID:20929915

Qunibi, Wajeh Y.; Martinez, Carlos; Smith, Mark; Benjamin, Joseph; Mangione, Antoinette; Roger, Simon D.

2011-01-01

189

Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

2013-01-01

190

Oral pathology.  

PubMed

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

191

Comparative pharmacokinetics study of three anthraquinones in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract and Dahuang Fuzi Tang by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A specific and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of three anthraquinones of rhein, aloe-emodin and emodin in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract and Dahuang Fuzi Tang. The analytes were separated on a Kromaisl(®) C(18) column within a total running time of 12min with a mobile phase of methanol:ammonium acetate (3mM) (75:25, v/v). The calibration curves for all the anthraquinones showed good linearity in the measured range with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.9978. The precision, accuracy, recovery and stability were deemed acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetics study of the anthraquinones in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract and Dahuang Fuzi Tang. PMID:23348609

Li, Huan; Guo, Hui; Wu, Li; Zhang, Yongxin; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiao; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Kewei; Cai, Baochang

2013-03-25

192

The Structure of the Trabecular Meshwork, Its Connections to the Ciliary Muscle, and the Effect of Pilocarpine on Outflow Facility in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the connections between the ciliary muscle (CM), trabecular meshwork (TM), and Schlemm's canal (SC) and their innervations that allows CM contraction (by pilocarpine) to influence conventional outflow in mice. Methods. Sequential sections and whole mounts of murine corneoscleral angles were stained for elastin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Elastic (EL) fibers between the CM, TM, and SC were examined in ultrathin, sequential sections from different planes. The effect of pilocarpine (100 ?M) on conventional outflow facility was measured by perfusion of enucleated mouse eyes. Results. The mouse TM contains a three-dimensional (3D) net of EL fibers connecting the inner wall of SC to the cornea anteriorly, the ciliary body (CB) internally and the choroid and CM posteriorly. The CM bifurcates near the posterior TM, extending outer tendons to the juxtacanalicular tissue and inner wall of SC and internal connections to the lamellated TM and CB. Ciliary muscle and lamellated TM cells stain with ?SMA and are innervated by VAChT-containing nerve fibers, without TH, VIP, or nNOS. Pilocarpine doubled outflow facility. Conclusions. Mouse eyes resemble primate eyes not only by their well developed SC and TM, but also by their 3D EL net tethering together the TM and SC inner wall and by the tendinous insertion of the CM into this net. The increase in outflow facility following cholinergic stimulation in mice, as in primates, supports using mice for studies of aqueous humor dynamics and glaucoma. PMID:24833737

Overby, Darryl R.; Bertrand, Jacques; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Stamer, W. Daniel; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke

2014-01-01

193

Description and computational modeling of the whole course of status epilepticus induced by low dose lithium-pilocarpine in rats.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study were (1) to describe the whole course of status epilepticus induced by a low dose lithium-pilocarpine model in rats, including depth-EEG from the hippocampus, ECoG from cortex and gross behaviors, and (2) to investigate the possible changes of the intrinsic neural network in the hippocampus during the status epilepticus by model simulation. The course of the induced status epilepticus was divided into baseline, pre-ictal, episodic, onset, continuous, and convalescence stages. At the pre-ictal stage, the main component of the spectrum of the depth-EEG shifted before seizure activity first appeared in the hippocampus at the episodic stage and propagated to the cortex at the onset stage. Model simulation indicated that the changes of depth-EEG of the whole course could be simulated by changes of the loop gains and the inputs of the neural network. The excitatory and inhibitory loops were first enhanced in the pre-ictal stage. The isolated seizures in the episodic stage were caused by variations of inputs from other pyramidal cells. The gain of slow inhibitory loop gradually decreased, leading to the onset of status epilepticus. Different types of waveforms in the status epilepticus corresponded to the different ratio of excitatory and inhibitory influence, caused by different levels of inhibition. Finally, in the convalescence stage, the gains of the excitatory loop and the inhibitory loop both changed toward the base line, recovering the balance. The changes of the parameters in the model were compatible with the experimental results in the literature. PMID:21911214

Chiang, Chia-Chu; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

2011-10-12

194

Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus”) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study  

PubMed Central

Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus”) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive oral mucosa, e.g., in cases of aggressive cancer therapy or for patients with tracheostoma. PMID:24653972

Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

2014-01-01

195

Immune Responses to the O-Specific Polysaccharide Antigen in Children Who Received a Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine Compared to Responses following Natural Cholera Infection in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower levels of protective efficacy and shorter durations of protection in young children than in adults. Immunity against cholera is serogroup specific, and immune responses to Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the antigen that mediates serogroup-specific responses, are associated with protection against disease. Despite this, responses against V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), a key component of the LPS responsible for specificity, have not been characterized in children. Here, we report a comparison of polysaccharide antibody responses in children from a region in Bangladesh where cholera is endemic, including infants (6 to 23 months, n = 15), young children (24 to 59 months, n = 14), and older children (5 to 15 years, n = 23) who received two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine 14 days apart. We found that infants and young children receiving the vaccine did not mount an IgG, IgA, or IgM antibody response to V. cholerae OSP or LPS, whereas older children showed significant responses. In comparison to the vaccinees, young children with wild-type V. cholerae O1 Ogawa infection did mount significant antibody responses against OSP and LPS. We also demonstrated that OSP responses correlated with age in vaccinees, but not in cholera patients, reflecting the ability of even young children with wild-type cholera to develop OSP responses. These differences might contribute to the lower efficacy of protection rendered by vaccination than by wild-type disease in young children and suggest that efforts to improve lipopolysaccharide-specific responses might be critical for achieving optimal cholera vaccine efficacy in this younger age group. PMID:23515016

Uddin, Taher; Xu, Peng; Aktar, Amena; Johnson, Russell A.; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Bufano, Meagan Kelly; Eckhoff, Grace; Wu-Freeman, Ying; Yu, Yanan; Sultana, Tania; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraf I.; Charles, Richelle C.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ková?, Pavol; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.

2013-01-01

196

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

197

Ampicillin Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

198

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size of the ... or push food back toward the throat during swallowing. A growth on the roof of the mouth ( ...

199

A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL?1 at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL?1 vs. 2.4 g dL?1) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. Am. J. Hematol. 89:646–650, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639149

Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

2014-01-01

200

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

201

Muscarinic inhibition of [3H]-noradrenaline release on rabbit iris in vitro: effects of stimulation conditions on intrinsic activity of methacholine and pilocarpine.  

PubMed

1. Rabbit isolated irides were loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline and superfused with Tyrode solution. The inhibition by the muscarinic agonists (+/-)-methacholine and pilocarpine of the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow into the superfusate evoked by field stimulation (pulses of 1 ms duration, 75 mA) was measured as an index of activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors. 2. The fractional rate of release per pulse during the first stimulation period (S1) was low with 360 pulses at 3 Hz, intermediate with 360 pulses at 10 Hz and high with 1200 pulses at 10 Hz. Upon repetitive stimulation (7 periods at 20 min intervals), the fractional rates of release per pulse during S7 no longer differed, suggesting a 'long-term' regulation of [3H]-noradrenaline release depending on the stimulation conditions. 3. The evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow was depressed by (+/-)-methacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 ranged from 0.29 to 0.42 microM. Methacholine nearly abolished the transmitter release evoked at 3 Hz but reduced that induced at 10 Hz by only 50%. Under the latter condition the methacholine concentration-inhibition curve was bell-shaped and no muscarinic inhibition was observed in the presence of methacholine 30 microM. After washout of methacholine the evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release was temporarily enhanced. 4. Atropine 0.1 microM enhanced the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow (evoked by stimulation with 360 or 1200 pulses at 10 Hz), probably antagonizing a presynaptic inhibition by endogenous acetylcholine. The inhibition by methacholine was competitively antagonized by atropine 0.1 microM (apparent -log KB = 8.5-9.0). 5. Depending on the concentration, pilocarpine reduced the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow evoked by 360 pulses at 3 Hz up to 63%. However, at 10 Hz stimulation frequency the compound was inactive as an agonist but competitively antagonized the presynaptic inhibition induced by methacholine. The KB under the latter condition (0.95 microM) was very close to the EC50 value determined at 3 Hz (0.85 microM). 6. The results demonstrate a muscarinic inhibition of noradrenaline release from the rabbit isolated iris. The activation by pilocarpine of the presynaptic receptors provides an alternative explanation for the miosis induced in the rabbit in vivo, which might be the result of a decreased sympathetic tone in the iris dilator muscle. PMID:3052680

Bognar, I T; Pallas, S; Fuder, H; Muscholl, E

1988-07-01

202

A Comparison of Oral Structure and Oral-Motor Function in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the oral structure and oral-motor skills of 59 boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), 34 boys with Down syndrome (DS), and 36 developmentally similar typically developing (TD) boys. An adaptation of the J. Robbins and T. Klee (1987) Oral Speech Motor Protocol was administered to participants and their scores on measures of oral

Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Roberts, Joanne; Mirrett, Penny; Sideris, John; Misenheimer, Jan

2006-01-01

203

Oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: comparative pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions.  

PubMed

The development of orally active small molecule inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has led to new treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with activating mutations of the EGFR gene show sensitivity to, and clinical benefit from, treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKls). First generation reversible ATP-competitive EGFR-TKls, gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first, second-line or maintenance therapy. Despite initial benefit, most patients develop resistance within a year, 50-60% of cases being related to the appearance of a T790M gatekeeper mutation. Newer, irreversible EGFR-TKls - afatinib and dacomitinib - covalently bind to and inhibit multiple receptors in the ErbB family (EGFR, HER2 and HER4). These agents have been mainly evaluated for first-line treatment but also in the setting of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKls. Afatinib is the first ErbB family blocker approved for patients with NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations; dacomitinib is in late stage clinical development. Mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors (AZD9291, CO-1686, HM61713) that specifically target the T790M resistance mutation are in early development. The EGFR-TKIs differ in their spectrum of target kinases, reversibility of binding to EGFR receptor, pharmacokinetics and potential for drug-drug interactions, as discussed in this review. For the clinician, these differences are relevant in the setting of polymedicated patients with NSCLC, as well as from the perspective of innovative anticancer drug combination strategies. PMID:25027951

Peters, Solange; Zimmermann, Stefan; Adjei, Alex A

2014-09-01

204

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

205

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral Thrush Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very ...

206

Comparative Genomics of Oral Isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico Genome Subtraction Does Not Reveal Accessory DNA Associated with Severe Early Childhood Caries  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5 to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 bp to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W.

2014-01-01

207

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of two boswellic acids in normal and arthritic rat plasma after oral administration of Boswellia serrata extract or Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by LC-MS.  

PubMed

Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a Chinese herbal formula composed of 11 different herbs, has been used traditionally for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetic profile of its anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds has not been elucidated. Boswellic acids are the bioactive compounds with potent anti-inflammatory activity isolated from Boswellia serrate which is one of the 11 herbs of HLXLD. The objective of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the two bioactive bowsellic acids: 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic following oral administration of HLXLD or Boswellia serrata extract alone in normal and arthritic rats. An LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic in the comparative pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between normal and arthritic groups. Interestingly, the absorptions of two boswellic acids were significantly higher in HLXLD than Boswellia serrata extract alone, indicating the synergistic effect of other herbal ingredients in HLXLD. This comparative pharmacokinetic study provided direct evidence supporting the notion that the efficacy of a complex mixture such as HLXLD is better than that of single components in treating human diseases. PMID:24806456

Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chenning; Wu, Yun; Ai, Yu; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

2014-10-01

208

Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Growth Parameters and Nutrient Adequacy in Children with Picky Eating Behaviors Who Received Nutritional Counseling With or Without an Oral Nutritional Supplement  

PubMed Central

In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30–60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ?25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120. PMID:25342910

Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang

2014-01-01

209

Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Benzydamine Mouthwashes on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Triple-blind, Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.  

