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Sample records for comparing oral pilocarpine

  1. Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, R; Perin, C; Becker, F L; Ramos, G Z; Gheno, G Z; Lopes, L R; Pires, M; Barros, H M T

    2002-01-01

    Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and include sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and their adverse effects on healthy subjects. Forty volunteers received 10 ml 0.5, 1 and 2% pilocarpine solutions or 0.9% saline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. Salivation was measured before and 45, 60 and 75 min after mouth rinsing for 1 min with 10 ml of saline or pilocarpine solutions. Vital signs were measured and ocular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms, anxiety and flushing were estimated using visual analog scales. There was a dose-dependent increase in salivation. Salivation measured after 1 and 2% pilocarpine (1.4 +/- 0.36 and 2.22 +/- 0.42 g, respectively) was significantly (P<0.001) higher than before (0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.64 +/- 0.1 g), with a plateau between 45 and 75 min. Cardiovascular, visual, gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms and signs were not changed by topical pilocarpine. Mouth rinsing with pilocarpine solutions at concentrations of 1 to 2% induced a significant objective and subjective dose-dependent increase in salivary flow, similar to the results reported by others studying the effect of oral 5 mg pilocarpine. The present study revealed the efficacy of pilocarpine mouthwash solutions in increasing salivary flow in healthy volunteers, with no adverse effects. Additional studies on patients with xerostomia are needed. PMID:11743622

  2. Efficacy of Pilocarpine and Bromhexine in Improving Radiotherapy-induced Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Farid; Farhadi, Sareh; Esmaili, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Xerostomia is one of the most common complications of head and neck radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of pilocarpine and bromhexine in improving radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and its associated symptoms. Materials and methods. In this single-blind, randomized crossover study, pilocarpine and bromhexine tablets were used by twenty-five patients suffered from xerostomia, with a medical history of head and neck radiotherapy. At step A, the patients were treated with pilocarpine for 2 weeks. In addition, they were asked to take bromhexine for 2 weeks with a one-week washout period. At step B, the inverse process was conducted (first bromhexine, then pilocarpine). Whole resting saliva was collected from patients before and after receiving each medication by precise measurements. Then, efficacy of the two drugs in the treatment of xerostomia and its related oral complications was evaluated using questionnaires by Dichotomous format. The results were statistically analyzed using t-student and Fisher’s exact and chi-squared tests. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. The difference between saliva secretion rates before and after medications was not significant for bromhexine users at two steps of the study (P=0.35); however, it was significant for pilocarpine users (P=0.0001). Users of both drugs showed significant differences in improvement of xerostomia, chewing, swallowing, tasting and mouth burning. Conclusion. Pilocarpine is probably more effective in improving xerostomia and its associated problems compared with bromhexine, although the use of the latter was also shown to ease some of the consequences of radiotherapy in the head and neck region. PMID:23875086

  3. Piperine decreases pilocarpine-induced convulsions by GABAergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Giovany Michely Pinto; Felipe, Cícero Francisco Bezerra; Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; da Costa, Marta Aline Coelho; Tavares, Alinne Farias; Menezes, Maria Luiza Feitosa; de Andrade, Geanne Matos; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A M; Brito, Gerly Anne C; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro

    2013-03-01

    Piperine, an alkaloid present in the Piper genus, was shown to have an anticonvulsant activity, evaluated by the pilocarpine-induced model, in mice. Pilocarpine (350mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30min after piperine (2.5, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.p.) which significantly increased latencies to 1st convulsion and to death, and percentage of survivals. These parameters were also increased in the pilocarpine groups pretreated with atropine plus piperine (10 and 2.5mg/kg, respectively), as related to the pilocarpine group. However, they were not altered in the pilocarpine groups pretreated with memantine (a NMDA-type glutamate receptors blocker, 2mg/kg, p.o.) or nimodipine (a calcium channel blocker, 10mg/kg, p.o.), both associated with piperine (1 or 2.5mg/kg), as compared to the piperine plus pilocarpine group. Moreover, the pilocarpine group pretreated with diazepam (which binds to the GABAA receptor, 0.2 and 0.5mg/kg, i.p.) plus piperine (1 and 2.5mg/kg) significantly increased latency to the 1st convulsion, as related to the pilocarpine group, suggesting that the GABAergic system is involved with the piperine action. Furthermore, the piperine effect was blocked by flumazenil (2mg/kg, i.p.), a benzodiazepine antagonist. Untreated P350 animals showed decreased striatal DA and increased DOPAC and HVA levels that were not affected in the piperine plus pilocarpine groups. Piperine increased striatal levels of GABA, glycine and taurine, and reversed pilocarpine-induced increases in nitrite contents in sera and brain. Hippocampi from the untreated pilocarpine group showed an increased number of TNF-? immunostained cells in all areas, as opposed to the pilocarpine group pretreated with piperine. Taken together, piperine anticonvulsant effects are the result of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, as well as TNF-? reduction. In addition, piperine effects on inhibitory amino acids and on the GABAergic system may certainly contribute to the drug anticonvulsant activity. PMID:23313550

  4. Use of pilocarpine-induced alimentary secretions to measure intestinal shedding of Salmonella enteritidis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Holt, P S; Porter, R E

    1992-01-01

    A technique has been developed that uses the parasympathomimetic drug pilocarpine to induce alimentary secretions in chickens for measuring local immune responses to Salmonella enteritidis strain SE6. A study was conducted to determine if these secretions could also be used to detect intestinal SE6 shedding. White leghorn chickens infected with 1 x 10(9) SE6 were samples weekly using cloacal swabs, and the isolation rates from these samples were compared with alimentary secretions induced by oral administration of phosphate-buffered saline followed 45 minutes later with an intraperitoneal injection of 5% pilocarpine. At 9 days postinfection, isolation rates from the alimentary secretions were significantly higher than isolation rates from the swabs, and by day 16 they were double those from the swabs. In separate small experiments, alimentary secretions induced by pilocarpine alone also had significantly more SE6 isolations than did cloacal swabs on two of three sampling times examined. Direct culture of feces resulted in numerically but not significantly greater SE6 isolations than did cloacal swabs on two of three sampling times. These results indicate that induced intestinal material is a better sample source than cloacal swabs for detecting S. enteritidis intestinal infections in chickens and could have many applications in intestinal pathogenesis research. PMID:1533116

  5. Pilocarpine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a ...

  6. A Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Langerhans Cells in Oral Mucosa, Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Pasupula, Ajay Prakash; Thokala, Madhusudan Rao; Muddana, Keerthi; Ramavath, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Background Langerhans cells (LCs) are immunocompetent cells resident within oral mucosa which, together with intraepithelial lymphocytes, play a role in mucosal defence. LCs play a role in the pathogenesis of Oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic mucocutaneous disorder thought to result from cell-mediated immune damage. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), LCs are thought to present tumour antigens to the lymphocytes. Aim To assess and compare LCs immuno-histochemically in normal mucosa, oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma using anti S100 antibody and to know whether LCs play any role in local immune response to these diseases. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 65 cases (study group), 30 oral lichen planus and 35 oral squamous cell carcinoma (15 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated and 6 poorly differentiated), that were randomly selected from the archives of department of oral pathology and along with control group consisting of 30 normal healthy mucosa. The tissue sections were stained immunohisto-chemically by using anti S100 antibody in each group for detection of LCs. Results There was significant change in mean value of number of LCs in the study groups i.e. OLP and OSCC when compared to that of control group. The results of our study also revealed that there was decrease in the mean value of langerhans cells as the tumour progressed from well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma to poorly differentiated LCs carcinoma. Conclusion A better understanding and clarity of LCs is pivotal for designing novel or improved therapeutic approaches that will allow proper functioning of LC’s in patients with OLP and OSCC, thus significantly reducing the morbidity of OLP and OSCC patients. PMID:26393210

  7. The Numbers Game: Oral History Compared with Quantitative Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpless, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Based on the work of William Stephenson, the "Q methodology," formulated in 1935, is compared to classic oral history in a case study of urban renewal. Results showed the methods to be complementary, both providing the same general description of citizen reaction to the project. (JDH)

  8. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ?0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  9. Studies of pilocarpine:carbomer intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, Ariana; Linck, Yamila Garro; Monti, Gustavo A; Genovese, Diego B; Jimenez Kairuz, Alvaro F; Manzo, Rubén H; Longhi, Marcela R

    2012-05-10

    The interactions between pilocarpine (PIL) and the anionic polyelectrolyte carbomer (CBR) were investigated. The effects of the chemical interactions on the chemical stability of the drug also were evaluated. The binary system was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis. The experiments showed that the complex, prepared by freeze-drying, is a solid amorphous form different from its precursors, thereby offering an interesting alternative for the preparation of extended release matrices. The solution stability of PIL was studied at pH 7 and 8, at 70 °C. The PIL solution stability was evaluated alone and in the presence of CBR. Results indicated that the drug in the presence of the polymer is 3.3 and 3.5 times more stable, at pH 7 and pH 8, respectively, than the drug without CBR. The activation energy and the frequency factor, according to Arrhenius plot, were estimated to be 13.9 ± 0.4 and 14.8 ± 0.5 kcalmol(-1), and 6.1 ± 0.3 and 7.6 ± 0.3, with and without the polymer, respectively. PMID:22349054

  10. Comparative Study of Oral Isotretinoin Versus Oral Isotretinoin + 20% Salicylic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Active Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sanjita; Panda, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acne is a self limiting condition that often results in scarring and disfigurement disproportionate to its clinical severity. Isotretinoin is considered the gold standard in the medical management of severe form of acne vulgaris. Salicyclic acid (SA) peels, a ?- hydroxy acid peel has got sebosuppressive effect and helps in faster resolution of acne with minimal scarring. It also decreases the post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Combining both the modalities is usually not advocated because of expected excessive dryness and irritation Aims: To compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin and oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: 60 consecutive patients with moderate to severe facial acne attending the skin department were randomized in to 2 groups. 1st group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily for 16 weeks and 2nd group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily along with 20% SA peels every two weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons Acne severity index (MASI).Right and left sides of the face were scored separately and total score was taken. Severity score was assessed monthly .Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation every month. Patients were asked to follow up once every 2 weeks or earlier in case of any adverse events. Results: Patients in both the groups revealed a reduction in the number of lesions. The 1st group showed a reduction of approximately 73.4% after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin for 16 weeks. The 2nd group showed a reduction of approximately 92.5 % after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin along with 20% SA peel once every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Conclusion: Both oral isotretinoin and combination of oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels once every 2 weeks are effective in treating moderate to severe acne but the combination showed significantly better clearance of acne than monotherapy with isotretinoin. PMID:24470716

  11. Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: a study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p?compared to 1% of dentists (p?oral health behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists. PMID:24655533

  12. Comparative evaluation of oral flupirtine and oral diclofenac sodium for analgesia and adverse effects in elective abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sandhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Khichy, Sudhir; Singh, Harsimrat; Singh, Kulwinder; Sharan, Radhe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flupirtine is a centrally-acting, nonopioid analgesic that interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Aim: The present study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of orally administered flupirtine and diclofenac sodium for postoperative pain relief. Settings and Design: In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, 100 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist grade I and II in the age group of 18–65 years of either sex undergoing elective abdominal surgeries were included after taking informed consent. Materials and Methods: The present study started after 12 h of surgery and patients were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each. For postoperative analgesia, group A received flupirtine 100 mg orally and group B received diclofenac sodium 50 mg orally and study drugs were repeated every 6 hourly for 5 days postoperatively. Vital parameters and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain were recorded at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h, and adverse effects were noted for 48 h of the study period. Statistical Analysis: Data were compiled and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test and two-tailed Student's t-test. Results: Visual analogue scores decreased more rapidly in diclofenac group during 1st h, hence there was rapid onset of analgesia in this group as compared to flupirtine group but later on VAS was comparable in both groups at all measured intervals (P > 0.05). Patients in diclofenac group experienced significantly more heartburn (P = 0.00), impaired taste sensation (P < 0.001) and dizziness (P = 0.004) as compared to flupirtine group. Conclusion: Oral flupirtine and diclofenac sodium were equally effective for postoperative analgesia. There was faster onset of analgesia with diclofenac sodium, but flupirtine was better tolerated by the patients because of its minimal adverse effects. PMID:25886424

  13. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  14. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    PubMed Central

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  15. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex. Participants The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Methods The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed. Results Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE. PMID:22915898

  16. Mandarin Oral Narratives Compared with English: The Pear/Guava Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbaugh, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)…

  17. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE
    Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1
    1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  18. Indian Education: Causal Comparative Research of Oral Reading Fluency for Native American First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redgrave, Crystal J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the reading research over the past forty years, there is a dearth of research in early literacy skills for Native American students. More specifically, there is a shortage of quantitative research for this population. The purpose of this quantitative causal comparative study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the oral

  19. The Canadian systemic sclerosis oral health study: orofacial manifestations and oral health-related quality of life in systemic sclerosis compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Tatibouet, Solène; Steele, Russell; Lo, Ernest; Gravel, Sabrina; Gyger, Geneviève; Sayegh, Tarek El; Pope, Janet; Fontaine, Audrey; Masseto, Ariel; Matthews, Debora; Sutton, Evelyn; Thie, Norman; Jones, Niall; Copete, Maria; Kolbinson, Dean; Markland, Janet; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Robinson, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare oral abnormalities and oral health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with SSc with the general population. Methods. SSc patients and healthy controls were enrolled in a multisite cross-sectional study. A standardized oral examination was performed. Oral HRQoL was measured with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between SSc, oral abnormalities and oral HRQoL. Results. We assessed 163 SSc patients and 231 controls. SSc patients had more decayed teeth (SSc 0.88, controls 0.59, P = 0.0465) and periodontal disease [number of teeth with pocket depth (PD) >3 mm or clinical attachment level (CAL) ?5.5 mm; SSc 5.23, controls 2.94, P < 0.0001]. SSc patients produced less saliva (SSc 147.52 mg/min, controls 163.19 mg/min, P = 0.0259) and their interincisal distance was smaller (SSc 37.68 mm, controls 44.30 mm, P < 0.0001). SSc patients had significantly reduced oral HRQoL compared with controls (mean OHIP score: SSc 41.58, controls 26.67, P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analyses confirmed that SSc was a significant independent predictor of missing teeth, periodontal disease, interincisal distance, saliva production and OHIP scores. Conclusion. Subjects with SSc have impaired oral health and oral HRQoL compared with the general population. These data can be used to develop targeted interventions to improve oral health and HRQoL in SSc. PMID:24464709

  20. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-08-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  1. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  2. Comparable aciclovir exposures produced by oral valaciclovir and intravenous aciclovir in immunocompromised cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Höglund, M; Ljungman, P; Weller, S

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparability of systemic aciclovir exposure at steady state in immunocompromised patients following oral valaciclovir 1000 mg tds and intravenous (iv) aciclovir 5 mg/kg tds. A two-centre, randomized, open label, two-way crossover study was undertaken. Patients aged 18-65 years who had undergone high-dose chemotherapy for cancer and were neutropenic (neutrophil count <0.5 x 109/mL) with normal renal function were recruited. The pharmacokinetic parameters of aciclovir after oral valaciclovir 1000 mg or iv aciclovir 5 mg/kg given as 1 h infusion, each administered every 8 h for seven doses, were compared. Fifteen patients were enrolled and 13 completed both treatments. The mean (s.d.) values for aciclovir after oral valaciclovir and iv aciclovir were: AUC0-8 76.3 (29.7) and 64.2 (20.0) microM x h; peak plasma concentration (Cmax) 26.6 (10.5) and 34.0 (11.9) microM; time to maximal plasma concentration (tmax) 2.01 (0.65) and 0.95 (0.19); and plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) 2.83 (0.91) and 2.44 (0.62) h, respectively. The mean absolute bioavailability of aciclovir from oral valaciclovir was 60 +/- 21%. Equivalent systemic exposure to aciclovir after oral valaciclovir 1000 mg and iv aciclovir 5 mg/kg was observed with AUC0-8 (oral/iv ratio = 1.16; 90% CI 0.98-1.39), whilst significantly reduced peak aciclovir concentrations were obtained with oral valaciclovir (ratio = 0.75; 90% CI 0.60-0.94). Oral valaciclovir offers a convenient, and possibly safer, alternative to iv aciclovir, delivering comparable systemic exposures with reduced peak levels. This may contribute to shorter hospitalization, reduced costs for healthcare providers and improved quality of life for patients. PMID:11389118

  3. Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits

    E-print Network

    Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

    1995-01-01

    formulation (Oftan Pilocarpin®, 163 mM) was purchased from Leiras Oy (Finland). Pilocarpine eyedrops (pH = 5.0) contained pilocarpine hydrochloride 40 mg/mL and 96 benzalkonium chloride 40 \\ig/mL. Pilocarpine prodrug and pilocarpine prodrug containing SBE4... with sodium chloride. The pilocarpine prodrug solutions were prepared equivalent to a 0.5% and a 1.0% pilocarpine solution. The control solutions were 0.9% sodium chloride solution (Sigma Chemical Co. St. Louis, M O , pH was adjusted to 5...

  4. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

  5. Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.

    PubMed

    Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvão, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2015-02-01

    Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides--triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features--have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7% lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8% lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Total weight gain, intake, energy intake, and feed efficiency coefficient, prior to induction of SE, differed between groups (P < 0.05), where the triheptanoin-based KD group showed less weight gain than all other groups, less energy intake than the Control group and intermediate values of feed efficiency coefficient between Control and other KDs groups. Triheptanoin-based KD may have a neuroprotective effect on the establishment of SE in Wistar rats. PMID:25005004

  6. Favorable therapeutic response of osteoporosis patients to treatment with intravenous zoledronate compared with oral alendronate

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bogami, Mohammed M.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed A.; Bystrom, Jonas; Akanle, Olufunso A.; Al-Adhoubi, Nasra K.; Jawad, Ali S.; Mageed, Rizgar A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of orally-administered alendronate compared with intravenously-administered zoledronate. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at Barts Health HNS Trust between April 2010 and March 2012. This study compares changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in 234 patients treated with 2 bisphosphonates: alendronate taken orally, and zoledronate administered intravenously. One hundred and eighteen patients received alendronate at 70 mg/week, while 116 patients received zoledronate once annually. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMD of the left hip and anterior-posterior spine (lumbar L1-L4) skeletal sites at baseline, and at one-, and 2-years post-treatment. Results: This study provides evidence that lumbar spine BMD increased by 3.6% in patients receiving alendronate, and 5.7% in patients receiving zoledronate after 2 years compared with baseline values (p=0.0001 for both). Total hip BMD decreased in patients treated with alendronate by 0.4% but increased in patients receiving zoledronate by 0.8% (p=0.0001). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that zoledronate is more effective than alendronate in treating patients with osteoporosis and with no gastrointestinal (GI) serious side effects. Furthermore, zoledronate appears to have the added advantage of a better safety profile in patients suffering from GI intolerance of oral bisphosphonates. PMID:26593163

  7. Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Milán; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidán, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice. PMID:24060558

  8. Abnormal metabolic connectivity in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model: a multiscale network analysis based on persistent homology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hongyoon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyekyoung; Im, Hyung-Jun; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, E Edmund; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Here we investigated metabolic connectivity in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model and applied a new multiscale framework to the analysis of metabolic networks of small-animal brains. [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET was acquired in pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy rats and controls to yield interregional metabolic correlation by inter-subject manner. When interregional correlation of epilepsy rats and controls was compared directly, the epilepsy rats showed reduced connectivity involving the left amygdala and left entorhinal cortex. When regional graph properties were calculated to characterize abnormal nodes in the epileptic brain network, the epilepsy rats showed reduced nodal and local efficiencies in the left amygdala. Then, a new multiscale framework, persistent brain network homology, was used to examine metabolic connectivity with a threshold-free approach and the difference between two networks was analyzed using single linkage distances (SLDs) of all pairwise nodes. We found a tendency for longer SLDs between the left insula/left amygdala and bilateral cortical/subcortical structures in the epilepsy rats. Persistent brain network homology analysis as well as interregional correlation study implied the abnormal left limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat models. In conclusion, we found a globally disrupted network in the epileptic brain in rats, particularly in the limbic and paralimbic structures by direct comparison, graph properties and multiscale network analysis. These results demonstrate that the multiscale and threshold-free network analysis can be used to find the network abnormality in small-animal brains as a preclinical research. PMID:24857713

  9. Relative bioavailability and comparative clinical efficacy of different ivermectin oral formulations in lambs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy among oral formulations routinely used in sheep. The main goal of the work reported here was to perform a pharmaco-parasitological assessment of three different IVM oral formulations in lambs infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The comparative drug systemic exposure (IVM plasma concentrations) and nematodicidal efficacies (clinical efficacy) in lambs were determined for a reference (RF) and two different test (T1, T2) IVM oral formulations. One hundred and fifty six (n= 156) healthy Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into four experimental groups (n=39). Animals in each group received treatment (200 ?g/kg) with either the RF, one of the test IVM formulations or were kept as untreated control. Blood samples were collected over 15 days post-treatment (n=8). The IVM plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) (n=39) and evaluation of the clinical efficacy were performed at day 14 post-treatment (n=6), where a predominance of IVM highly resistant nematodes was observed. Results and conclusions Neither the overall kinetic behaviour nor the IVM systemic exposure differed among all the tested oral formulations. Equivalent efficacy results were obtained for the different preparations, with an evident therapeutic failure to control Haemonchus spp. and Teladorsagia circumcincta, which correlates with a high degree of nematode resistance to IVM. PMID:23398629

  10. The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

  11. Degrees of Orality in Speech-like Corpora: Comparative Annotation of Chat and E-mail Corpora

    E-print Network

    Degrees of Orality in Speech-like Corpora: Comparative Annotation of Chat and E-mail Corpora annotation of a chat and an e-mail corpus of together 117 million words, using a modular Constraint Grammar and word class distribution. Keywords: chat corpus, e-mail corpus, orality, parsing, Constraint Grammar

  12. Is the burden of oral diseases higher in urban disadvantaged community compared to the national prevalence?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The urban low income has often been assumed to have the greatest dental treatment needs compared to the general population. However, no studies have been carried out to verify these assumptions. This study was conducted to assess whether there was any difference between the treatment needs of an urban poor population as compared to the general population in order to design an intervention programme for this community. Methods A random sampling of living quarters (households) in the selected areas was done. 586 adults over 19 years old living in these households were clinically examined using World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Survey criteria 4th edition (1997). Results The overall prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, denture wearers and temporomandibular joint problems were 70.5%, 97.1%, 16.7% and 26%, respectively. The majority (80.5%) needed some form of dental treatment. The highest treatment needs were found in the oldest age group while the lowest were in the youngest group (19-29 years) (p = 0.000). The most prevalent periodontal problem was calculus; regardless of gender, ethnicity and age. Significantly more females (20.5%) wore prosthesis than males (11.1%) (p = 0.003). Prosthetic status and need significantly increased with age (p = 0.000). About one in four adults had Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) problems. Overall, it was surprising to note that the oral disease burden related to caries, prosthetic status and treatment need were lower in this population as compared to the national average (NOHSA, 2010). However, their periodontal disease status and treatment needs were higher compared to the national average indicating a poor oral hygiene standard. Conclusions The evidence does not show that the overall oral disease burden and treatment needs in this urban disadvantaged adult population as higher than the national average, except for periodontal disease. The older age groups and elderly were identified as the most in need for oral health intervention and promotion. An integrated health intervention programme through a multisectoral common risk factor approach in collaboration with the Faculties of Medicine, Dentistry and other agencies is needed for the identified target group. PMID:25438162

  13. Comparing the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone on behaviors by undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joan S; Dawkins, Denise; Molhook, Lori; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E

    2014-09-01

    Complex healthcare, less resources, high-level medical equipment, and fewer available clinical settings have led many health professionals to use simulation as a method to further augment educational experiences for nursing students. While debriefing is recommended in the literature as a key component of simulation, the optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. This pre- and posttest two-group randomized quasi-experimental design compared the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing (VAOD) and oral debriefing alone (ODA) on behaviors of 48 undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Further, this study examined whether roles (e.g., team leader, medication nurse), type of scenarios (i.e., pulmonary and cardiac scenarios), and student simulation team membership (i.e., VAOD and ODA groups) influenced these behaviors. Behaviors observed in this study related to patient safety, communication among team members, basic- and problem-focused assessment, prioritization of care, appropriate interventions, and delegation to healthcare team members. Both human patient simulator practice and guidance using video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone appeared to be comparable regarding behaviors, regardless of roles, type of scenarios, and student simulation team membership. These findings suggest that nurse educators may use either video-assisted oral debriefing or oral debriefing alone to debrief undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. PMID:24929548

  14. Central moxonidine on salivary gland blood flow and cardiovascular responses to pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Thiago Santos; Takakura, Ana Carolina Thomaz; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Renzi, Antonio; Menani, José Vanderlei

    2003-10-17

    Peripheral treatment with the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine induces intense salivation that is inhibited by central injections of the alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist moxonidine. Salivary gland blood flow controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems may affect salivation. We investigated the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and in the vascular resistance in the submandibular/sublingual gland (SSG) artery, superior mesenteric (SM) artery and low abdominal aorta (hindlimb) in rats treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) pilocarpine alone or combined with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) moxonidine. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannula implanted into lateral ventricle (LV) and anesthetized with urethane were used. Pilocarpine (4 micromol/kg of body weight) i.p. reduced SSG vascular resistance (-50+/-13% vs. vehicle: 5+/-3%). Pilocarpine i.p. also increased mesenteric vascular resistance (15+/-5% vs. vehicle: 2+/-3%) and MAP (16+/-3 mmHg, vs. vehicle: 2+/-3 mmHg). Moxonidine (20 nmol) i.c.v. increased SSG vascular resistance (88+/-12% vs. vehicle: 7+/-4%). When injected 15 min following i.c.v. moxonidine, pilocarpine i.p. produced no change on SSG vascular resistance. Pilocarpine-induced pressor responses and increase in mesenteric vascular resistance were not modified by i.c.v. moxonidine. The treatments produced no change in heart rate (HR) and hindlimb vascular resistance. The results show that (1) i.p. pilocarpine increases mesenteric vascular resistance and MAP and reduces salivary gland vascular resistance and (2) central moxonidine increases salivary gland vascular resistance and impairs pilocarpine-induced salivary gland vasodilatation. Therefore, the increase in salivary gland vascular resistance may play a role in the anti-salivatory response to central moxonidine. PMID:14499959

  15. Protein-caloric dietary restriction inhibits mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of TLE without significantly altering seizure phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Gustavo Henrique Souza; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Mello, Luiz Eugênio; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

    2015-11-01

    Given the known effects of undernutrition over protein synthesis, we promoted neonatal undernutrition to evaluate its effect over the neuroplasticity induced by the pilocarpine model of epilepsy and also over spontaneous seizure expression. A well-nourished group (WN), fed ad libitum rat chow diet, and an undernourished group (UN), fed 60% of the amount of diet consumed by a WN group, were submitted to status epilepticus (SE) through pilocarpine injection at 45 days of age. Thereafter, animals were behaviorally monitored for 6h daily to quantify seizures. On the 120th day, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and rats were sacrificed to measure proteins and glutamate release from hippocampus. Neo-Timm staining was used to detect mossy fiber sprouting. The results indicate no statistical difference in the latency for the first spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS), in the number of daily SRS, or in EEG epileptiform activity duration between groups. However, PILO promoted more K(+)-stimulated glutamate release in the hippocampus slices from WN animals when compared to the UN group. It was also found a lower degree of mossy fibers sprouting in UN group. Data from this work, thus, indicate that the decreased neuroplasticity as currently measured does not directly impact on the manifestation of spontaneous seizures. PMID:26432758

  16. Treatment of ocular rosacea: comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Aysegul; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Takmaz, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints. METHODS One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline. RESULTS Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes (P<0.001). Cyclosporine was more effective in symptomatic relief and in the treatment of eyelid signs (P=0.01). There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Cyclosporine as a topical drug can be used in the treatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage. PMID:26086005

  17. Comparative toxicity of silicon dioxide, silver and iron oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; You, Ji-Ran; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Ja-June; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Doo Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Che, Jeong-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    Although silicon dioxide (SiO2), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in diverse applications from food to biomedicine, in vivo toxicities of these nanoparticles exposed via the oral route remain highly controversial. To examine the systemic toxicity of these nanoparticles, well-dispersed nanoparticles were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats daily over a 13-week period. Based on the results of an acute toxicity and a 14-day repeated toxicity study, 975.9, 1030.5 and 1000 mg kg(-1) were selected as the highest dose of the SiO2 , Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively, for the 13-week repeated oral toxicity study. The SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not induce dose-related changes in a number of parameters associated with the systemic toxicity up to 975.9 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively, whereas the Ag nanoparticles resulted in increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium as well as lymphocyte infiltration in liver and kidney, raising the possibility of liver and kidney toxicity induced by the Ag nanoparticles. Compared with the SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles showing no systemic distribution in all tissues tested, the Ag concentration in sampled blood and organs in the Ag nanoparticle-treated group significantly increased with a positive and/or dose-related trend, meaning that the systemic toxicity of the Ag nanoparticles, including liver and kidney toxicity, might be explained by extensive systemic distribution of Ag originating from the Ag nanoparticles. Our current results suggest that further study is required to identify that Ag detected outside the gastrointestinal tract were indeed a nanoparticle form or ionized form. PMID:25752675

  18. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpyrifos versus its Major Metabolites Following Oral Administration in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Campbell, James A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Barr, Dana; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-31

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used diethylphosphorothionate organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) are products of in vivo metabolism and environmental degradation of CPF and are routinely measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure. Hence, urinary biomonitoring of TCPy, DEP and DETP may be reflective of an individual’s contact with both the parent pesticide and exposure to these metabolites. In the current study, simultaneous dosing of 13C- or 2H- isotopically labeled CPF (13Clabeled CPF, 5 13C on the TCPy ring; or 2H-labeled CPF, diethyl-D10 (deuterium labeled) on the side chain) were exploited to directly compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of CPF with TCPy, and DETP. Individual metabolites were co-administered (oral gavage) with the parent compound at equal molar doses (14 ?mol/kg; ~5mg/kg CPF). The key objective in the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites relative to their formation following a dose of CPF. Major differences in the pharmacokinetics between CPF and metabolites doses were observed within the first 3 h of exposure, due to the required metabolism of CPF to initially form TCPy and DETP. Nonetheless, once a substantial amount of CPF has been metabolized (? 3 h post-dosing) pharmacokinetics for both treatment groups and metabolites were very comparable. Urinary excretion rates for orally administered TCPy and DETP relative to 13C-CPF or 2H-CPF derived 13C-TCPy and 2H-DETP were consistent with blood pharmacokinetics, and the urinary clearance of metabolite dosed groups were comparable with the results for the 13C- and 2H-CPF groups. Since the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites were not modified by co-exposure to 3 CPF; it suggests that environmental exposure to low dose mixtures of pesticides and metabolites will not impact the pharmacokinetics of either.

  19. A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xin, Hongliang; Xu, Qunwei

    2013-10-15

    Poor corneal penetration and short preocular retention of a clinical hydrophilic drug, pilocarpine nitrate (PN), for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, limit its ocular application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for ocular delivery of PN. LCNPs were developed by a top-down method using glyceryl monoolein (GMO) and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS). The size of LCNP is 202.28±19.32 nm and the encapsulation efficiency reached 61.03%. The in vitro release profiles indicated that PN could keep sustained release from PN-loaded LCNPs for 8h. An ex vivo corneal permeation study revealed that the apparent permeability coefficient of PN-loaded LCNPs was 2.05-fold higher than that of commercial eye drops. In addition, the topical administration test showed that PN-loaded LCNPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) of rabbits compared with commercial drug and physiological saline. In conclusion, LCNPs had been demonstrated to be potential for controlled-release ocular drug delivery. PMID:23916822

  20. A randomised controlled trial to compare intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron in treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avantika; Manaktala, Usha; Rathore, Asmita Muthal

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose with oral iron therapy in pregnant patients with anemia. The primary outcome of the study was increase in haemoglobin on day 7, 14 & 28 and rise of serum ferritin over 28 days. The study population consisted of 100 patients with singleton pregnancy between 24 and 34 weeks, hemoglobin levels between 7.0-9.0 gm/dL and serum ferritin levels less than 15 ng/mL. The participants in the oral group were given daily 180 mg elemental iron in three divided oral doses for 4 weeks. Total calculated dose of iron sucrose with a target hemoglobin of 11 gm %, was given in 200 mg dose on alternate days. Mean haemoglobin rise was 0.58 gm/dL in the IV group as compared to 0.23 gm/dL in the oral group on day 14 and 1.9 gm/dL in the IV group & 1.3 gm/dL in the oral group on day 28, (p <0.05). In the IV group, 76% of the subjects achieved haemoglobin levels of ?11 gm% at the time of delivery, as compared to only 54% of the subjects in the oral group who achieved these levels. Serum ferritin value was significantly higher in the IV group, 37.45 ± 5.73 ng/mL as compared to 13.96 ± 1.88 ng/mL in the oral group at 4th week (p <0.001). There was no major side effect in the IV group. 36% subjects in the oral group developed gastrointestinal side effects & 10% of the subjects were non compliant. The rate of hemoglobin rise is faster with intravenous iron sucrose therapy as compared to oral iron therapy which can be beneficial in pregnant women presenting with anemia at a later period of gestation. Intravenous iron sucrose is very well tolerated during pregnancy. PMID:24839366

  1. Comparative oral dose toxicokinetics of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium accumulator plants.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Welch, K D; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Hall, J O

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of Se accumulator plants by livestock can result in Se intoxication. Recent research indicates that the Se forms most common in Se accumulator plants are selenate and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). In this study the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics of Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with a single oral dose of (1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Se/kg BW) of sodium selenate or MeSeCys were determined. The Se concentrations in serum and whole blood for both chemical forms of Se followed simple dose-dependent relationships. Se-methylselenocysteine was absorbed more quickly and to a greater extent in whole blood than sodium selenate, as observed by a greater peak Se concentration (Cmax; P < 0.0001), and faster time to peak concentration (Tmax; P < 0.0001) and rate of absorption (P < 0.0001). The rate of absorption and Tmax were also faster (P < 0.0001) in serum of lambs dosed with MeSeCys compared with those dosed sodium selenate at equimolar doses; however, Cmax in serum was greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with sodium selenate compared with those dosed MeSeCys at equimolar doses. The MeSeCys was absorbed 4 to 5 times faster into serum and 9 to 14 times faster into whole blood at equimolar Se doses. There were dose-dependent increases in the area under the curve (AUC) for Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with both sodium selenate and MeSeCys. In whole blood the MeSeCys was approximately twice as bioavailable as sodium selenate at equimolar doses as observed by the AUC, whereas in serum there were no differences (P > 0.05) in AUC at the same doses. At 168 h postdosing the Se concentration in whole blood remained much greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with MeSeCys as compared with lambs dosed with sodium selenate; however, the serum Se concentrations were not different between treatments at the same time point. The results presented in this study demonstrate that there are differences between the kinetics of different selenocompounds when orally dosed to sheep. Therefore, in cases of acute selenosis, it is important to understand the chemical form to which an intoxicated animal was exposed when determining the importance and meaning of Se concentration in serum or whole blood obtained at various times postexposure. PMID:23825349

  2. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  3. Studying Urban History through Oral History and Q Methodology: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rebecca S.

    Oral history and Q methodology (a social science technique designed to document objectively and numerically the reactions of individuals to selected issues) were used to investigate urban renewal in Waco, Texas. Nineteen persons directly involved in the city's relocation and rehabilitation projects granted interviews. From these oral histories, 70…

  4. Comparing Discussion and Lecture Pedagogy When Teaching Oral Communication in Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Yao

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, oral communication skills are increasingly important for business graduates who will start their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the best method to help business students enhance their oral communication skills during their college years. This research also helps professors to make their…

  5. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  6. Comparative evaluation of oral and dermal cypermethrin exposure on antioxidant profile in Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajdeep; Dar, Shabir Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Cypermethrin, a type II synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, @ 0.5mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive weeks produced mild signs of toxicity in buffalo calves. Significant changes were observed in various antioxidant parameters in blood. There was a marked increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation (33.9%) and enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (6.7%), superoxide dismutase (35.0%), catalase (43.7%), glutathione-S-transferase (64.4%), glutathione reductase (36.7%) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (32.1%). A significant decrease in blood glutathione (16.7%), total antioxidant activity (45.4%) and vitamin E (40.8%) was observed and no significant effect was found on blood selenium levels. However, the extent of lipid peroxidation (42%) and the depletion of glutathione (28.8%) was greater after dermal sub-acute toxicity of cypermethrin (0.25%) for 14 consecutive days. Similarly, it was observed that the incline in the enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (29.7%), superoxide dismutase (38.3%) and glutathione reductase (38.3%) was higher in dermally cypermethrin exposed animals. Thus, the present investigation contemplates that oxidative stress is the important mechanisms involved in cypermethrin-induced toxicity and the oxidative insult produced by dermal route is more severe as compared to oral intoxication. PMID:23623842

  7. A comparative study of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Dunson, T R; McLaurin, V L; Israngkura, B; Leelapattana, B; Mukherjee, R; Perez-Palacios, G; Saleh, A A

    1993-08-01

    A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate. PMID:8403908

  8. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  9. Comparative evaluation of transdermal diclofenac patch with oral diclofenac as an analgesic modality following root coverage procedures.

    PubMed

    Tejaswi, Devireddy Venkata; Prabhuji, M L V; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta

    2014-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is effective in the management of pain following periodontal surgery. However, oral administration of diclofenac can lead to gastrointestinal (GI) complications. To overcome these drawbacks, diclofenac is formulated as a transdermal patch, which delivers the drug into systemic circulation through skin. Twenty patients were selected for root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts bilaterally. Following the surgical procedure on the control sites, oral diclofenac sodium 100 mg was administered QD for 3 days. Following the surgical procedure on the contralateral test site, a transdermal diclofenac patch (TDP) was applied every 24 hours for 3 days. The TDP was effective in postoperative pain control following root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts. Pain tolerance was higher with the TDP as compared to oral administration, as it did not cause any GI complications. PMID:24983174

  10. Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

  11. Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso e Almendra Ibiapina; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Satyal, Prabodh; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-12

    Nimodipine has been shown to have an inhibitory action on seizures and brain damage in rodents. However, the pharmaceutical applicability of this drug is limited by its low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and high first-pass effect in the liver, which leads to low bioavailability. These difficulties can be overcome through the use of liposomes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine (NMD-Lipo) on pilocarpine-induced seizures. NMD-Lipo was prepared using the lipid-film hydration method. Central nervous system toxicity of NMD-Lipo was assessed by Hippocratic screening. Systemic toxicity was evaluated by analyses of biochemical and hematological parameters and by observing possible signs of toxicity. The possible anticonvulsant activity was tested by the pilocarpine model. The administration of the NMD-Lipo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg caused no toxicity in animals. Furthermore, NMD-Lipo prevented the installation of 100% of the pilocarpine-induced seizures and prevented the death of 100% of the mice treated with pilocarpine. These data shown that NMD-Lipo has an anticonvulsant activity significantly superior to free NMD, suggesting that the liposomes promoted a drug controlled release by improving its bioavailability and consequently increasing its pharmacological activity. PMID:25445375

  12. Factors affecting outcomes of pilocarpine treatment in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Paul S; Haney, Megan M

    2012-12-01

    Pilocarpine-treated mice are an increasingly used model of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, outcomes of treatment can be disappointing, because many mice die or fail to develop status epilepticus. To improve animal welfare and outcomes of future experiments we analyzed results of previous pilocarpine treatments to identify factors that correlate with development of status epilepticus and survival. All treatments were performed by one investigator with mice of the FVB background strain. Results from 2413 mice were evaluated for effects of sex, age, body weight, and latency between administration of atropine methyl bromide and pilocarpine. All parameters correlated with effects on outcomes. Best results were obtained from male mice, 6-7 weeks old, and 21-25 g, with pilocarpine administered 18-30 min after atropine methyl bromide. In that group only 23% failed to develop status epilepticus, and 64% developed status epilepticus and survived. Those results are substantially better than that of the total sample in which 31% failed to develop status epilepticus and only 34% developed status epilepticus and survived. PMID:22721955

  13. Factors affecting outcomes of pilocarpine treatment in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Buckmaster, Paul S.; Haney, Megan M.

    2012-01-01

    Pilocarpine-treated mice are an increasingly used model of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, outcomes of treatment can be disappointing, because many mice die or fail to develop status epilepticus. To improve animal welfare and outcomes of future experiments we analyzed results of previous pilocarpine treatments to identify factors that correlate with development of status epilepticus and survival. All treatments were performed by one investigator with mice of the FVB background strain. Results from 2413 mice were evaluated for effects of sex, age, body weight, and latency between administration of atropine methyl bromide and pilocarpine. All parameters correlated with effects on outcomes. Best results were obtained from male mice, 6–7 weeks old, and 21–25 g, with pilocarpine administered 18–30 min after atropine methyl bromide. In that group only 23% failed to develop status epilepticus, and 64% developed status epilepticus and survived. Those results are substantially better than that of the total sample in which 31% failed to develop status epilepticus and only 34% developed status epilepticus and survived. PMID:22721955

  14. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P?oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa and diagnosis of early precancerous changes in the oral cavity based on non-invasive monitoring of neovascularization. PMID:25987341

  15. Mucosal HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through oral compared to vaginal and rectal routes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingke; Vajdy, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field There are currently over thirty million people infected with HIV and there are no vaccines available to prevent HIV infections or disease. The genitourinary, rectal and oral mucosa are the mucosal HIV transmission routes. An effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and local mucosal immunity is generally accepted as a major means of protection against mucosal HIV transmission and AIDS. What the reader will gain Structure and cells that comprise the oral, vaginal and rectal mucosa pertaining to HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through each mucosal route to prevent mucosal and systemic infection will be discussed. Areas covered in this review Covering publications from 1980’s through 2010, mucosal transmission of HIV and current and previous approaches to vaccinations are discussed. Take home message Although oral transmission of HIV is far less common than vaginal and rectal transmissions, infections through this route do occur through oral sex as well as vertically from mother to child. Mucosal vaccination strategies against oral and other mucosal HIV transmissions are under intense research but the lack of consensus on immune correlates of protection and lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems hamper progress towards a licensed vaccine. PMID:20624114

  16. First report on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in exhaled breath compared to plasma and oral fluid after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Rosenborg, Staffan; Stenberg, Marta; Beck, Olof

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath (EB) is a promising matrix for bioanalysis of non-volatiles and has been routinely implemented for drugs of abuse analysis. Nothing is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and their metabolites in EB. Therefore, we used tramadol as a model drug. Twelve volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and repeated sampling of EB, plasma, and oral fluid (OF) was done for 48h using a particle filter device for EB and the Quantisal-device for OF. Samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic correlations between matrices were investigated. The initial tramadol half-life in EB was shorter than in plasma but it reappeared in EB after 8-24h. The ratio of O-desmethyltramadol to tramadol was considerably lower in EB and OF compared to plasma. This pilot study compared for the first time the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug and active metabolite in different biomatrices including EB and demonstrated its potential for bioanalysis. PMID:26388171

  17. Downregulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Hernandez, Eder F.; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; rancisco, Sebastian F; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

    2008-01-01

    In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures. PMID:18295190

  18. Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Womack, Catherine Marie

    2008-01-01

    , Winnubst J, de Leeuw J. Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer: Analysis of Patient Delay at Different Tumor Stages. Head and Neck. 2005;27:939?945. 5. Holmes J,Dierks E, Homer L, Potter B. Is Detection of Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cancer by a Dental Health... Dietetic Association. 2004;104(4):1273- 1276. 20. D?Souza G, Kreimer A, Viscidi R, et al. Case?Control Study of Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1944-56. 21. Ryerson A, Peters E, Coughlin S, et al. Burden...

  19. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

  20. Comparative metabolism studies of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers in male rats following a single oral dose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively 42% of dose for alpha-HBCD,...

  1. Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E.

    2013-11-20

    Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

  2. Comparative toxicokinetics, absolute oral bioavailability, and biotransformation of zearalenone in different poultry species.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; Broekaert, Nathan; De Baere, Siegrid; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-05-27

    After oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) administration of zearalenone (ZEN) to broiler chickens, laying hens, and turkey poults, the mycotoxin was rapidly absorbed (Tmax = 0.32-0.97 h) in all three species; however, the absolute oral bioavailability was low (F% = 6.87-10.28%). Next, also a rapid elimination of the mycotoxin in all poultry species was observed (T(1/2el) = 0.29-0.46 h). Both ?- and ?-zearalenone (ZEL) were formed equally after IV administration in all species studied, whereas an increased biotransformation to ?-ZEL was demonstrated after PO administration, indicating presystemic biotransformation mainly in broiler chickens and laying hens. In comparison to the latter, turkey poults demonstrated a more extensive biotransformation of ZEN to ?-ZEL after PO administration which could, in combination with the observed higher volume of distribution of ZEN, indicate a higher sensitivity of this species to the effects of ZEN in comparison to other poultry species. PMID:25947104

  3. Comparative study of stress reactions during oral surgery after pindolol and metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Brisse, B; Tetsch, P; Schwill, E; Bender, F

    1983-01-01

    The prophylactic effect of a single oral dose of 5 mg pindolol (P) or 100 mg metoprolol (M) on sympathetic and adrenergic stress reactions was investigated by a double blind study in 40 patients undergoing oral surgery. A reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as heart rate was noted after both, P and M, as was the increase of these parameters during surgery. Adrenaline-, noradrenaline- and c-AMP-level were reduced after systematic beta-blockade by P only, not after M. The increased lipolysis and glycolysis during surgery were prevented by P only. The stimulation of the hypothalamic and adrenal stress reactions were not influenced by either P or M. The application of the systematic beta-blocker with ISA (P) only was suited to prevent the increase of catecholamine levels in plasma and peripheral receptor stimulation. PMID:6314054

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of different oral nifedipine preparations in healthy Brazilian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Jorge, R; Sudo, R T; Melo, P A; Suarez-Kurtz, G

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of different pharmaceutical preparations of oral nifedipine--Adalat (capsule), Oxcord and Cardalin (tablets)--was determined after administration of single oral doses of 10 mg to nine healthy young Brazilian volunteers (7 men). 2. There were no significant changes in heart rate or systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured in the sitting position within 8 h of nifedipine administration to these normotensive volunteers. No side effects were reported by the volunteers or observed by the attending physicians during the study. 3. No significant differences were observed among the three preparations in relation to the following pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the plasma concentration-time curves: area under the curve (AUC), slope (beta) and half-life (T1/2) of the elimination phase, volume of distribution (Vd/F) and total body clearance (CL/F), both expressed as functions of the oral bioavailability (F) of nifedipine. 4. The peak plasma concentration of nifedipine (Cmax) and the time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were not different for the two tablet preparations. However, Cmax was significantly higher, and Tmax was significantly shorter for the capsule. These data indicate that the capsule and the tablet preparations are not bioequivalent. PMID:1342215

  5. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Randomized Trial Comparing Oral Uracil and Tegafur and Oral Leucovorin Vs. Intravenous 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, Alejandro de la Garcia-Berrocal, Maria Isabel; Arias, Fernando; Marino, Alfonso; Valcarcel, Francisco; Magallon, Rosa; Regueiro, Carlos A.; Romero, Jesus; Zapata, Irma; Fuente, Cristina de la; Fernandez-Lizarbe, Eva; Vergara, Gloria; Belinchon, Belen; Veiras, Maria; Moleron, Rafael; Millan, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a randomized trial, 5-fluorouracil (FU) plus leucovorin (LV) (FU+LV) vs. oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus LV (UFT+LV) given concomitantly with preoperative irradiation in patients with cT3-4 or N+ rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients were entered onto the trial. Patients received pelvic radiotherapy (4500-5,040 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks) and chemotherapy consisting of two 5-day courses of 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d LV and 350 mg/m{sup 2}/d FU in the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy (77 patients) or one course of 25 mg/d oral LV and 300 mg/m{sup 2}/d UFT for 4 weeks beginning in the second week of radiotherapy (78 patients). The primary endpoints were pathologic complete response (pCR) and resectability rate. Secondary endpoints included downstaging rate, toxicity, and survival. Results: Grade 3-5 acute hematologic toxicity occurred only with FU+LV (leukopenia 9%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in resectability rates (92.1% vs. 93.4%; p = 0.82). The pCR rate was 13.2% in both arms. Tumor downstaging was more frequent with UFT+LV (59.2% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.04). Three-year overall survival was 87% with FU+LV and 74% with UFT+LV (p = 0.37). The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence were 7.5% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.619; relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval 0.32-6.55). Conclusion: Although this study lacked statistical power to exclude clinically significant differences between both groups, the outcome of patients treated with UFT+LV did not differ significantly from that of patients treated with FU+LV, and hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in the experimental arm.

  6. Is rheumatoid arthritis a disease that starts in the intestine? A pilot study comparing an elemental diet with oral prednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Podas, Thrasyvoulos; Nightingale, Jeremy M D; Oldham, Roger; Roy, S; Sheehan, Nicholas J; Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This pilot study aimed to determine if an elemental diet could be used to treat patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and to compare its effect to that of oral prednisolone. Methods Thirty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly allocated to 2?weeks of treatment with an elemental diet (n?=?21) or oral prednisolone 15?mg/day (n?=?9). Assessments of duration of early morning stiffness (EMS), pain on a 10?cm visual analog scale (VAS), the Ritchie articular index (RAI), swollen joint score, the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, global patient and physician assessment, body weight, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C?reactive protein (CRP) and haemoglobin, were made at 0, 2, 4 and 6?weeks. Results All clinical parameters improved in both groups (p<0.05) except the swollen joint score in the elemental diet group. An improvement of greater than 20% in EMS, VAS and RAI occurred in 72% of the elemental diet group and 78% of the prednisolone group. ESR, CRP and haemoglobin improved in the steroid group only (p<0.05). Conclusions An elemental diet for 2?weeks resulted in a clinical improvement in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, and was as effective as a course of oral prednisolone 15?mg daily in improving subjective clinical parameters. This study supports the concept that rheumatoid arthritis may be a reaction to a food antigen(s) and that the disease process starts within the intestine. PMID:17308218

  7. [Change in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in oral cancer patients based on a long-term comparative study].

    PubMed

    Végh, Dániel; Bányai, Dorottya; Ujpál, Márta

    2015-03-01

    Our research is focused on the incidence of diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolic disorders among oral cancer patients and the frequency of different oral localizations of cancer. Diabetes mellitus affects 7% of the Hungarian population. This study uses data spanning 14 years, with 2 datasets of 1998-1999 and 2012-2013, collected first hand by the authors. These datasets have led us to examine the blood glucose level in 267 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumours in the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus was found in 59 of them (22.1%), The blood glucose was elevated in 32 cases (12%). The most frequent tumor locations among the diabetic patients: labial, lingual and gingival tumors gingivae. Comparative epidemiological study demonstrates that in 2012-2013 dataset there was an increased observed percentage of people with diabetes mellitus [17.6% to 22.1%]. The percentage of patients with IFG (impaired fasting glucose) also increased from 9.8% to 12%. Overall the number of patients with glucose metabolic disorders climbed from 27.4% to 34.1%, (p > 0.05). Our intention of this introductory analysis is to emphasize the close connection of these two very important disease groups, and the wider spread of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26117953

  8. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  9. Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

    1986-01-01

    Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

  10. A comparative study of apoptosis in reticular and erosive oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Brant, Juliana M C; Aguiar, Maria Cássia F; Grandinetti, Helenice A M; Rodrigues, Luciana V; Vasconcelos, Anilton C

    2012-01-01

    The oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, probably autoimmune, with different clinical forms. The most common types are the reticular and the erosive ones. Apoptosis participates in the destruction of basal keratinocytes, but its role in the perpetuation of the subepithelial lymphocytic infiltrates was not yet investigated. To evaluate the involvement of apoptosis in the epithelium and in subepithelial lymphocytic infiltrates, 15 samples of reticular and erosive OLP and 10 samples of healthy oral mucosa were collected and processed histologically. Apoptosis was quantified in the epithelium and in inflammatory cell infiltrates. TUNEL reaction was used to measure apoptosis in the infiltrates. Erosive OLP showed more intense epithelial apoptosis than reticular OLP and controls. In contrast, apoptosis in the inflammatory cell infiltrates was more frequent in reticular than in erosive OLP. Lymphocytes were the predominant cells within the inflammatory cell infiltrates and were more frequent in erosive OLP than in reticular type. These results suggest that different apoptotic levels are involved in the erosive/reticular switch in OLP, determining different clinical presentations. In conclusion, decreased apoptosis in inflammatory infiltrates may contribute to the persistence of T lymphocytes, worsening the attack to the epithelium in erosive OLP. PMID:23306235

  11. A randomized comparative study to determine the effect of omeprazole on the peak serum concentration of itraconazole oral solution

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Melissa D.; Hamilton, Carol D.; Drew, Richard H.; Sanders, Linda L.; Pennick, Gennethel J.; Perfect, John R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of omeprazole on peak serum concentrations (Cmax) of itraconazole oral solution (IOS), we carried out a randomized, open-label, prospective, crossover study. Fifteen healthy, non-pregnant adults received a single dose of IOS 400 mg on two occasions, at least 7 days apart, with omeprazole 40 mg nightly for 7 days before either IOS dose 1 or 2. Cmax, time to Cmax (Tmax) and AUC0–8 were determined for itraconazole and its active metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole, for each dose and compared. Omeprazole did not significantly affect the Cmax, Tmax or AUC0–8 of itraconazole or hydroxyitraconazole when administered as IOS. PMID:12562722

  12. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  13. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics of hypaconitine after oral administration of pure hypaconitine, Aconitum carmichaelii extract and Sini Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Hai; Sun, Sen; Sun, Feng-Feng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hypaconitine (HC) is one of the main aconitum alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaelii (AC), which is considered to be effective on cardiovascular disease, although it also has high toxicity. Sini Decoction (SND), composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Zingiber officinale, is a traditional Chinese multi-herbal formula for recuperating the depleted yang. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of HC in rat plasma after oral administration of HC, AC extract and SND, and investigate the effect of other two herbal ingredients on absorption, metabolism and elimination of HC. A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine HC in rat plasma. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: HC, AC and SND group. Plasma concentrations of HC were determined at designated points after oral administration, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there was obvious difference (p < 0.05) on the pharmacokinetic parameters among three groups. Compared with AC group, Tmax, Cmax, k, AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-?) decreased in SND group, while t1/2 and MRT had been lengthened, which indicated that the ingredients in other two herbs could influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of HC. PMID:25603501

  15. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J.; Harris, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. PMID:26568374

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J; Harris, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. PMID:26568374

  17. Comparative toxicokinetic study of rubber antioxidants, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercaptomethylbenzimidazole, by single oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakemi, K; Usami, M; Mitsunaga, K; Ohno, Y; Tsuda, M

    1999-12-01

    Toxicokinetics of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) and 2-mercaptomethylbenzimidazole (MMBI), rubber antioxidants with thioureylene structure, were compared after single oral administration in rats. Male Wistar rats received single oral administration of 2, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg of MBI or MMBI. The serum and urine concentrations of MBI and MMBI were determined by HPLC. MBI and MMBI showed similar Cmax values, but the former disappeared slower in the serum than the latter and resulted in its larger AUC values. Analyses of MBI, MMBI and their desulfurated metabolites in urine suggested that these differences were due to their metabolic elimination rates. On the other hand, MBI and MMBI caused similar acute toxicities, such as loss of locomotive activity, ataxic gait, adoption of prone or side position and coma, being severer with higher serum concentrations at the moment. Similar acute toxicities between MBI and MMBI were explained by similar Cmax values at the same dose. It was suggested from these results that the slower disappearance and larger AUC values of MBI in the serum compared to MMBI might explain the strong thyroid toxicity which has been observed by repeated administration of MBI, but very weak thyroid toxicity by MMBI. PMID:10656161

  18. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  19. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  20. The tumour stroma of oral squamous cell carcinomas show increased vascularity compared with adjacent host tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, S.; Powe, D. G.; Wilkinson, M.; Pearson, J.; Hewitt, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    For tumours to grow they must acquire an adequate blood supply, and the use of drugs to inhibit tumour vascularization is one promising approach to anti-cancer therapy. Clear information is therefore required on the vascular architecture of human tumours and animal tumour models used for testing anti-angiogenic therapies. Many previous studies on animal tumour models have shown that carcinomas are least vascular in their centres and that host tissues become more vascular with proximity to the tumour. However, we have previously found that many human colorectal carcinomas do not show this pattern. The present study on human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) again reveals significant differences. Paraffin sections from 24 SCCs were immunostained using the QBEnd-10 monoclonal antibody to demonstrate blood vessels, and these were quantified by interactive morphometry using a Kontron Videoplan system. In most carcinomas, viable tumour tissue was no less vascular in the tumour centre than in the tumour periphery. Although tumours are known to release angiogenic factors, viable tumour tissue was less vascular than adjacent host tissues. However, the tumour stroma, by itself, was more vascular than adjacent host tissues. Host tissue adjacent to tumour showed no obvious increase in vascular density with increasing proximity to the tumour edge, which suggests that tumour-released angiogenic factors are only effective over a short distance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9052411

  1. Comparative Metabolism Studies of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Diastereomers in Male Rats Following a Single Oral Dose.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur

    2016-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively accounting for 42% of dose for ?-HBCD, 59% for ß-HBCD, and 53% for ?-HBCD. Urine was also an important route of HBCD excretion, accounting for 13% of dose for ?-HBCD, 30% for ß-HBCD, and 21% for ?-HBCD. Total metabolism of HBCD diastereomers followed the rank order ß > ? > ?, and was >65% of that administered. The metabolites formed were distinct in male rats: ?-HBCD did not debrominate or stereoisomerize, but formed two hydroxylated metabolites; ß- and ?-HBCD were both extensively metabolized via pathways of stereoisomerization, oxidation, dehydrogenation, reductive debromination, and ring opening. ß-HBCD was biotransformed to two mercapturic acid pathway metabolites. The metabolites of ß- and ?-HBCD were largely distinct, and could possibly be used as markers of exposure. These isomer-specific data suggest that ?-HBCD would be the most dominant HBCD diastereomer in biological tissues because it was metabolized to the lowest degree and also accumulated from the stereoisomerization of the ?- and ?- diastereomers. PMID:26629593

  2. Comparative assessment of the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic forms of Hypericum perforatum extract on induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, N; Namazi, F; Andisheh Tadbir, A; Ebrahimi, H; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2014-10-01

    Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John's wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. PMID:24948410

  3. Comparative study of the effects of combined oral contraceptives in hemostatic variables: an observational preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F; Franceschini, Silvio A; Martinez, Edson Z; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Toloi, Maria Regina T

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30??g) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30??g) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30?kg/m², not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1?+?2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Oral Cholera Vaccination in Bangladesh: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Chao, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. Methods & Findings We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1–14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. Conclusions We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions. PMID:25473851

  5. Comparative Study of the Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives in Hemostatic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F.; Franceschini, Silvio A.; Martinez, Edson Z.; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M.; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S.; Toloi, Maria Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30??g) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30??g) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30?kg/m2, not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1?+?2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  6. Novel combinations of phenotypic biomarkers predict development of epilepsy in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The discovery and validation of biomarkers in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is an important challenge for early diagnosis of disease and for the development of therapeutics. Epilepsy is often a consequence of brain insults such as traumatic brain injury or stroke, but as yet no biomarker exists to predict the development of epilepsy in patients at risk. Given the complexity of epilepsy, it is unlikely that a single biomarker is sufficient for this purpose, but a combinatorial approach may be needed to overcome the challenge of individual variability and disease heterogeneity. The goal of the present prospective study in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats was to determine the discriminative utility of combinations of phenotypic biomarkers by examining their ability to predict epilepsy. For this purpose, we used a recent model refinement that allows comparing rats that will or will not develop spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Potential biomarkers included in our study were seizure threshold and seizure severity in response to timed i.v. infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and behavioral alterations determined by a battery of tests during the three weeks following SE. Three months after SE, video/EEG monitoring was used to determine which rats had developed SRS. To determine whether a biomarker or combination of biomarkers performed better than chance at predicting epilepsy after SE, derived data underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. When comparing rats with and without SRS and sham controls, the best intergroup discrimination was obtained by combining all measurements, resulting in a ROC area under curve (AUC) of 0.9592 (P<0.01), indicating an almost perfect discrimination or accuracy to predict development of SRS. These data indicate that a combinatorial biomarker approach may overcome the challenge of individual variability in the prediction of epilepsy. PMID:26539702

  7. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  8. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy – comparison with human epileptic samples

    PubMed Central

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  9. Effective termination of status epilepticus by rational polypharmacy in the lithium-pilocarpine model in rats: Window of opportunity to prevent epilepsy and prediction of epilepsy by biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Claudia; Töllner, Kathrin; Klee, Rebecca; Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The pilocarpine rat model, in which status epilepticus (SE) leads to epilepsy with spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), is widely used to study the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and develop strategies for epilepsy prevention. SE is commonly interrupted after 30-90min by high-dose diazepam or other anticonvulsants to reduce mortality. It is widely believed that SE duration of 30-60min is sufficient to induce hippocampal damage and epilepsy. However, resistance to diazepam develops during SE, so that an SE that is longer than 30min is difficult to terminate, and SE typically recurs several hours after diazepam, thus forming a bias for studies on epileptogenesis or antiepileptogenesis. We developed a drug cocktail, consisting of diazepam, phenobarbital, and scopolamine that allows complete and persistent SE termination in the lithium-pilocarpine model. A number of novel findings were obtained with this cocktail. (a) In contrast to previous reports with incomplete SE suppression, a SE of 60min duration did not induce epilepsy, whereas epilepsy with SRS developed after 90 or 120min SE; (b) by comparing groups of rats with 60 and 90min of SE, development of epilepsy could be predicted by behavioral hyperexcitability and decrease in seizure threshold, indicating that these read-outs are suited as biomarkers of epileptogenesis; (c) CA1 damage was prevented by the cocktail, but rats exhibited cell loss in the dentate hilus, which was related to development of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that the duration of SE needed for induction of epileptogenesis in this model is longer than previously thought. PMID:25549873

  10. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy--comparison with human epileptic samples.