PubMed

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system. Results: At baseline, there was no difference in the distribution of mucositis severity between the two groups. The mean interval between radiation therapy and onset of mucositis was similar for both groups (Aloe vera 15.69 ± 7.77 days, benzydamine 15.85 ± 12.96 days). The mean interval between the start of radiation therapy and the maximum severity of mucositis were was also similar in both the Aloe vera and benzydamine groups (Aloe vera 23.38 ± 10.75 days, benzydamine 23.54 ± 15.45 days). Mean changes of mucositis severity over time in both groups were statistically similar and the effect of both treatments did not change signficantly with time (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Aloe vera mouthwash was as beneficial as benzydamine mouthwash in alleviating the severity of radiationinduced mucositis and showed no side effects. The Aloe vera mouthwash could be an alternative agent in the treatment of radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:25431805

Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Mansourian, Arash; Mohammad, Mohammad Haji Mirza; Zadeh, Mohsen Taghi; Bekhradi, Reza; Kazemian, Ali; Manifar, Soheila; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Doroudgar, Kiavash

2014-11-27

210

Initiation with once-daily BIAsp 30 results in superior outcome compared to insulin glargine in Asians with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by oral anti-diabetic drugs.  

PubMed

We compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (BIAsp 30) and insulin glargine in Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs). In a 26-week, open-labelled, randomised, parallel-group, multinational, multicentre, treat-to-target trial, 155 insulin-naďve Asian subjects were treated with either BIAsp 30 or insulin glargine, both in combination with metformin and glimepiride. Change in HbA(1c) at end of treatment with BIAsp 30 was superior to insulin glargine (BIAsp 30-glargine=-0.36%, 95% CI [-0.64; -0.07], p=0.015). Mean self-measured plasma glucose (SMPG) at bedtime was significantly lower with BIAsp 30 than insulin glargine (7.98+/-0.34 mmol/L vs. 9.16+/-0.33 mmol/L, p=0.0078). Incidences of minor and daytime hypoglycaemia were higher with BIAsp 30 than those with glargine, but the difference did not reach the statistical significance. No difference was seen in nocturnal hypoglycaemia. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between treatments, with low incidence of serious adverse events and major hypoglycaemia. Mean body weight increased slightly in both groups. In insulin-naďve Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled with OADs, once-daily BIAsp 30 is superior to insulin glargine. PMID:20363044

Kalra, Sanjay; Plata-Que, Teresa; Kumar, Dileep; Mumtaz, Malik; Sřndergaard, Flemming; Kozlovski, Plamen; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan

2010-06-01

211

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

212

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-12-16

213

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

214

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

215

The Communication Model Perspective of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication models suggest that oral interpretation is a communicative process, that this process may be represented by specification of implicit and explicit content and structure, and that the models themselves are useful. This paper examines these assumptions through a comparative analysis of communication models employed by oral

Peterson, Eric E.

216

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

217

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

218

Pharmacokinetics of oral vitamin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose . To test whether plasma vitamin C levels, following oral doses in supplemented volunteers, are tightly controlled and subject to a maximum in the region of 220 mML 21 , as suggested by previous researchers for depleted subjects. To determine plasma levels following single, variable-sized doses of standard and liposomal formulations of vitamin C and compare the effects of

Stephen Hickey; HILARY J. ROBERTS; NICHOLAS J. MILLER

2008-01-01

219

Long-term decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is associated with nitration of its alpha subunit.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy with about one third of TLE patients being refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity is fundamental to the discovery of new drug targets. Brain Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity is associated with changes in the alpha subunit phosphorylation and/or redox state. Activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase decreased in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice 60 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In addition, the Michaelis-Menten constant for ATP of ?2/3 isoforms increased at the same time point. Nitration of the ? subunit may underlie decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, however no changes in expression or phosphorylation state at Ser(943) were found. Further studies are necessary define the potential of nitrated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a new therapeutic target for seizure disorders. PMID:25311690

Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Pereira, Letícia Meier; Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

2014-12-01

220

Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

Lai, Jui-Yang

2013-01-01

221

Cellular evaluation of oral chemotherapy carriers James Blanchette,1  

E-print Network

improve drug transport into the blood- stream. Efficacy studies using a tumor cell model showed retention Key words: oral administration; hydrogel; bleomycin; caco-2 cells; cancer INTRODUCTION Oral delivery compared to the con- ventional intravenous administration. Some of the agents that have been used in oral

Peppas, Nicholas A.

222

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

223

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

224

Enantioselective HPLC-DAD method for the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets, human plasma and application to comparative pharmacokinetic study of both enantiomers after a single oral dose to twelve healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

An enantioselective high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed and validated for the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets and human plasma. Enantiomeric separation was achieved on a Kromasil Cellucoat chiral column (250 mm × 4.6mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) using a mobile phase consisting of hexane: isopropanol: triflouroacetic acid (90:10:0.1 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The chromatographic system enables the separation of the two enantiomers and the internal standard within a cycle time of 8 min. The resolution between the two enantiomers was 4.25 and the resolution between each enantiomer and the internal standard was more than 2.0. Detection was carried out at 274 nm, and the purity assessment was performed using a photodiode array detector. Solid phase extraction technique using C-18 cartridge was applied to extract the analytes from the plasma samples, and the percentage recovery was more than 95% for the lower quantification limit. The method has been validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The linearity range for the determination of each enantiomer in human plasma was 0.4-30.0 µg mL(-1) and the limits of quantification of R-etodolac and S-etodolac were 0.20 and 0.19 µg mL(-1), respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of etodolac enantiomers in tablets and to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of the two enantiomers after the administration of 300 mg single oral dose etodolac racemate tablets to twelve healthy volunteers. PMID:25159440

Hewala, Ismail I; Moneeb, Marwa S; Elmongy, Hatem A; Wahbi, Abdel-Aziz M

2014-12-01

225

Efficacy of dosing and re-dosing of two oral fixed combinations of indomethacin, prochlorperazine and caffeine compared with oral sumatriptan in the acute treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study  

PubMed Central

Aims and methods: In this double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study, the efficacy of dosing and re-dosing of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine and caffeine (Indoprocaf) was compared with encapsulated sumatriptan in the acute treatment of two migraine attacks. Additionally, in the group taking Indoprocaf, two different oral formulations were tested: effervescent tablets and encapsulated coated tablets. Results: Of 297 patients randomised (150 assigned to Indoprocaf and 147 to sumatriptan), 281 were included in the intention-to-treat efficacy analysis. The initial dosing of Indoprocaf and sumatriptan was similarly effective with pain-free rates higher than 30% (95% CI of odds-ratio: 0.57–1.28) and headache relief rates of about 60% (95% CI of odds-ratio: 0.82–1.84) with both the drugs. The efficacy of re-dosing of Indoprocaf as rescue medication was more effective than that of sumatriptan with pain-free values of 47% vs. 27% in the total attacks with a statistically significant difference in the first migraine attack in favour of Indoprocaf. The efficacy of re-dosing to treat a recurrence/relapse was very high without differences between the drugs (pain-free: 60% with Indoprocaf and 50% with sumatriptan in the total attacks). Indoprocaf and sumatriptan were well-tolerated. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the efficacy of the initial dosing of Indoprocaf was not higher than that of sumatriptan, but that the strategy to use the lowest effective dose as soon as the headache occurred, followed by a second dose if the headache has not relieved or to treat a relapse, was very effective, especially with Indoprocaf. PMID:17627707

Sandrini, G; Cerbo, R; Del Bene, E; Ferrari, A; Genco, S; Grazioli, I; Martelletti, P; Nappi, G; Pinessi, L; Sarchielli, P; Tamburro, P; Uslenghi, C; Zanchin, G

2007-01-01

226

NK1 receptors antagonism of dorsal hippocampus counteract the anxiogenic-like effects induced by pilocarpine in non-convulsive Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Recent evidence supports a role for the substance P (SP) in the control of anxiety and epilepsy disorders. Aversive stimuli alter SP levels and SP immunoreactivity in limbic regions, suggesting that changes in SP-NK1 receptor signaling may modulate the neuronal excitability involved in seizures and anxiogenesis. The involvement of NK1 receptors of the dorsal hippocampus and lateral septum in the anxiogenic-like effects induced by a single injection of pilocarpine (PILO) was examined in non-convulsive rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Male Wistar rats were systemically injected with methyl-scopolamine (1mg/kg) followed 30 min later by saline or PILO (350 mg/kg) and only rats that did not present status epilepticus were used. One month later, vehicle or FK888 (100 pmol) - an NK1 receptor antagonist - were infused in the dorsal hippocampus or the lateral septum of the rats and then behaviorally evaluated in the EPM. Previous treatment with PILO decreased the time spent in and the frequency of entries in the open arms of the EPM, besides altering risk-assessment behaviors such as the number of unprotected head-dipping, protected stretch-attend postures and the frequency of open-arms end activity, showing thus a long-lasting anxiogenic-like profile. FK888 did not show any effect per se but inhibited the anxiogenic responses induced by PILO when injected into the dorsal hippocampus, but not into the lateral septum. Our data suggest that SP-NK1 receptor signaling of the dorsal hippocampus is involved in the anxiogenic-like profile induced by PILO in rats evaluated in the EPM test. PMID:24512769

Duarte, Filipe Silveira; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Gavioli, Elaine Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino; De Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro

2014-05-15

227

Health-oriented electronic oral health record: development and evaluation.  

PubMed

This study aims to develop and evaluate a new Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record that implements the health-oriented status and intervention index. The index takes the principles of holistic oral healthcare and applies them to the design and implementation of the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. We designed an experiment using focus groups and a consensus (Delphi process) method to develop a new health-oriented status and intervention index and graphical user interface. A comparative intervention study with qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compare an existing Electronic Oral Health Record to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record, focusing on dentist satisfaction, accuracy, and completeness of oral health status recording. The study was conducted by the dental staff of the Inter-country Center for Oral Health collaborative hospitals in Thailand. Overall, the user satisfaction questionnaire had a positive response to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. The dentists found it easy to use and were generally satisfied with the impact on their work, oral health services, and surveillance. The dentists were significantly satisfied with the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record compared to the existing Electronic Oral Health Record (p < 0.001). The accuracy and completeness values of the oral health information recorded using the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record were 97.15 and 93.74 percent, respectively. This research concludes that the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record satisfied many dentists, provided benefits to holistic oral healthcare, and facilitated the planning, managing, and evaluation of the healthcare delivery system. PMID:24810725

Wongsapai, Mansuang; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Beach, Daryl; Kawaguchi, Sachiko

2014-06-01

228

Pollen grains for oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

2014-11-28

229

Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-01-01

230

Shari T. Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Shari T. Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 25, 2009 http...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5631 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian...

T., Shari; Albin, Tami

2009-12-17

231

Oral hypoglycemics overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on the specific drug. The main (active) ingredient in sulfonylurea-based oral hypoglycemics stimulates cells in the pancreas to produce more insulin.

232

Oral-Systemic Health During Pregnancy: Exploring Prenatal and Oral Health Providers' Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse. PMID:25366104

Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

2014-11-01

233

Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.  

PubMed

Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, ?? T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. PMID:24118267

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

2014-09-01

234

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

235

Effi cacy and tolerability of MK-0974 (telcagepant), a new oral antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, compared with zolmitriptan for acute migraine: a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-treatment trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods In a randomised, parallel-treatment, placebo-controlled, double-blind, trial at 81 sites in the Europe and the USA, adults with migraine diagnosed by International Headache Society criteria treated moderate or severe attacks with either oral telcagepant 150 mg or 300 mg, zolmitriptan 5 mg, or placebo. The fi ve co-primary endpoints were pain freedom, pain relief, or absence of photophobia, phonophobia,

Tony W Ho; Michel D Ferrari; David W Dodick; Vince Galet; James Kost; Xiaoyin Fan; Heather Leibensperger; Samar Froman; Christopher Assaid; Christopher Lines; Hille Koppen; Paul K Winner; H Leibensperger BS; S Froman BS

2008-01-01

236

Comparing pain control and ability to eat and drink with standard therapy vs Gelclair: a preliminary, double centre, randomised controlled trial on patients with radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of the work  Oral mucositis (OM) is a functionally destructive complication of aggressive head and neck cancer therapy, often resulting\\u000a in intense pain, an inability to eat and drink and secondary malnutrition and dehydration. The barrier-forming properties\\u000a of Gelclair have shown promise in relieving such symptoms. The aim of this randomised-controlled trial was to evaluate the\\u000a efficacy of Gelclair, as

Claire Barber; Roy Powell; Annie Ellis; Julie Hewett

2007-01-01

237

Itraconazole Oral Solution for Primary Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancy and Profound Neutropenia: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Placebo, Multicenter Trial Comparing Itraconazole and Amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

end of the neutropenic period (>0.5 3 10 9 neutrophils\\/liter) or up to a maximum of 3 days following the end of neutropenia, unless a systemic fungal infection was documented or suspected. The maximum treatment duration was 56 days. In the intent-to-treat population, invasive aspergillosis was noted in 5 (1.8%) of the 281 patients assigned to itraconazole oral solution and

J. L. Harousseau; A. W. Dekker; A. Stamatoullas-Bastard; A. Fassas; W. Linkesch; J. Gouveia; R. De Bock; M. Rovira; W. F. Seifert; H. Joosen; M. Peeters; K. De Beule

2000-01-01

238

Oral Transliterating. NETAC Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the deaf person, inaudibly repeats the spoken message for the deaf person, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called…

Troiano, Claire A.

2005-01-01

239

IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self-efficacy and net benefits. Discussion IQuaD will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing periodontal disease in dentate adults in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners and patients in treatment decision making. Trial registration Protocol ID: ISRCTN56465715 PMID:24160246

2013-01-01

240

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...

241

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus...

2010-10-12

242

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

243

Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

Journal of Dental Education, 1984

1984-01-01

244

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS  

E-print Network

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS THESIS, DISSERTATION/MUSIC DOCUMENT, PROFESSIONAL: Phone: MEANS OF PUBLICIZING ORAL DEFENSE Department email Posted flyer UNLV Today Department website GPSA/GPSA Lounge Other (specify): Date: ORAL DEFENSE

Cho, Hokwon

245

Association of oral manifestations with ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Aim The study aims to document the oral lesions in patients with UC. Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of two chronic, tissue-destructive and clinical entities including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are immunologically based. Patients and methods The population of the study includes fifty patients with UC, as the experimental group, and fifty patients without gastrointestinal disease as the control group. All patients had an oral examination and completed the relevant questionnaire. Results There was a significant statistical relationship among tongue coating (<0.0001), halitosis (<0.0001), and oral ulceration (0.001) in patients suffering from severe UC compared to the control group. Also there was a higher prevalence of oral manifestations in patients with moderate UC compared to that of control group; but taste change (0.001) was the only significant factor. Acidic taste and taste change were among the symptoms more commonly found in patients suffering from pancolitis (40% each). Conclusion The results of the present study show that patients with UC had more oral signs and symptoms than the patients in the normal group. Further researches on oral lesions in UC are also recommended so that these diseases can be better understood. PMID:24834217

Elahi, Maryam; Samadi, Vahid; Vakili, Hadi

2012-01-01

246

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

247

The place of new oral anticoagulants in travel medicine.  

PubMed

New oral anticoagulants are increasingly used instead of vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Hence, more individuals treated with new oral anticoagulants will seek travel medicine advice. Travel medicine experts should therefore become familiar with new oral anticoagulants and with their impact and role in travel medicine. This review summarizes pharmacological characteristics and approved indications of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, and highlights their relevance for travellers on permanent oral anticoagulation and for the prophylaxis of travellers' thrombosis. Compared to vitamin K antagonists, the new oral anticoagulants have many advantages: they do not have interactions with food, they have lower potential for drug-drug interactions and do not require regularly performed laboratory tests. The oral administration, obviating the need to carry needles and syringes during travel may give the new oral anticoagulants a further advantage over low molecular weight heparins. Clinical experience with the new oral anticoagulants, however, is still rather limited and there is concern regarding the clinical management of patients treated with new oral anticoagulants who suffer from severe bleeding or who need urgent invasive procedures. Overall, it remains an individual decision based on a risk/benefit analysis as to whether or not patients on long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists should be switched to new oral anticoagulants for intended travel. Further caution is also indicated so that the availability of orally administered new anticoagulants should not lead to undifferentiated and unjustified prescription of anticoagulants for the prophylaxis of traveller's thrombosis. PMID:24316087

Ringwald, Juergen; Grauer, Martin; Eckstein, Reinhold; Jelinek, Tomas

2014-01-01

248

Positional differences in the wound transcriptome of skin and oral mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: When compared to skin, oral mucosal wounds heal rapidly and with reduced scar formation. Recent studies suggest that intrinsic differences in inflammation, growth factor production, levels of stem cells, and cellular proliferation capacity may underlie the exceptional healing that occurs in oral mucosa. The current study was designed to compare the transcriptomes of oral mucosal and skin wounds in

Lin Chen; Zarema H. Arbieva; Shujuan Guo; Phillip T. Marucha; Thomas A. Mustoe; Luisa A. DiPietro

2010-01-01

249

Oral health and nutrition.  

PubMed

The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250

Pla, G W

1994-03-01

250

Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2003-01-01

251

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT  

E-print Network

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT NEIL A. ARMSTRONG history with Neil Armstrong was conducted on September 19, 2001, for the Johnson Space Center Oral History of that? 19 September 2001 1 #12;Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Neil A. Armstrong ARMSTRONG: I

252

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

253

Pope Michael Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Pope Michael (David Bawden) conducted by Torang Asadi in Delia, Kansas, on September 2, 2010. In this interview, Pope Michael describes how his family came to be in Kansas, how he came to believe ...

Pope Michael; Bawden, David; Asadi, Torang

2010-09-02

254

Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... Million NIDCR/NIH Grant 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions Upcoming Events 2015 Annual Conference Registration is Now Open 2016 Annual Meeting in Atlanta - Save the Date! Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions ...

255

Oral Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cancer. ... other areas by the time they are found. No studies have shown that screening would decrease the ...

256

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

257

Children's Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines ... Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation FAQs Community Water Fluoridation ...

258

[Risk of oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral and facial piercing with different kinds of body art are being observed more frequently in medical and dental practices. Principally, piercing is not a new form of body art and is traditional in different geographical areas. Various materials are used. Besides tongue and lip piercing, different locations of the face such as the eyebrows and the nose are anatomical areas of piercing. The aim of this article is to demonstrate different forms of oral piercing, illustrated by own observations. The piercing procedure is briefly described. Piercing is usually performed without local anaesthesia and stepwise. In a literature review, the possible risks and complications are summarised. Postprocedural complications are oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Other complications are foreign body granulomas or allergies, particularly against nickel. Dentists, and oral- and maxillofacial surgeons should be in a position to advise patients with oral or facial piercings or those who plan to have this type of body art performed. PMID:10234960

Bethke, G; Reichart, P A

1999-03-01

259

Mike Rose Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mike Rose conducted by Lauren Helmer in Salina, Kansas, on December 31, 2010. In this interview, Mike Rose, pastor of the University United Methodist Church in Salina, describes his experiences ...

Rose, Mike; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-31

260

Rose Stokes Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Rose Stokes conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Nicodemus, Kansas, on November 14, 2009. In this interview, Rose Stokes discusses her involvement with the First Baptist Church in Nicodemus, Kansas, ...

Stokes, Rose; Heidrick, Sarah

2009-11-14

261

Gene Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gene Carlson conducted by Clint Shriner on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Gene Carlson, lead pastor at Westlink Christian Church, discusses the formative experiences that resulted in his ...

Carlson, Gene; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

262

Matt Cox Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Matt Cox conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on July 16, 2013. This interview features Matt Cox, the planter and lead pastor of EastLake Community Church. EastLake Community Church ...

Cox, Matt; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-16

263

David Frech Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Frech conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on July 10, 2013. David Frech is the senior pastor at the Church of the Harvest in Olathe, Kansas. Church of the Harvest started up in ...

Frech, David; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-10

264

Deacon Godsey Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Deacon Godsey conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 21, 2013. Deacon Godsey is the lead pastor at Vintage Church in Lawrence. Vintage Church is one of Lawrence’s newer ...

Godsey, Deacon; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-21

265

Mary Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Miller conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 16, 2009. In this interview, Mary Miller describes her journey from a her Presbyterian upbringing and education to the decision that she was a...

Miller, Mary; Miller, Timothy

2009-09-16

266

Gregg Hall Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gregg Hall conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on June 24, 2013. Gregg Hall is the pastor for the Ottawa, Kansas, branch of Life Church. Life Church is a non-denominational church ...

Hall, Gregg; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-24

267

Kacey Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Kacey Carlson conducted by Kaitlin Dosier and Jeremy Adkison in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 25, 2010. In this interview, Kacey Carlson, owner of the store Village Witch in Lawrence, Kansas, describes the history...

Carlson, Kacey; Adkison, Jeremy; Dosier, Kaitlin

2010-10-25

268

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

269

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

270

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church in Lattimer, Kansas...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

271

Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, and his eventual decision...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy

2010-01-01

272

Joseph Luben Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joseph Luben conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Joseph Luben discusses being raised with both Pentecostal and Jewish influences in Galena, Kansas. He also describes...

Luben, Joseph; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

273

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

274

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

sociedades pasaron de la oralidad primaria a la escritura, y de la escritura a la oralidad secundaria (escritura y oralidad audiovisual), avanzaron, pero la oralidad retrocedió. No ignoro que nuestras sociedades de oralidad secundaria coexisten con... sociedades de oralidad primaria y con otras en tránsito entre las dos a través de la escritura. Pero mi propuesta de la narración oral escénica (NOE) se centra en las sociedades a las que pertenezco: en las sociedades de oralidad secundaria, marcadas por...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

275

Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Ryan Campbell Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must identify: 1. Type of publication 2. Proposed title 3. Specific passages to be quoted 4. Anticipated uses of the passages 5. Publisher's name 6. Expected date of publication ...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

276

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

PubMed

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

277

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

278

Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-01-01

279

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

280

Menopause and oral health.  

PubMed

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-07-01

281

Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

Steele, Sara C.

2012-01-01

282

Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost. PMID:21938271

Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

2011-01-01

283

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

284

Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.

2012-10-01

285

Amino acid transport system L is differently expressed in human normal oral keratinocytes and human oral cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported the expression and function of system L amino acid transporter in KB human oral epidermoid carcinoma cells. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the expression and function of system L amino acid transporter in human normal oral keratinocytes (HNOK) and compared the expressions and functions of system L amino acid transporters in HNOK and KB cells.