    PubMed

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  11. The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate gel (Gelclair) on oral microbial colonization and pain control compared with other rinsing solutions in patients with oral mucositis after allogeneic stem cells transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vokurka, Samuel; Skardova, Jana; Hruskova, Renata; Kabatova-Maxova, Klara; Svoboda, Tomas; Bystricka, Eva; Steinerova, Katerina; Koza, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Gelclair is an oral lubricating gel used in the management of oral mucositis (OM). We evaluated its efficacy, tolerance and impact on oral cavity microbial colonization in patients with OM after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Material/Method Gelclair was administered in a group of 22 patients with active OM. A control group of 15 patients used other rinsing solutions (chlorhexidine, benzydamine, salvia). Tests with oral cavity swabs for microbiology analysis were performed once a week. Results The characteristics of OM in both groups were comparable, and rinsing solutions had satisfactory tolerability. There was no difference in the median improvement of oral intake and OM-related pain relief, which was assessed mostly as “slight effect”. In the Gelclair group, the effect duration was longer (median 3 [0–5] vs. 1 [0–3] hours, p=0.001). There was significant increase of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida sp. colonization of the oral cavity over the course of the hospitalization and significantly reduced incidence of such colonization in patients with OM in the Gelclair group: 1/22 (5%) vs. 6/15 (40%), p=0.01. In vitro tests showed inhibited growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida sp. colonies within the area of the Gelclair application. Conclusions Gelclair may be individually helpful in the management of OM and pain in patients after allogeneic stem cells transplantation. Its use did not lead to worsened oral bacterial and yeast colonization and probably even helped to protect mucosa from Enterococcus and Candida sp. Further studies based on larger cohorts are needed. PMID:21959611

  12. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a new oral long-acting formulation of doxycycline hyclate: A canine clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Arciniegas Ruiz, Sara Melisa; Gutiérrez Olvera, Lilia; Bernad Bernad, María Josefa; Caballero Chacón, Sara Del Carmen; Vargas Estrada, Dinorah

    2015-12-01

    Doxycicline is used in dogs as treatment of several bacterial infections, mycoplasma, chlamydia and rickettsial diseases. However, it requires long treatments and several doses to be effective. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of four formulations of doxycycline hyclate, administered orally, with different proportions of excipients, acrylic acid-polymethacrylate-based matrices, to obtain longer therapeutic levels than conventional formulation. Forty-eight dogs were randomly assigned in five groups to receive a single oral dose (20mg/kg) of doxycycline hyclate without excipients (control) or a long-acting formulation containing doxycycline, acrylic acid polymer, and polymethacrylate in one of the following four proportions: DOX1(1:0.25:0.0035), DOX2(1:0.5:0.0075), DOX3 (1:1:0.015), or DOX4(1:2:0.0225). Temporal profiles of serum concentrations were obtained at several intervals after each treatment. Therapeutic concentrations were observed for 60h for DOX1 and DOX4, 48h for DOX2 and DOX3 and only 24h for DOX-C. None of the pharmacokinetic parameter differed significantly between DOX1 and DOX2 or between DOX3 and DOX4; however, the findings for the control treatment were significantly different compared to all four long-acting formulations. Results indicated that DOX1 had the most adequate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships for a time-dependent drug and had longer release times than did doxycycline alone. However, all four formulations can be effective depend on the minimum effective serum doxycycline concentration of the microorganism being treated. These results suggest that the use of any of these formulations can reduce the frequency of administration, the patient's stress, occurrence of adverse effects and the cost of treatment. PMID:26393684

  14. Comparative Susceptibility of Mosquito Populations in North Queensland, Australia to Oral Infection with Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yixin H.; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; O'Neill, Scott L.; Beebe, Nigel W.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

  15. Comparative evaluation of oral gabapentin versus clonidine as premedication on preoperative sedation and laryngoscopic stress response attenuation for the patients undergoing general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Das, Haripada; Bandyopadhyay, Sambhunath; Hajra, Bimal Kumar; Mukherjee, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation (L and I) is associated with rise in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), leading to adverse cardiological outcome especially in susceptible individuals. To compare the BP, HR during L and I as well as to evaluate the preoperative sedation status between oral clonidine (Group C) and oral gabapentine (Group G) as premedication for the patients undergoing major surgery under general anesthesia (GA). Materials and Methods: From April 2008 to December 2009; in a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized controlled study; 100 adult patients of either sex, aged 20-45, of American Society of Anesthesiologists status I and II scheduled to undergo major surgery of >1 hour duration, randomly allocated into groups C and G were pre treated with oral clonidine (200 µg) and gabapentin (800 mg) respectively 2 h prior to induction. Preoperative sedation was assessed 2 h after premedication administration. Hemodynamic parameters were noted just before induction, during L and I 1,3,5,7, and10 min after intubation. The results obtained were then analyzed with statistical unpaired “t” test and Chi-square test and compared. Results and Analysis: Preoperative sedation between two groups were similar but group C attenuated HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) more significantly before induction, during L and I, 1, 3, and 5 min, following L and I, while comparing with group G. Again gabapentin-reduced HR, BP, (SBP, DBP, MBP) significantly more at 7 and 10 min after L and I on comparison clonidine. Conclusion: Oral clonidine is equally effective in producing preoperative sedation in comparison to oral gabapentin, while on the contrary oral clonidine is more efficacious in reducing laryngoscopic stress response than oral gabapentin. PMID:26623393

  16. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  17. A comparative study of oral health amongst trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 caries, malocclusion, trauma

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a genetic disorder stemming from a chromosomal abnormality and characterized by general and mental retardation. Depending on the population, T21 is known to affect 1 in every 600–2000 live births. The current literature provides a mixed view on the oral health status of T21 individuals. Aim To establish the prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma amongst children with T21 compared with non-T21 children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited non-T21 and T21 children between the ages of 7–15 years who were studying at the Saut Society. After informed consent was obtained from parents and both groups were matched by age and gender, trained examiners screened children at the dental clinic of King Saud University to record the presence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma in both groups. Results While there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (2.66 for T21 versus 3.11 for controls), T21 children had a higher prevalence of incisal fractures compared to the control group (24.73% versus 4.95%, respectively) and that was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were also highly significant group differences concerning the prevalence of malocclusion. Therein, 45% of T21 children had a Class III incisor relationship compared with 8% of control children, and 50% of T21 children had a Class III molar relationship compared with 8% of control children. Conclusions While there was no significant difference in the incidence of caries between children with and without T21, practitioners should be aware of the disparities in malocclusion and trauma in this vulnerable population. PMID:26644758

  18. Detrimental effect of post Status Epilepticus treatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kourdougli, Nazim; Varpula, Saara; Chazal, Genevieve; Rivera, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults where 20–30% of the patients are refractory to currently available anti-epileptic drugs. The RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway activation has been involved in inflammatory responses, neurite outgrowth and neuronal death under pathological conditions such as epileptic insults. Acute preventive administration of ROCK inhibitor has been reported to have beneficial outcomes in Status Epilepticus (SE) epilepsy. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of chronic post SE treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. We used chronic i.p. injections of Y-27632 for 5 days in 6 week old control rats or rats subjected to pilocarpine treatment as a model of TLE. Surprisingly, our findings demonstrate that a systemic administration of Y-27632 in pilocarpine-treated rats increases neuronal death in the CA3 region and ectopic recurrent mossy fiber sprouting (rMFS) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Interestingly, we found that chronic treatment with Y-27632 exacerbates the down-regulation and pathological distribution of the K+-Cl? cotransporter KCC2, thus providing a putative mechanism for post SE induced neuronal death. The involvement of astrogliosis in this mechanism appears to be intricate as ROCK inhibition reduces reactive astrogliosis in pilocarpine rats. Conversely, in control rats, chronic Y-27632 treatment increases astrogliosis. Together, our findings suggest that Y-27632 has a detrimental effect when chronically used post SE in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. PMID:26557054

  19. SITAGLIPTIN COMPARED WITH THIAZOLIDINEDIONES AS A THIRD-LINE ORAL ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AGENT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Stanley H.; Navar, Maria D.; Duran, Petra; Shaheen, Magda; Davidson, Mayer B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare sitagliptin and thiazolidinediones as third-line oral antihyperglycemic agents among ethnic minority patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods In an open-label, single-arm design, we treated type 2 diabetic patients who had suboptimal diabetes control on maximum tolerated dosages of metformin plus sulfonylureas with the addition of sitagliptin, 100 mg daily, and compared their responses with findings from a historical control group of similar patients treated with rosiglitazone, 8 mg daily, or pioglitazone, 45 mg daily, as their third-line oral agent. Patients were assessed bimonthly, and those who achieved hemoglobin A1c levels less than 7.5% at 4 months continued through 1 year of follow-up. Results One hundred eight patients were treated with sitagliptin, and 104 patients constituted the historical control group treated with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. At baseline, sitagliptin- and thiazolidinedione-treated patients had identical hemoglobin A1c levels (mean ± SD) (9.4 ± 1.8% and 9.4 ± 1.9%, respectively) and similar known diabetes duration (6.7 ± 5.0 years and 7.6 ± 5.8 years, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c was reduced in both groups at 4 months (P<.001), but the reduction was greater with thiazolidinediones than with sitagliptin (?2.0 ± 1.7% vs ?1.3 ± 1.8%; P = .006), as was the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin A1c level less than 7.5% (62% vs 46%; P = .026). Of all patients achieving a hemoglobin A1c level less than 7.5% at 4 months, the same proportions in each group sustained their hemoglobin A1c level less than 7.5% by 12 months (59% vs 58%). Sitagliptin was well tolerated. Conclusions Among ethnic minority patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes while taking maximum tolerated dosages of metformin and sulfonylureas, third-line add-on therapy with a thiazolidinedione controlled hyperglycemia more effectively than sitagliptin after 4 months. PMID:21550951

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer and racemic bambuterol after single-dose intravenous, oral administration in rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su; Hu, Chun-Yun; He, Meng-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tang, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jie-di; Huang, Li-Jie; Tan, Wen

    2015-12-01

    This study was to compare pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer bambuterol with its racemate. Pharmacokinetics of R-enantiomer was investigated after single-dose intravenous and three doses of oral administration to rats and beagle dogs. To compare the pharmacokinetics with racemic bambuterol, the same oral doses of racemic bambuterol were also administrated; the blood and bile samples were collected by cannulation. A validated LC-MS/MS method was used to assess the level of bambuterol in plasma and bile. After single intravenous administration, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs in pharmacokinetic data. After oral dosing of R-bambuterol, the AUCs of R-enantiomer presented linear correlation. After same oral dosing of R-enantiomer and its racemate, all the pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. However, the clearance and apparent distribution had different results due to species and administration route difference. The bile transformation of these two compounds was similar and implicated that liver transformation accounted for the major metabolism of them. The bioavailability of R-enantiomer and racemate were comparative and relatively high in beagle dogs. Thus, R-enantiomer had a comparative pharmacokinetic profile and bile transformation with racemic bambuterol in rats and beagle dogs. These findings provided references for further clinical study. PMID:25281237

  1. The Effect of Pimecrolimus Cream 1% Compared with Triamcinolone Acetonide Paste in Treatment of Atrophic-Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Delavarian, Zahra; Falaki, Farnaz; Khorashadizadeh, Mahboubeh; Saba, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive types of OLP often have symptoms of soreness, and require proper treatment. The main treatment for OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl cream (triamcinolone acetonide in orabase) with topical pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of erosive OLP. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with OLP were enrolled in a single blind clinical trial and assigned to either a pimecrolimus 1% cream group or an adcortyl 0.1% cream group. The medication was applied every day for 2 months and patients were assessed every 2 weeks. Results: The mean lesion size and mean pain and burning sensation scores did not differ between the pimecrolimus and adcortyl cream groups. The pimecrolimus cream was well tolerated. No clinical drug-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus cream may be recommended as a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of OLP. Pimecrolimus cream is as effective as adcortyl cream in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP. PMID:25938083

  2. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  3. The comparative effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine and herbal oral rinse on dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Devaki; Jain, Sanjay; Kale, Rahul; Muglikar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as a gold standard of antimicrobial rinses. Various herbal oral rinses are available in the market. However, little is known of its effectiveness. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical changes after the usage of herbal oral rinse and 0.12% CHX. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis were assigned to Group I (Herbal Oral Rinse - Hiora®) and 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis to Group II (0.12% Chlorhexidine-Peridex®). Gingival index and Plaque index scores were recorded at baseline and 21 days after scaling. Results: Intragroup comparison in both groups showed that plaque index and gingival index scores were statistically significant after 21 days as compared to baseline. Intergroup comparison showed that plaque index scores and gingival index scores were statistically significant in Group II as compared to Group I. Conclusion: When herbal oral rinse was compared to 0.12% CHX, 0.12% CHX mouth rinse effectively reduced the clinical symptoms of plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:26392686

  4. Academic Oral English Development Among Spanish-speaking English Language Learners: Comparing Transitional Bilingual and Structured English Immersion Models 

    E-print Network

    Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly; Mathes, Patricia; Kwok, Oi-man

    2010-10-22

    that they can familiarize oral vocabulary knowledge with what is read to them (letter-sound correspondence) (Kamil, 2004; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998) ? aural proficiency is necessary for successful communication in social and academic settings (Gottlieb...

  5. Comparing the effect of oral and vaginal isosorbide dinitrate in pre-induction cervical ripening in term pregnancy: A controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Ladan; Moukhah, Somayeh; Goshtasbi, Azita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical ripening for labor induction is one of the most important issues in midwifery. Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is one of the most important choices that have been proposed for cervical ripening, but still there are controversies regarding its prescription. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of vaginal and oral ISDN compared to the control group for pre-induction cervical ripening. Materials and Methods: In this non-blinded clinical trial, 149 nulliparous women with term or prolonged pregnancy were randomly selected and divided into three groups by block randomization. The intervention group included vaginal (50 subjects, 40 mg) and oral (49 subjects, 20 mg) ISDN groups. The third group was the control group (50 subjects) which did not receive any medication. The amount of ripening was given by Bishop score evaluated before taking medication and 24 h after taking it. Results: After 24 h, Bishop score in vaginal ISDN group significantly increased compared to the oral ISDN and control groups (P < 0.001 for both). Although the increase in Bishop score was lower in the oral ISDN group than in the vaginal group, it had a statistically significant increase in comparison to the control group (P = 0.001). All the three groups were matched regarding pregnancy termination and cesarean causes, and there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Prescribing vaginal ISDN for cervical ripening was effective, and it can be used with confidence. PMID:26284225

  6. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Warts Oral Warts Main Content Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on ...

  7. Cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    El-Haggar, Sahar M; Mostafa, Tarek M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associated cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills (COCPs) via determination of lipids profiles, Castelli index I, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations as cardiovascular risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, the study groups consisted of control group that represented by 30 healthy married women who were not on any contraceptive mean or any hormonal therapy and had normal menstrual cycles, group two consisted of 30 women who were users of Levonorgesterl 0.15 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, group three consisted of 30 women who were users of Gestodene 0.075 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, and group four consisted of 30 women who were users of Drospirenone 3 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle. One-way analysis of variance followed by LSD post hoc test was used for comparison of variables. P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. The comparison of the studied groups revealed that COCPs containing levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol resulted in significantly lower adiponectin level, and significantly higher leptin and resistin levels with more atherogenic lipid profile presented by significantly higher LDL-C, significantly lower HDL-C concentrations, and significantly higher atherogenic index. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with gestodene neither altered adipose tissue function nor showed deleterious effect on lipid panel. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with drospirenone resulted in significantly higher HDL-C and adiponectin concentrations. In conclusion, the uptake of COCPs containing levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol is associated with high cardiovascular risk since this formulation showed significantly lower adiponectin concentration, significantly higher leptin, resistin, and atherogenic index as compared to other studied groups. By contrast, the formulations containing ethinylestradiol combined with third generation progestin gestodene or fourth generation progestin drospirenone are associated with low cardiovascular risk since they neither altered adipose tissue function nor impaired lipoprotein metabolism as experienced by their favorable effect on leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, with non-changed atherogenic index, higher HDL-C levels and lower LDL-C levels as compared to levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol formulation. PMID:25539793

  8. Memory B Cell and Other Immune Responses in Children Receiving Two Doses of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine Compared to Responses following Natural Cholera Infection in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M.; Patel, Sweta M.; Aktar, Amena; Khanam, Farhana; Uddin, Taher; Riyadh, M. Asrafuzzaman; Saha, Amit; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Charles, Richelle; LaRocque, Regina; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than wild-type infection provides, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild-type disease versus vaccination, especially with regard to memory responses associated with long-term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2 to 5 years of age; n = 20) and older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 20) given two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against CtxB but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA, and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease than after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild-type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children. PMID:22441386

  9. A randomised titrated crossover study comparing two oral appliances in the treatment for mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Liu, Y H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of two oral appliances in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) by the analysis of objective and subjective evaluations and measurement of upper airway parameter. A randomised crossover design trial was carried out on 16 patients with OSAHS. Two different types of oral appliances were tested in each patient, a one-piece monoblock and the SILENT NITE(®) (GlideWell Laboratories, Newport Beach, CA, USA), a two-piece appliance. Each oral appliance needed to be worn for two 3-month periods separated by a 2-week wash-out period in between. The objective and subjective efficiency and upper airway parameters associated with the oral appliances were assessed. One-way analysis of variance (anova) test was performed to compare the changes in upper airway morphology and the treatment efficiency between the appliances. The monoblock and SILENT NITE(®) (GlideWell Laboratories) appliances reduced Apnoea Hypopnoea Index (AHI) from 26·38 ± 4·13 to 7·58 ± 2·28 (P < 0·001) and 8·87 ± 2·88 (P < 0·001), respectively. The monoblock appliance was statistically more efficient in reducing AHI and Apnoea Index (AI) than the SILENT NITE(®) (GlideWell Laboratories) (P < 0·05). The scores on Epworth's Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Snoring Scale (SS) were improved significantly by both appliances. The upper airway spaces showed considerable enlargement by both mandibular advancement appliances (MAAs) (P < 0·05), while no significant differences were found between the two appliances (P > 0·05). Both MAAs showed good efficacy in the treatment for mild to moderate OSAHS. Use of the monoblock appliance should be considered when patients with OSAHS choose MAA treatment, as it was more efficient in reducing the AHI and AI compared to the two-piece appliance and was preferred by most patients. Long-term efficiency should be evaluated in future prospective studies. PMID:23016888

  10. Comparing ONRAB® AND RABORAL V-RG® oral rabies vaccine field performance in raccoons and striped skunks, New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Rudd, Robert; Donovan, Dennis; Slate, Dennis; Kempf, Libby; Badcock, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Control of rabies in mesocarnivore reservoirs through oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires an effective vaccine bait. Oral rabies vaccine performance in the field may be affected by a variety of factors, including vaccine bait density and distribution pattern, habitat, target species population density, and the availability of competing foods. A field study in which these covariates were restricted as much as possible was conducted along the international border of the state of Maine (ME), USA, and the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada, to compare the performance of two oral rabies vaccines in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). RABORAL V-RG(®) (vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in fishmeal-coated sachet) or ONRAB(®) (adenovirus-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in Ultralite bait matrix) were distributed in ME and NB, respectively, by fixed-wing aircraft at a density of 75 baits/km(2) along parallel flight lines spaced 1.0 km apart. Sera were collected from live-trapped raccoons and skunks 5-7 wk post-ORV and assayed to determine antibody prevalence in each area. Duplicate serum samples were provided blind to two different laboratories for analyses by rabies virus serum neutralization assays (at both laboratories) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at one laboratory). There was no significant difference in the proportion of antibody-positive animals determined by the three serologic methods, nor was there a significant difference between ONRAB and RABORAL V-RG in the proportion of antibody-positive striped skunks observed post-ORV. In contrast, the proportion of antibody-positive raccoons was significantly higher in the ONRAB- versus the RABORAL V-RG-baited areas (74% vs. 30%; ?(2)=89.977, df=5, P<0.0001). These data support that ONRAB may serve as an effective tool for raccoon rabies control. PMID:22247384

  11. A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K; Altorjay, Istvan; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Gratzer, Cornelia; Nijhawan, Sandeep; Thomsen, Lars L

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label, non-inferiority study was conducted at 36 sites in Europe and India. Patients with known intolerance to oral iron were excluded. A total of 338 IBD patients in clinical remission or with mild disease, a hemoglobin (Hb) <12?g/dl, and a transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20% were randomized 2:1 to receive either IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 according to the Ganzoni formula (225 patients) or oral iron sulfate 200?mg daily (equivalent to 200?mg elemental iron; 113 patients). An interactive web response system method was used to randomize the eligible patient to the treatment groups. The primary end point was change in Hb from baseline to week 8. Iron isomaltoside 1,000 and iron sulfate was compared by a non-inferiority assessment with a margin of ?0.5?g/dl. The secondary end points, which tested for superiority, included change in Hb from baseline to weeks 2 and 4, change in s-ferritin, and TSAT to week 8, number of patients who discontinued study because of lack of response or intolerance of investigational drugs, change in total quality of life (QoL) score to weeks 4 and 8, and safety. Exploratory analyses included a responder analysis (proportion of patients with an increase in Hb ?2?g/dl after 8 weeks), the effect of regional differences and total iron dose level, and other potential predictors of the treatment response. RESULTS: Non-inferiority in change of Hb to week 8 could not be demonstrated. There was a trend for oral iron sulfate being more effective in increasing Hb than iron isomaltoside 1,000. The estimated treatment effect was ?0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.80, 0.06) with P=0.09 in the full analysis set (N=327) and ?0.45 (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.03) with P=0.04 in the per protocol analysis set (N=299). In patients treated with IV iron isomaltoside 1,000, the mean change in s-ferritin concentration was higher with an estimated treatment effect of 48.7 (95% CI: 18.6, 78.8) with P=0.002, whereas the mean change in TSAT was lower with an estimated treatment effect of ?4.4 (95% CI: ?7.4, ?1.4) with P=0.005, compared with patients treated with oral iron. No differences in changes of QoL were observed. The safety profile was similar between the groups. The proportion of responders with Hb ?2?g/dl (IV group: 67% oral group: 61%) were comparable between the groups (P=0.32). Iron isomaltoside 1,000 was more efficacious with higher cumulative doses of >1,000?mg IV. Significant predictors of Hb response to IV iron treatment were baseline Hb and C-reactive protein (CRP). CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate non-inferiority of IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 compared with oral iron in this study. Based on the dose–response relationship observed with the IV iron compound, we suggest that the true iron demand of IV iron was underestimated by the Ganzoni formula in our study. Alternative calculations including Hb and CRP should be explored to gauge iron stores in patients with IBD. PMID:24145678

  12. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bernard; Vicenzi, Morgane; Garrel, Catherine; Denis, Frédéric M.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83 µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation. PMID:26262996

  13. A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Saket J.; Mehta, Dimple S.; Shah, Hiral A.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Kikani, Kunjan M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Results: Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments. Conclusion: Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. PMID:24347774

  14. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Bernard; Vicenzi, Morgane; Garrel, Catherine; Denis, Frédéric M

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation. PMID:26262996

  15. Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25?mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. PMID:25069786

  16. Oral Bioavailability, Hydrolysis, and Comparative Toxicokinetics of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens and Pigs.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; De Mil, Thomas; Fraeyman, Sophie; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Vermeulen, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the absolute oral bioavailability, (presystemic) hydrolysis and toxicokinetic characteristics of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol in broiler chickens and pigs. Crossover animal trials were performed with intravenous and oral administration of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol to broilers and pigs. Plasma concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and data were processed via a tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic analysis. The results in broiler chickens showed that the absorbed fraction after oral deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol administration was 10.6, 18.2, and 42.2%, respectively. This fraction was completely hydrolyzed presystemically for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol to deoxynivalenol and to a lesser extent (75.4%) for 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. In pigs, the absorbed fractions were 100% for deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were completely hydrolyzed presystemically. The disposition properties of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol demonstrate their toxicological relevance and consequently the possible need to establish a tolerable daily intake. PMID:26343882

  17. Loss of Microbiota-Mediated Colonization Resistance to Clostridium difficile Infection With Oral Vancomycin Compared With Metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brittany B; Buffie, Charlie G; Carter, Rebecca A; Leiner, Ingrid; Toussaint, Nora C; Miller, Liza C; Gobourne, Asia; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-11-15

    Antibiotic administration disrupts the intestinal microbiota, increasing susceptibility to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Metronidazole or oral vancomycin can cure C. difficile infection, and administration of these agents to prevent C. difficile infection in high-risk patients, although not sanctioned by Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines, has been considered. The relative impacts of metronidazole and vancomycin on the intestinal microbiota and colonization resistance are unknown. We investigated the effect of brief treatment with metronidazole and/or oral vancomycin on susceptibility to C. difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli infection in mice. Although metronidazole resulted in transient loss of colonization resistance, oral vancomycin markedly disrupted the microbiota, leading to prolonged loss of colonization resistance to C. difficile infection and dense colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli. Our results demonstrate that vancomycin, and to a lesser extent metronidazole, are associated with marked intestinal microbiota destruction and greater risk of colonization by nosocomial pathogens. PMID:25920320

  18. Oral Tranexamic Acid with Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Versus Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Alone in Melasma: An Open Labeled Randomized Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Pradhan, Swetalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation with no definitive therapy. Tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, has demonstrated depigmenting properties and combining this oral drug with other modalities of treatment has shown promising results. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of melasma of either sex attending to dermatology OPD were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply the cream only and Group B patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily and applied a triple combination cream containing fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, tretinoin 0.05%, and hydroquinone 2% once daily for 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using melasma area severity index (MASI) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results: 40 patients completed the study. The MASI scores at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks in group A were 15.425 + 1.09, 11.075 + 9.167 and 6.995 + 6.056 respectively and in group B 18.243 + 1.05, 6.135 + 4.94 and 2.19 + 3.38. Intergroup comparison showed a faster reduction in pigmentation in Group B as compared to Group A and the results were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P value 0.014) and 8 weeks (P value 0.000). The efficacy was maintained throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Addition of oral tranexamic acid to fluocinolone-based triple combination cream results in a faster and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma. PMID:26538719

  19. Pentoxifylline ameliorates lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in young rats.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mohammad; Moutaery, Khalaf Al; Deeb, Saleh Al

    2008-04-01

    The neuroprotective effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) against lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in young rats are described. Animals treated with PTX (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg) before induction of SE were examined for latency to and frequency of SE, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus and striatum, and histological abnormalities in the hippocampus. Treatment with PTX significantly ameliorated the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in a dose-dependent manner. Our behavioral studies using the elevated plus-maze, rotarod, and water maze tests suggested a significant reduction in anxiety, enhanced motor performance, and improved learning and memory in PTX-treated rats. Li-Pc-induced neuronal cell loss and sprouting of mossy fibers in the hippocampus were also attenuated by PTX. The neuroprotective activity of PTX was accompanied by reduction in oxidative stress and reversal of SE-induced depletion of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in hippocampus and striatum. The results of this study provide a good rationale to explore the prophylactic/therapeutic potential of PTX in SE. PMID:18203664

  20. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most common symptom of oral cancer ... the oral cavity. • HPV infection The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has ...