Jung Hoon Yoon; In Jin Kim; Hyun Kim; Heung-Joong Kim; Moon Jin Jeong; Sang Gun Ahn; Soo A Kim; Chong Heon Lee; Bong Kyu Choi; Jong-Keun Kim; Kyu Yong Jung; Yoshikatsu Kanai; Hitoshi Endou; Do Kyung Kim

2005-01-01

286

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

287

The implications of Phenylketonuria on oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the oral health of children with PKU and to assess, in vitro, the erosive potential of 5 amino acid supplements commonly prescribed in the manage- ment of these children. Methods: Forty children with phenylketonuria underwent a full dental examination and were compared with an age and sex matched control group. The erosive potential

Nicky M. Kilpatrick; Halimah Awang; Bridget Wilcken; John Christodoulou

1999-01-01

288

Oral acyclovir in acute herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral acyclovir at a dose of 800 mg five times daily for seven days was compared with placebo in a randomised double blind trial conducted at three centres in the United Kingdom. The study group comprised 205 elderly immune competent patients suffering from herpes zoster who were entered within 72 hours of the onset of rash. Acyclovir significantly reduced the

M W McKendrick; J I McGill; J E White; M J Wood

1986-01-01

289

The impact of home-prepared diets and home oral hygiene on oral health in cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health. An oral health index (OHI) ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for each animal by combining examination scores, where 0 indicates good oral health and 8 indicates poorest oral health. Information was collected on age, diet and home oral hygiene regimens. There was a significant effect of diet on the OHI (P < 0.001) whereby feeding the HP diet increased the probability of an oral health problem in both cats and dogs. There was a significant beneficial effect of feeding only commercial pet food compared with the HP diet when at least part of the diet was composed of dry pet food. Daily tooth brushing or the offering of daily dental treats were both effective in significantly reducing the OHI in both cats and dogs compared with those receiving sporadic or no home oral hygiene. Feeding only a dry diet was beneficial for oral health in cats and dogs. Tooth brushing and the offering of dental treats were very effective in maintaining oral health, provided they were practised daily. PMID:22005407

Buckley, Catherine; Colyer, Alison; Skrzywanek, Michal; Jodkowska, Katarzyna; Kurski, Grzegorz; Gawor, Jerzy; Ceregrzyn, Michal

2011-10-01

290

[The ultrastructure of the juxta-oral organ (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the juxta-oral organ has been investigated in the goldhamster. Its morphology was comparable to that already described in other species. Located in the cheek or in its anatomical homologue, the juxta-oral organ consists of a string of epithelial cells surrounded by two distinct layers. The first one, made of connective tissue, contains numerous terminal nerve fibres. The second one, external and separated from the first one by a fluid-filled space, is very similar to a perineurium. The juxta-oral organ of the goldhamster presented a new feature: its central string of parenchymatous cells always contained some nervous fibres. The parenchymatous cells were compared to the keratinocytes in the basal layers of the oral epithelium and the general structure of the juxta-oral organ to that of several mechanoreceptors. It is likely that the juxta-organ exerts a mechano-receptor function. PMID:7469412

Jeanneret-Gris, B

1980-01-01

291

Oral Breathing Increases P th and Vocal Effort by Superficial Drying of Vocal Fold Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral breathing superficially dehydrates the airway lumen by decreasing the depth of the sol layer in humans and animals. Conversely, nasal breathing can increase the humidity of inspired air. We compared the effects of short-term oral and nasal breathing on Pth and perceived vocal effort in 20 female subjects randomly assigned to two groups: oral breathing (N = 10, age

Mahalakshmi Sivasankar; Kimberly V Fisher

2002-01-01

292

Oral inflammation in small animals.  

PubMed

The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions. PMID:23643021

Lommer, Milinda J

2013-05-01

293

Oral Leukoplakia – an Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

2014-01-01

294

[Osteoporosis and oral diseases].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major cause of fractures in elderly women. Bone densitometry is used in order to detect osteoporosis. It has been observed can also be analyzed in the jawbone. The osteoporosis may be associated with resorption of the residual ridge, periodontitis and tooth loss; also the same treatments can affect the jaws. A search was carried out in the Medline-Pubmed database in order to search the association between osteoporosis and oral diseases over the past 5 years. Forty-two articles were obtained after the selection process. The authors stated that: in reference to periodontal disease the results are conflicting, but there seems to be a higher prevalence of the disease and tooth loss and resorption of the crest. Oral bisphosphonates have little risk of causing osteonecrosis, and there is no relationship in the dental implant failure among patients taking bisphosphonates. There is no clear scientific evidence that could link osteoporosis and oral diseases. PMID:22854070

Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; López-López, José

2013-02-16

295

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

296

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

297

Oral carcinogenesis and oral cancer chemoprevention: a review.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

298

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

299

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

300

Immunology of oral candidiasis.  

PubMed

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M; Udayakumar, P; Shanmugam, K T; Kesavan, G

2014-07-01

301

Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

2015-01-01

302

Oral and parenteral administration of ivermectin to reindeer.  

PubMed

The anti-parasitic effect of the orally administered paste formulation of ivermectin (Ivomec) in reindeer was evaluated by means of a trial designed to compare the efficacies of orally and s.c. administered ivermectin at the same dosage (0.2 mg kg-1 body weight) in naturally infected adult reindeer (n = 92). Both formulations were 100% effective against larvae of the warble fly, Oedemagena tarandi, while oral treatment was less efficacious than s.c. injection against parasitic nematodes. Both formulations, but particularly the injectable ivermectin treatment, increased the weight gain of pregnant females compared to that of those not treated. PMID:1502787

Oksanen, A; Nieminen, M; Soveri, T; Kumpula, K

1992-03-01

303

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

304

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have compromised immune systems, so they may be more likely to get infections. People with renal (kidney) problems may have ...

305

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

306

Imaging in oral cancers  

PubMed Central

Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

2012-01-01

307

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

308

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

309

Milk and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10–15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life

Ingegerd Johansson; Pernilla Lif Holgerson

2011-01-01

310

Teaching Oral History Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains the audiotape recorder is an invaluable tool for the local historian. Outlines interviewing techniques, questioning skills, and audiotape recorder use instructions. Provides suggestions for preparing students for an oral history project. Discusses second interviews and how to utilize the tape after the interview. (RW)

Ahren, John

1990-01-01

311

[Oral management for cancer patients].  

PubMed

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy administered to cancer patients can be harmful because of their effect on normal cells as well as cancer cells, and cause many adverse events. The oral cavity is one of the sites most vulnerable to the direct and indirect effects of cancer therapy. Severe adverse events of the oral cavity can not only reduce a patient's QOL, but also disrupt cancer treatment. We discuss the concept of oral management by maintenance of the oral environment. PMID:24335358

Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Shudo, Atsushi

2013-12-01

312

American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... you the very latest news and information about oral health care and practice. The Academy of Oral and ... with other dental and medical professionals to advance oral health care. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists (OMP) are uniquely ...

313

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

PubMed Central

Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

2012-01-01

314

Double-blind crossover trial of oral meptazinol, pentazocine and placebo in the treatment of pain in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized, double-blind crossover trial in 30 elderly patients suffering from moderate to severe pain, the analgesic efficacy, tendency to produce mental confusion and side effect profile of meptazinol 100 mg orally were compared with those of pentazocine 25 mg orally were compared with those of pentazocine 25 mg orally and placebo. Both the active drugs produced significantly better

V. Pearce; P. J. Robson

1980-01-01

315

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

316

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin.

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

317

Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

2013-01-01

318

A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the i.art. injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition, the serum naproxen pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds, administered at the highest equimolar doses, were obtained during the first 6 h after dosing. Results At the two highest tested doses, both naproxen and ATB-346 reduced edema and pain score (measured 3 and 5 h after CGN; P?

2013-01-01

319

Current developments for the oral delivery of heparin.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to oral therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an oral heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new oral anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), Apixaban (Eliquis(®)) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa(®)) have reached the market, but their use is limited to certain indications. Therefore, the development of oral formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using oral formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. PMID:25219865

Schlüter, Anna; Lamprecht, Alf

2014-01-01

320

The topical NSAID felbinac versus oral NSAIDS: a critical review.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal disorders such as soft tissue injuries have traditionally been treated with oral NSAIDs, despite the significant side-effects associated with their clinical use. However, four separate multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trials have shown that the efficacy of the topical NSAID, felbinac, is equivalent to that of the oral NSAID, ibuprofen, in the treatment of soft tissue injuries, and to that of oral ibuprofen or fenbufen in mild to moderate osteoarthritis. In general practice the incidence of side-effects with felbinac is low, while oral NSAIDs have been associated with significant problems, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. Consequently, the cost of treating side-effects is reduced with felbinac treatment compared with oral NSAIDs, making it a logical treatment alternative from an economic view point as well as for reasons of efficacy and safety. PMID:7601178

Hosie, G; Bird, H

1994-01-01

321

Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords “oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion”. The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use. PMID:24778989

Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A. G.

2013-01-01

322

Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.  

PubMed

Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

2014-07-01

323

Good Oral Health and Diet  

PubMed Central

An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

2012-01-01

324

Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

2015-01-01

325

Studies in oral leukoplakias  

PubMed Central

Oral carcinoma has been shown to be correlated with the use of tobacco in various parts of India. In a large-scale dental survey conducted in Lucknow, Bombay and Bangalore various precancerous conditions were investigated and studied for their possible relation to smoking and chewing habits. This paper reports the prevalence of oral leukoplakia among 10 000 dental-clinic patients in Lucknow and the correlation of the condition with the use of tobacco and betel nut in the study population. The results show that leukoplakia is far more prevalent among users of tobacco, betel nut or both than among non-users. A strikingly high frequency was found among smokers of the local cigarette, the bidi. PMID:5300044

Pindborg, J. J.; Kićr, Joyce; Gupta, P. C.; Chawla, T. N.

1967-01-01

326

Infant Oral Health Care  

PubMed Central

The family physician/pediatrician who sees a child from birth as part of the well-baby visit program is in the best position to identify early dental problems and to educate the family about early oral preventive health care. Since children under three years of age are not seen routinely by dentists, they are at risk of developing dental disease. This paper briefly covers the areas of infant oral pathology, early preventive care, teething, suckling habits, and dental trauma in the toddler. The physician will then be in a better position to recommend to parents when they should seek dental advice and treatment for their young children. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21253204

Sigal, Michael J.; Levine, Norman

1988-01-01

327

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

328

Strategies in Oral Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. Oral vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is limited. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation

Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth

329

Proliferation and apoptosis markers in oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Premalignant/potentially malignant-oral lesions and conditions such as oral submucous fibrosis are known to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation is often associated with changes at the genetic level that in turn is reflected by the altered expression of proteins related to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aim: To evaluate the expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: To assess the immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in 50 cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and ten each of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Results: The labeling indices (LI) of OSF and OSCC were comparable for p53 and Ki67.The p53 LI ranged from 7.9 to 71.9 in OSF and 65.2 to 85.9 in OSCC, and for Ki67 it ranged from 4.39 to 43.23, 18.35 to 42.33, respectively. Conclusion: The p53, Ki67, and bax profiles of OSF and OSCC were altered compared to the normal and these markers could be used as surrogate markers of malignant transformation in OSF. PMID:22529572

Ranganathan, K; Kavitha, R

2011-01-01

330

p53 expression in oral lichenoid lesions and oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to compare the expression of p53 protein in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR). The study population consisted of 65 patients-31 diagnosed with OLP and 34 with OLR. The results showed more p53 positive cases in the OLP group than in the OLR group. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.114). The most common immunolocalization was observed at the basal cell layer. Due to the chance of potential future malignancy, follow-up for all cases is recommended. PMID:25574723

Arreaza, A; Rivera, H; Correnti, M

2015-01-01

331

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

332

Negligible effect of oral garlic oil on the oral absorption of pyridoxine in metadoxine in rats.  

PubMed

Metadoxine [an ion-pair between pyridoxine and pyrrolidone carboxylate (PCA)] plus garlic oil treatment synergistically reduces alcoholic steatosis compared to each agent alone. We evaluated the effect of garlic oil on the pharmacokinetics of pyridoxine. After the oral administration of metadoxine, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of pyridoxine were significantly greater (by 40.6%) and higher (by 63.9%), respectively, than after oral administration of pyridoxine plus PCA. Oral metadoxine plus garlic oil also gave larger AUC (31.8%) and higher C(max) (64.9%) than pyridoxine plus PCA. However, garlic oil did not change the AUC or C(max) of pyridoxine in metadoxine. Thus, garlic oil does not enhance the metadoxine activity by affecting the absorption of pyridoxine. PMID:20661709

Lee, Dae Young; Kang, Hee Eun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Myung Gull

2010-07-01

333

Oral iodine supplementation does not reduce neutralizing antibody responses to oral poliovirus vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency is a major cause of impaired mental development, goitre, and cretinism in many parts of the world. Because existing immunization programmes can be used to deliver oral iodized oil (OIO) to infants at risk, it was important to know whether OIO could adversely affect the antibody response to vaccines, such as trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, in which 617 eight-week-old infants received either OIO or a placebo (poppy-seed oil) during a routine visit for their first dose of OPV as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The infants received two boosters of OPV at 4-week intervals after the first dose, and were followed up when 6 months old. Neutralizing antibody titres to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were compared in serum samples that were taken from 478 of these infants just before the first dose of OPV and at 6 months. It was found that oral iodized oil did not reduce the antibody responses to any of the three serotypes of OPV. These results indicate that oral iodine may safely be delivered to infants at the same time as oral poliovirus vaccine according to current EPI immunization schedules. PMID:10427933

Taffs, R. E.; Enterline, J. C.; Rusmil, K.; Muhilal; Suwardi, S. S.; Rustama, D.; Djatnika; Cobra, C.; Semba, R. D.; Cohen, N.; Asher, D. M.

1999-01-01

334

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

335

Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice  

PubMed Central

In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

2010-01-01

336

Indicators of oral health in diverse ethnic and age groups: Findings from the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) USA research locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial-ethnic group differences are assessed using a standardized set of oral health indicators, as well as various predisposing, enabling and need characteristics collected in the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) USA research locations. The unique data set contains comparable data on African-American, Native American, Hispanic, primarily Mexican-American, and White adults. Age group differences in oral health indicators

Pamela L. Davidson; Ronald M. Andersen; M. Marcus; K. A. Atchison; N. Reifel; T. Nakazono; H. Rana

1996-01-01

337

Oral myiasis: a rare entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myiasis is the invasion of tissues and organs of human beings or other vertebrates by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well\\u000a documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a When tissues of the oral cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, this condition is called oral myiasis. Oral\\u000a myiasis is a rare

Gayathri S. Rao; Laxmikanth Chatra; Shenai K Prashanth

2009-01-01

338

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

339

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

340

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

2014-11-01

341

Arla Jones Oral History  

E-print Network

:00:06 ALBIN: Okay. So we're now recording. It is March 10, 2008, and I am here with Arla Jones, and Radish is running around the room. 00:00:17 JONES: With a chew toy. 00:00:18 ALBIN: And we are here once again to do an oral history. And I... York to get—I'm trying to make sure she's not going to pee on anything, [Radish, the dog.] 10 So I met Kim. And we were friends for three years before we even figured out anything. I mean what happened was Kim was working in the gift shop. I had...

Jones, Arla; Albin, Tami

2010-10-06

342

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

343

Improving oral hygiene for patients.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care. PMID:25563127

Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

2015-01-01

344

Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the number of animals used, their diet, the differences in Candida strains, and the duration of the studies. These variables notwithstanding, the following could be concluded. (i) The primate model is ideal for investigating Candida-associated denture stomatitis since both erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions have been produced in monkeys with prosthetic plates; they are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain and maintain. (ii) The rat model (both Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) is well proven for observing chronic oral candidal colonization and infection, due to the ease of breeding and handling and their ready availability. (iii) Mice are similar, but in addition there are well characterized variants simulating immunologic and genetic abnormalities (e.g., athymic, euthymic, murine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficient models) and hence are used for short-term studies relating the host immune response and oral candidiasis. Nonetheless, an ideal, relatively inexpensive model representative of the human oral environment in ecological and microbiological terms is yet to be described. Until such a model is developed, researchers should pay attention to standardization of the experimental protocols described here to obtain broadly comparable and meaningful data. PMID:11292645

Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

2001-01-01

345

[Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity. PMID:17615989

Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

2007-01-01

346

Oral and dental complications of intra-oral piercing.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the prevalence of oral piercing among young adults and revealed the types and rate of complications following oral piecing, as well as the awareness of the complications. The study included 400 consecutive patients, who randomly arrived at a military dental office. Before dental examination, patients were requested to fill out a questionnaire regarding oral piercing, their awareness of its complications, and the occurrence of complications related to piercing. Intra-oral examination included special attention to piercing-related complications, such as tooth fractures, gingivitis, bleeding, infections, gingival recessions, etc. A total of 389 patients, 210 (54%) males and 179 (46%) females agreed to participate (97.3% response rate), with an average age of 20.08 +/- 1.1 years. Of the participants, 79 (20.3%) reported having at least one type of oral piercing; lingual piercing was the most common. Swelling and bleeding after piercing were reported by 41 (51.9%) and 36 (45.7%) participants, respectively. Among the participants, 225 (57.8%) were unaware of the dangers of intra-oral piercing. Clinical examination revealed 15 fractured teeth in 11 (13.9%) participants with piercing. Gingival recessions were observed in 21 (26.6%), mostly in the mandibular incisor area. Dentists should be aware of the increasing number of patients with pierced intra- and peri-oral sites and to provide appropriate guidance to patients who contemplate body piercing involving oral sites. PMID:16262620

Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Becker, Tal

2005-12-01

347

Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

Lamy, Marie-Noelle

2004-01-01

348

[Oral jewelry: a review].  

PubMed

Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

2009-01-01

349

Association of Oral Lichen Planus with Chronic C Hepatitis. Review of the Data in Literature  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and oral lichen planus (OLP) is a current topic in the field of oral medicine. Many studies of this association have been made over time. The geographic variation of the hepatitis C prevalence proved to be an important factor influencing the statistical results of the studies analyzing the association of the oral plan lichen with the hepatitis C virus. Approaching this issue is not to be neglected. Treatment outcomes in patients with oral lichen planus associated with chronic hepatitis C virus are often unsatisfactory compared to patients suffering from idiopathic oral lichen planus. Also, the evolution of oral lesions is often fluctuating, with repeated periods of relapse according to the degree of liver function decompensation. Background therapy for liver disease itself may influence lichen planus lesions. Thus, during therapy with interferon and ribavirin oral lesions may appear or become acute. PMID:25553136

GHEORGHE, Carmen; MIHAI, Lelia; PARLATESCU, Ioanina; TOVARU, Serban

2014-01-01

350

Oral submucous fibrosis and oral yeast carriage - a case control study in Sri Lankan patients.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well-known precancerous condition. Epithelial atrophy is one of the key features in OSMF. Presence of Candida in the mouth together with epithelial changes may predispose to candidal infection. Candidal infection together with other co-factors may also induce epithelial atypia and dysplasia leading to malignant change. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral yeast carriage in patients with OSMF and to compare the carriage with the normal individuals. Thirty patients with histologically proven OSMF and healthy subjects were used as the test and control respectively. Oral rinse samples were collected from all the subjects and cultured on Sabouraud's agar. Species were identified using API 32C AUX identification kits. Nineteen (63.6%) of the test group and 15 (50%) of the control group had yeast isolated from their mouth. The carriage of yeast in the OSMF group was not statistically significant compared with the control group. We isolated C. dubliniensis in Sri Lanka for the first time and interestingly from the oral cavities of both OSMF patients and healthy individuals. PMID:17305774

Ariyawardana, A; Panagoda, G J; Fernando, H N; Ellepola, A N B; Tilakaratne, W M; Samaranayake, L P

2007-03-01

351

New Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the U.S. Anticoagulation is recommended for stroke prevention in AF patients with intermediate-to-high stroke risk (i.e., patients with a CHADS2 score of 1 or greater). Warfarin was previously the only option for oral anticoagulation in these patients, but three new oral anticoagulants have become available as alternatives for warfarin in patients with nonvalvular AF. The advantages of the newer agents include a rapid onset, predictable pharmacokinetics, and no need for routine anticoagulation monitoring. Dabigatran (Pradaxa) and apixaban (Eliquis) have demonstrated improved efficacy compared with warfarin. Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) was non-inferior to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF. Apixaban demonstrated a reduced incidence of major bleeding compared with warfarin and a reduction in all-cause mortality. Limitations to the use of the new oral anticoagulants include the lack of a reversal agent; an inability to use the therapies in specific patient populations (such as those with severe renal or hepatic impairment); limited experience with drug–drug and drug–disease interactions; and a lack of available coagulation tests to quantify their effects. Although the newer agents have higher acquisition costs, the benefits of cost savings may be derived from the potential for decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke and intracranial bleeding and reducing the need for anticoagulation monitoring. Benefits and risks should be carefully weighed before these agents are prescribed for patients presenting with new-onset AF. PMID:24672216

Shafeeq, Hira; Tran, Tran H.

2014-01-01

352

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND ORAL HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequalities in socioeconomic status underlie many health disparities in the world, including oral health. Occupational status, income and education are intrinsically related and often serve as measure for each-other. In general, the population groups that suffer the worst oral health status are also those that have the highest poverty rates and the lowest education. Higher income enable people to afford

T. Popa

353

Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

1982-01-01

354

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa.

Danielle Marie Thomas; Ginat W. Mirowski

2010-01-01

355

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.  

PubMed

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

2010-01-01

356

48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102 Section 15.102 ...Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the...

2010-10-01

357

10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590...NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a) Any party may...motion requesting an opportunity to make an oral presentation of views,...

2010-01-01

358

12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section...Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this...

2010-01-01

359

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241...PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may...

2010-10-01

360

Effect of oral contraceptive agents on nutrients: II. Vitamins.  

PubMed

Clinical, biochemical and nutritional data were collected from a large population of women using oral contraceptive agents. Higher incidence of abnormal clinical signs related to malnutrition were observed in the lower (B) as compared to the higher (A) socioeconomic groups, and also in the nonsupplemented groups as compared to the supplemented groups in the B subjects. As a rule the intake of oral contraceptive agent subjects of vitamin A, C, B6 and folic acid did not differ from that of the controls As expected, subjects from the supplemented groups had higher intake of vitamin A, C, B6, thiamin, riboflavin and folic acid, and A groups had higher intake of vitamin C, B6, riboflavin and folic acid. Increased plasma vitamin A and decreased carotene levels were observed in oral contraceptive agent users. In general oral contraceptive agents had little or no effect on plasma ascorbic acid. Urinary excretion of both thiamin and riboflavin in subjects using oral contraceptive agents were lower in A groups. Erythrocyte folate and plasma pyridoxal phosphate was decreased in A groups due to oral contraceptive agents. Subjects who took supplements had higher levels of plasma vitamin A, ascorbic acid and folate. But urinary thiamin and riboflavin were higher only in group A subjects who took supplements. PMID:1168019

Prasad, A S; Oberleas, D; Moghissi, K S; Stryker, J C; Lei, K Y

1975-04-01

361

Irradiation-induced oral candidiasis in an experimental murine model.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment was to establish a mouse model of irradiation-induced oral candidiasis and to explore the cellular populations and mechanisms by which the infection is cleared from the oral mucosa. BALB/c mice received irradiation to the head and neck equivalent to 800 Rad using a Cobalt 60 gamma source. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mice were infected orally with 1 x 10(8) Candida albicans yeasts. Compared with untreated controls, irradiated animals developed a more severe infection of longer duration, with hyphae penetrating the oral mucosa. Monoclonal antibody depletion of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells from the systemic circulation prolonged the infection in irradiated mice, but not in controls. Supernatants of submandibular and superficial cervical lymph node cultures from irradiated animals demonstrated significantly higher titers of interleukin-12, but similar levels of interferon-gamma compared with controls. Screening for cytokine production by an RNase protection assay detected only macrophage migration inhibition factor in irradiated and non-irradiated oral tissues from day 8 onwards. The results of this study demonstrate a requirement for CD4+ T cells in the recovery from oral candidiasis induced by head and neck irradiation in mice, and are consistent with a role for Th1-type cytokines in host resistance. PMID:11737659

Farah, C S; Hong, S; Wanasaengsakul, S; Elahi, S; Pang, G; Gotjamanos, T; Seymour, G J; Clancy, R L; Ashman, R B

2001-12-01

362

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of oral mucosa cells of crack cocaine users.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from crack cocaine users by micronucleus test. A total of 30 crack cocaine users and 30 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative, and dropped in clean slides, which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p?oral mucosa cells from crack cocaine users. Exposure to crack cocaine caused an increase of other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyolysis in oral cells as well. In summary, these data indicate that crack cocaine is able to induce chromosomal breakage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of users. PMID:24430497

das Graças Alonso de Oliveira, Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz; da Costa Padovani, Ricardo; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-04-01