  1. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats and in pentylenetetrazole-induced hippocampal astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Liang, Feng; Wang, Bing; Le, Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated cytokine that has emerged as an important neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions. In the present study, we detected and compared the dynamic expression of PTN in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of immature rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Moreover, we also confirmed the results by examining PTN expression in hippocampal astrocytes cultured in the presence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Immunohistochemistry showed faint immunostaining of PTN in the control hippocampus and adjacent cortex. Notably, PTN immunoreactivity began to increase in relatively small cells in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 2h and 3 weeks after seizures, and the labeling intensity reached the maximum level in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 8 weeks after seizures. Furthermore, we also found that PTZ treatment significantly reduced astrocytic viability in a dose-dependent manner and time-dependently increased expression levels of PTN in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of PTN in the brain tissues may be involved in epileptogenesis. PMID:24157126

  2. Subacute administration of fluoxetine prevents short-term brain hypometabolism and reduces brain damage markers induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiha, Ahmed Anis; de Cristóbal, Javier; Delgado, Mercedes; Fernández de la Rosa, Rubén; Bascuñana, Pablo; Pozo, Miguel A; García-García, Luis

    2015-02-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in epileptogenesis still remains controversial. In this regard, it has been reported that serotonergic drugs can alter epileptogenesis in opposite ways. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine administered subacutely (10mg/kg/day×7 days) on the eventual metabolic impairment induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. In vivo 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to assess the brain glucose metabolic activity on days 3 and 30 after the insult. In addition, at the end of the experiment (day 33), several histochemical and neurochemical assessments were performed for checking the neuronal functioning and integrity. Three days after the insult, a marked reduction of [(18)F] FDG uptake (about 30% according to the brain region) was found in all brain areas studied. When evaluated on day 30, although a hypometabolism tendency was observed, no statistically significant reduction was present in any region analyzed. In addition, lithium-pilocarpine administration was associated with medium-term hippocampal and cortical damage, since it induced neurodegeneration, glial activation and augmented caspase-9 expression. Regarding the effect of fluoxetine, subacute treatment with this SSRI did not significantly reduce the mortality rate observed after pilocarpine-induced seizures. However, fluoxetine did prevent not only the short-term metabolic impairment, but also the aforementioned signs of neuronal damage in surviving animals to lithium-pilocarpine protocol. Finally, fluoxetine increased the density of GABAA receptor both at the level of the dentate gyrus and CA1-CA2 regions in pilocarpine-treated animals. Overall, our data suggest a protective role for fluoxetine against pilocarpine-induced brain damage. Moreover, this action may be associated with an increase of GABAA receptor expression in hippocampus. PMID:25541342

  3. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit involved in depression-like behaviours in lithium chloride-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Ding, Jing; Li, Xin; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbidity in patients with epilepsy with unclear mechanisms. This study is to explore the role of glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits in epilepsy-associated depression. Lithium chloride (Licl)-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model was established and rats were divided into epilepsy with depression (EWD) and epilepsy without depression (EWND) subgroups based on forced swim test. Expression of NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits was measured by western blot and immunofluorescence methods. The immobility time (IMT) was significantly greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, which was also greater in EWD group than in EWND group. No differences of spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) counts over two weeks and latency were found between EWD and EWND groups. The number of NeuN positive cells was significantly less in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, but had no difference between EWD and EWND groups. The ratios of phosphorylated NR1 (p-NR1)/NR1 and p-NR2B/NR2B were significantly greater in the hippocampus in EWD group than in EWND group. Moreover, the expression of p-NR1 and p-NR2B in the CA1 subfield of hippocampus were both greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than Control group. Selective blockage of NR2B subunit with ifenprodil could alleviate depression-like behaviours of Licl-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. In conclusion, glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit was involved in promoting depression-like behaviours in the Licl-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model and might be a target for treating epilepsy-associated depression. PMID:26688426

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of catalpol and acteoside in normal and chronic kidney disease rats after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Qian, Dawei; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-Xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Su, Shu-Lan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Du, Leyue; Tao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a sensitive and robust ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with multiple-reaction monitoring mode was developed, validated, and applied to determine pharmacokinetics of catalpol and acteoside in normal and doxorubicin-induced chronic kidney disease rats after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa extract. The lower limits of quantification for catalpol and acteoside in rat plasma were 2.62 and 0.61 ng/mL, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ?10. Precision and accuracy studies showed that catalpol and acteoside plasma concentrations were within the 10% range in all studies. The extraction recoveries of catalpol and acteoside were both >68.24% and the matrix effects ranged from 96.59 to 101.62%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of catalpol and acteoside after oral administration of RG extract to normal and model rats, respectively. This study might further support the traditional use of RG to treat kidney diseases clinically. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26031219

  5. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events.

    PubMed

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required to further assess the efficacy of NOACs. PMID:26150723

  6. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required to further assess the efficacy of NOACs. PMID:26150723

  7. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  8. Fish oil provides protection against the oxidative stress in pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nejm, Mariana B; Haidar, André A; Marques, Márcia J G; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nogueira, Fernando N; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. Neuronal loss observed in epileptic brain may be result of an overproduction of free radicals (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between antioxidant defenses and oxidizing agents (free radicals), which can lead to tissue injury. The n-3 PUFAs are important for the development and maintenance of central nervous system functions. Research by our group has shown that chronic treatment with fish oil, immediately after status epilepticus (SE), exhibits both neuroprotective effects and effects on neuroplasticity. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate if fish oil exhibits a protective effect against oxidative stress. Animals were subjected to TLE model by pilocarpine administration. After 3 h of SE they were randomly divided into the following groups: control animals treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil and animals with epilepsy treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil. After 90 days, superoxide anion production, enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p47(PHOX) and gp91(PHOX)) were analyzed. Our results showed evidences that reactive oxygen species are increased in animals with epilepsy and that fish oil supplementation could counteract it. Fish oil supplementation promoted protection against oxidative stress by multiple ways, which involved the reduction of activity and expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and increased the activity and expression of antioxidants enzymes, contributing to well-known neuroprotective effect in epilepsy. PMID:25893881

  9. Phototoxicity to sulphonamide-derived oral antidiabetics and diuretics: comparative in-vitro and in-vivo investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaag, Edgar; Anholt, Helle; Moan, Johan; Thune, Per

    1997-12-01

    Seven oral antidiabetics (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, glipizide, gliquidone, glymidine, tolazamide, and tolbutamide), and 14 diuretics (bemetizide, bendroflumethiazide, benzylhydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, butizide, chlortalidone, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, piretanide, polythiazide, trichlormethiazide, and xipamide) were investigated for potential phototoxicity in vitro using a cell culture model and in vivo in hairless mice. After exposure to broad band UVA, the majority of the substances tested in vitro yielded phototoxic action leading to loss of culture forming ability. In vivo, all tested substances induced edema or ulceration, and lead to a significant increase in skin fold thickness of the mouse skin. In all a number of substances not described to induce clinical photosensitivity nor phototoxicity in vitro or in vivo were detected in our testing. In determining potential photosensitizers, it seems important to utilize different test methods, as not all substances will exhibit action in a given assay.

  10. Comparative in vitro activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rylander, M; Nord, C E; Norrby, S R

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 against 229 aerobic and 330 anaerobic clinical isolates was determined using the agar dilution technique. For comparison, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, erythromycin and metronidazole (only anaerobic bacteria) were tested. Bay v 3522 was found to have high activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens and fusobacteria. When tested against a higher inoculum or using the broth dilution technique, the activity of Bay v 3522 showed little dependence on inoculum size and the bactericidal activity was similar to inhibitory activity in most bacterial groups. Bay v 3522 may be useful in the treatment of skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections. Clinical studies are thus warranted. PMID:2261923

  11. Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 ?g levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 ?g ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 ?g EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 ?g LNG/30 ?g EE [Treatment 2] or 150 ?g desogestrel [DSG]/30 ?g EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [? 18.3 pmol/L] > ? 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. PMID:26048667

  13. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ?3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise. PMID:25893979

  14. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

  15. Replacement of Asymmetric Synaptic Profiles in the Molecular Layer of Dentate Gyrus Following Cycloheximide in the Pilocarpine Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Simone; Covolan, Luciene; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Faria, Flávio P.; Freymuller, Edna; Ottersen, Ole P.; Mello, Luiz E.

    2015-01-01

    Mossy fiber sprouting is among the best-studied forms of post-lesional synaptic plasticity and is regarded by many as contributory to seizures in both humans and animal models of epilepsy. It is not known whether mossy fiber sprouting increases the number of synapses in the molecular layer or merely replaces lost contacts. Using the pilocarpine (Pilo) model of status epilepticus to induce mossy fiber sprouting, and cycloheximide (CHX) to block this sprouting, we evaluated at the ultrastructural level the number and type of asymmetric synaptic contacts in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. As expected, whereas Pilo-treated rats had dense silver grain deposits in the inner molecular layer (IML) (reflecting mossy fiber sprouting), pilocarpine?+?cycloheximide (CHX?+?Pilo)-treated animals did not differ from controls. Both groups of treated rats (Pilo group and CHX?+?Pilo group) had reduced density of asymmetric synaptic profiles (putative excitatory synaptic contacts), which was greater for CHX-treated animals. For both treated groups, the loss of excitatory synaptic contacts was even greater in the outer molecular layer than in the best-studied IML (in which mossy fiber sprouting occurs). These results indicate that mossy fiber sprouting tends to replace lost synaptic contacts rather than increase the absolute number of contacts. We speculate that the overall result is more consistent with restored rather than with increased excitability. PMID:26635635

  16. A new era of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: comparing a new generation of oral anticoagulants with warfarin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but data from large, multinational, prospective, randomized studies suggest that novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be suitable alternatives. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. These data showed that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was more effective at preventing stroke than warfarin, with similar rates of major bleeding, while rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily was noninferior to warfarin, with no difference in major bleeding rates. In addition, apixaban 5 mg twice daily was shown to be superior to warfarin for preventing stroke, with lower bleeding rates. Currently, edoxaban is still in clinical trials. NOACs offer more predictable anticoagulant effects than warfarin and do not require regular monitoring; however, different NOACs are associated with varied drug interactions and limitations related to use in certain patient populations. Overall, the clinical data suggest that these novel agents will offer new options for stroke prevention in patients with AF. PMID:24171796

  17. A comparative study of the potential of solid triglyceride nanostructures coated with chitosan or poly(ethylene glycol) as carriers for oral calcitonin delivery.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fuentes, M; Prego, C; Torres, D; Alonso, M J

    2005-05-01

    We have previously reported the formation and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated and chitosan (CS)-coated lipid nanoparticles. In the present work our goal was to study the interaction of these surface-modified lipid nanoparticles with Caco-2 cells and to evaluate the potential of these nanostructures as oral delivery systems for salmon calcitonin (sCT). The interaction of rhodamine-loaded nanoparticles with the Caco-2 cell monolayers was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorimetry, respectively. The ability of these nanoparticles to reversibly enhance the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through the monolayers was investigated by measuring the transepithelial electric resistance and the permeability to Texas Red-dextran. Finally, in vivo studies of the response to sCT-loaded nanoparticles were performed in rats. The results showed that the association of rhodamine-loaded nanoparticles to the Caco-2 cell monolayer was independent of the surface coating of the nanoparticles (CS-coated versus PEG-coated nanoparticles). However, while PEG-coated nanoparticles did not affect the permeability of Caco-2 monolayers, CS-coated nanoparticles produced a dose-dependent reduction in the transepithelial electric resistance, simultaneously to an enhanced dextran transport. The results obtained following oral administration of sCT-loaded CS-coated nanoparticles to rats showed a significant and prolonged reduction in the serum calcium levels as compared to those obtained for control (sCT solution). In contrast, the hypocalcemic response of sCT-loaded PEG-coated nanoparticles was not significantly different of that provided by the control (sCT solution). Therefore, these results indicate that the surface composition of the particles is a key factor in the improvement of the efficiency of oral sCT formulations. Moreover, the encouraging results obtained for CS-coated nanoparticles underline their potential as carriers for peptide delivery. PMID:15854809

  18. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  19. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  20. Neuroprotective effects of idebenone against pilocarpine-induced seizures: modulation of antioxidant status, DNA damage and Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha Ali Eissa

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated the neuroprotective activity of idebenone against pilocarpine-induced seizures and hippocampal injury in rats. Idebenone is a ubiquinone analog with antioxidant, and ATP replenishment effects. It is well tolerated and has low toxicity. Previous studies reported the protective effects of idebenone against neurodegenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia and Alzheimer's disease. So far, the efficacy of idebenone in experimental models of seizures has not been tested. To achieve this aim, rats were randomly distributed into six groups. Two groups were treated with either normal saline (0.9 %, i.p., control group) or idebenone (200 mg/kg, i.p., Ideb200 group) for three successive days. Rats of the other four groups (P400, Ideb50 + P400, Ideb100 + P400, and Ideb200 + P400) received either saline or idebenone (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days, respectively followed by a single dose of pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.). All rats were observed for 6 h post pilocarpine injection. Latency to the first seizure, and percentages of seizures and survival were recorded. Surviving animals were sacrificed, and the hippocampal tissues were separated and used for the measurement of lipid peroxides, total nitrate/nitrite, glutathione and DNA fragmentation levels, in addition to catalase and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. Results revealed that in a dose-dependent manner, idebenone (100, 200 mg/kg) prolonged the latency to the first seizure, elevated the percentage of survival and diminished the percentage of pilocapine-induced seizures in rats. Significant increases in lipid peroxides, total nitrate/nitrite, DNA fragmentation levels and catalase activity, in addition to a significant reduction in glutathione level and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity were observed in pilocarpine group. Pre-administration of idebenone (100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) to pilocarpine-treated rats, significantly reduced lipid peroxides, total nitrate/nitrite, DNA fragmentation levels, and normalized catalase activity. Moreover, idebenone prevented pilocarpine-induced detrimental effects on brain hippocampal glutathione level, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity in rats. Data obtained from the current investigation emphasized the critical role of oxidative stress in induction of seizures by pilocarpine and elucidated the prominent neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of idebenone in this model. PMID:24414170

  1. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M F; Murty, U S N; Mahboob, M; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe(2)O(3)-30nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000mg/kg bw of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3) -bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p>0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe(2)O(3)-30nm. Fe(2)O(3) NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe(2)O(3) NMs. PMID:23142030

  2. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:26473160

  3. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (?g Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ? 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ? 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ? Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ? Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ? Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ? Species-specific and divergent changes are consistent with species-specific tumors.

  4. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Phase 2 Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Solithromycin (CEM-101) to Those of Oral Levofloxacin in the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Oldach, David; Clark, Kay; Schranz, Jennifer; Das, Anita; Craft, J Carl; Scott, Drusilla; Jamieson, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Solithromycin, a new macrolide, and the first fluoroketolide in clinical development, with activity against macrolide-resistant bacteria, was tested in 132 patients with moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase 2 study. Patients were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to either 800 mg solithromycin orally (PO) on day 1, followed by 400 mg PO daily on days 2 to 5, or 750 mg levofloxacin PO daily on days 1 to 5. Efficacy outcome rates of clinical success at the test-of-cure visit 4 to 11 days after the last dose of study drug were comparable in the intent-to-treat (ITT) (84.6% for solithromycin versus 86.6% for levofloxacin) and microbiological-intent-to-treat (micro-ITT) (77.8% for solithromycin versus 71.4% for levofloxacin) populations. Early response success rates at day 3, defined as improvement in at least two cardinal symptoms of pneumonia, were also comparable (72.3% for solithromycin versus 71.6% for levofloxacin). More patients treated with levofloxacin than with solithromycin experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the study (45.6% versus 29.7%). The majority of TEAEs were mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms and included nausea (1.6% for solithromycin; 10.3% for levofloxacin), diarrhea (7.8% for solithromycin; 5.9% for levofloxacin), and vomiting (0% for solithromycin; 4.4% for levofloxacin). Six patients, all of whom received levofloxacin, discontinued the study drug due to an adverse event. Solithromycin demonstrated comparable efficacy and favorable safety relative to levofloxacin. These findings support a phase 3 study of solithromycin for the treatment of CABP. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01168713.) PMID:23507282

  5. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 ?g DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 ?g DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  6. Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail. PMID:23674915

  7. Efficacy of Benzocaine 20% Topical Anesthetic Compared to Placebo Prior to Administration of Local Anesthesia in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Freiras, Guilherme Camponogara; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha; Blaya, Diego Segatto; Moreira, Carlos Heitor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a topical anesthetic to a placebo on pain perception during administration of local anesthesia in 2 regions of the oral cavity. A split-mouth, double-blind, randomized clinical trial design was used. Thirty-eight subjects, ages 18–50 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, received 4 anesthetic injections each in regions corresponding to the posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSA) and greater palatine nerve (GPN), totaling 152 sites analyzed. The side of the mouth where the topical anesthetic (benzocaine 20%) or the placebo was to be applied was chosen by a flip of a coin. The needle used was 27G, and the anesthetic used for administration of local anesthesia was 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. After receiving the administration of local anesthesia, each patient reported pain perception on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 100-mm length. The results showed that the topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects: there was no statistically significant VAS difference between the PSA and the GPN pain ratings. A higher value on the VAS for the anesthesia of the GPN, relative to the PSA, was observed for both groups. Regarding gender, male patients had higher values on the VAS compared with female patients, but these differences were not meaningful. The topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects on pain perception for injection of local anesthesia for the PSA and GPN. PMID:26061572

  8. The prevalence of human herpes viruses in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to oral health providers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Leon; Elimelech, Rina; Szwarcwort-Cohen, Moran; Kra-Oz, Zipi; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-06-01

    The causative agents in periodontal disease are periopathogenic bacteria; however, viruses have been implicated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different HHVs in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and to compare it to two groups of healthy controls. Three groups were included: chronic periodontitis patients (CP), periodontally healthy patients (NP) and oral health providers with a healthy periodontium (NPOHP). For each subject, 1 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and mixed with 2 ml lysis buffer. HHVs assays were performed using real-time PCR. Fifteen percent of the subjects in the CP group tested positive for CMV compared to none in the NP and NPOHP groups (p = 0.04). Recurrent herpes was more frequent in females (51.7 %) than in males (33.3 %), and this was statistically significant (p = 0.038). The higher prevalence of CMV in the unstimulated saliva of CP patients suggests that CMV may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:23381395

  9. Improving the view during flexible sigmoidoscopy: a systematic review of published randomized, controlled trials comparing the use of oral bowel preparation versus enema bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Caswell, Jennifer F; Abbas, Mustafa A Q; Baig, Mirza K; McFall, Malcolm R

    2015-09-01

    To systematically analyse the published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of oral bowel preparation (OBP) versus enema bowel preparation (EBP) for diagnostic or screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. Published RCTs, comparing the use of OBP versus EBP, were analysed using RevMan(®), and the combined outcomes were expressed as odds ratios (OR). Eight RCTs evaluating 2457 patients were retrieved from the standard electronic databases. There was significant heterogeneity among included trials. The compliance of the patients (p = 0.32) and the acceptability of both bowel preparation regimens (OR, 1.42; 95 % CI, 0.67, 2.99; z = 0.92; p = 0.36) were similar in both groups. In addition, the incidence of adverse reactions (OR, 0.87; 95 % CI, 0.54, 1.41; z = 0.57; p = 0.57), the risk of incomplete procedure due to poor bowel preparation (p = 0.18) and the incidence of poor bowel preparation (OR, 1.21; 95 % CI, 0.63, 2.33; z = 0.59; p = 0.56) were also similar in both groups. EBP and OBP were equally effective for bowel preparation in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Although this study failed to demonstrate the superiority of EBP, at least equivalent efficacy for bowel cleansing may be extrapolated. PMID:25894508

  10. Oral Ulcerations

    E-print Network

    Fetterolf, Brandon; Zabella, Alexandra; Strote, Jared

    2015-01-01

    of Emergency Medicine Fetterolf et al. Oral UlcerationsOral Ulcerations Brandon Fetterolf, DO* Alexandra Zaballa, BS † Jared Strote, MD, MS ‡ * Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine,

  11. Time profiles and toxicokinetic parameters of key biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in orally exposed volunteers compared with previously available kinetic data following permethrin exposure.

    PubMed

    Ratelle, Mylène; Coté, Jonathan; Bouchard, Michèle

    2015-12-01

    Biomonitoring of pyrethroid exposure is largely conducted but human toxicokinetics has not been fully documented. This is essential for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring data. Time profiles and toxicokinetic parameters of key biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in orally exposed volunteers have been documented and compared with previously available kinetic data following permethrin dosing. Six volunteers ingested 0.1 mg kg(-1) bodyweight of cypermethrin acutely. The same volunteers were exposed to permethrin earlier. Blood samples were taken over 72 h after treatment and complete timed urine voids were collected over 84 h postdosing. Cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans- and cis-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) metabolites, common to both cypermethrin and permethrin, were quantified. Blood and urinary time courses of all three metabolites were similar following cypermethrin and permethrin exposure. Plasma levels of metabolites reached peak values on average ??5-7 h post-dosing; the elimination phase showed mean apparent half-lives (t½ ) for trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA of 5.1, 6.9 and 9.2 h, respectively, following cypermethrin treatment as compared to 7.1, 6.2 and 6.5 h after permethrin dosing. Corresponding mean values obtained from urinary rate time courses were peak values at ??9 h post-dosing and apparent elimination t½ of 6.3, 6.4 and 6.4 h for trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA, respectively, following cypermethrin treatment as compared to 5.4, 4.5 and 5.7 h after permethrin dosing. These data confirm that the kinetics of cypermethrin is similar to that of permethrin in humans and that their common biomarkers of exposure may be used for an overall assessment of exposure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25772368

  12. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice: A comparison of spectral analysis of electroencephalogram and behavioral grading using the Racine scale.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Kevin D; Shwe, U T; Williams, David K; Greenfield, L John; Zheng, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a widely used seizure model in mice, and the Racine scale has been used to index seizure intensity. The goal of this study was to analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) quantitatively using fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and statistically evaluate the correlation of electrographic seizures with convulsive behaviors. Simultaneous EEG and video recordings in male mice in a mixed genetic background were conducted and pilocarpine was administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. The videos were graded using the Racine scale and the root-mean-square (RMS) power analysis of EEG was performed with Sirenia Seizure Pro software. We found that the RMS power was very weakly correlated with convulsive behavior induced by pilocarpine. Convulsive behaviors appeared long before electrographic seizures and showed a strong negative correlation with theta frequency activity and a moderate positive correlation with gamma frequency activity. Racine scores showed moderate correlations with RMS power across multiple frequency bands during the transition from first electrographic seizure to SE. However, there was no correlation between Racine scores and RMS power during the SE phase except a weak correlation with RMS power in the theta frequency. Our analysis reveals limitations of the Racine scale as a primary index of seizure intensity in status epilepticus, and demonstrates a need for quantitative analysis of EEG for an accurate assessment of seizure onset and severity. PMID:26432759

  13. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000:29:194-201. PMID:10686040

  14. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  15. Identification of RAB2A and PRDX1 as the potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Pal, Ipsita; Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Rajput, Shashi; Parekh, Aditya; Parida, Sheetal; Halder, Priyanka; Kulavi, Indranil; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a major health burden. Protein biomarker discovery for early detection will help to improve patient survival rate in OSCC. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as an excellent approach for detection of protein biomarkers in various types of cancers. In the current study, we have used 4-Plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues. The high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis resulted in identifying 2,074 proteins, among which 288 proteins were differentially expressed. Further, it was noticed that 162 proteins were upregulated, while 125 proteins were downregulated in OSCC-derived cancer tissue samples as compared to the adjacent normal tissues. We identified some of the known molecules which were reported earlier in OSCC such as MMP-9 (8.4-fold), ZNF142 (5.6-fold), and S100A7 (3.5-fold). Apart from this, we have also identified some novel signature proteins which have not been reported earlier in OSCC including ras-related protein Rab-2A isoform, RAB2A (4.6-fold), and peroxiredoxin-1, PRDX1 (2.2-fold). The immunohistochemistry-based validation using tissue microarray slides in OSCC revealed overexpression of the RAB2A and PRDX1 gene in 80 and 68 % of the tested clinical cases, respectively. This study will not only serve as a resource of candidate biomarkers but will contribute towards the existing knowledge on the role of the candidate molecules towards disease progression and therapeutic potential. PMID:26159854

  16. Comparative evaluation of serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid as sample material for PRRSV diagnostics by RT-qPCR in a small-scale experimental study.

    PubMed

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Wodak, Eveline; Schmoll, Friedrich; Sattler, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research into alternative sample materials, such as oral fluid or filter-dried blood has been intensified, in order to facilitate cost-effective and animal-friendly sampling of individuals or groups of pigs for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-RNA detection by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid sampled from individual pigs. Ten PRRSV negative pigs were injected with an EU-type PRRSV live vaccine. Blood and oral fluid samples were taken from each pig before, and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination. All samples were then analyzed by PRRSV RT-qPCR. In serum, eight often pigs tested RT-qPCR positive at different time points post infection. Absolute quantification showed low serum PRRSV-RNA loads in most samples. In comparison to serum, sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection was strongly reduced in matched FTA filter-dried blood and in oral fluid from the same pigs. These results indicate that with low PRRSV-RNA loads the diagnostic sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection by RT-qPCR achieved with serum is currently unmatched by either FTA filter-dried blood or oral fluid. PMID:24881272

  17. Comparative toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic study of rubber antioxidants, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and its methyl substituted derivatives, by repeated oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakemi, Kazue; Ito, Rieno; Umemura, Takashi; Ohno, Yasuo; Tsuda, Mitsuhiro

    2002-12-01

    2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI), a rubber antioxidant, is known to exhibit potent thyroid toxicity in rats, whereas its methylated derivatives are much less toxic. To characterize this methyl-substituent effect on the thyroid toxicity of MBI, comparative toxicokinetic analyses have been conducted in the present study. MBI and the MMBIs [4-methylated MBI (4-MMBI) and 5-methylated MBI (5-MMBI), and a 1:1 mixture of these 4- and 5-methylated isomers (MMBI mix)] suspended in corn oil were repeatedly administered (at 0.3-0.6 mmol/kg) to male Wistar rats by gavage once daily for 2 weeks. After the first and last administrations, blood and urine samples were collected, and the levels of unchanged compounds and their desulfurated metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. After repeated oral administration (roa), the C(max) and area under concentration-time curve (AUC) of MBI were markedly increased, while the MMBIs essentially were cleared from the blood within 10 h. After roa, the C(max) and AUC of 4-MMBI decreased markedly, suggesting metabolic enzyme induction. However, the toxicokinetic parameters of 5-MMBI were not markedly altered by roa. The inhibitory potencies (IC(50)) against lactoperoxidase of MBI, 4-MMBI, and 5-MMBI were 20.6 micro M, 45.6 micro M and 31.6 micro M, respectively. Thus, we suggest that the marked decrease of thyroid toxicity by methyl substitution of MBI is caused mainly by a decrease in systemic exposure to the compounds and partly by a decrease in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis. PMID:12451444

  18. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

  19. Melatonin protects testes against lithium-pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in rats: a time course study.

    PubMed

    Shokri, S; Kazemi, M; Firouzjaei, M A; Hemadi, M; Moayeri, A; Ganjkhani, M; Nejatbakhsh, R

    2015-04-01

    Male dysfunction is common in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated whether melatonin, as a supplement, can play a positive role in reducing the epileptogenesis imposing abnormalities of spermatozoa and testes in epileptic rats. Status epilepticus was induced based on the TLE lithium-pilocarpine model. Two patterns of melatonin were administered to the epileptic animals along the mean durations of latent (14 days) and chronic (60 days) phases. Sperm parameters, different antioxidant enzyme levels, germ cell apoptosis, body and relative sex organ weights were evaluated in all groups 60 days following SE induction. Chronic TLE caused a significant reduction in sperm parameters. In the testis, the reduced level of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration. The presence of oxidant condition in the testes of epileptic animals caused expanded apoptosis in the germ cell layer. Moreover, the amount of weight gain in epileptic animals was more prominent. Melatonin administration was able to improve sperm motility by increasing the total antioxidant level. There was also a significant reduction in the spermatogenic cell line apoptosis and the extra weight gain of melatonin-treated animals. Melatonin supplementation might be considered as an acceptable cotreatment in epileptic patients. PMID:24684185

  20. AVP-825 Breath-Powered Intranasal Delivery System Containing 22?mg Sumatriptan Powder vs 100?mg Oral Sumatriptan in the Acute Treatment of Migraines (The COMPASS Study): A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial Across Multiple Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Stewart J; Cady, Roger K; Silberstein, Stephen; Messina, John; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Shin, Paul; Siffert, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of AVP-825, an investigational bi-directional breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing low-dose (22?mg) sumatriptan powder, vs 100?mg oral sumatriptan for acute treatment of migraine in a double-dummy, randomized comparative efficacy clinical trial allowing treatment across multiple migraine attacks. Background In phases 2 and 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, AVP-825 provided early and sustained relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults, with a low incidence of triptan-related adverse effects. Methods This was a randomized, active-comparator, double-dummy, cross-over, multi-attack study (COMPASS; NCT01667679) with two ?12-week double-blind periods. Subjects experiencing 2-8 migraines/month in the past year were randomized 1:1 using computer-generated sequences to AVP-825 plus oral placebo tablet or an identical placebo delivery system plus 100?mg oral sumatriptan tablet for the first period; patients switched treatment for the second period in this controlled comparative design. Subjects treated ?5 qualifying migraines per period within 1 hour of onset, even if pain was mild. The primary end-point was the mean value of the summed pain intensity differences through 30 minutes post-dose (SPID-30) using Headache Severity scores. Secondary outcomes included pain relief, pain freedom, pain reduction, consistency of response across multiple migraines, migraine-associated symptoms, and atypical sensations. Safety was also assessed. Results A total of 275 adults were randomized, 174 (63.3%) completed the study (ie, completed the second treatment period), and 185 (67.3%) treated at least one migraine in both periods (1531 migraines assessed). There was significantly greater reduction in migraine pain intensity with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan in the first 30 minutes post-dose (least squares mean SPID-30?=?10.80 vs 7.41, adjusted mean difference 3.39 [95% confidence interval 1.76, 5.01]; P?compared with oral sumatriptan. At 2 hours, rates of pain relief and pain freedom became comparable; rates of sustained pain relief and sustained pain freedom from 2 to 48 hours remained comparable. Nasal discomfort and abnormal taste were more common with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan (16% vs 1% and 26% vs 4%, respectively), but ?90% were mild, leading to only one discontinuation. Atypical sensation rates were significantly lower with AVP-825 than with conventional higher dose 100?mg oral sumatriptan. Conclusions AVP-825 (containing 22?mg sumatriptan nasal powder) provided statistically significantly greater reduction of migraine pain intensity over the first 30 minutes following treatment, and greater rates of pain relief and pain freedom within 15 minutes, compared with 100?mg oral sumatriptan. Sustained pain relief and pain freedom through 24 and 48 hours was achieved in a similar percentage of attacks for both treatments, despite substantially lower total systemic drug exposure with AVP-825. Treatment was well tolerated, with statistically significantly fewer atypical sensations with AVP-825. PMID:25941016

  1. Neuronal degeneration is observed in multiple regions outside the hippocampus after lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat.

    PubMed

    Scholl, E A; Dudek, F E; Ekstrand, J J

    2013-11-12

    Although hippocampal sclerosis is frequently identified as a possible epileptic focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, neuronal loss has also been observed in additional structures, including areas outside the temporal lobe. The claim from several researchers using animal models of acquired epilepsy that the immature brain can develop epilepsy without evidence of hippocampal neuronal death raises the possibility that neuronal death in some of these other regions may also be important for epileptogenesis. The present study used the lithium pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy in immature animals to assess which structures outside the hippocampus are injured acutely after status epilepticus. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were implanted with surface EEG electrodes, and status epilepticus was induced at 20 days of age with lithium pilocarpine. After 72 h, brain tissue from 12 animals was examined with Fluoro-Jade B, a histochemical marker for degenerating neurons. All animals that had confirmed status epilepticus demonstrated Fluoro-Jade B staining in areas outside the hippocampus. The most prominent staining was seen in the thalamus (mediodorsal, paratenial, reuniens, and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei), amygdala (ventral lateral, posteromedial, and basomedial nuclei), ventral premammillary nuclei of hypothalamus, and paralimbic cortices (perirhinal, entorhinal, and piriform) as well as parasubiculum and dorsal endopiriform nuclei. These results demonstrate that lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat brain consistently results in neuronal injury in several distinct areas outside of the hippocampus. Many of these regions are similar to areas damaged in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, thus suggesting a possible role in epileptogenesis. PMID:23896573

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated control of pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements is Parkinson's disease-associated GPR37 receptor-dependent.

    PubMed

    Gandía, Jorge; Morató, Xavier; Stagljar, Igor; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2015-07-15

    GPR37, also known as parkin associated endothelin-like receptor (Pael-R), is an orphan GPCR that aggregates intracellularly in a juvenile form of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the function of this orphan receptor. Here, using a model for parkisonian tremor, the pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements (TJMs), we show that the deletion of GPR37 attenuated the TJMs in response to this cholinomimetic. Interestingly, the control that adenosine A2A receptor exerted over TJMs was lost in the absence of GPR37, thus pointing to a pivotal role of this orphan receptor in the adenosinergic control of parkinsonian tremor. PMID:25862943

  3. The effect of STAT3 Inhibition on status epilepticus and subsequent spontaneous seizures in the Pilocarpine Model of Acquired Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Grabenstatter, H. L.; Angel, Y. Cruz Del; Carlsen, J.; Wempe, M. F.; White, A. M.; Cogswell, M.; Russek, S. J.; Brooks-Kayal, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), which results in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, activates the JAK/STAT pathway. In the current study, we evaluate whether brief exposure to a selective inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway (WP1066) early after the onset of SE effects the severity of SE or reduces later spontaneous seizure frequency via inhibition of STAT3-regulated gene transcription. Rats that received systemic WP1066 or vehicle at the onset of SE were continuously video-EEG monitored during SE and for one month to assess seizure frequency over time. Protein and/or mRNA levels for pSTAT3, and STAT3-regulated genes including: ICER, Gabra1, c-myc, mcl-1, cyclin D1, and bcl-xl were evaluated in WP1066 and vehicle-treated rats during stages of epileptogenesis to determine the acute effects of WP1066 administration on SE and chronic epilepsy. WP1066 (two 50 mg/kg doses) administered within the first hour after onset of SE results in transient inhibition of pSTAT3 and long-term reduction in spontaneous seizure frequency WP1066 alters the severity of chronic epilepsy without affecting SE or cell death. Early WP1066 administration reduces known downstream targets of STAT3 transcription 24 hours after SE including cyclin D1 and mcl-1 levels, known for their roles in cell-cycle progression and cell survival, respectively. These findings uncover a potential effect of the JAK/STAT pathway after brain injury that is physiologically important and may provide a new therapeutic target that can be harnessed for the prevention of epilepsy development and/or progression. PMID:24051278

  4. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–? (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  5. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral cancer during regular checkups. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) also make note of unusual or abnormal growths ... examinations and provide referrals to appropriate medical professionals. SLPs are important members of the cancer team. They ...

  8. A comparative study between the efficacy of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shanehsaz, Siavash M; Ishkhanian, Silva

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major world health problem, which is increasing in incidence. Pentavalent antimonials have been considered as standard treatment for leishmaniasis. Many studies are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for patients with CL. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL. This study was, to our knowledge, the first to show the effect of combination therapy oral cimetidine and MA in the treatment of CL all over the world. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 patients with suspected CL were referred to the Aleppo University Hospital Clinic; 90 of these patients with the clinical and parasitological diagnosis of CL were recruited and were randomly divided into three treatment groups of 30 subjects each. Group A was treated with MA 60 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo. Groups B and C received MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral cimetidine 1200 mg/d, MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo, respectively. The duration of treatment was three weeks for all groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was classified in three levels as complete response, partial response, and no response. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using KI square, Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Mayer, and ANOVA tests. At the end of the study (12 weeks), the rate of complete response was 91.11% in the first group, and 84.66% and 78.33% in groups B and C, respectively (P < 0.05). The highest response rate was for the group treated with a standard dose of systemic MA and placebo. Our results showed that although oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic MA had less efficacy in comparison to a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL, it still can be considered as a replacement therapy in high-risk patients (such as patients with heart, kidney, and/or liver disease) under close supervision of physicians. PMID:26108265

  9. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus”) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus”) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive oral mucosa, e.g., in cases of aggressive cancer therapy or for patients with tracheostoma. PMID:24653972

  10. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral?=?oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol?=?oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5?g/kg); (c) IV?=?50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV?with oral glycerol?=?50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5?g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV?with oral glycerol?>?IV?>?oral glycerol??>?oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV?with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV?with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cancer is ...

  12. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? ... and How to Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity cancer ...

  13. Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mouth A lump, rough spot, or other change Pain, tenderness, or numbness anywhere in the mouth or on the lips Problems chewing, swallowing, speaking, or moving the jaw or tongue A change in the way the teeth fit together Thrush. Thrush is also called oral ...

  14. A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

    2014-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL(-1) at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL(-1) vs. 2.4 g dL(-1) ) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. PMID:24639149

  15. Oral calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen(®) 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

  16. Oral dirofilariasis.

    PubMed

    Desai, R S; Pai, N; Nehete, A P; Singh, J S

    2015-01-01

    Dirofilaria is parasitic nematodes of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally via vectors. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The most frequent presentation of human dirofilariasis is a single submucosal nodule without signs of inflammation. We hereby, report a case of human dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa in a 32-year-old farmer caused by D. repens. PMID:26470974

  17. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  19. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-?-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-?-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. PMID:24076576

  20. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Oral Drug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Meng, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in elder men and a number of drugs alone or combined are clinically used for this disorder. But available studies investigating the comparative effects of different drug therapies are limited. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH with network meta-analysis. Materials and Methods An electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH within 24 weeks. Comparative effects were calculated using Aggregate Data Drug Information System. Consistency models of network meta-analysis were created and cumulative probability was used to rank different therapies. Results A total 66 RCTs covering seven different therapies with 29384 participants were included. We found that ?-blockers (ABs) plus phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) ranked highest in the test of IPSS total score, storage subscore and voiding subscore. The combination therapy of ABs plus 5?-reductase inhibitors was the best for increasing maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) with a mean difference (MD) of 1.98 (95% CI, 1.12 to 2.86) as compared to placebo. ABs plus muscarinic receptor antagonists (MRAs) ranked secondly on the reduction of IPSS storage subscore, although monotherapies including MRAs showed no effect on this aspect. Additionally, PDE5-Is alone showed great effectiveness for LUTS/BPH except Qmax. Conclusions Based on our novel findings, combination therapy, especially ABs plus PDE5-Is, is recommended for short-term treatment for LUTS/BPH. There was also evidence that PDE5-Is used alone was efficacious except on Qmax. Additionally, it should be cautious when using MRAs. However, further clinical studies are required for longer duration which considers more treatment outcomes such as disease progression, as well as basic research investigating mechanisms involving PDE5-Is and other pharmacologic agents alleviate the symptoms of LUTS/BPH. PMID:25216271

  2. Comparative Genomics of Oral Isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico Genome Subtraction Does Not Reveal Accessory DNA Associated with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5 to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 bp to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

  3. Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland

    2013-01-16

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

  4. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela De Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions. PMID:26632800

  5. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... endometrial cancer risk? How do oral contraceptives affect cervical cancer risk? How do oral contraceptives affect liver cancer ... oral contraceptives ( 11 ). How do oral contraceptives affect cervical cancer risk? Long-term use of oral contraceptives (5 ...

  6. NWP06, an Extended-Release Oral Suspension of Methylphenidate, Improved Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Compared with Placebo in a Laboratory Classroom Study

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Belden, Heidi W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NWP06, a novel extended-release (ER) liquid formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), compared with placebo in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a laboratory school. Methods A total of 45 subjects ages 6–12 years were enrolled in this dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study. Following open-label dose optimization, subjects received 2 weeks of double-blind treatment (1 week of NWP06 and 1 week of placebo). The treatment sequence (NWP06/placebo or placebo/NWP06) was randomly assigned with the last day of each week-long treatment occurring on the laboratory school test day. Efficacy measures included Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) mathematics tests measured at pre-dose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dose on each laboratory classroom day. Safety assessments included physical examination, screening electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event measures, and assessment of suicidality with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results NWP06 resulted in significant (p<0.0001) improvements in the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dose (mean=7.12) as compared with placebo (mean=19.58) in the completers (n=39). Significant separation from placebo occurred at each time point tested (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours), with onset of action of NWP06 at 45 minutes post-dose and duration of efficacy extending to 12 hours post-dose. Adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs following NWP06 treatment were generally mild and consistent with the known safety profile of MPH. The most common AEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (55.6%), upper abdominal pain (42.2%), affect lability (26.7%), initial insomnia (22.2%), insomnia (17.8%), and headache (17.8%). Conclusions NWP06 treatment effectively reduced symptoms of ADHD in children beginning at 45 minutes and continuing for 12 hours post-dose. NWP06 was well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00904670. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00904670. PMID:23289899

  7. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-12-16

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  8. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  9. Effects of basswood honey, honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution, and oral glucose tolerance test solution on serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide concentrations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Sheybani, Babak; Hauenschild, Annette; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Bretzel, Reinhard G; Winter, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Studies suggest that honey has less influence on serum glucose concentrations than monosaccharides and disaccharides. This study aimed to confirm these findings conclusively by comparing directly the effects of honey, an identical sugar solution, and oral glucose tolerance (OGT) test solution on serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide values in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men with a mean age of 27.7 years, a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2), and no history of metabolic disorders participated in the study. Subjects underwent OGT testing to establish values and exclude preclinical diabetes. One week later they were randomly assigned to basswood honey or a glucose-fructose solution (honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution). The following week subjects were given the other solution. All solutions contained 75 g of glucose. Serum glucose was measured before drinking test solutions and every 10 minutes for 120 minutes afterwards. C-peptide and insulin were measured at 60 and 120 minutes. Serum insulin and C-peptide values at 60 minutes were significantly lower for honey. The mean serum glucose concentration was also lower for honey, but direct comparisons at the various times showed no statistically significant differences between solutions. However, the area under the concentration-time profile for glucose response was lower for the honey than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Honey had less effect on serum glucose, C-peptide, and insulin values than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Further study to elucidate underlying mechanisms may be worthwhile, as may investigation of the implications of these findings for diabetic patients. PMID:18800887

  10. Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

  11. The Effect of Isoprenaline and Pilocarpine on (a) Bronchial Mucus-secreting Tissue and (b) Pancreas, Salivary Glands, Heart, Thymus, Liver and Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Sturgess, J.; Reid, L.

    1973-01-01

    The effect was followed in the rat of 6 or 12 injections of isoprenaline (IPN), at a dose of 10 or 25 mg, and pilocarpine (PCP) at a dose of 10 mg. In some respects the effects are similar, in others strikingly dissimilar. IPN and PCP each increase bronchial submucosal gland size and the number of goblet cells previously thought not to be under nervous control. Isoprenaline increases goblet cells containing acid glycoprotein, the PCP all types: IPN increases small acini in the gland, PCP large ones. The IPN effect was apparent even under germ-free conditions. After 12 injections of PCP the secretory cells appeared “exhausted” and relatively empty of secretion. A similar picture was seen in the pancreas and the salivary glands—hypertrophy after IPN or 6 injections of PCP, exhaustion after 12 of PCP. In the heart, IPN caused an increase in ventricular weight (the right more affected than the left), increase in fibre size and a minor degree of myocardial damage; PCP caused only dilatation. After 6 injections, both IPN and PCP reduced thymic weight; this had recovered after 12 injections. The effect of PCP seems to be at least in part directly on discharge; IPN seems to affect synthesis. This is the first demonstration of goblet cell increase by drug effect. These changes are considered in relation to control of mucus secretion and to their relevance to cystic fibrosis. PMID:4726092

  12. Lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in immature rats result in long-term deficits in spatial learning and hippocampal cell loss.

    PubMed

    Wu, C L; Huang, L T; Liou, C W; Wang, T J; Tung, Y R; Hsu, H Y; Lai, M C

    2001-10-19

    Rat pups age of 14 postnatal day (P14) were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PC) model of status epilepticus (SE). Control rats (n=6) were given an equivalent volume of saline intraperitoneally. Behavioral testing began on P60 including the Morris water maze, the radial arm maze, and the rotarod test. Brain were then analyzed with cresyl violet stain for histological lesions and evaluated for mossy fiber sprouting with the Timm stain. We observed spatial memory deficits both in the Morris water maze and radial arm maze in Li-PC-treated rat. There was no motor impairment in Li-PC-treated rat by the rotarod test. Two of six Li-PC-treated rats showed cell loss in hippocampal CA1 subfield. The Timm staining pattern was similar in both control and Li-PC-treated rats. Result of this study suggests that Li-PC-induced SE in immature rats cause long-term cognitive deficit and permanent cell loss in hippocampal CA1, but spare motor impairment. PMID:11595347

  13. Impairment of GABA release in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Soukupová, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Roncon, Paolo; Palma, Eleonora; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Simonato, Michele

    2014-07-01

    The alterations in GABA release have not yet been systematically measured along the natural course of temporal lobe epilepsy. In this work, we analyzed GABA extracellular concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high K(+)-evoked conditions) and loss of two GABA interneuron populations (parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons) in the ventral hippocampus at different time-points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat, i.e. during development and progression of epilepsy. We found that (i) during the latent period between the epileptogenic insult, status epilepticus, and the first spontaneous seizure, basal GABA outflow was reduced to about one third of control values while the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was reduced by about 50% and that of somatostatin-positive cells by about 25%; nonetheless, high K(+) stimulation increased extracellular GABA in a proportionally greater manner during latency than under control conditions; (ii) at the time of the first spontaneous seizure (i.e., when the diagnosis of epilepsy is made in humans) this increased responsiveness to stimulation disappeared, i.e. there was no longer any compensation for GABA cell loss; (iii) thereafter, this dysfunction remained constant until a late phase of the disease. These data suggest that a GABAergic hyper-responsiveness can compensate for GABA cell loss and protect from occurrence of seizures during latency, whereas impaired extracellular GABA levels can favor the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and the maintenance of an epileptic state. PMID:24768627

  14. The Effects of Quinacrine, Proglumide, and Pentoxifylline on Seizure Activity, Cognitive Deficit, and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lithium-Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M.; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E.; Ajarem, Jamaan S.

    2014-01-01

    The present data indicate that status epilepticus (SE) induced in adult rats is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and cerebral oxidative stress (OS). This has been demonstrated using lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of SE. OS occurring in hippocampus and striatum of mature brain following SE is apparently due to both the increased free radicals production and the limited antioxidant defense. Pronounced alterations were noticed in the enzymatic, glutathione-S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as in the nonenzymatic; thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GST), indices of OS in the hippocampus and striatum of SE induced animals. Quinacrine (Qcn), proglumide (Pgm), and pentoxifylline (Ptx) administered to animals before inducing SE, were significantly effective in ameliorating the seizure activities, cognitive dysfunctions, and cerebral OS. The findings suggest that all the drugs were effective in the order of Ptx < Pgm < Qcn indicating that these drugs are potentially antiepileptic as well as antioxidant; however, further studies are needed to establish this fact. It can be assumed that these antiepileptic substances with antioxidant properties combined with conventional therapies might provide a beneficial effect in treatment of epilepsy through ameliorating the cerebral OS. PMID:25478062

  15. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  16. Oral sex practices, oral human papillomavirus and correlations between oral and cervical human papillomavirus prevalence among female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N

    2015-01-01

    Summary Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18–26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women. PMID:22096051

  17. A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of slow-release oral morphine versus methadone in opioid-dependent in-patients willing to undergo detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Madlung-Kratzer, Ekkehard; Spitzer, Berhard; Brosch, Renate; Dunkel, Dirk; Haring, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) compared with methadone for detoxification from methadone and SROM maintenance treatment. Design Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, comparative multi-centre study with parallel groups. Setting Three psychiatric hospitals in Austria specializing in in-patient detoxification. Participants Male and female opioid dependents (age > 18 years) willing to undergo detoxification from maintenance therapy in order to reach abstinence. Interventions Abstinence was reached from maintenance treatment by tapered dose reduction of either SROM or methadone over a period of 16 days. Measurements Efficacy analyses were based on the number of patients per treatment group completing the study, as well as on the control of signs and symptoms of withdrawal [measured using Short Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)] and suppression of opiate craving. In addition, self-reported somatic and psychic symptoms (measured using Symptom Checklist SCL-90-R) were monitored. Findings Of the 208 patients enrolled into the study, 202 were eligible for analysis (SROM: n = 102, methadone: n = 100). Completion rates were 51% in the SROM group and 49% in the methadone group [difference between groups: 2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?12% to 16%]. The rate of discontinuation in the study was high mainly because of patients voluntarily withdrawing from treatment. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were found in terms of signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal, craving for opiates or self-reported symptoms. SROM and methadone were both well tolerated. Conclusions Detoxification from maintenance treatment with tapered dose reduction of SROM is non-inferior to methadone. PMID:19686525

  18. Oral Contraceptives and Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M. F.

    1970-01-01

    During 1965-9 22 women aged 41 years or less have been seen with myocardial infarction. Eleven had been taking oral contraceptives. This prevalence of oral contraception (50%) is appreciably greater than that estimated for women of the same age in the general population. Nine of these 11 women had an independent increased risk of developing ischaemic heart disease because of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, or excessive cigarette smoking. Ten of the 11 not taking an oral contraceptive also had a readily identifiable predisposing factor. None of the 22 showed carbohydrate intolerance. The similarity of the two groups is the striking finding. Details of 15 women of comparable age seen during 1960-4 before oral contraceptives were widely used are also presented, and they had similar characteristics. Oral contraceptives do not appear on their own to increase the risk of developing myocardial infarction, but they may do so in women otherwise prone to ischaemic heart disease. Suggestions are made for the identification of these women. PMID:5443407

  19. Drebrin A expression is altered after pilocarpine-induced seizures: time course of changes is consistent for a role in the integrity and stability of dendritic spines of hippocampal granule cells.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Oualid; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Esclapez, Monique; Ferhat, Lotfi

    2012-03-01

    We used a pathophysiological model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine in adult rats in order to assess the in vivo role of drebrin A (DA), one of the major regulators of F-actin. This model displays a dynamic reorganization of the glutamatergic network including neo-spinogenesis, morphogenesis, and neo-synaptogenesis associated with an aberrant sprouting of granule cell axons in the dentate gyrus (DG). This reactive plasticity contributes in dentate granule-cell hyperexcitability that could lead to the emergence of recurrent spontaneous seizures. We investigated the hippocampal DA expression changes in pilocarpine animals using immunohistochemical, Western blot, and in situ hybridization analyses. We showed that DA immunoreactivity was decreased in the inner molecular layer (IML) and in the hilus (H) of the DG, at latent stage, when spinogenesis and morphogenesis occur. Western blot analysis confirmed these overall hippocampal decreases of DA protein expression. At chronic stage, when newly formed glutamatergic synapses are being established, the levels of immunolabeling for DA in the H and the IML were similar to control rats. This recovery is likely due to the increase of DA mRNA in perikarya of hilar and granule cells. Interestingly, our data showed that the changes pattern of labeling for Bassoon, a specific marker for presynaptic active zone, in the IML of pilocarpine-treated animals paralleled those found for DA at all time points examined. Furthermore, our double and triple immunofluorescence studies showed that the recovery in DA levels in the IML occurred within the dendritic spines involved in glutamatergic active synapses of presumed granule cells. Altogether, our results indicate that in vivo DA is not critical for spinogenesis and morphogenesis but instead is consistent with an involvement in synaptic structural integrity, stabilization, and function. Thus, DA appears as a novel modulator of reactive synaptic plasticity associated with epilepsy. PMID:21240918

  20. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Nita A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of dabigatran and rivaroxaban are increasing, data on reversal of their effects are limited. The lack of reliable monitoring methods and specific reversal agents renders treatment strategies empirical and as a result, , treatment consists mainly of supportive measures. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database to find studies and reviews pertaining to oral anticoagulation reversal strategies. This review discusses current anticoagulation reversal recommendations for the oral anticoagulants warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for patients at a heightened risk of bleeding, actively bleeding or those in need for pre-procedural anticoagulation reversal. We highlight the literature that shaped these recommendations and provide directions for future research to address knowledge gaps. While reliable recommendations are available for anticoagulation reversal in patients treated with warfarin, guidance on reversal of dabigatran and rivaroxaban is varied and equivocal. Given the increasing use of the newer agents, focused research is needed to identify effective reversal strategies and develop and implement an accurate method (assay) to guide reversal of the newer agents. Determining patient-specific factors that influence the effectiveness of reversal treatments and comparing the effectiveness of various treatment strategies are pertinent areas for future anticoagulation reversal research. PMID:23606318

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetics of puerarin, daidzin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, berberine, palmatine and jateorhizine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and active components alignment (ACA) to rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beilei; Li, Pengyue; Zhang, Guijun

    2015-04-15

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous analysis of puerarin, daidzin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, berberine, palmatine and jateorhizine of Gegenqinlian Decoction (GQD) and active components alignment (ACA) in rat plasma using hesperidin as the internal standard (I.S.). Chromatography was performed using a C18 column, with gradient elution with 1% acetic acid-0.001 mol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile at 0.2 ml/min. All analytes including I.S. were monitored under positive ionization conditions by selected reaction monitoring with an electrospray ionization source. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 471/297 for puerarin, 471/255 for daidzin, 447/271 for baicalin, 823/453 for glycyrrhizic acid, 419/257 for liquiritin, 336/320 for berberine, 352/336 for palmatine, 338/322 for jateorhizine and 611/303 for hesperidin. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.15-63.0 to 6.3-6340.0 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were within 15.0%, and accuracy (RE%) ranged from -7.4 to 13.2%. The extraction recoveries were ranged from 60.4 to 93.3%. The proposed method was further applied to compare the pharmacokinetics of all analytes following a single oral administration of GQD and ACA. In conclusion, the eight analytes of GQD and ACA had partly similar pharmacokinetics, which were different from single composition (such as puerarin). PMID:25746576

  3. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15?years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02084433. PMID:26163031

  4. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  5. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  6. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  7. The Uptake of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes by Means of Glycated Hemoglobin versus the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among 18 to 60-Year-Old People of South Asian Origin: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vlaar, Everlina M. A.; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct comparisons of the effect of a glycated haemoglobin measurement or an oral glucose tolerance test on the uptake and yield of screening in people of South Asian origin have not been made. We evaluated this in 18 to 60-year-old South Asian Surinamese. Materials and Methods We invited 3173 South Asian Surinamese for an oral glucose tolerance test between June 18th 2009- December 31st 2009 and 2012 for a glycated hemoglobin measurement between April 19th 2010-November 11th, 2010. Participants were selected from 48 general practices in The Hague, The Netherlands. We used mixed models regression to analyse differences in response and participation between the groups. We described differences in characteristics of participants and calculated the yield as the percentage of all cases identified, if all invitees had been offered screening with the specified method. Results The response and participation in the glycated hemoglobin group was higher than in the group offered an oral glucose tolerance test (participation 23.9 vs. 19.3; OR: 1.30, 95%-confidence interval1.01–1.69). After adjustment for age and sex, characteristics of participants were similar for both groups. Overall, glycated hemoglobin identified a similar percentage of type 2 diabetes cases but a higher percentage of prediabetes cases, in the population than the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion We found that glycated hemoglobin and the oral glucose tolerance test may be equally efficient for identification of type 2 diabetes in populations of South Asian origin. However, for programs aimed at identifying people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (i.e. with prediabetes), the oral glucose tolerance test may be a less efficient choice than glycated hemoglobin. PMID:26317417

  8. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  9. Comparing the effect of oral supplementation of vitamin E, injective vitamin E and selenium or both during late pregnancy on production and reproductive performance and immune function of dairy cows and calves.

    PubMed

    Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Maleki, Elaheh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

  10. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

  11. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with glargine 100 U/ml in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes on oral glucose-lowering drugs: a randomized controlled trial (EDITION 3)

    PubMed Central

    Bolli, G B; Riddle, M C; Bergenstal, R M; Ziemen, M; Sestakauskas, K; Goyeau, H; Home, P D

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300?U/ml (Gla-300) with that of glargine 100?U/ml (Gla-100) in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes using oral glucose-lowering drugs. Methods The EDITION 3 study was a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group study. Participants were randomized to Gla-300 or Gla-100 once daily for 6?months, discontinuing sulphonylureas and glinides, with a dose titration aimed at achieving pre-breakfast plasma glucose concentrations of 4.4–5.6?mmol/l (80–100?mg/dl). The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to month?6. The main secondary endpoint was percentage of participants with ?1 nocturnal confirmed [?3.9?mmol/l (?70?mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemia from week?9 to month?6. Other measures of glycaemia and hypoglycaemia, weight change and insulin dose were assessed. Results Randomized participants (n?=?878) had a mean (standard deviation) age of 57.7 (10.1)?years, diabetes duration 9.8 (6.4)?years, body mass index 33.0 (6.7)?kg/m2 and HbA1c 8.54 (1.06)?% [69.8 (11.6)?mmol/mol]. HbA1c levels decreased by equivalent amounts with the two treatments; the least squares mean difference in change from baseline was 0.04 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?0.09 to 0.17]?% or 0.4 (?1.0 to 1.9)?mmol/mol. Numerically fewer participants reported ?1 nocturnal confirmed (?3.9?mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia from week?9 to month?6 [relative risk (RR) 0.89 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.20)] with Gla-300 versus Gla-100; a significantly lower risk of hypoglycaemia with this definition was found over the 6-month treatment period [RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.99)]. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were identified. Conclusions Gla-300 is as effective as Gla-100 in reducing HbA1c in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, with lower hypoglycaemia risk. PMID:25641260

  12. Allison Oral History

    E-print Network

    Albin, Tami; Allison

    2014-03-13

    Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Allison Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin August 23, 2009 http://hdl.handle.net/1808.../13171 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer...

  13. Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    Oral tolerance is an active process of local and systemic immune unresponsiveness to orally ingested antigens such as food. The gut immune system must balance responses to commensal bacteria (microbiome), innocuous antigens, and pathogens. Although it is clear that specialized populations of immune cells and lymph nodes create a unique environment in the gut, there remains evidence to suggest that systemic effector sites also are critical to establishing and maintaining oral tolerance. PMID:26456448

  14. George Paris Oral History

    E-print Network

    Paris, George; Albin, Tami

    2010-01-11

    Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas George Paris Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video... platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to George Paris's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch...

  15. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies. PMID:25638423

  16. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate) and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  17. Tongue piercing (oral body art).

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Chen, M

    1994-02-01

    Oral body art is a relatively recent fashion in the West where jewelry is inserted in the oral soft tissues. A patient who had tongue-piercing is presented, and the subject of oral piercing reviewed. PMID:8136338

  18. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5, 2016 AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  19. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  20. Oral Melanotic Macule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral melanotic macule appears as a solitary, flat, tan-to-dark-brown spot usually less than 7 mm in diameter. It has a well-defined border and a uniform color. People can have more than one oral melanotic macule. Self-Care Guidelines There are no self-care measures ...

  1. Antihistamines: topical vs oral administration.

    PubMed

    Davies, R J; Bagnall, A C; McCabe, R N; Calderon, M A; Wang, J H

    1996-05-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis is complex, involving not only histamine and mast cell-derived tryptase, but also eosinophil- and neutrophil-derived mediators, cytokines, and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1). It is surprising that antihistamines, which block only one component of the process, have proved so effective in the management of allergic rhinitis. Research has therefore focused on whether antihistamines have additional pharmacological activities. In vitro studies have shown that high concentrations of second generation antihistamines can block inflammatory mediator release from basophils and mast cells, and reduce ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cell lines. In vivo studies have also shown an effect on the allergen-induced inflammatory reaction; both oral and intranasal antihistamines cause a reduction in nasal symptoms and inflammatory cell influx. Oral terfenadine and cetirizine and intranasal levocabastine and azelastine have also demonstrated a lowering of ICAM-1 expression on epithelial cells. With regard to clinical efficacy, topical levocabastine (0.5 mg/mL eye drop solution and 0.5 mg/mL nasal spray) was shown to be more effective than oral terfenadine (60 mg twice daily) in relieving ocular itch (P = 0.02) and reducing nasal symptoms in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. In a further study, levocabastine eye drops were as effective and well tolerated as sodium cromoglycate in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Intranasal azelastine (0.28 mg twice daily) showed a trend for superior relief of rhinorrhoea and nasal obstruction compared with oral terfenadine (60 mg twice daily). In addition, intranasal azelastine (0.28 mg twice daily) resulted in significant reductions in sneezing, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea and itching in perennial rhinitis, compared with the lower efficacy of beclomethasone dipropionate (0.1 mg twice daily). As well as benefits in efficacy, topical administration is associated with improved safety. Some antihistamines, particularly those metabolized in the liver, are associated with occasional reports of severe side-effects. It is therefore logical to administer antihistamines directly to the target organ. PMID:8735853

  2. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self-efficacy and net benefits. Discussion IQuaD will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing periodontal disease in dentate adults in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners and patients in treatment decision making. Trial registration Protocol ID: ISRCTN56465715 PMID:24160246

  3. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder. PMID:26617710

  4. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  5. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  6. [Novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC)].