363

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

2013-01-01

364

Novel oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Warfarin has a proven record as an oral anticoagulant; almost every study, however, has found that it is not prescribed for 40-60% of patients who are eligible and should receive it, and of those who do receive it, serum warfarin levels only achieved a time in therapeutic range (TTR) equal to INR 2-3 about 55-60% of the time (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). This means that only about 1 in 4 patients are adequately anticoagulated with warfarin, and thus there is a large unmet need for achieving better anticoagulation in these patients. Although physicians have sometimes tried to use antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, plus or minus clopidogrel) for anticoagulation, this may result in as much as a doubling of the risk of thromboembolic events. Recently 2 new classes of oral anticoagulant agents have appeared: direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors. This review sequentially examines the recent clinical trial evidence for the 3 approved NOACs in the 2 classes, highlighting that all 3 share a class effect of being noninferior to warfarin for reducing risk of stroke and systemic embolization and reducing risk of bleeding, with a relative risk of mortality consistently reduced by 10% per year. In addition, all of the NOACs have a significantly lower risk of intracranial/intracerebral bleeding than warfarin, an important clinical consideration, since that is the most feared bleeding risk and may be sufficient reason to consider switching patients from warfarin to a NOAC, even if they seem to be doing well on warfarin. Finally in addition to reviewing the overall benefits of these NOACs over traditional therapy, the clinical application differences between the classes and between the agents are reviewed. PMID:24655744

Reiffel, James A

2014-04-01

365

Cholangiocarcinoma and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of epigastric pain, and for 3 months she had noticed a mass in the right hypochondrium. She had taken 'Norinyl-1' (norethisterone 1 mg and mestranol 50 mcg) for 5 years. She smoked 20 cigarettes a day but drank little alcohol. Physical examination revealed irregular hard hepatomegaly 10 cm below the right costal margin. Hepatitis B surface antigen was not detected in the serum and alpha fetoprotein levels were normal ( 10 M.R.C. units). A liver scan showed a large space-occupying lesion in the right lobe of the liver, and liver biopsy revealed a cholangicarcinoma with striking fibrous reaction. Multiple shadows consistent with metastases were present on chest X-ray, but no bony deposits were found on radiological skeletal survey or bone scan. The serum calcium was persistently high (2.74-2.92 mmol/l) but fell on prednisolone therapy. Serum parathyroid hormone levels were normal. A causal relation between oral contraceptives and hepatic adenoma is now generally accepted, and several patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have also been reported. We have been able to find only 1 previous report of cholangiocarcinoma in a young female taking oral contraceptives, and there is 1 report of this tumor in a man taking high doses of anabolic steroids for refractory anemia. This tumor has its peak incidence in the 6th decade and is very rare in the 3rd decade. The association with hypercalcemia due to pseudohyperparathyroidism is well recognized. In only some cases are parathyroid hormone levels raised, and the cause of the pseudohypercalcemia in our patient is unknown. PMID:6101761

Littlewood, E R; Barrison, I G; Murray-Lyon, I M; Paradinas, F J

1980-02-01

366

Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception  

PubMed Central

Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

Burke, Anne

2013-01-01

367

Differences in Self-Reported Oral Health Among Community-Dwelling Black, Hispanic, and White Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare differences in self-rated oral health among community-dwelling Black, Hispanic, and White adults aged 60 and older. Method: A total of 4,859 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) provided self-report information on oral health. Results: Blacks and Hispanics reported poorer self-rated oral health than Whites. In separate dentate and edentulous groups, socioeconomic status, social

Bei Wu; Brenda L. Plassman; Jersey Liang; R. Corey Remle; Lina Bai; Richard J. Crout

2011-01-01

368

Comparing Pair and Small Group Interactions on Oral Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although pair and small group activities are commonly used in second language (L2) classrooms, there are very few studies which can inform teachers about whether it is best to have students work in pairs or in small groups. In this study, conducted in a junior high school in Indonesia with learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), we…

Lasito,; Storch, Neomy

2013-01-01

369

Oral health: something to smile about!  

PubMed

Oral health is integrally linked to overall well-being. This article describes a research program focused on the contribution of poor oral health to systemic illness. Initial investigations examined factors related to streptococcal virulence that were important in dental caries and endocarditis and led to development of immunization strategies in animal models to reduce risk of endocarditis. Clinical investigations related to critically ill adults began with descriptive and observational studies that established the importance of dental plaque in development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and examined existing nursing practices in oral care. Subsequent intervention studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to test oral care protocols in critically ill adults have built on that foundation. The group's first NIH-funded randomized clinical trial tested the effects of toothbrushing and use of chlorhexidine in reducing risk of VAP in critically ill adults and showed that VAP was reduced by topical application of chlorhexidine initiated after intubation, although toothbrushing did not reduce VAP. The study had a rapid and dramatic effect on clinical practice. Results of the study were published in September 2009 in the American Journal of Critical Care, and in May 2010, the Institute for Health-care Improvement updated the recommendations for the care of patients receiving mechanical ventilation (the ventilator bundle) to include daily oral care with chlorhexidine, referencing the results of that study as evidence for the change. Chlorhexidine is now the standard of care for adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Because the effects of chlorhexidine after intubation were so beneficial, a second recently completed NIH-funded randomized clinical trial investigated the impact of chlorhexidine applied before intubation compared with after intubation. Currently a large randomized clinical trial is being launched to determine the optimal frequency of toothbrushing for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in an effort to maximize oral health benefits while minimizing systemic risks. The importance of collaboration and mentoring in building nursing science is discussed. Future directions for research also are explored. PMID:24986168

Munro, Cindy L

2014-07-01

370

Centrally acting oral skeletal muscle relaxants.  

PubMed

A critical examination of the literature on centrally acting, orally administered skeletal muscle relaxants (SMRs) is presented. The available comparative clinical studies are reviewed, and the pharmacology, metabolism and adverse effects of the oral SMRs are discussed briefly. The drugs covered are carisoprodol, chlorphenesin carbamate, chlorzoxazone, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, diazepam, metaxalone, methocarbamol, and orphenadrine citrate. The mechanism of action of these agents is not well defined, and their effects are measured mainly by subjective responses. Thus, acceptable evidence of efficacy is difficult to obtain, especially if clinical studies continue to be designed inadequately. There are inadequate data to support the superiority of any one drug. Further, unique clinical efficacy of any oral SMR in comparison to nonspecific sedation has not been established. Based on subjective responses, all agents, except diazepam, have been shown to be superior to placebo in acute disorders; cyclobenzaprine has not been evaluated in acute conditions. SMRs are less effective in chronic disorders. Combination muscle relaxant-analgesic products appear to be superior to their individual components, but the relative efficacy of these combination products in comparison to combined use of individual sedative and analgesic agents is unknown. PMID:6999895

Elenbaas, J K

1980-10-01

371

Diabetes mellitus and oral health.  

PubMed

The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

2014-12-01

372

Oral Health Status and Oral Health Behaviors in Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to describe the oral health status and treatment needs of the 5- to 6-year-old and 12-year-old children in Southern China; to describe the patterns of oral health behaviors, knowledge, and attitudes among the 12-year-olds; and to assess the effects of socio-behavioral factors on the 12-year-old children's dental caries experiences. The study sample was comprised

M. C. M. Wong; E. C. M. Lo; E. Schwarz; H. G. Zhang

2001-01-01

373

Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation  

PubMed Central

The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

2014-01-01

374

Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation.  

PubMed

The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis.There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease.In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

Feller, Liviu; Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Jadwat, Yusuf; Lemmer, Johan

2014-01-01

375

Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

2014-01-01

376

Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review.  

PubMed

Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidiasis and the virulence of the infection. Although nystatin and amphotericin b were the most drugs used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be a very effective drug in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Fluconazole was found to be the drug of choice as a systemic treatment of oral candidiasis. Due to its good antifungal properties, its high acceptance of the patient and its efficacy compared with other antifungal drugs. But this drug is not always effective, so we need to evaluate and distinguish others like itraconazole or ketoconazole, in that cases when Candida strains resist to fluconazole. Key words:Candidiasis, treatment, miconazole, fluconazole, nystatin. PMID:25674329

Garcia-Cuesta, Carla; Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V

2014-12-01

377

Homocystinuria and oral health. A report of 14 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the oral health in Swedish individuals with the diagnosis of homozygote cystathionine beta synthase-deficient homocystinuria (HC), a rare disorder of amino acid metabolism affecting connective tissue, in which the phenotypic abnormalities include dislocation of the optic lens, skeletal abnormalities, thromboembolic events, and sometimes mental retardation. Further aims were to evaluate the oral findings against previous oral observations in a medical case report, such as high narrow palate, mandibular prognathia, crowding and early eruption of teeth. Every hospital in Sweden was contacted, with the inquiry of patients with diagnosis of HC,which resulted in 14 individuals participating in oral clinical examination. The oral findings evaluated against previous medical case reports showed to be partly in accordance with previous observations. Dental health showed to be compromised in a majority of cases. Together with the fact that methionine restriction (low-protein diet) is involved in the treatment of the condition and might result in a diet high in sugars, this points out the role of regular dental checkups and preventive oral care for individuals suffering from HC. In addition, short dental roots were a finding not previously reported in the literature. All the studied cases had central maxillary incisors with short roots, when compared to reference values used. PMID:22876397

Björksved, Margitha; Arnrup, Kristina

2012-01-01

378

Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidiasis and the virulence of the infection. Although nystatin and amphotericin b were the most drugs used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be a very effective drug in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Fluconazole was found to be the drug of choice as a systemic treatment of oral candidiasis. Due to its good antifungal properties, its high acceptance of the patient and its efficacy compared with other antifungal drugs. But this drug is not always effective, so we need to evaluate and distinguish others like itraconazole or ketoconazole, in that cases when Candida strains resist to fluconazole. Key words:Candidiasis, treatment, miconazole, fluconazole, nystatin. PMID:25674329

Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V.

2014-01-01

379

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Oral Brush Biopsies Identifies Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor as a Promising, Mechanism-Based Oral Cancer Biomarker  

PubMed Central

A decrease in the almost fifty percent mortality rate from oral cancer is needed urgently. Improvements in early diagnosis and more effective preventive treatments could affect such a decrease. Towards this end, we undertook for the first time an in-depth mass spectrometry-based quantitative shotgun proteomics study of non-invasively collected oral brush biopsies. Proteins isolated from brush biopsies from healthy normal tissue, oral premalignant lesion tissue (OPMLs), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and matched control tissue were compared. In replicated proteomic datasets, the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) protein stood out based on its decrease in abundance in both OPML and OSCC lesion tissues compared to healthy normal tissue. Western blotting in additional brushed biopsy samples confirmed a trend of gradual decreasing SLPI abundance between healthy normal and OPML tissue, with a larger decrease in OSCC lesion tissue. A similar SLPI decrease was observed in-vitro comparing model OPML and OSCC cell lines. In addition, exfoliated oral cells in patients’ whole saliva showed a loss of SLPI correlated with oral cancer progression. These results, combined with proteomics data indicating a decrease in SLPI in matched healthy control tissue from OSCC patients compared to tissue from healthy normal tissue, suggested a systemic decrease of SLPI in oral cells correlated with oral cancer development. Finally, in-vitro experiments showed that treatment with SLPI significantly decreased NF-kB activity in an OPML cell line. The findings indicate anti-inflammatory activity in OPML, supporting a mechanistic role of SLPI in OSCC progression and suggesting its potential for preventative treatment of at-risk oral lesions. Collectively, our results show for the first time the potential for SLPI as a mechanism-based, non-invasive biomarker of oral cancer progression with potential in preventive treatment. PMID:24748380

Yang, Ya; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Ondrey, Frank G.; Wuertz, Beverly R. K.; Chen, Xiaobing; Zhu, Yaqin; Griffin, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

380

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

381

Oral physiology and mastication.  

PubMed

Mastication is a sensory-motor activity aimed at the preparation of food for swallowing. It is a complex process involving activities of the facial, the elevator and suprahyoidal muscles, and the tongue. These activities result in patterns of rhythmic mandibular movements, food manipulation and the crushing of food between the teeth. Saliva facilitates mastication, moistens the food particles, makes a bolus, and assists swallowing. The movement of the jaw, and thus the neuromuscular control of chewing, plays an important role in the comminution of the food. Characteristics of the food, e.g. water and fat percentage and hardness, are known to influence the masticatory process. Food hardness is sensed during mastication and affects masticatory force, jaw muscle activity, and mandibular jaw movements. When we chew for instance a crispy food, the jaw decelerates and accelerates as a result of resistance and breakage of food particles. The characteristic breakage behaviour of food is essential for the sensory sensation. This study presents a short review of the influence of oral physiology characteristics and food characteristics on the masticatory process. PMID:16564557

van der Bilt, A; Engelen, L; Pereira, L J; van der Glas, H W; Abbink, J H

2006-08-30

382

Oral HPV Infection and Sexuality: A Cross-Sectional Study in Women  

PubMed Central

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75), bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32) and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11) The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2%) for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75) vs. 12.5% (4/32), p = 0.784). There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR) = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0–1.1) and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1–4.6). Twenty-five percent (3/12) of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106) of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104). For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110), oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039). A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%). The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70) vs. 35.5% (11/31), p-value 0.411) and for all other women the cervical HPV prevalence was significantly lower (11.1%, 1/9). Our study suggests that smoking and sexual behavior involving males rather than female partners may be possible predictors of oral HPV infection in women. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21747715

Ragin, Camille; Edwards, Robert; Larkins-Pettigrew, Margaret; Taioli, Emanuela; Eckstein, Stacy; Thurman, Natalie; Bloome, Jessica; Markovic, Nina

2011-01-01

383

Oral Morphine Prescribing Practices in Severe Cancer Pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Nearly one million cancer patients in India need oral morphine for pain relief. Despite doctors prescribing oral morphine in our center, many cancer patients with severe pain found to be not facilitated with adequate pain relief. Aim: This audit was conducted to look at the “oral morphine prescribing practices for severe cancer pain” at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty case files of patients, who were admitted with severe cancer pain, and receiving oral morphine were analyzed in pre- and posteducational session. Local standards were set to assess the adequacy of pain relief. Deficiency in achieving analgesia was found in preinterventional audit. A clinical audit was conducted before and after the educational session on oral morphine prescribing. The education for doctors and nurses focused on starting patients on morphine, titration, and administering rescue dose. Then local guidelines on oral morphine prescribing were circulated. And analysis of following factors were done following pre- and posteducational session: Pain intensity at the beginning of treatment, starting dose of morphine, increments in morphine dose, number of rescue doses given, and fall in pain intensity at the end of 1 week. The outcomes were compared with the standards. Results: Preintervention audit showed that only 50% of patients achieved adequate pain relief. Rescue dose was administered in only 20% of patients. While reaudit following the educational session showed that 80% of patients achieved adequate pain relief and 100% received rescue doses. Conclusion: Educational sessions have significant impact on improving oral morphine prescribing practice among doctors and nurses. It was found failing to administer regular as well as rescue doses resulted in inadequate pain relief in patients receiving oral morphine. PMID:20668591

B, Barathi

2009-01-01

384

Oral Tradition in Historical Research  

E-print Network

This article will chronicle how those professionals called archivist, charged with collecting, preserving, and making primary source materials including oral history resources available to the public, view their role in this endeavor. This article...

Hankins, Rebecca

385

Multicultural Issues in Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

2008-01-01

386

Blood Disorders (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... have an infection. This means infections, such as periodontal (gum) disease yeast infections and oral ulcers, can ... in a hospital. This is a treatment for periodontal disease that involves deep cleaning of the teeth ...

387

Oral Health and Bone Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Rest and Immobilization Exercise Exercise (??) Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral ...

388

Oral Reading: Considerations Before Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates oral reading in the classroom for diagnostic purposes, skill development, and recreation; presents seven specific situations children should not be required to read before a peer audience. (MAI)

Briggs, L. D.

1978-01-01

389

Older Adults (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Don’t smoke or use chewing tobacco or snuff Eat a well-balanced diet (For additional information, ... worry about oral cancer. Fact: It's not just smokeless tobacco ("dip" and "chew") that can increase your chances ...

390

20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the...

2010-04-01

391

Diseases of the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

Bradley, G.

1988-01-01

392

Menopause and the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Menopause is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to be aware of the symptoms and health care needs of peri-menopausal/menopausal/postmenopausal women. This article attempts to provide an insight into the multifarious oral manifestations at menopause along with the relevant prosthodontic implications. PMID:22837914

Mutneja, Puneet; Dhawan, Pankaj; Raina, Anudeep; Sharma, Gaurav

2012-01-01

393

The effectiveness of topical and oral tetracycline for acne.  

PubMed

A group of 135 college students with acne was evaluated in a 12-week, double-blind study comparing placebo, oral tetracycline 0.5 gm daily, and a new topical tetracycline preparation. The topical tetracycline preparation containing n-decyl methyl sulfoxide to enhance penetration, produced statistically significant improvement of acne as compared to placebo after 7, 10, and 12 weeks of treatment. Oral tetracycline, 0.5 gm daily, was statistically significantly more effective for acne than placebo after 4, 7, 10, and 12 weeks of therapy. The placebo group also had marked improvement which may have been related to sun exposure. Emotional stress produced by final examinations had no apparent effect on the patients given placebo, oral, or topical tetracycline. Side effects of the topical tetracycline included a slight yellowish discoloration of the skin in 25% of the subjects and transient stinging or tingling sensation after application in 36%. PMID:132705

Smith, J G; Chalker, D K; Wehr, R F

1976-06-01

394

p53 aberrations in oral sub mucous fibrosis and oral cancer detected by immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Study of expression of p53 oncoprotein in several precancerous and cancer have been done, but only one literature is available regarding p53 expression in Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis (OMSF), hence this study was taken up (i) to determine the expression of aberrant p53 in Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis (OSMF) and Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. (ii)To study correlation if any between p53 expression and degree of dysplasia in OSMF and SCC patients and (iii)To study correlation if any between p53 expression and habits in OSMF and SCC patients. Study Design consists of biopsy specimens of 38 cases of OSMF and 37 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma were subjected for staining by immunohistochemistry for p53 protein using LSAB visualization system kit. Clinical details along with habits were recorded and the data analyzed with t- test and chi- square test. Results of the study reveals 18 cases of OSMF and 26 cases of SCC were positive for p53 protein. Only 4 cases of SCC showed (++)grade and the rest all had (+)grade. Out of 75 patients, 65 had the habit of smoking and chewing, 4 patients history of habit was not known. Among patients with habits (65), 40 specimens were +ve for p53 stain and 2 out of 6 without history of habit, 2 out of 4 unknown history of habit took up p53 stain. To conclude study showed higher percentage of p53 positive cells in oral cancer cases when compared to oral sub mucous fibrosis cases. It suggests p53 expression may correlate with increase in dysplasia or malignant transformation. Both smoking and chewing habits had a significant role in p53 positive expression. PMID:15328987

Bathi, Renuka J; Prabhat

2003-01-01

395

Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

Oredugba, Folakemi A.

2007-01-01

396

Two Models of Raters in a Structured Oral Examination: Does It Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral examinations have become more standardized over recent years. Traditionally a small number of raters were used for this type of examination. Past studies suggested that more raters should improve reliability. We compared the results of a multi-station structured oral examination using two different rater models, those based in a station,…

Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Ainslie, Martha; Myers, Kathryn; Wood, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

397

Oral versus Written Assessments: A Test of Student Performance and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into "oral" and "written" groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were…

Huxham, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Westwood, Jenny

2012-01-01

398

Analgesie effects of oral nalbuphine and codeine in patients with postoperative pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy and safety of oral nalbuphine in doses of 15 and 45 mg were compared with those of the standard oral analgesic codeine in single doses of 30 and 90 mg in 153 patients with acute postoperative pain; data on 20 more patients were excluded because they received potentially interfering medications. All patients had pain ranging from moderate to severe

Ronald Okun

1982-01-01

399

Oral beclomethasone dipropionate for treatment of intestinal graft-versus-host disease: A randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), a topically active steroid, seemed to be an effective treatment for intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a phase I study. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of oral BDP to that of placebo capsules in treatment of intestinal GVHD. Methods: Sixty patients with anorexia and poor oral intake because of

George B. McDonald; Michelle Bouvier; David M. Hockenbery; Jean M. Stern; Ted Gooley; Allen Farrand; Carol Murakami; Douglas S. Levine

1998-01-01

400

Original article Oral rabies vaccination of foxes with one or two  

E-print Network

Original article Oral rabies vaccination of foxes with one or two delayed distributions of SAG2 of rabies vaccine bait (SAG2) distribution for foxes were compared: in the first test zone, a first or June rather than in April. rabies / oral vaccination / fox cub / delayed double bait distribution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

Artemisinin kinetics and dynamics during oral and rectal treatment of uncomplicated malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare parasite clearance times after oral and rectal administration of artemisinin in adults with uncomplicated malaria and to relate pharmacodynamics with artemisinin kinetics and to disclose any pharmacokinetic changes during treatment.Methods: Thirty male Vietnamese patients with falciparum malaria were randomized to treatment with 500 mg artemisinin daily by either the oral or rectal route of administration. Parasite densities

Michael Ashton; Nguyen Duy Sy; Nguyen Van Huong; Toufigh Gordi; Trinh Ngoc Hai; Dinh Xuan Huong; Nguyen Thi Nięu; Le Dinh Công

1998-01-01

402

Total parenteral nutrition vs oral diet in autologous hematopoietic cell transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autologous HCT patients often have poor oral intake for 2–4 weeks post transplant. To compare outcomes between patients provided prophylactic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or an oral diet (OD), 55 well nourished breast cancer\\/ hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients were randomized to TPN (n=27), beginning day ?1, or OD (n=28). Parameters studied include length of stay (LOS), engraftment, infections, survival,

S Roberts; J Miller; L Pineiro; L Jennings

2003-01-01

403

Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated\\u000a with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid\\u000a gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral\\u000a therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the

Mostafa Nokta

2008-01-01

404

Safety and Efficacy of Oral Feeding in Infants with BPD on Nasal CPAP.  