    PubMed

    Ieko, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), a direct thrombin inhibitor (TDI), and direct factor Xa inhibitors (Xa-INHs) have mainly been used for prevention of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation in place of warfarin. DTI obstructs tenase by inhibiting thrombin generated in the initial phase and feedback to the amplification phase of cell-based coagulation reactions. Xa-INHs inhibit factor Xa activity in the prothrombinase complex of the propagation phase. Since the half-life of NOACs is in the approximate range of 8-14 hours, there are peak and trough periods in the blood concentrations of these agents. During the trough period, a small amount of thrombin is generated and plays a physiological role. The antithrombotic effect of NOACs is exerted during the peak period in combination with the effects of physiological coagulation inhibitors (PCIs) such as antithrombin in the trough period. Endothelial cells are the site for action of PCIs, such that it is important that they remain in a good state for effective anticoagulation by NOACs within the lesions. In a meta-analysis of NOACs vs. warfarin treatment, the former significantly reduced stroke or systemic embolic events by 19% as compared with warfarin, due mainly to a reduction in hemorrhagic stroke, while NOAC administration also significantly reduced intracranial hemorrhage by 52%. PMID:26458452

  7. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  8. Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? There are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). Oral ...

  9. Stuttering and oral stereognosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, R R; Lawrence, B A; Haroldson, S K; Gunderson, D

    1981-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate oral stereognostic performance of stutterers. In Exp. I, stutterers and controls responded "same"--"different" to two oral forms placed successively on their tongues. In Exp. II, stutterers and controls underwent two procedures. For half the items, the task was the same as in Exp. I; for the other half, subjects were presented a single form and visually identified that form from among others on a placard. In both experiments, stutterers made significantly more oral stereognostic errors than did their matched controls. PMID:7290864

  10. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  11. Oral Communications: Survey and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyllie, James

    1980-01-01

    Argues that oral communication is important in business but is rarely taught in business communication courses. Provides five suggestions to teachers of oral communication: teach organization, teach different types of oral communication, offer training in the use of visual aids, use cassettes or videotape, and stress functional oral communication.…

  12. David Nelson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Nelson, David; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

    2009-10-31

    Oral history interview with David Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on October 31, 2009. In this interview, David Nelson discusses his journey from his childhood experiences in the Swedish Lutheran church in Burdick...

  13. Glenn Lindell Oral History

    E-print Network

    Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

    2009-10-24

    Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

  14. Brandon Brillhart Oral History

    E-print Network

    Brillhart, Brandon; Stratton, Emily

    2013-07-18

    Oral history interview with Brandon Brillhart conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on July 18, 2013. This interview features Brandon Brillhart, the founder and lead pastor of Relevate Church. Relevate Church was planted in Lawrence...

  15. Jan Helmer Oral History

    E-print Network

    Helmer, Jan; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-12-29

    Oral history interview with Jan Helmer conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Jan Helmer discusses her recollections of attending Valley Methodist Church in Marion, Kansas, including youth group...

  16. Molly Marshall Oral History

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Molly; Hobson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Oral history interview with Molly Marshall conducted by Katie Hobson on July 02, 2015. This interview features the president at Central Baptist Theological Seminary in Shawnee, Kansas. Questions address President Marshall's experiences...

  17. Kansas Lawsonians Oral History

    E-print Network

    Mook, John; Mook, Paula; Hunergaaurd, George; Reeve, Jamie

    2009-12-08

    Oral history interview with John and Paula Mook and George Hunergaaurd conducted by Jamie Reeve in Wichita, Kansas, on December 8, 2009. In this interview, John and Paul Mook and George Hunergaaurd discuss the biography of Alfred Lawson, the history...

  18. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Flunisolide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults ... Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to ...

  19. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Beclomethasone comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. It usually is inhaled twice ... doctor about how you should use your other oral and inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment ...

  20. Pentobarbital Oral and Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to be used rectally. ... Grisactin), medications for depression or seizures, metronidazole (Flagyl), oral contraceptives, propranolol (Inderal), quinidine, rifampin, sedatives, sleeping pills, ...

  1. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Ciclesonide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults ... Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice ...

  2. Leona Anderson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

    2009-09-18

    Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran ...

  3. Joseph Luben Oral History

    E-print Network

    Luben, Joseph; Manning, Sean

    2009-11-05

    Oral history interview with Joseph Luben conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Joseph Luben discusses being raised with both Pentecostal and Jewish influences in Galena, Kansas. He also describes...

  4. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the rate of occurrence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. There are two distinct pathways by which most ... If you add the sub category of laryngeal throat cancers, the rates of occurrence (about 12,000 additional ...

  5. Gene Carlson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Gene; Shriner, Clint

    2009-12-10

    Oral history interview with Gene Carlson conducted by Clint Shriner on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Gene Carlson, lead pastor at Westlink Christian Church, discusses the formative experiences that resulted in his decision to join...

  6. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    PubMed

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay. PMID:22810570

  7. Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2011-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost. PMID:21938271

  8. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  9. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  10. Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.

    2012-10-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

  11. [Early oral feeding versus classic oral feeding after appendicectomy for acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Kassi Assamoi, B F; Yenon, K S; Lebeau, R; Traore, M; Akpa-Bedi, E; Kouassi, J C

    2010-01-01

    The appendectomies for acute appendicitis are the most frequent surgical interventions (43.6%) in our service. The recent studies demonstrated the feasibility and the economical gain of the early oral feeding vs. classic oral feeding, after elective digestive surgery. We wanted to spread these results therefore to the appendectomy for acute appendicitis. It is about a prospective survey carrying on 110 patients also left in two groups, and comparing the classic postoperative oral feeding vs. the early postoperative oral feeding on one year. The two groups were comparable and the studied parameters were : the length of the postoperative ileus, the hospitable morbidity, the length of the hospitalization and the cost of the hold in charge. The length of the postoperative ileus was not different in the two groups as well as the morbidity. The difference of the median length of hospitalization in the two groups was not meaningful. The cost of the hold in charge was meaningfully more elevated in the group with classic postoperative feeding. In conclusion, the early postoperative oral feeding in our survey doesn't reduce the length of the postoperative ileus and don't drag a morbidity anymore that the classic oral feeding. However if it doesn't shorten the length of the hospitalization, it drags a reduction of the cost of the hold in charge. There is a gain therefore precociously to nourish the patients after appendectomy for acute appendicitis. PMID:21290854

  12. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people.

  13. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    PubMed

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  14. The impact of home-prepared diets and home oral hygiene on oral health in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; Colyer, Alison; Skrzywanek, Michal; Jodkowska, Katarzyna; Kurski, Grzegorz; Gawor, Jerzy; Ceregrzyn, Michal

    2011-10-01

    Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health. An oral health index (OHI) ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for each animal by combining examination scores, where 0 indicates good oral health and 8 indicates poorest oral health. Information was collected on age, diet and home oral hygiene regimens. There was a significant effect of diet on the OHI (P < 0.001) whereby feeding the HP diet increased the probability of an oral health problem in both cats and dogs. There was a significant beneficial effect of feeding only commercial pet food compared with the HP diet when at least part of the diet was composed of dry pet food. Daily tooth brushing or the offering of daily dental treats were both effective in significantly reducing the OHI in both cats and dogs compared with those receiving sporadic or no home oral hygiene. Feeding only a dry diet was beneficial for oral health in cats and dogs. Tooth brushing and the offering of dental treats were very effective in maintaining oral health, provided they were practised daily. PMID:22005407

  15. Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

  16. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  17. Sterilization: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Keeping, J D; Chang, A; Morrison, J

    1979-11-01

    Publications relating to surgical procedures for sterilization have been reviewed, and the incidences of complications and subsequent pregnancies compared. Laparoscopic sterilization has the lowest incidence of complication, the morbidity rate being lower than that of laparotomy sterilization or hysterectomy, and the mortality rate lower than that of a single pregnancy or taking oral contraceptives for 1 year. PMID:161703

  18. Comparative Oncology Program

    Cancer.gov

    COTC021 and COTC022: Evaluation of Orally Administered mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin in Dogs in the Adjuvant Setting with Osteosarcoma Compared to Standard of Care Status: Open Purpose: All dogs will receive standard of care. Standard of care includes surgical

  19. Discoloration of Provisional Restorations after Oral Rinses

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, K?vanç Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (?E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). A* values were found to be significantly higher with oral rinses (p<0.05), except Protemp II immersed in benzydamine HCl or alcohol-containing mouthwash. Conclusions: The type of the oral rinse did not affect the discoloration process. For long-term esthetic results, choosing MMA-based materials for provisional restorations appears to be more effective. PMID:24046524

  20. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Paula Regina Rodrigues; da Fonsêca, Diogo Vilar; Braga, Renan Marinho; de Melo, Cynthia Germoglio Farias; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-01-01

    Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC), namely (+)-cis-EC, (-)-cis-EC, (+)-trans-EC, and (-)-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg) increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+) and (-)-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+) and (-)-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg) showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+)-cis-EC and (+)-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+)-cis-EC, (+)-trans-EC, and (-)-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes. PMID:26528962

  1. Oral Leukoplakia – an Update

    PubMed Central

    PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

  2. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

  3. The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

  4. Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

  5. Immunology of oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.

    2014-01-01

    A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

  6. Arla Jones Oral History

    E-print Network

    Jones, Arla; Albin, Tami

    2010-10-06

    'll start this one off the way I start off all the oral histories so far which is, where were you born and when? 00:00:27 JONES: Well I was born in Great Bend, Kansas March 23, 1960. And Great Bend is right in the middle of the state. Lived in Great... of this do bells and whistles start to really go off?5 8 Added by narrator during the review process. Arla Jones March 10, 2008 8 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas...

  7. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  8. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Oral Health and Bone Disease Publication available in: PDF (58 ... Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral Health FAQs (OWH) Periodontal (Gum) Disease (NIDCR) Seal Out ...

  9. Lin Tongqi : an oral history

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

  10. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use your other oral and inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with mometasone inhalation. If you were taking an ... your doctor if your asthma worsens during your treatment. Call your doctor immediately if you have an asthma attack that does not stop when you use ...

  11. Indra Macmillan Oral History

    E-print Network

    Macmillan, Indra; Miller, Timothy

    2010-10-26

    Oral history interview with Indra MacMillan conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 26, 2010. In this interview, Indra MacMillan discusses his childhood growing up as a member of the Brethren in Scotland. He describes his...

  12. Paul Gray Oral History

    E-print Network

    Gray, Paul; Stratton, Emily

    2010-12-10

    Oral history interview with Paul Gray conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on December 10, 2010. In this interview, Paul Gray, lead pastor at the New Life in Christ Church, describes his journey from his background as a working jazz...

  13. Justin Jenkins Oral History

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-06

    Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational church-plant in Lawrence...

  14. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  15. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  16. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  17. Pope Michael Oral History

    E-print Network

    Pope Michael; Bawden, David; Asadi, Torang

    2010-09-02

    Oral history interview with Pope Michael (David Bawden) conducted by Torang Asadi in Delia, Kansas, on September 2, 2010. In this interview, Pope Michael describes how his family came to be in Kansas, how he came to believe that Pope John Paul II...

  18. Warren Wiebe Oral History

    E-print Network

    Wiebe, Warren; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Oral history interview of Warren Wiebe conducted by Jordan Roane in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2014. Warren grew up in the small western Kansas town of Hillsboro. Hillsboro is known for its Mennonite community as well as the Mennonite college...

  19. Ryan Campbell Oral History

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-16

    be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must identify: 1. Type...

  20. David Ollington Oral History

    E-print Network

    Ollington, David; Albin, Tami

    2010-01-11

    @ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must identify: 1. Type of publication 2. Proposed title 3...

  1. Michael Johnson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-16

    and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories...

  2. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  3. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

  4. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

  5. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  6. ORAL PRESENTATION A PRACTICAL GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    ORAL PRESENTATION SKILLS A PRACTICAL GUIDE © C. STORZ and the English language teachers of the Institut national de télécommunications, EVRY FRANCE. #12;Carl Storz et al. Oral Presentation Skills Août provides the essential elements and some tips on preparing and organizing a successful oral presentation

  7. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  8. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  9. Canine oral melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = <2-cm-diameter tumor, stage II = 2- to <4-cm-diameter tumor, stage III = > or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged. PMID:17591290

  10. Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

  11. Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R.; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P.; Nelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician’s medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee’s response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM) residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. Methods EM residents (n=35) were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17) or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18) conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL). Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1–8 scale). Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. Results We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. Conclusion The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents. Virtual environments for oral examinations should continue to be explored, particularly since they offer an inexpensive, more comfortable, yet equally rigorous alternative. PMID:25834684

  12. Oral care of hospitalised older patients in the acute medical setting.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Kathryn; Yacoub, Elaine; Mahoney, Anne-Marie; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Oral health care is an essential aspect of nursing care. There are many variances in the quality and frequency of the oral care that is delivered to patients by nursing staff, such as oral care being given a low priority when compared to other nursing care elements, oral care being neglected, and oral care delivery being dependent on the nurse's knowledge of oral hygiene. Additionally, there are some particular patient groups known to be at risk of oral health problems or who have existing oral diseases and conditions. As people age their susceptibility increases to chronic and life-threatening diseases, and they can be at increased risk of acute infections increases compromised by ageing immune systems. The aim of this literature review was to ignite the discussion related to the oral care practices of nurses for older acute medical hospitalised patients. The review revealed that nursing staff know that good nursing includes oral health care, but this knowledge does not always mean that oral health care is administered. Oral health care seems to be separated from other nursing activities and is not discussed when nursing care plans are written, only when oral problems are obvious. PMID:23819046

  13. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  14. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  15. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  16. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  17. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  18. Oral Cavity Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

  19. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  20. Deleterious oral habits in children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    SUHANI, RALUCA DIANA; SUHANI, MIHAI FLAVIU; MUNTEAN, ALEXANDRINA; MESAROS, MICHAELA; BADEA, MINDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Deleterious oral habits represent a serious public health issue. The information available about this problem in children with hearing impairment is insufficient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of deleterious oral habits among children with hearing impairment and comparing results against children without hearing impairment. Method This epidemiological study was carried out in a sample size of 315 children. We used a random sampling technique that included 150 children with hearing impairment and 165 without hearing impairment. All subjects were submitted to a clinical examination. The parents/legal guardians were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the deleterious habits of their children. Results The data collected indicated a higher prevalence of deleterious oral habits among children with hearing impairment: 53.3% as opposed to 40.6% among children without hearing impairment. There was a higher incidence of malocclusion in children with hearing impairment (79.3%) compared to children without hearing impairment (57%). Conclusions This study highlighted the need to establish protocols for preventive orthodontic treatment at an early age, in order to reduce the deleterious oral habits and prevent malocclusion. Dental institutions/clinicians need to implement oral care programs including proper oral education aiming to promote oral health. PMID:26609277

  1. Oral Health Scales: Design of an Oral Health Scale of Infectious Potential

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Marta; Diz, Pedro; Seoane, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper we propose a new Global Oral Health Scale that will allow the infectious potential of the oral cavity, clinically manifest as local and focal infections, to be condensed into a single parameter. Study Design: Based on a number of oral health scales previously designed by our group, we designed a final version that incorporates dental and periodontal variables (some of them evaluated using corroborated objective indices) that reflect the presence of caries and periodontal disease. Results: The application of the proposed oral health scale requires the examination of 6 sites per tooth (mesio-buccal, medio-buccal, disto-buccal, disto-lingual, medio-lingual and mesio-lingual). The following variables are analysed: number of tooth surfaces with supragingival plaque, determined using the O’Leary index; number of teeth with caries and the severity of the caries; number of tooth surfaces with gingival inflammation, determined using the Ainamo and Bay index; and number of tooth surfaces with pockets ?4 mm and severity of the pockets. These variables are then grouped into 2 categories, dental and periodontal. The final grades of dental and periodontal health correspond to the grades assigned to a least 2 of the 3 variables analysed in each of these categories. The category (dental or periodontal) with the highest grade is the one that determines the grade of the Global Oral Health Scale. Conclusion: This scale could be particularly useful for the epidemiological studies comparing different populations and for analysis of the influence of distinct degrees of oral health on the development of certain systemic diseases. Key words:Scale, oral health, infectious potential, systemic disease. PMID:23524418

  2. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  3. Flexibility versus Rigidity for Orally Bioavailable Cyclic Hexapeptides.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Daniel S; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Hoang, Huy N; Hill, Timothy A; Jones, Alun; Lucke, Andrew J; Fairlie, David P

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic peptides and macrocycles have the potential to be membrane permeable and orally bioavailable, despite often not complying with the "rule of five" used in medicinal chemistry to guide the discovery of oral drugs. Here we compare solvent-dependent three-dimensional structures of three cyclic hexapeptides containing d-amino acids, prolines, and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Conformational rigidity rather than flexibility resulted in higher membrane permeability, metabolic stability and oral bioavailability, consistent with less polar surface exposure to solvent and a reduced entropy penalty for transition between polar and nonpolar environments. PMID:26336864

  4. Oral Health Literacy Assessment: development of an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish speakers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; Stucky, Brian; Rozier, Gary; Lee, Shoou-Yih; Zeldin, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish-speaking adults, evaluate its psychometric properties, and determine its comparability to an English version. Methods The Oral Health Literacy Assessment in Spanish (OHLA-S) and English (OHLA-E) are designed with a word recognition section and a comprehension section using the multiple-choice format developed by an expert panel. Validation of OHLA-S and OHLA-E involved comparing the instrument with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 204 English-speaking subjects. Comparability between Spanish and English versions was assessed by testing for differential item functioning (DIF) using item response theory. Results We considered three OHLA-S scoring systems. Based on validity and reliability comparisons, 24 items were retained in the OHLA-S instrument. OHLA-S was correlated with another health literacy instrument, Spanish Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were also found between OHLA-S and years of schooling, oral health knowledge, overall health, and an understanding of written health-care materials (P < 0.05). OHLA-S displayed satisfactory reliability with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.70-0.80. DIF results suggested that OHLA-S and OHLA-E scores were not comparable at a given level of oral health literacy. Conclusions OHLA-S has acceptable reliability and validity. OHLA-S and OHLA-E are two different measurement tools and should not be used to compare oral health literacy between English- and Spanish-speaking populations. PMID:23215757

  5. Oral Contraceptives and Female Mortality Trends

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, T. W.

    1970-01-01

    Death rates for Ontario females aged 15 to 44 during the years 1959-61 and 1966-68 have been compared to see if there have been any changes in these rates which might be related to the widespread use of oral contraceptives since 1961. Overall mortality (all causes) has declined significantly during this time, as have the rates for deaths due to child-birth and pregnancy, and from cancer of the uterus. Death rates from ischemic heart disease and cancer of the breast have not shown any significant change, but there has been a substantial increase in the rates ascribed to venous thromboembolism and suicide. It must be stressed that a change in the recorded death rate does not necessarily mean that there has been a corresponding change in the incidence of the disease in question, or that such a change is related to the use of oral contraceptives. However, if oral contraceptives do cause an increase in a fatal disease, the effect should show up, sooner or later, in routine mortality statistics, and periodic examination of death rates may therefore provide a useful starting point for more detailed epidemiological investigation. To assist physicians in counselling patients, a diagram has been prepared showing the relative importance of some selected causes of death in females aged 15 to 44, and the extent to which these death rates have changed since the introduction of oral contraceptives. PMID:5420995

  6. Negligible effect of oral garlic oil on the oral absorption of pyridoxine in metadoxine in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Kang, Hee Eun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Myung Gull

    2010-07-01

    Metadoxine [an ion-pair between pyridoxine and pyrrolidone carboxylate (PCA)] plus garlic oil treatment synergistically reduces alcoholic steatosis compared to each agent alone. We evaluated the effect of garlic oil on the pharmacokinetics of pyridoxine. After the oral administration of metadoxine, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of pyridoxine were significantly greater (by 40.6%) and higher (by 63.9%), respectively, than after oral administration of pyridoxine plus PCA. Oral metadoxine plus garlic oil also gave larger AUC (31.8%) and higher C(max) (64.9%) than pyridoxine plus PCA. However, garlic oil did not change the AUC or C(max) of pyridoxine in metadoxine. Thus, garlic oil does not enhance the metadoxine activity by affecting the absorption of pyridoxine. PMID:20661709

  7. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  8. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  9. Oral iodine supplementation does not reduce neutralizing antibody responses to oral poliovirus vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Taffs, R. E.; Enterline, J. C.; Rusmil, K.; Muhilal; Suwardi, S. S.; Rustama, D.; Djatnika; Cobra, C.; Semba, R. D.; Cohen, N.; Asher, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major cause of impaired mental development, goitre, and cretinism in many parts of the world. Because existing immunization programmes can be used to deliver oral iodized oil (OIO) to infants at risk, it was important to know whether OIO could adversely affect the antibody response to vaccines, such as trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, in which 617 eight-week-old infants received either OIO or a placebo (poppy-seed oil) during a routine visit for their first dose of OPV as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The infants received two boosters of OPV at 4-week intervals after the first dose, and were followed up when 6 months old. Neutralizing antibody titres to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were compared in serum samples that were taken from 478 of these infants just before the first dose of OPV and at 6 months. It was found that oral iodized oil did not reduce the antibody responses to any of the three serotypes of OPV. These results indicate that oral iodine may safely be delivered to infants at the same time as oral poliovirus vaccine according to current EPI immunization schedules. PMID:10427933

  10. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  11. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

  12. [Epidemiology of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2007-04-01

    In Hungary, the mortality rate from oral cancer is dramatically increasing, causing great concern. Smoking, drinking and poor oral hygiene are the major risk factors, and their combined effect could only be prevented by primary preventive measures in a long time period and therefore the benefit from primary prevention can be detected much later. The possibilities of the secondary preventive measures are much better to identify the premalignant conditions and lesions for these cancers. Screening could be used to detect both precancerous lesions and early invasive cancers, however, no study as yet has demonstrated a reduced mortality from screening, therefore, sui generis regular, organised screening, based on personal call-and-recall system, is not recommended. In the same time, regular opportunistic screening by clinical examination, i.e. visual inspection, using dental mirror, and palpation of the region in asymptomatic persons at high risk offers prime opportunity for early detection and early treatment. Recently, the government has decided to take action by promoting the clinical examination. To this effect, a Working Group consisting of subject experts and headed by the Chief Medical Officer has been appointed and charged with elaboration of a workable plan of action. In terms of action, priority',should be given to men and women above 40 years of age who are heavy smokers and drinkers; socioeconomic differentials should be taken into account. In the first place, dentist-patient encounters provide opportunity for such an examination, but primary care physicians and those engaged in occupational medicine are also requested to take part in the endeavour. As a prerequisite, the screening method needs to be incorporated in the curriculum of dental/medical education. From all these, the oral cancer-related epidemiological situation is expected to improve in Hungary. PMID:17546894

  13. Oral Tradition in Historical Research 

    E-print Network

    Hankins, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Emminent scholar, Dr. Ali A. Mazrui in his article titled African Archives and the Oral Tradition discusses the pros and cons of the oral vs. written traditions in African communities. Mazrui calls the oral tradition the oldest form of communication..., 1984. 3. Learning from History, The Historians, USA Weekend, Feb. 6-8, 2004: 8-18 4. Mazrui, Ali A. ?African Archives and the Oral tradition.? The Courier, February 1985, No. 2: 13-15. 5. Robyns, Marcus C. ?The Archivist as Educator: Integrating...

  14. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2014-11-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

  15. Vicki Copp Oral History

    E-print Network

    Copp, Vicki; Hobson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    of the Department of Religious Studies. Note: All oral histories in the Religion in Kansas Project are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Katie: (1-:28) Rev. Copp, I wonder if you could just... on the district who was looking at a position that was opening and wondering if she should apply. (Clip 4) I had talked to the pastor previously about her giftedness and encouraged her to apply and she got the job. I’ve sent references for women clergy who...

  16. Rich Crank Oral History

    E-print Network

    Crank, Rich; Albin, Tami

    2010-11-24

    of publication Citing Under the Rainbow Oral History Interviews Your citation should include information that will allow people to find this transcript. Please consult a citation guide (Chicago, MLA, ALA) for the correct citation style for audio/video... to do in high school, going out with people and going on dates and maybe having sex too, depending—I had never—It was totally beyond me until I came to KU, and that's kind of what got me into big trouble was that I was learning the stuff too late...

  17. [Heroin and oral health].

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Van Zalingen, D; Veerman, E C I

    2009-09-01

    Heroin is a half synthetic opiate with. It is used by a relatively small number of the general population, but relatively frequently by homeless people and prisoners. Since heroin has an inhibitory effect on the nervous system and on breathing, an overdose of heroin can have fatal consequences. Sudden abstinence of heroin results in general discomfort, restlessness, muscle cramps, perspiration, nausea, shivers and goose bumps. Oral effects of heroin include increased risks of caries, periodontitis and bruxism. Saliva has the potential of detecting heroin abuse. PMID:19791491

  18. Kami Oral History

    E-print Network

    Albin, Tami; Kami

    2010-01-11

    Kami: Narrator Tami Albin: Interviewer TAMI ALBIN: And we're going. Excellent. Okay, so today is May 20, 2009, and I'm here with Kami. Thank you so much for participating, I really appreciate it. I'll start off this interview the way... that I start off all the oral histories which is, Tell me where you were born and when. KAMI: I was born in Salt Lake City, Utah in August, 1950. And my father was at the University of Utah in school. And they lived in Layton, so we lived in...

  19. Oral allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuto; Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-12-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is defined as the symptoms of IgE-mediated immediate allergy localized in the oral mucosa, and the characteristics depend on the lability of the antigen. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy (PFS); the patient is sensitized with pollen via the airways and exhibits an allergic reaction to food antigen with a structural similarity to the pollen (class 2 food allergy). In addition to PFS, latex-fruit syndrome is also well-known as the disease exhibiting OAS. In treating the condition, it must be noted that most but not all symptoms of PFS are those of OAS. In many cases, antigens become edible by heating, but some are resistant to heating. Also, since the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis is occasionally observed after the intake of cooked antigens in asymptomatic individuals, careful inquiry of the history is important in designing the treatment. Immunotherapy against the cross-reacting pollen has also been attempted in PFS. PMID:19847095

  20. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  1. [Oral jewelry: a review].

    PubMed

    Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

  2. Monitoring anticoagulant therapy with new oral agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Esquivel, Allan

    2015-12-26

    Thromboembolic disease is a major leading cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries. Currently, the management of these patients is challenging due to the availability of new drugs with proven efficacy and security compared to traditional oral vitamin K antagonists. These compounds are characterized by a predictable pharmacokinetic profile for which blood monitoring is not routinely needed. Nevertheless, some data have suggested inter-patient variability in the anticoagulant effect of these drugs, raising concerns about their effectiveness and safety. Although mass-spectrometry is the gold standard to determine drug plasma concentrations, this method is not widely available in every-day practice and some coagulation assays are commonly used to determine the anticoagulant effect of these drugs. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the clinical question of how and when to monitor patients with new anticoagulant oral agents. PMID:26713281

  3. Novel oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is effective in preventing primary and secondary thromboembolic events due to atrial fibrillation. Warfarin, which was approved by the United States in 1954, was the only long-term oral anticoagulation therapy till the approval of dabigatran in 2010, and of rivaroxaban and other direct factor Xa inhibitors from 2011, forming a group known as novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC). NOAC have fewer food and drug interactions compared to warfarin; hence, the patient will require fewer clinic visits. However, the short half-life of NOAC means that twice-a-day dosing is needed and there is higher risk of a prothrombotic state when doses are missed. Other disadvantages are the lack of long-term data on NOAC, their high cost and the current lack of locally available antidotes. PMID:26702159

  4. Monitoring anticoagulant therapy with new oral agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Esquivel, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Thromboembolic disease is a major leading cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries. Currently, the management of these patients is challenging due to the availability of new drugs with proven efficacy and security compared to traditional oral vitamin K antagonists. These compounds are characterized by a predictable pharmacokinetic profile for which blood monitoring is not routinely needed. Nevertheless, some data have suggested inter-patient variability in the anticoagulant effect of these drugs, raising concerns about their effectiveness and safety. Although mass-spectrometry is the gold standard to determine drug plasma concentrations, this method is not widely available in every-day practice and some coagulation assays are commonly used to determine the anticoagulant effect of these drugs. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the clinical question of how and when to monitor patients with new anticoagulant oral agents. PMID:26713281

  5. Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

  6. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral ... Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged Women Dentists ...

  7. National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Data Sources Related Links Glossary Contact Us National Oral Health Surveillance System Oral Health Indicators Dental Visit . Adults aged 18+ who have ... modified: August 11, 2010 Content Source: Division of Oral Health , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Mebendazole oral. 520.1320 Section 520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Mebendazole oral. 520.1320 Section 520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Mebendazole oral. 520.1320 Section 520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Mebendazole oral. 520.1320 Section 520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Mebendazole oral. 520.1320 Section 520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical...