PubMed

Safety and efficacy of oral feeding was examined in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). We hypothesized that repetitive oral feeding enhances aero-digestive outcomes and reduces resource utilization. Data from infants with BPD (37-42 weeks post menstrual age) that were orally fed while on NCPAP (n = 26) were compared with those that were exclusively gavage fed on NCPAP (n = 27). Subject assignment was random and physician practice based. Specifically, we compared the differences in aero-digestive milestones, resource utilization, and safety metrics. Demographic characteristics such as gender distribution, gestational age, and birth weight, clinical characteristics such as frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus needing surgical ligation were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Characteristics of respiratory support and airway milestones were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). However, infants in NCPAP-oral fed group had earlier acquisition of full oral feeding milestone by 17 days (median) versus infants who were not orally fed during NCPAP (p < 0.05). Discharge weights and the frequency of gastrostomy tube placement were also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There were no tracheostomies in either group. There was no incidence of clinically significant aspiration pneumonia in infants during the period of the oral feeding while on NCPAP. Controlled introduction of oral feedings in infants with BPD during NCPAP is safe and may accelerate the acquisition of oral feeding milestones. PMID:25380678

Hanin, Melissa; Nuthakki, Sushma; Malkar, Manish B; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

2014-11-01

405

Psychosedation With Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride During Minor Oral Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed intravenous sedation with dexmedetomidine hydrochloride during minor oral surgery and compared this agent with propofol. Patients were random- ly divided into 2 groups: dexmedetomidine hydrochloride ( D ) and propofol (P) groups. In Group D, systolic blood pressure ( SBP ) increased immediately after the start of initial loading, although no significant differences were noted. Both SBP and

Kiichi Taniyama; Hideki Oda; Kazuko Okawa; Katsuhito Himeno; Koki Shikanai; Tohru Shibutani

2009-01-01

406

Original article Rabies oral vaccination of foxes during the summer  

E-print Network

Original article Rabies oral vaccination of foxes during the summer with the VRG vaccine bait Eric was eval- uated by the relative decrease in rabies incidcnce and the rate of bait uptake by foxcs compared, the decrease in rabies incidence, measured during the 6-month period following the cam- paigns was less

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

The oral health status of children undergoing hemodialysis treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the oral status of children suffering from end- stage renal disease (ESRD) with the aim of determining the causes of low caries prevalence in this population (using the CRT ® bacteria and buffer test), and compared results with a control group (n=38). In the study group, there were 38 children (aged 4-17 years) who were

Fahinur Ertuđrul; Çiđdem Elbek-Çubukçu; Ertuđrul Sabah; Sevgi Mir

408

Oral and Non-Oral Combination Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

An estimated 30 million men in the United States suffer from varying degrees of erectile dysfunction. Increasing age and comorbidities are likely to increase the number of men who are initially refractory or become refractory to phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, the most popular oral therapy. Combination therapy, a concept well proved in other areas of medicine, is therefore of increasing importance. Combination oral and non-oral (intracavernosal injection and intraurethral application) therapies have been shown to salvage monotherapy. The early introduction of combination therapy has been shown to expedite both the return of natural function and PDE-5 inhibitor responsiveness in post-prostatectomy patients with no reports of serious adverse events. Larger controlled studies are needed to corroborate those encouraging findings. PMID:17934566

Nehra, Ajay

2007-01-01

409

Oral acyclovir in the management of dendritic herpetic corneal ulceration.  

PubMed Central

A controlled trial of oral acyclovir in herpetic dendritic corneal ulcers was carried out on 31 patients. All patients received minimal wiping debridement of the ulcer, following which they were randomly allocated to receive either oral acyclovir or placebo for 7 days. At the end of treatment 67% of dendritic ulcers in patients receiving acyclovir had healed compared with 43% in placebo recipients. The proportion of ulcers healed in the 2 groups at 7 days showed no significant difference (p = 0.18), but the rate of healing was significantly faster in acyclovir group (p = 0.03). PMID:6372855

Hung, S. O.; Patterson, A.; Clark, D. I.; Rees, P. J.

1984-01-01

410

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

411

Child, neglect and oral health  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ?7), 85 intermediate values (1???dmf-t???6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t?=?0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n?=?29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n?=?28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p?=?0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p?=?0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p?=?0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p?=?0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p?=?0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

2013-01-01

412

Modified oral metronidazole desensitization protocol  

PubMed Central

The Center for Disease Control guidelines recommend desensitization to metronidazole in patients with trichomoniasis and hypersensitivity to metronidazole. There is only one published oral metronidazole desensitization protocol. The purpose of this study was to design a new, more gradual oral desensitization protocol to decrease systemic reactions that may occur when using the previously published protocol. We present two patients with presumed IgE-mediated allergy to metronidazole who underwent oral desensitization using our modified protocol. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman with trichomoniasis who presented for metronidazole desensitization with a history of intraoperative anaphylaxis and positive skin tests to metronidazole. The patient tolerated six doses of the modified desensitization but developed systemic symptoms of nasal congestion and diffuse pruritus after the 25- and 100-mg doses. Both reactions were treated with intravenous (i.v.) antihistamines. Because of gastrointestinal irritation, the desensitization was completed at a dose of 250 mg orally every 6 hours. Case 2 was a 42-year-old woman with trichomoniasis and a history of hives immediately after administration of i.v. metronidazole who presented for desensitization. The patient had negative skin-prick and intradermal testing to metronidazole. She developed lip tingling and pruritus on her arms 15 minutes after the 10-mg dose. Fexofenadine at 180 mg was given orally and symptoms resolved. She tolerated the rest of the protocol without reaction and received a total dose of 2 g of metronidazole. Our oral metronidazole desensitization for presumed IgE-mediated reactions offers a second option for physicians wishing to use a more gradual escalation in dose. PMID:24612959

Pien, Lily C.; Gutta, Ravi C.; Abouhassan, Susan R.

2014-01-01

413

Oral health attitudes and practices among a German Mexican Mennonite farmworker community.  

PubMed

The oral health needs of migrant farm laborers are greater and more immediate than those of comparable populations. However, little is known about the conditions of oral health care among German-speaking Mexican Mennonites, a distinctive cultural subgroup of migrant farm laborers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oral health practices, perceived oral health status, and barriers to obtaining dental care among a community of Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonites residing in Southwest Kansas. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 25 individuals, with questions addressing access/barriers to care, oral health practices, and perceived oral health status. The most frequently identified barriers to dental care were limited finances, lack of adequate health/dental insurance, and limited awareness of available dental services. Although the majority of participants reported experiencing no problems related to language or scheduling dental appointments, the results also indicated low utilization levels of oral care services. Findings suggest that: (1) this population is at-risk for periodontal disease, (2) culturally appropriate programs are needed for preventive oral care education, (3) community and statewide support may help improve access to affordable oral health care. PMID:20922481

Rowden, Paula M; Paschal, Angelia M; Hawley, Suzanne R; Hsiao, Tracy

2011-12-01

414

Cigarette smoking induces overexpression of c-Met receptor in microvessels of oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cigarette smoking is related to many pathological conditions; however, chemical substances affect the oral cavity first, so it is important to consider its influence on oral mucosa and oral potentially pre-malignant lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking on microvessel density in oral lichen planus. Special emphasis was placed on examining the relationship between the expression of c-Met receptor in blood vessels and smoking habits. Material and methods This study included 34 patients with oral lichen planus diagnosed clinically and verified by histopathological examination and 12 healthy individuals as controls. Biopsy of oral mucosa was performed and specimens were examined for immunohistochemical CD34 and c-Met receptor expression. The microvessel density was established by evaluation of the five most vascular areas within a section. Results Compared to normal oral mucosa, in lichen planus patients, significantly higher blood vessel density and c-Met expression were noted. Irregular distribution of microvessels was typical for oral lichen planus. Also, microvessel density was higher in cigarette smoking patients’ tissues than in non-smoker specimens. Furthermore, the association of c-Met expression with smoking habit was statistically significant. Conclusions Cigarette smoking habit has a direct impact on the oral lichen planus course; therefore, close follow-up of these patients is mandatory. PMID:22291809

K?osek, Sebastian K.; Sporny, Stanis?aw; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Kurnatowska, Anna J.

2011-01-01

415

Immune Tolerance Elicited via Unique Ocular and Oral Routes.  

PubMed

Immune tolerance can be induced by numerous methods. This review article aims to draw lines of similarity and contrast between two unique models of immune tolerance, namely Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) and Nickel-induced oral tolerance. ACAID is an immune tolerance model that leads to the generation of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and CD8(+) T regulatory cells in the periphery after the injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye. Nickel-induced oral tolerance is another immune tolerance model that is induced by the contact allergen Nickel and leads to the generation of Nickel-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells after oral exposure. The goal of comparing different models of immune tolerance is to identify which mechanisms are universal and which mechanisms are model-specific. The knowledge of such mechanisms would allow scientists and clinicians to better intervene in different immune deregulation scenarios. PMID:25601470

Ashour, H M

2015-01-01

416

Oral Complications of HIV Disease  

PubMed Central

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

2009-01-01

417

[Ecstasy use and oral health].  

PubMed

Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by young adults in the big cities.Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals that use XTC. This review of the literature describes the systemic and oral effects of XTC. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatreaemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include mucosal changes, xerostomia and an increased risk of developing dental erosion and bruxism. Finally, the potential use of saliva for detection of XTC is discussed. PMID:17361788

Brand, H S; Dun, S N; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

2007-02-01

418

Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health.  

PubMed

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as 'ecstasy' or XTC, is frequently used by young adults in the major cities. Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals who use ecstasy. This review describes systemic and oral effects of ecstasy. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include xerostomia, bruxism, and an increased risk of developing dental erosion. Mucosal changes have also been reported. Recent use of ecstasy may interfere with dental treatment. Finally, the potential use of saliva for non-invasive detection of ecstasy is discussed. PMID:18268544

Brand, H S; Dun, S N; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

2008-01-26

419

Medication Safety of Five Oral Chemotherapies: A Proactive Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Oral chemotherapies represent an emerging risk area in ambulatory oncology practice. To examine the hazards associated with five oral chemotherapies, we performed a proactive risk assessment. Methods: We convened interdisciplinary teams and conducted failure mode and effects analyses (FMEAs) for five oral chemotherapy agents: capecitabine, imatinib, temozolomide, 6-mercaptopurine, and an investigational agent. This involved the creation of process maps for each medication, identification of failure modes, selection of high-risk failure modes, and development of recommendations to mitigate these risks. We analyzed the number of steps and types of failure modes and compared this information across the study drugs. Results: Key vulnerabilities include patient education about drug handling and adverse effects, prescription writing, patient self-administration and medication adherence, and failure to monitor and manage toxicities. Many of these failure modes were common across the five oral chemotherapies, suggesting the presence of common targets for improvement. Streamlining the FMEA itself may promote the dissemination of this method. Conclusion: Each stage of the medication process poses risks to the safe use of oral chemotherapies. FMEAs may identify opportunities to improve medication safety and reduce the risk of patient harm. PMID:21532801

Weingart, Saul N.; Spencer, Justin; Buia, Stephanie; Duncombe, Deborah; Singh, Prabhjyot; Gadkari, Mrinalini; Connor, Maureen

2011-01-01

420

Peri-implant infections of oral biofilm etiology.  

PubMed

Biofilms are complex microbial communities that grow on various surfaces in nature. The oral micobiota tend to form polymicrobial biofilms, particularly on the hard mineralized surfaces of teeth, which may impact on oral health and disease. They can cause inflammation of the adjacent tooth-supporting (periodontal) tissues, leading to destructive periodontal disease and tooth loss. The emergence of osseointegrated dental implants as a restorative treatment option for replacing missing teeth has also brought along new artificial surfaces within the oral cavity, on which oral bacteria can form biofilms. As in the case of natural teeth, biofilms on implant surfaces may also trigger infection and cause inflammatory destruction of the peri-implant tissue (i.e. peri-implantitis). While there are strong similarities in the composition of the mixed microbial flora between periodontal and peri-implant infections, there are also a few distinctive differences. The immunological events underlying the pathogenesis of peri-implant infections are qualitatively similar, yet more extensive, compared to periodontal infections, resulting in a faster progression of tissue destruction. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on the microbiology and immunology of peri-implant infections, including findings from the peri-implant crevicular fluid, the inflammatory exudate of the peri-implant tissue. Moreover, it discusses the diagnosis and current approaches for the treatment of oral infections. PMID:25366221

Belibasakis, Georgios N; Charalampakis, Georgios; Bostanci, Nagihan; Stadlinger, Bernd

2015-01-01

421

Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats.  

PubMed

Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after administration of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling and dose interval modeling were performed. Repeated measures anova was used to compare parameters between administration routes. Bioavailability of ondansetron was 32% (oral) and 75% (subcutaneous). Calculated elimination half-life of ondansetron was 1.84 ± 0.58 h (intravenous), 1.18 ± 0.27 h (oral) and 3.17 ± 0.53 h (subcutaneous). The calculated elimination half-life of subcutaneous ondansetron was significantly longer (P < 0.05) than oral or intravenous administration. Subcutaneous administration of ondansetron to healthy cats is more bioavailable and results in a more prolonged exposure than oral administration. This information will aid management of emesis in feline patients. PMID:24330064

Quimby, J M; Lake, R C; Hansen, R J; Lunghofer, P J; Gustafson, D L

2014-08-01

422

Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.  

PubMed Central

This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of ora