  13. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  14. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

  15. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  16. Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Chloe

    1974-01-01

    The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

  17. Dyslexia and Oral Reading Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Thomson was the first of very few researchers to have studied oral reading errors as a means of addressing the question: Are dyslexic readers different to other readers? Using the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and Goodman's taxonomy of oral reading errors, Thomson concluded that dyslexic readers are different, but he found that they do not…

  18. 76 FR 73691 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number DA-0353-10-0408-I-1...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number...

  19. Helping Children in Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkres, Alberta

    An attempt to answer questions surrounding the teaching of oral communication to children is presented. In each section, a pattern is followed. First comes the presentation of an example. Second, there is an explanation of the teaching efforts which led up to this oral product. Third, the author adds comments and raises questions to help the…

  20. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  1. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  2. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  3. Oral administration of alginic acid oligosaccharide suppresses IgE production and inhibits the induction of oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Uno, Tsukasa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2006-12-01

    We have found that alginic acid oligosaccharide (ALGO) enhanced Th1 by promoting IL-12 production, suggesting that ALGO can be applied as an anti-allergic food. In this study we examined both positive and negative functions of ALGO. First we investigated the anti-allergic activity of ALGO, as a positive function, when orally administered. IgE production was significantly inhibited in mice fed ALGO as compared to control mice. This result indicates that ALGO had anti-allergic activity even when orally administered. On the other hand, we also found a negative function of ALGO. Oral co-administration of a protein antigen and ALGO inhibited the induction of oral tolerance to the protein. These data indicate the potential of ALGO as an anti-allergic food material and the necessity of further examination to determine a safe method application. PMID:17151448

  4. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Management with Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Rachel J.; Hays, Karen E.; Hebert, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    Oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide (second generation sulfonylurea) and metformin (biguanide) are attractive alternatives to insulin due to lower cost, ease of administration, and better patient adherence. The majority of evidence from retrospective and prospective studies suggests comparable efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide and metformin as compared to insulin when used in the treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Glyburide and metformin have altered pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and both agents cross the placenta. In this article, we review the efficacy, safety and dosage of oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Additional research is needed to evaluate optimal dosage for glyburide and metformin during pregnancy. Comparative studies evaluating the effects of glyburide and metformin on long-term maternal and fetal outcomes are also needed. PMID:25315294

  5. Oral Sexual Behaviors Associated with Prevalent Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Agrawal, Yuri; Halpern, Jane; Bodison, Sacared; Gillison, Maura L.

    2015-01-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause of oropharyngeal cancer. We investigated whether sexual behaviors that elevated the odds of oropharyngeal cancer developing in a case-control study similarly elevated the odds of oral HPV infection developing among control patients. HPV infection was detected in 4.8% of 332 control patients from an outpatient clinic and in 2.9% of 210 college-aged men (age range, 18–23 years). Among control patients, the odds of infection developing independently increased with increases in the lifetime number of oral (P = .007, for trend) or vaginal sex partners (P = .003, for trend). Among college-aged men, the odds of oral HPV infection developing increased with increases in the number of recent oral sex partners (P = .046, for trend) or open-mouthed kissing partners (P = .023, for trend) but not vaginal sex partners. Oral sex and open-mouthed kissing are associated with the development of oral HPV infection. PMID:19320589

  6. Oral food desensitization.

    PubMed

    Green, Todd D; Burks, A Wesley

    2010-11-01

    The immunologic interactions in the gastrointestinal tract are extensive and complex. In most cases, the end result of this activity is one of tolerance, which refers to the inhibition of an immune response. However, in a minority of cases, food allergy develops, and this seems to be increasing in prevalence. We continue to learn about the mechanisms involved in these processes and the factors that may promote tolerance as opposed to allergy. At this point, management of food allergy consists of allergen avoidance and readiness to manage an accidental exposure reaction, but using current knowledge of gastrointestinal immunity, researchers are investigating immunomodulatory approaches that will provide "active" therapy for food allergy and induce tolerance. Oral immunotherapy is one important therapy being studied, and in this article, we review recent results from studies of this potential treatment for food allergy. PMID:20730515

  7. Oral Drug Absorption

    E-print Network

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2006-10-26

    amount of various drugs in the D/P system 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 Permeated amount (% of dose/2 h) Human Abs. ( % of dose) Correlation between in vivo human absorption and in vitro permeated amount in the D/P system Fasted State Fed... (Fasted/Fed) 4.0 0.9 1.6 0.25 1.11 3.09 2.05 28.0 81.2 Cmax (?g/mL) Tmax 2.3 3.8 1.9 2.3 3.0 2.0 (h) 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 Estimation of food-effect on oral absorption of albendazole, quazepam and nateglinide from in vitro study in D/P...

  8. Oral bacterial community dynamics in paediatric patients with malignancies in relation to chemotherapy-related oral mucositis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Y; Carlsson, G; Agholme, M Barr; Wilson, J A L; Roos, A; Henriques-Normark, B; Engstrand, L; Modéer, T; Pütsep, K; Raoult, D

    2013-01-01

    The role of oral bacteria in the development of chemotherapy-related oral mucositis has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate oral bacterial community diversity and dynamics in paediatric patients with malignancies in relation to the occurrence of oral mucositis. Patients with malignancies (n = 37) and reference individuals without known systemic disorders (n = 38) were recruited. For patients, oral bacterial samples were taken from mucosal surfaces both at the time of malignancy diagnosis and during chemotherapy. If oral mucositis occurred, samples were taken from the surface of the mucositis lesions. Oral mucosal bacterial samples were also taken from reference individuals. All samples were assessed using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene 454 pyrosequencing method. A lower microbial diversity (p < 0.01) and a higher intersubject variability (p < 0.001) were found in patients as compared with reference individuals. At the time of malignancy diagnosis (i.e. before chemotherapy) patients that later developed mucositis showed a higher microbial diversity (p < 0.05) and a higher intersubject variability (p < 0.001) compared with those without mucositis. The change of bacterial composition during chemotherapy was more pronounced in patients who later developed mucositis than those without mucositis (p < 0.01). In conclusion, we found a higher microbial diversity at the time of malignancy diagnosis in patients who later develop oral mucositis and that these patients had a more significant modification of the bacterial community by chemotherapy before the occurrence of mucositis. These findings may possibly be of clinical importance in developing better strategies for personalized preventive management. PMID:23829394

  9. Outcome of a Community-Based Oral Health Promotion Project on Primary Schoolchildren's Oral Hygiene Habits

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Heidi; Pesonen, Paula; Seppä, Liisa; Peltonen, Eija; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a school-based intervention project conducted in a mid-sized Finnish city, Laukaa on schoolchildren's oral health behavior. Material and Methods. In the intervention, all children received dental education and some of the 7–12-year-old schoolchildren received individual tooth brushing instructions by a dental nurse in 2009-2010. Parents were present at the instruction sessions. In 2009 and 2010, all the children answered a questionnaire or an oral hygienist on their oral health behavior without identification. Results. Tooth brushing frequency increased significantly among the schoolchildren between the years 2009 (61.2%) and 2010 (65%) (P < 0.05); more so among younger children (7–10-year-olds) compared to the older ones (11-12-year-olds). The 2010 results showed a slight trend of decreasing tooth brushing frequency by age both among girls and boys. Younger children got significantly more often parental help or reminding. The girls brushed their teeth significantly more frequently (71.9%) than boys (57.0%). Conclusions. Our findings indicate that oral health intervention can be beneficial on health behavior especially for children at low grades. All children, 11 to 12 years of age, especially boys, need continuous health promotion. PMID:24319461

  10. Posttranscriptional regulation of oral bacterial adaptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Justin; Chen, Zhiyun; Liu, Nan; Kreth, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, it has become increasingly evident that posttranscriptional regulation is among the most important mechanisms used by bacteria to modulate gene expression in response to environmental perturbations. Posttranscriptional mechanisms provide a much faster response and lower energy burden compared to most transcription regulatory pathways and they have the unique advantage that they can override existing transcriptional responses once the environment changes. Because of this, virulence factor gene expression is particularly suited for posttranscriptional control, and not surprisingly, an abundance of recent evidence indicates that posttranscriptional regulators are the predominant virulence regulators of human pathogens. Typically, this involves global riboregulators that primarily serve as modulators of virulence gene translation initiation and/or mRNA stability. Surprisingly little has been reported about posttranscriptional regulatory pathways in oral bacteria, but recent results suggest that oral species are equally dependent upon posttranscriptional control of their adaptive genetic responses. In this report, we discuss the major themes in RNA-based regulation of gene expression and review the available literature related to the most commonly studied oral bacterial species. PMID:24695639

  11. Oral Manifestation in Mentally Challenged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, V K; Mathew, Cinil; Jose, Sunil; Thomas, George; Noushad, M C; Feroz, T P Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: In general, mentally challenged children have higher rates poor oral hygiene, gingivitis and periodontitis than the general population. An investigation was undertaken to assess the oral manifestations of mentally challenged children in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 150 children (70 Down syndrome patients and 80 cerebral palsy patients). Of which, 93 patients were males and 57 were females. Results: Speech difficulty hindered the communication between the patient and the dentist. Mastication and swallowing difficulties were also present in few children. Profuse salivation was a cause for drooling of saliva down the cheeks, which was a constant finding in cerebral palsy children. The oral hygiene statuses of the patient were significantly poor. The prevalence of periodontitis was 35.7% in Down syndrome and 55.0% in cerebral palsy patients. Whereas, the prevalence of gingivitis was found to be 92.9% and 61.3% respectively. The prevalence of fractured maxillary anterior teeth was found to be more evident in cerebral palsy patients (62.9%) when compared to Down syndrome patients (0.0%). An increase in age shows an increase in the decayed-missing-filled teeth which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prominent findings like flat nasal bridge (94.3%), hypertelorism (92.9%), high arched palate (78.6%) and fissured tongue (78.6%) in our study, suggest that they could be used as a reliable clinical markers to diagnose Down syndrome condition. PMID:25859105

  12. Comparing Pair and Small Group Interactions on Oral Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasito,; Storch, Neomy

    2013-01-01

    Although pair and small group activities are commonly used in second language (L2) classrooms, there are very few studies which can inform teachers about whether it is best to have students work in pairs or in small groups. In this study, conducted in a junior high school in Indonesia with learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), we…

  13. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  14. Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yookyeong Carolyn; Park, Jae Yeon; Ahn, Kang-Min; Park, Chansik; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of terahertz (THz) imaging at frozen temperature for the clinical application of oral cancer detection was investigated by analyzing seven oral tissues resected from four patients. The size, shape, and internal position of the oral cancers were mapped by THz radiation in the frequency range of 0.2–1.2 THz at ?20 °C and 20 °C, and compared with those identified in the histological examination. THz imaging of frozen tissue was found to offer greater sensitivity in distinguishing cancerous areas from surrounding tissue and a larger THz-frequency spectral difference between the oral cancer and normal mucosa than room-temperature THz imaging. A cancerous tumor hidden inside tissue was also detected using this method by observing the THz temporal domain waveform. The histological analysis showed that these findings resulted from cell structure deformations involving the invasion of oral tumor and neoplastic transformations of mucous cells. Therefore, a cytological approach using THz radiation at a frozen temperature might be applied to detect oral cancer. PMID:24010003

  15. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Methods Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Results Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Conclusion Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco. PMID:20426864

  16. Orofacial function and oral health in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Merete; Larsen, Stine L; Lautrup, Caroline; Karlsborg, Merete

    2011-02-01

    No comprehensive study has previously been published on orofacial function in patients with well-defined Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform an overall assessment of orofacial function and oral health in patients, and to compare the findings with matched control subjects. Fifteen outpatients (nine women and six men, 61-82 yr of age; Hoehn & Yahr Stages 2-4; and with motor impairment ranging from 17 to 61 according to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Objective Motor Part III) were examined in their 'on' state together with 15 age- and gender-matched controls. Orofacial function and oral health were assessed using the Nordic Orofacial Test, masticatory ability, performance and efficiency, oral stereognosis, jaw opening, jaw muscle tenderness, the Oral Health Impact Profile-49, number of natural teeth, and oral hygiene. Orofacial dysfunction was more prevalent, mastication and jaw opening poorer, and impact of oral health on daily life more negative, in patients with PD than in controls. The results indicate that mastication and orofacial function are impaired in moderate to advanced PD, and with progression of the disease both orofacial and dental problems become more marked. It is suggested that greater awareness of the special needs in PD patients and frequent dental visits are desirable to prevent dental diseases and decay and to support masticatory function. PMID:21244508

  17. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidiasis and the virulence of the infection. Although nystatin and amphotericin b were the most drugs used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be a very effective drug in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Fluconazole was found to be the drug of choice as a systemic treatment of oral candidiasis. Due to its good antifungal properties, its high acceptance of the patient and its efficacy compared with other antifungal drugs. But this drug is not always effective, so we need to evaluate and distinguish others like itraconazole or ketoconazole, in that cases when Candida strains resist to fluconazole. Key words:Candidiasis, treatment, miconazole, fluconazole, nystatin. PMID:25674329

  18. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cuesta, Carla; Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V

    2014-12-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidiasis and the virulence of the infection. Although nystatin and amphotericin b were the most drugs used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be a very effective drug in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Fluconazole was found to be the drug of choice as a systemic treatment of oral candidiasis. Due to its good antifungal properties, its high acceptance of the patient and its efficacy compared with other antifungal drugs. But this drug is not always effective, so we need to evaluate and distinguish others like itraconazole or ketoconazole, in that cases when Candida strains resist to fluconazole. Key words:Candidiasis, treatment, miconazole, fluconazole, nystatin. PMID:25674329

  19. Immunohistochemical Expression of Mast Cell in Oral Reactive Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Setareh; Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Modabbernia, Shirin; Farzin, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Soft tissue reactive lesions are the most common lesions of the oral cavity. Although many studies have shown the interaction of mast cells with fibroblasts and their participation in fibrosis, the role of mast cells in these lesions is not well understood. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cells (MCs) count in oral soft-tissue reactive lesions including peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), irritation fibroma (IF) and normal oral mucosa. Materials and Method In this cross-sectional study, 50 samples including IF, PGCG, POF (14 cases for each group) and 8 cases of normal oral mucosa were stained with tryptase antibody through immunohistochemistry. The number of mast cells was counted in 5HPF containing maximum counts for each section stained with tryptase. Statistical analysis including Chi-square test and Tukey test with a significance level of 0.05 were considered. Results The number of MCs was found to have increased in reactive lesions compared with normal oral mucosa. MCs count in the POF group was higher than the others. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of reactive oral lesions and induction of fibrous tissues. Chemical mediators released from mast cells might influence other cells, especially fibroblasts, to induce fibrosis. PMID:26106629

  20. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  1. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. PMID:26165918

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Debnath, Nitai; Ismail, Mohammed B; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika K; Dubey, Pavan K; Sukhtankar, Laxmi V

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders and to determine the potential risk factors for its development in Indian population. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1241 individuals in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. A questionnaire was designed to record information about sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and risk factors for oral potentially malignant disorders. Oral mucosal lesions were examined by a skilled person. Results. The overall prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders was found to be 13.7% with oral submucous fibrosis (8.06%) found to be more common and erythroplakia (0.24%) found to be least prevalent. Results of Logistic Regression analysis showed that males (OR = 2.09, P value < 0.0001) who were ever consumers of tobacco (OR = 2.06, P value = 0.030) and areca nut chewing (OR = 2.64, P value = 0.004) were more likely to develop oral potentially malignant disorders compared to never consumers. Diabetic (OR = 2.21, P value = 0.014) and underweight individuals (OR = 2.23, P value = 0.007) were more likely to suffer from oral potentially malignant disorders. Conclusion. The study reinforces the association of tobacco and areca nut consumption with oral potentially malignant disorders. An association of oral potentially malignant disorders with diabetes and BMI was confirmed by this study. PMID:26347822

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Debnath, Nitai; Ismail, Mohammed B.; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika K.; Dubey, Pavan K.; Sukhtankar, Laxmi V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders and to determine the potential risk factors for its development in Indian population. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1241 individuals in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. A questionnaire was designed to record information about sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and risk factors for oral potentially malignant disorders. Oral mucosal lesions were examined by a skilled person. Results. The overall prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders was found to be 13.7% with oral submucous fibrosis (8.06%) found to be more common and erythroplakia (0.24%) found to be least prevalent. Results of Logistic Regression analysis showed that males (OR = 2.09, P value < 0.0001) who were ever consumers of tobacco (OR = 2.06, P value = 0.030) and areca nut chewing (OR = 2.64, P value = 0.004) were more likely to develop oral potentially malignant disorders compared to never consumers. Diabetic (OR = 2.21, P value = 0.014) and underweight individuals (OR = 2.23, P value = 0.007) were more likely to suffer from oral potentially malignant disorders. Conclusion. The study reinforces the association of tobacco and areca nut consumption with oral potentially malignant disorders. An association of oral potentially malignant disorders with diabetes and BMI was confirmed by this study. PMID:26347822

  4. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  5. The Importance of Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, M. Sue

    1982-01-01

    Offers the results of a survey taken at the College of Charleston in South Carolina indicating that faculty members, recent graduates, and employers all feel that college education in communication should stress training in oral communication skills. (JL)

  6. Robert Keys Jr Oral History

    E-print Network

    Keys, Robert Jr; Nelson, Ben

    2009-12-07

    Oral history interview with Robert Keys, Jr., conducted by Ben Nelson on December 7, 2009. In this interview, Robert Keys, Jr., a member of the Topeka Bible Church congregation, describes his experiences growing up attending ...

  7. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different medications or doses, are taken in ... 28-tablet packets have certain color tablets that contain different amounts of estrogen and progestin, but also ...

  8. Dorothy Nickel Friesen Oral History

    E-print Network

    Friesen, Dorothy Nickel; Hobson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Oral history interview with Dorothy Nickel Friesen conducted by Katie Hobson on July 7, 2015. This interview features the interim pastor at Bethel College Mennonite Church in Newton, Kansas. Questions address Dorothy's experiences as an ordained...

  9. Patterns of oral bacterial infection in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Draper, C S; Walker, R D; Lawler, H E

    1981-12-01

    The bacterial isolates from culture specimens of snakes with infectious stomatitis were compared with those from culture specimens of the oral cavity of healthy captive snakes. Cloacal swab specimens were also taken from healthy snakes to compare their intestinal and oral bacterial populations. The healthy snakes had a predominantly gram-positive oral flora, with Corynebacterium spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp being the organisms isolated most frequently. The specimens from snakes with infectious stomatitis yielded predominantly gram-negative bacteria. The organisms most frequently isolated from these specimens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, and P maltophilia. The cloacal swabbing of healthy snakes also resulted in the isolation of predominantly gram-negative organisms, suggesting that these bacteria are not exogenous pathogens but opportunistic invaders. PMID:7328007

  10. Differential cytotoxicity of long-chain bases for human oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes, oral fibroblasts, and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mehalick, Leslie A; Poulsen, Christopher; Fischer, Carol L; Lanzel, Emily A; Bates, Amber M; Walters, Katherine S; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Guthmiller, Janet M; Johnson, Georgia K; Wertz, Philip W; Brogden, Kim A

    2015-12-01

    Long-chain bases, found in the oral cavity, have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. In an article associated with this dataset, Poulson and colleagues determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases (sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine) for human oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF), dendritic cells (DC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines [1]. Poulson and colleagues found that GE keratinocytes were more resistant to long-chain bases as compared to GF, DC, and SCC cell lines [1]. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of DC to lower concentrations of long chain bases. 0.2-10.0 µM long-chain bases and GML were not cytotoxic to DC; 40.0-80.0 µM long-chain bases, but not GML, were cytotoxic for DC; and 80.0 µM long-chain bases were cytotoxic to DC and induced cellular damage and death in less than 20 mins. Overall, the LD50 of long-chain bases for GE keratinocytes, GF, and DC were considerably higher than their minimal inhibitory concentrations for oral pathogens, a finding important to pursuing their future potential in treating periodontal and oral infections. PMID:26550599

  11. Two Models of Raters in a Structured Oral Examination: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Ainslie, Martha; Myers, Kathryn; Wood, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Oral examinations have become more standardized over recent years. Traditionally a small number of raters were used for this type of examination. Past studies suggested that more raters should improve reliability. We compared the results of a multi-station structured oral examination using two different rater models, those based in a station,…

  12. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  13. Performance enhancement and oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Roettger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The use of some type of oral appliance to enhance human performance, decrease stress or improve strength, has occurred throughout human history, from ancient soldiers to modern athletes. To date, the science describing this phenomenon has been poorly understood, and the research has been limited. The goal of this paper is to review the efforts to improve human performance with oral appliances, and the research exploring the science behind these efforts. PMID:19774772

  14. Oral tuberculosis involving maxillary gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Singh, Priyanka

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted by aerosolized saliva droplets among individuals in close contact with expelled sputum of a diseased patient. However, TB lesions of the oral cavity are often overlooked in the differential diagnosis. We report here a case of tuberculosis of oral cavity affecting the gingiva of a 24-year-old male. PMID:22639508

  15. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  16. The prognostic value of heparanase expression and cellular localization in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Yoav; Abu-El-Naaj, Imad; Sabo, Edmond; Akrish, Sharon; Ilan, Neta; Ben-Izhak, O; Peled, Micha; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2010-01-01

    Background Metastases formation depends on the ability of tumor cells to invade basement membranes in a process involving enzymes capable of degrading extracellular matrix components. Purpose To examine the expression of heparanase in oral carcinomas and correlate its staining extent, intensity and cellular localization with patient’s outcome. Results Quantitative real-time PCR revealed over 4-fold increase in heparanase levels in oral carcinomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. Normal oral epithelium was found negative for heparanase, while all oral carcinomas stained positively for heparanase. Heparanase staining was associated with Ki67 staining, a measure of cell proliferation. Notably, while cytoplasmic localization of heparanase was associated with high grade carcinomas, nuclear localization of the enzyme was found primarily in low grade, well differentiated tumors, and in all oral verrucous carcinomas. Conclusion Expression level and cellular localization of heparanase could serve as an important diagnostic marker in oral cancer patients. PMID:20859999

  17. Direct comparison of 20-hour IV, 36-hour oral, and 72-hour oral acetylcysteine for treatment of acute acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Wahl, Michael S; Mycyk, Mark B

    2013-01-01

    There is no general consensus among clinicians on the superior route or duration of treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for acute acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning, and head-to-head studies comparing intravenous (IV) and oral NAC have not been done. Recent 20-hour IV NAC protocol failures in the United States prompted some to question its safety. Our objective was to determine if treatment with the 20-hour IV NAC protocol results in clinical outcomes different from the longer 36-hour oral or 72-hour oral NAC protocols in cases of acute APAP poisoning. We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive cases of acute APAP overdose where NAC treatment was initiated within 8 hours of ingestion between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Outcomes were survival, transplant, and death; secondary outcomes were based on King's College Criteria; interrater reliability was calculated with a kappa score. Out of 4642 cases of APAP overdose, 795 met study inclusion criteria: 213 were treated with 20-hour IV protocol, 213 with the 36-hour oral protocol, and 369 with the 72-hour oral protocol. The mean age in these groups was 25 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 22-26], 26 years (95%CI: 23-29), and 27 years (95%CI: 25-28), respectively. The mean 4-hour APAP concentration was 199 ?g/mL (95%CI: 188-211), 174 ?g/mL (95%CI: 164-184), and 205 ?g/mL (95%CI: 195-216), respectively. No cases of transplant or death occurred, and secondary outcomes were rare. When administered within 8 hours of acute APAP poisoning, the 20-hour IV treatment protocol was as effective as the longer 36-hour oral and 72-hour oral treatment protocols. Further study is needed to determine outcome differences between IV and oral NAC when treatment is initiated >8 hours after overdose or in cases of coingestion with other drugs. PMID:23299230

  18. Expression of cdk4 and p16 in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Nita; Marwah, Akanksha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cdk4 and p16, the proteins implicated in hyperproliferation and arrest in oral lichen planus and to compare their expression in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus and with normal mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Material and Methods Analysis of cdk4 and p16 expression was done in 43 erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and 17 non-erosive oral lichen planus (NOLP) cases, 10 normal mucosa and 10 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases with immunohistochemistry. Results This study demonstrated a significantly increased expression of cytoplasmic cdk4 (80% cases, cells stained - 19.6%), and cytoplasmic p16 (68.3% cases, cells stained - 16.4%) in oral lichen planus (OLP) compared to normal mucosa. cdk4 was much higher in OSCC in both cytoplasm and nuclei compared to normal mucosa. Also, while comparing OLP with positive control, significant difference was noted for cdk4 and p16, with expression being more in OSCC. While comparing EOLP with NOLP; significant differences were seen for cdk4 cytoplasmic staining only, for number of cases with positive staining as well as number of cells stained. Conclusions Overexpression of cytoplasmic cdk4 and p16 was registered in oral lichen planus, however considerably lower than in squamous cell carcinoma. Erosive oral lichen planus demonstrated overexpression of cytoplasmic cdk4 and premalignant nature compared to non-erosive lesion. Therefore there is an obvious possibility for cytoplasmic expression of cdk4 and p16 to predict malignant potential of oral lichen planus lesions. PMID:26229583

  19. Salivary glyco-sialylation changes monitors oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vajaria, Bhairavi N; Patel, Kinjal R; Begum, Rasheedunnisa; Patel, Jayendra B; Shah, Franky D; Joshi, Geeta M; Patel, Prabhudas S

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in cell membrane glycosylation play important role in oral carcinogenesis. The present study evaluated salivary sialylation changes i.e. total sialic acid (TSA), sialidase activity, linkage specific (?2-3 and ?2-6) sialoproteins and sialyl transferase (ST) activity in controls, patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC) and oral cancer. Subjects enrolled included 100 controls, 50 patients with OPC, 100 oral cancer patients, and 30 post treatment follow-ups. TSA was estimated by spectrophotometric method, sialidase activity by spectrofluorometric assay and linkage specific biotinylated lectins (?2-3: sambucus nigra agglutinin and ?2-6: maackia amurensis agglutinin) were used to detect ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 STs and sialoproteins by ELISA and dot blot respectively. An increasing trend of salivary TSA/TP ratio, sialidase activity, ?2-3 sialoproteins, ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 ST activities was observed from controls to patients with OPC to oral cancer patients and levels were significantly elevated in oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. Sialidase activity exhibited significant association with metastasis and infiltration. Sialidase activity, TSA/TP ratio, ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 ST activities were found to be higher in patients with metastasis as compared to patients without metastasis. A progressive increase in TSA/TP ratio, sialidase activity, ?2-3 and ?2-6 sialoproteins was observed from controls to early to advanced stage of the disease. Sialidase activity, ?2-3 and ?2-6 sialoproteins and ST activities were found to be decreased in complete responders; while levels were elevated in non-responders. The results documented utility of salivary sialylation endpoints, a non invasive tool in monitoring of oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25318700

  20. The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.

    PubMed

    al-Otaibi, Meshari

    2004-01-01

    The miswak, a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth, is made from the plant Salvadora persica. For religious and cultural reasons, miswak use is firmly established and widespread in Saudi Arabia and most other Muslim countries. Only recently has scientific evaluation of the miswak been undertaken. The aims of the thesis were: 1) to explore current oral hygiene habits and oral health awareness among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and educational level (papers I and II); 2) to compare mechanical plaque removal and gingival health after miswak use and toothbrushing (paper III); 3) to compare the effect of miswak use and toothbrushing on subgingival plaque microflora (paper IV). In papers I and II, structured interviews were conducted with 1200 regular patients at two centres in the city of Makkah, providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age, into 6 age groups from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each centre. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subjects' age, gender, and educational levels and analysed statistically by a generalized linear model and ANOVA. In papers III and IV, the subjects comprised 15 healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21 to 36 years, attending the Dental Center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah City. A single-blind, randomised crossover design was used. The Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque and Löe-Silness gingival indices and digital photographs of plaque distribution were recorded in Paper III and in Paper IV plaque was sampled for DNA-testing. Inhibition zones around miswak material were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analysed in a bioassay with macrophages +/- miswak extracts (paper IV). In papers I and II, 73% of the subjects used a toothbrush and 65% used a miswak daily. There were significant differences between genders and age groups, and between the centres. Regular miswak use was more prevalent among men (p < 0.01), while women used a toothbrush more often than a miswak (p < 0.05). For the majority (88%) of the individuals, oral hygiene began late, after the age of 7 yrs. Oral hygiene habits were strongly correlated to educational level (p < 0.001). The miswak was preferred by less educated people. Tooth brushing started earlier among the better educated (p < 0.001). In paper III, compared to tooth brushing, use of the miswak resulted in significant reductions in plaque (p < 0.001) and gingival (p < 0.01) indices. In paper IV, A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly reduced by miswak use (p < 0.05) but not by tooth brushing. These results were supported by the in vitro observations that extracts from S. persica interfered with growth and leukotoxicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans. It was concluded that oral hygiene practice is introduced very late, is strongly correlated to educational level, and that more women prefer toothbrushing to miswak use. It was further concluded that miswak use was at least as effective as toothbrushing for reducing plaque and gingivitis, and that the antimicrobial effect of S. persica is beneficial for prevention/treatment of periodontal disease. There is clearly a need for further oral health education in Saudi Arabia. Because of its close association with Islam, maximum benefits may be achieved by encouraging optimum use of the miswak. Oral hygiene may be improved by complementing traditional miswak use with modern technological developments such as toothbrushing and by tailoring oral hygiene recommendations to educational level. PMID:15224592

  1. Oral hygiene and periodontal status of teenagers with special needs in the district of Nalgonda, India

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Nazia; Palaparthi, Rajababu; Neerudu, Madhukar; Palakuru, Sunil Kumar; Singam, Harinath Reddy; Durvasula, Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and periodontal status among 14-17-year-old visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled and physically challenged and normal teenagers in the district of Nalgonda, South India. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and fifty teenagers in the age group of 14-17 years, constituting visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled, physically challenged and normal teenagers, were studied. Oral hygiene status and periodontal status were assessed using clinical indices and compared. Results: Among the five groups chosen for the study, the intellectually disabled group had the highest plaque scores and poor oral hygiene. The visually impaired and deaf and dumb had better oral hygiene compared with other disability groups. Physically handicapped showed higher loss of attachment scores and deleterious and parafunctional habits. Normal teenagers had good oral hygiene and lower plaque scores. Oral health status relied basically on proper use of oral hygiene aids and training of the groups by their care takers. Conclusion: Disabled groups showed poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of periodontal disease, which may be attributed to the lack of coordination, understanding, physical disability or muscular limitations. Hence, more attention needs to be given to the dental needs of these individuals through ultimate, accurate and appropriate prevention, detection and treatment. PMID:23162340

  2. Live attenuated oral cholera vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2006-08-01

    Live, orally administered, attenuated vaccine strains of Vibrio cholerae have many theoretical advantages over killed vaccines. A single oral inoculation could result in intestinal colonization and rapid immune responses, obviating the need for repetitive dosing. Live V. cholerae organisms can also respond to the intestinal environment and immunological exposure to in vivo expressed bacterial products, which could result in improved immunological protection against wild-type V. cholerae infection. The concern remains that live oral cholera vaccines may be less effective among partially immune individuals in cholera endemic areas as pre-existing antibodies can inhibit live organisms and decrease colonization of the gut. A number of live oral cholera vaccines have been developed to protect against cholera caused by the classical and El Tor serotypes of V. cholerae O1, including CVD 103-HgR, Peru-15 and V. cholerae 638. A number of live oral cholera vaccines have also been similarly developed to protect against cholera caused by V. cholerae O139, including CVD 112 and Bengal-15. Live, orally administered, attenuated cholera vaccines are in various stages of development and evaluation. PMID:16989629

  3. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production. PMID:10545668

  4. Oral Presentation Tips UNH Connors Writing Center Support for the Oral Presentations

    E-print Network

    Oral Presentation Tips UNH Connors Writing Center Support for the Oral Presentations Check out the Center's new web page packed with great resources for presenters in Oral Sessions! Presentations are 12

  5. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  6. Suggestion in Oral Performance: A Shadow of an Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearse, James A.

    Oral performance of literature can be compared with film viewing, in that both are strongly based on suggestion, which forces the spectator to participate actively in the creation of images. Film is actually a series of still pictures, but persistence of vision produces the idea of motion in the mind. Likewise, literature in performance involves…

  7. Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, T.; Jung, W.; You, J. S.; Chen, Z.; Osann, K.; Tromberg, B.

    2005-04-01

    Objectives: Early detection of cancer and its curable precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Despite significant advances in treatment, oral cancer still results in 10,000 U.S. deaths annually, mainly due to the late detection of most oral lesions. Specific aim was to use a combination of non-invasive optical in vivo technologies to test a multi-modality approach to non-invasive diagnostics of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Methods: In the hamster cheek pouch model (120 hamsters), in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) mapped epithelial, subepithelial and vascular change throughout carcinogenesis in specific, marked sites. In vivo multi-wavelength multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generated (SHG) fluorescence techniques provided parallel data on surface and subsurface tissue structure, specifically collagen presence and structure, cellular presence, and vasculature. Images were diagnosed by 2 blinded, pre-standardized investigators using a standardized scale from 0-6 for all modalities. After sacrifice, histopathological sections were prepared and pathology evaluated on a scale of 0-6. ANOVA techniques compared imaging diagnostics with histopathology. 95% confidence limits of the sensitivity and specificity were established for the diagnostic capability of OCT/ODT+ MPM/SHG using ROC curves and kappa statistics. Results: Imaging data were reproducibly obtained with good accuracy. Carcinogenesis-related structural and vascular changes were clearly visible to tissue depths of 2mm. Sensitivity (OCT/ODT alone: 71-88%; OCT+MPM/SHG: 79-91%) and specificity (OCT alone: 62-83%;OCT+MPM/SHG: 67-90%) compared well with conventional techniques. Conclusions: OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG are promising non-invasive in vivo diagnostic modalities for oral dysplasia and malignancy. Supported by CRFA 30003, CCRP 00-01391V-20235, NIH (LAMMP) RR01192, DOE DE903-91ER 61227, NIH EB-00293 CA91717, NSF BES-86924, AFOSR FA 9550-04-1-0101.

  8. Smoking related systemic and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith; Fiala, Zden?k; Smejkalová, Jindra; Jacob, Vimal; Somanathan, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    This article reviewed smoking related systemic diseases and oral diseases. Smoking is related to lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and many other systemic diseases. Cigarette smoke affects the oral cavity first, so it is evident that smoking has many negative influences on oral cavity, for example, staining of teeth and dental restorations, wound healing, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and development of oral diseases such as oral cancer, periodontitis, smoker's palate, smoker's melanosis, hairy tongue, leukoplakia, oral candidiasis and implant survival rate. The article also discusses the relationship between smoking and dental caries in detail. PMID:18254267

  9. Oral Bisphosphonate and Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Nationwide Claim Study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiology studies suggest that oral bisphosphonate may increase the risk of esophageal cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the association between exposure of oral bisphosphonate and risk of esophageal cancer. Methods Using the nationwide medical claim database in South Korea, 2,167,955 subjects, who initiated osteoporosis treatment (oral bisphosphonate, intravenous bisphosphonate or raloxifene) or performed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) between 2008 and 2012, were analyzed. Diagnosis of esophageal cancer was estimated from medical claim database. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was estimated by comparing with incidence in the general population. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to investigate age-adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of esophageal cancer. Results The present study included oral bisphosphonate group (N=1,435,846), comparator group 1 (intravenous bisphosphonate or raloxifene, N=78,363) and comparator group 2 (DXA, N=653,746). Mean age was 65.6±8.8 years and mean observation duration was 30.9±17.7 months. During 5,503,688 patient-years, 205 esophageal cancer incidences were observed. The annual incidence of esophageal cancer was 3.88, 4.21, and 3.30 for oral bisphosphonate group, comparator group 1 and comparator group 2, respectively. SIR of esophageal cancer was 1.24, 1.38, and 1.40 for oral bisphosphonate group, comparator group 1 and comparator group 2, respectively. Esophageal cancer risk of oral bisphosphonate group was not significantly different from comparator group 1 and comparator group 2 (aHR 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-1.98 and aHR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.30, respectively). Conclusions The use of oral bisphosphonate was not associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer in real clinical practice using large scale nationwide database. PMID:26082917

  10. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1?mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  11. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert G; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1?mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  12. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  13. Hollow fibers as an oral sustained-release delivery system.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; DiLuccio, R C; Shefter, E

    1989-01-01

    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) bound to ion-exchange resin was encapsulated in hollow fibers made of segmented polyurethane. This system was examined as an oral sustained-release delivery system. The fibers were spun by the phase inversion process and cut into different aspect ratios (length/diameter). The U.S.P. basket dissolution method was used to evaluate the in vitro drug release kinetics and the effect of the aspect ratio on the release. For in vivo evaluation, selected fibers were orally administered to dogs in gelatin capsules. The fiber delivery system provided a sustained-release profile of plasma PPA and a longer terminal half-life when compared to an oral immediate-release formulation. PMID:2717518

  14. A cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal changes in tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Komal; Deshmane, Swati; Bagri-Manjarekar, Kriti; Warke, Darshana; Kotak, Keyuri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Tobacco use is the major cause of oral cancer, which is the sixth most common form of malignancy globally. Even in the absence of clinical manifestations, early changes in the oral mucosa can be detected microscopically by exfoliative cytology. The present study aimed to study and compare the cellular changes in the oral mucosa of tobacco users using cytomorphometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects were included: 20 without any tobacco use habits, 20 tobacco chewers, 20 smokers, and 20 mishri users. Smears were collected from each subject, fixed, and stained using Papanicolaou stain. All slides were evaluated for nuclear and cytoplasmic changes using image analysis software. Results: Statistically significant decrease in cytoplasmic area and an increase in nuclear area and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio were observed in tobacco users. Conclusion: Tobacco in any form causes significant cellular changes, which could be the earliest indicators of developing malignant pathology. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect such changes. PMID:26604613

  15. The epidemiology of oral HPV infection among a multinational sample of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Villa, Alessandro; Nyitray, Alan G.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Smith, Danelle; Hildesheim, Allan; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV16) infection is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. We examined oral HPV infection among healthy men. Methods Oral rinse/gargle specimens and questionnaire data were collected from 1,688 healthy men aged 18 to 74 (median 31 years), from the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 and non-carcinogenic HPV types were detected using Roche Linear Array. Results Oral HPV DNA was detected in 67 of 1680 (4.0%, 95%CI 3.1% to 5.0%) ß-globin positive specimens; carcinogenic HPVs were detected in 1.3% (95%CI 0.8% to 2.0%; n=22) and HPV16 was the most commonly detected carcinogenic HPV type (0.6%, 95%CI 0.2% to 1.1%; n=10). The prevalence of oral HPV infection was similar by country except for HPV55, which had notably higher prevalence in Mexico (3.0%) than Brazil (0%) or the US (0.2%). Oral HPV prevalence non-significantly increased over increasing age categories (p for trend 0.096). The strongest predictor of oral HPV was current tobacco use, which increased the odds 2.5-fold (95%CI 1.4–4.4). Oral sexual behaviors were not associated with oral HPV infection. Conclusions Oral HPV16 infection was rare in healthy men, especially at younger ages, and was positively associated with current tobacco use. Impact Oral HPV appears to be ~10 fold less prevalent than infection at genital sites in men (4% vs. ~40%, respectively). It remains unclear whether this reflects reduced exposure or if the oral region is more resistant to HPV infection compared to anogenital sites. PMID:21148755

  16. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ?7), 85 intermediate values (1???dmf-t???6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t?=?0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n?=?29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n?=?28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p?=?0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p?=?0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p?=?0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p?=?0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p?=?0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  17. Molecular analysis of oral lichen planus. A premalignant lesion?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Michelsen, C.; Cheng, X.; Zeng, T.; Priddy, R.; Rosin, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common mucosal condition that is considered premalignant by some, although others argue that only lichenoid lesions with dysplasia are precancerous. To address the question of whether OLP without dysplasia is premalignant, we used microsatellite analysis to examine 33 cases of OLP for allelic loss at nine loci located on chromosomes 3p, 9p, and 17p. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on these three arms occurs frequently in oral tumors, and the presence of these alterations in premalignant lesions suggests that they may play an important role in tumor progression. Results were compared with those observed in oral dysplasias (10 mild, 11 moderate, 16 severe/carcinoma in situ), 22 oral squamous cell carcinomas, and 29 reactive lesions. LOH was present in 6% of OLP, 14% of reactive lesions, 40% of mild dysplasia, 46% of moderate dysplasia, 81% of severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, and 91% of squamous cell carcinomas. LOH was detected on only a single arm in OLP and reactive lesions but occurred on more than one chromosome in dysplasia and cancer, and the frequency of this multiple loss correlated significantly with increasing degrees of dysplasia and progression into squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.0028). Although these findings do not support OLP as a lesion at risk for malignant transformation, such results need to be confirmed by use of other genetic markers as OLP may undergo malignant transformation through genetic pathways different from those of oral dysplasia. Images Figure 1 PMID:9250145

  18. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  19. Detection of marijuana use by oral fluid and urine analysis following single-dose administration of smoked and oral marijuana.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R S; Kardos, K W; Fritch, D F; Kardos, S; Fries, T; Waga, J; Robb, J; Cone, E J

    2001-01-01

    We compared oral fluid testing to urine testing in subjects who were administered single doses of marijuana by smoked and oral routes. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device, screened for THC with the Cannabinoids Intercept MICRO-PLATE Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) utilizing a 1.0-ng/mL cutoff concentration, and confirmed for THC by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) with a 0.5-ng/mL cutoff concentration. Urine specimens were screened for 11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) by immunoassay utilizing a 50-ng/mL cutoff concentration and confirmed for THCCOOH by GC-MS with a 15-ng/mL cutoff concentration. Oral fluid specimens tested positive following smoked marijuana (N = 10) consecutively for average periods (+/-SEM; range) of 15 (+/-2; 1-24) and 13 h (+/-3; 1-24) by EIA and GC-MS-MS, respectively. The average THC detection times of the last oral fluid positive specimen following smoked marijuana by EIA and GC-MS-MS were 31 (+/-9; 1-72) and 34 h (+/-11; 1-72), respectively. In comparison to oral fluid, urine specimens generally tested negative for THCCOOH immediately after marijuana use. The average times to detection of the first urine specimen positive for THCCOOH by EIA and GC-MS were 6 (+/-2; 1-16) and 4 h (+/-1; 2-8), respectively. Urine specimens tested positive consecutively for average periods of 26 (+/-9; 2-72) and 33 h (+/-10; 4-72) for EIA and GC-MS, respectively. The average THCCOOH detection times of the last specimen by EIA and GC-MS were 42 (+/-10; 2-72) and 58 h (+/-6; 16-72), respectively. Considering the noninvasive nature of oral fluid collection and improved detection of recent marijuana use compared to urine testing, it was concluded that oral fluid testing for THC offers specific advantages over other means of marijuana testing when used in safety-sensitive testing programs. PMID:11499881

  20. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  1. Correlations between Perceived Oral Malodor Levels and Self-Reported Oral Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Ishii, Kurumi; Tomita, Sachiyo; Tatsuta, Chihiro; Sugiyama, Toshiko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Even though objective data indicating the absence of oral malodor are presented to patients, they may be skeptical about the results, possibly due to the presence of some discomfort in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association among self-perceptions of oral malodor, oral complaints, and the actual oral malodor test result. Materials and Methods. Questions concerning self-perceptions of oral malodor and subjective intraoral symptoms were extracted from a questionnaire on oral malodor completed by 363 subjects who visited the clinic for oral malodor of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital and gave consent to this study. In addition, the association of self-perception of oral malodor with values obtained after organoleptic and OralChroma measurement was analyzed. Results. No correlation between 195 subjects (54%) who were judged “with oral malodor” (organoleptic score of ?1) and 294 subjects (81.6%) who had a self-perceptions of oral malodor was observed. Self-perception of oral malodor was significantly correlated with tongue coating (p = 0.002) and a strange intraoral taste (p = 0.016). Conclusions. Subjects with a self-perception of oral malodor were not necessarily consistent with those actually having an oral malodor. In addition, it was suggested that patients became aware of oral malodor when they felt oral complaints. PMID:26273303

  2. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pavan G; Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  3. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  4. Oral piercing: the hole story.

    PubMed

    Biber, Jay T

    2003-01-01

    Oral and perioral jewelry is increasingly being viewed as an acceptable fashion statement in our society. Accordingly, dental professionals are being presented with questions by their patients as to the risks associated with this form of body piercing. This article reviews recommendations for individuals with, or contemplating, an oral piercing, common locations of piercings, risks associated with the piercing procedure, types of jewelry used, and post-piercing home care instructions. Current trends in the piercing industry will be discussed, and the recommendation made that dental professionals advocate for improved safety standards at body modification studios. PMID:12640773

  5. Margins of oral leukoplakia: autofluorescence and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Elvers, D; Braunschweig, T; Hilgers, R-D; Ghassemi, A; Möhlhenrich, S C; Hölzle, F; Gerressen, M; Modabber, A

    2015-02-01

    Autofluorescence devices are widely used to examine oral lesions. The aim of this study was to see whether there were any signs of dysplasia, parakeratosis, or mucosal inflammation in the borders of homogeneous oral leukoplakia using autofluorescence, and we also compared clinically visible extensions with those detected by autofluorescence. Twenty patients with 26 homogeneous areas of oral leukoplakia were included in the study. After the clinically visible extensions of the lesion had been marked, we took a photograph through the autofluorescence device, which showed both borders in one picture. We then used photo-editing software to measure the size of the area of leukoplakia together with the area with loss of autofluorescence. We took 3 punch biopsy specimens: one from the leukoplakia, one 2.5mm from its marked borders, and one from healthy mucosa. Seventy-eight biopsy specimens were examined by an experienced pathologist, and 95% CI calculated to assess the amount of parakeratosis. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the association with mucosal inflammation. Ten areas of leukoplakia were surrounded by normal green autofluorescence, and 16 were consistent with loss of autofluorescence with a mean size of 66%, which exceeded the clinically visible size of the area of leukoplakia. We calculated that there was a strong association between these entities and their surrounding areas, with loss of autofluorescence for parakeratosis. Some leukoplakias showed clinically invisible extensions during histopathological examination and autofluorescence. The technique described enables clinicians to measure the extent of these lesions beyond their visible margins. We found no dysplasia, which emphasises that autofluorescence detects non-dysplastic lesions caused by mucosal inflammation and parakeratosis. PMID:25434724

  6. Oral health in the Japan self-defense forces - a representative survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The oral health of military populations is usually not very well characterized compared to civilian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate two physical oral health characteristics and one perceived oral health measure and their correlation in the Japan self-defense forces (JSDF). Methods Number of missing teeth, denture status, and OHRQoL as evaluated by the Japanese 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-J14) as well as the correlation between these oral health measures was investigated in 911 personnel in the JSDF. Results Subjects did not have a substantial number of missing teeth and only 4% used removable dentures. The mean OHIP-J14 score was 4.6 ± 6.7 units. The magnitude of the correlation between the number of missing teeth with OHIP-J14 scores was small (r = 0.22, p < 0.001). Mean OHIP-J14 scores differed between subjects with and without dentures (8.6 and 4.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to Japanese civilian populations, personnel of the JSDF demonstrated good oral health. Two physical oral health characteristics were associated with perceived oral health. PMID:21501526

  7. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…

  8. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], ?4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?5.22 to ?2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, ?3.64; 95% CI, ?5.57 to ?1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus, well-designed and large RCTs were needed to further established effects. PMID:26252313

  9. The oral mucosal and salivary microbial community of Behçet's syndrome and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seoudi, Noha; Bergmeier, Lesley A.; Drobniewski, Francis; Paster, Bruce; Fortune, Farida

    2015-01-01

    Background Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a multisystem immune-related disease of unknown etiology. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is characterized by the presence of idiopathic oral ulceration without extraoral manifestation. The interplay between the oral microbial communities and the immune response could play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of both BS and RAS. Objective To investigate the salivary and oral mucosal microbial communities in BS and RAS. Methods Purified microbial DNA isolated from saliva samples (54 BS, 25 healthy controls [HC], and 8 RAS) were examined by the human oral microbe identification microarray. Cultivable salivary and oral mucosal microbial communities from ulcer and non-ulcer sites were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. Mycobacterium spp. were detected in saliva and in ulcer and non-ulcer oral mucosal brush biopsies following culture on Lowenstein-Jensen slopes and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes. Results There was increased colonization with Rothia denticariosa of the non-ulcer sites of BS and RAS patients (p<0.05). Ulcer sites in BS were highly colonized with Streptococcus salivarius compared to those of RAS (p<0.05), and with Streptococcus sanguinis compared to HC (p<0.0001). Oral mucosa of HC were more highly colonized with Neisseria and Veillonella compared to all studied groups (p<0.0001). Conclusions Despite the uncertainty whether the reported differences in the oral mucosal microbial community of BS and RAS are of causative or reactive nature, it is envisaged that restoring the balance of the oral microbial community of the ulcer sites may be used in the future as a new treatment modality for oral ulceration. PMID:26037240

  10. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21772845

  11. Oral Appliance Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... improve sleep quality by controlling sleep apnea and snoring. An oral appliance is held in place by ... An oral appliance may be recommended to treat snoring, or as an option for patients with mild ...

  12. ABCs of Oral Health: Nutrition - Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to crowns in many situations. More ABCs of Oral Health A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | ... games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  13. Could Oral Contraceptives Help Ease Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... were using oral contraceptives -- especially those with impaired function -- relied less on steroid treatment than women who hadn't used the pill. The researchers speculated that the beneficial effect of oral contraceptives may be due to ...

  14. 14 CFR 314.15 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.15 Oral proceedings. The Department will provide for an oral evidentiary hearing, with notice published...

  15. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronic pain, loss of function, irreparable facial and oral disfigurement following surgery and even death. More than 8,000 people die each year from oral and pharyngeal diseases. If you use tobacco, it ...

  16. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral health care for pregnant women Oral Health Resource Bulletin Oral Health Resource Bulletin: Volume 34 (November 2015) Pocket Guide Bright ... from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration National Maternal and Child Oral ...

  17. Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other…

  18. Oral vaccines for cholera control.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S; Chaturvedi, S

    1997-01-01

    Two oral cholera vaccines-inactivated WC/rBS and live CVD 103 HgR-have recently been marketed in Europe. Though the efficacy of the live vaccine is yet to be supported by field trials, the inactivated oral vaccine has shown encouraging results in field trails on different population groups. Since the role of cholera vaccines-including oral vaccines-as a public health tool in epidemic situations is debatable and cholera immunization for travellers will result in a high cost-benefit ratio, endemic cholera remains the main area of their application. The questions raised in the Bangladesh trial about the protective efficacy of WC/rBS vaccine in people infected with the EI Tor biotype, in 'O' blood group people and in those having no previous immunity to cholera have been reconsidered and explored during the recent field trail in South America, with satisfactory results. However, none of these vaccines provide protection against Vibrio cholerae 0139 Bengal. With their widely demonstrated safety and efficacy, oral cholera vaccines are set to make injectable vaccines obsolete. PMID:9069701

  19. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... them late and had sex without a backup method of birth control.If you want to become ... Progestin-only contraceptives should not delay your ability ...

  20. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  1. Divergent routes to oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Keith D; Thurlow, Johanna K; Fleming, Janis; Drake, Paul J H; Vass, J Keith; Kalna, Gabriela; Higham, Des J; Herzyk, Pawel; Macdonald, D Gordon; Parkinson, E Ken; Harrison, Paul R

    2006-08-01

    Most head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients present with late-stage cancers, which are difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis of high-risk premalignant lesions and incipient cancers is important. HNSCC is currently perceived as a single progression mechanism, resulting in immortal invasive cancers. However, we have found that approximately 40% of primary oral SCCs are mortal in culture, and these have a better prognosis. About 60% of oral premalignancies (dysplasias) are also mortal. The mortal and immortal tumors are generated in vivo as judged by p53 mutations and loss of p16(INK4A) expression being found only in the original tumors from which the immortal cultures were derived. To investigate the relationships of dysplasias to SCCs, we did microarray analysis of primary cultures of 4 normal oral mucosa biopsies, 19 dysplasias, and 16 SCCs. Spectral clustering using the singular value decomposition and other bioinformatic techniques showed that development of mortal and immortal SCCs involves distinct transcriptional changes. Both SCC classes share most of the transcriptional changes found in their respective dysplasias but have additional changes. Moreover, high-risk dysplasias that subsequently progress to SCCs more closely resemble SCCs than nonprogressing dysplasias. This indicates for the first time that there are divergent mortal and immortal pathways for oral SCC development via intermediate dysplasias. We believe that this new information may lead to new ways of classifying HNSCC in relation to prognosis. PMID:16885335

  2. Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Eric A.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…

  3. 75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... invited amicus curiae to submit briefs in these matters, see 75 FR 20007, Apr. 16, 2010; 75 FR 29366, May... of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie v. Office of Personnel Management, MSPB Docket Number DC-0731-09-0261-R-1; Jenee Ella Hunt-O'Neal v. Office of Personnel...

  4. 75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... amicus curiae to submit briefs. See 75 FR 6728, Feb. 10, 2010. The parties, OPM, and the amici curiae... of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No....

  5. 76 FR 73691 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... to submit briefs. See 76 FR 44373, July 25, 2011. The Board also has invited OPM and the amici curiae... of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number DA-0353-10-0408-I-1; Ruby N. Turner v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number...

  6. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

  7. Westside Family Church Oral History

    E-print Network

    Mann, Brad; Morris, Jason; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-27

    Oral history interview with Brad Mann and Jason Morris conducted by Emily Stratton in Lenexa, kansas, on June 27, 2013. Brad Mann is the Speedway Campus Pastor and Jason Morris is the Online Campus Pastor for Westside Family Church. Westside Family...

  8. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is made in tens of ...

  9. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  10. Zoely: a new combined oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    ?Zoely is the second estradiol-containing oral contraceptive formulated as an 'extended regimen' (pill-free interval <7?days) to be licensed in the UK. However, unlike the quadraphasic estradiol-containing contraceptive Qlaira, it is a monophasic preparation.1,2 It is postulated that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing synthetic estradiol, which is structurally identical to endogenous oestrogen,3 are potentially safer and better tolerated than those containing ethinylestradiol, the synthetic oestrogen most commonly used in COCs.4 The progestogen in Zoely is nomegestrol acetate, which is structurally related to progesterone,5 in contrast to the majority of progestogens in COCs that are derived from 19-nortestosterone6 and associated with androgenic effects.7 It is suggested that nomegestrol acetate, with its greater specificity for progesterone receptors, may minimise the potential for androgenic, oestrogenic and glucocorticoid effects.7 The company considers Zoely an option for women "who want a contraceptive with hormones similar to her own", and claims that it has a high level of contraceptive efficacy, produces shorter, lighter periods compared with a 21-day regimen of drospirenone 3mg/ethinylestradiol 30µg (Yasmin) and that most women report no negative impact on weight and skin.8 Here we review the effectiveness and place of Zoely. PMID:25104773

  11. Austin Powers bites back: a cross sectional comparison of US and English national oral health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael G; Kawachi, Ichiro; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare oral health in the US and England and to assess levels of educational and income related oral health inequalities between both countries. Design Cross sectional analysis of US and English national surveys. Setting Non-institutionalised adults living in their own homes. Participants Oral health measures and socioeconomic indicators were assessed in nationally representative samples: the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009 for England, and the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-08. Adults aged ?25 years were included in analyses with samples of 8719 (England) and 9786 (US) for analyses by education, and 7184 (England) and 9094 (US) for analyses by income. Main outcome measures Number of missing teeth, self rated oral health, and oral impacts on daily life were outcomes. Educational attainment and household income were used as socioeconomic indicators. Age standardised estimates of oral health were compared between countries and across educational and income groups. Regression models were fitted, and relative and absolute inequalities were measured using the relative index of inequality (RII) and the slope index of inequality (SII). Results The mean number of missing teeth was significantly higher in the US (7.31 (standard error 0.15)) than in England (6.97 (0.09)), while oral impacts were higher in England. There was evidence of significant social gradients in oral health in both countries, although differences in oral health by socioeconomic position varied according to the oral health measure used. Consistently higher RII and SII values were found in the US than in England, particularly for self rated oral health. RII estimates for self rated oral health by education were 3.67 (95% confidence interval 3.23 to 4.17) in the US and 1.83 (1.59 to 2.11) in England. In turn, SII values were 42.55 (38.14 to 46.96) in the US and 18.43 (14.01 to 22.85) in England. Conclusions The oral health of US citizens is not better than the English, and there are consistently wider educational and income oral health inequalities in the US compared with England. PMID:26676027

  12. 31 CFR 1.10 - Oral information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral information. 1.10 Section 1.10... Disclosure Provisions § 1.10 Oral information. (a) Officers and employees of the Department may, in response to requests, orally provide information contained in records of the Department that are determined...

  13. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

  14. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  15. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

  16. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

  17. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

  18. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

  19. On modelling oral tolerance using cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, E.

    1997-02-01

    Oral tolerance is modelled using the Chowdhury et al. model. Two fuzzy generalizations for this model (i.e. models that use fuzzy mathematics) are considered to include autoimmunity. Oral tolerance is studied for these fuzzy models and it is shown that for some cases oral tolerance can be used to treat autoimmunity.

  20. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  1. Assessing Clinical Judgment Using Standardized Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashook, Philip

    This paper describes the use of oral examinations to assess the clinical judgment of aspiring physicians. Oral examinations have been used in U.S. medicine since 1917. Currently, 15 member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties administer 17 different standardized oral examinations to approximately 10,000 physician candidates…

  2. Ronald Reagan and the Oral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ellen Reid

    1989-01-01

    Uses oral theory to examine the relationship between cognition and orality. Analyzes how the electronic media mimic the kind of interaction between speaker and audience characteristic of preliterate cultures. Argues that Ronald Reagan's effectiveness on television stems from his use of rhetorical structures characteristic of preliterate oral

  3. An Oral Communication Program: Goals and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Phillip; And Others

    The Oral Communication Program at Radford University (Virginia) is designed to: (1) provide programming, facilities, and professional expertise to help students and faculty improve oral communication skills; and (2) support and facilitate the incorporation of oral communication into the undergraduate curriculum throughout the university, using the…

  4. Oral processing of two milk chocolate samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-da-Silva, Ana Margarida; Van Damme, Isabella; Taylor, Will; Hort, Joanne; Wolf, Bettina

    2013-02-26

    Oral processing of two milk chocolates, identical in composition and viscosity, was investigated to understand the textural behaviour. Previous studies had shown differences in mouthcoating and related attributes such as time of clearance from the oral cavity to be most discriminating between the samples. Properties of panellists' saliva, with regard to protein concentration and profile before and after eating the two chocolates, were included in the analysis but did not reveal any correlation with texture perception. The microstructure of the chocolate samples following oral processing, which resembled an emulsion as the chocolate phase inverts in-mouth, was clearly different and the sample that was found to be more mouthcoating appeared less flocculated after 20 chews. The differences in flocculation behaviour were mirrored in the volume based particle size distributions acquired with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The less mouthcoating and more flocculated sample showed a clear bimodal size distribution with peaks at around 40 and 500 ?m, for 10 and 20 chews, compared to a smaller and then diminishing second peak for the other sample following 10 and 20 chews, respectively. The corresponding mean particle diameters after 20 chews were 184 ± 23 and 141 ± 10 ?m for the less and more mouthcoating samples, respectively. Also, more of the mouthcoating sample had melted after both 10 and 20 chews (80 ± 8% compared to 72 ± 10% for 20 chews). Finally, the friction behaviour between a soft and hard surface (elastopolymer/steel) and at in-mouth temperature was investigated using a commercial tribology attachment on a rotational rheometer. Complex material behaviour was revealed. Observations included an unusual increase in friction coefficient at very low sliding speeds, initially overlapping for both samples, to a threefold higher value for the more mouthcoating sample. This was followed by a commonly observed decrease in friction coefficient with increasing sliding speed (mixed and elasto-hydrodynamic regime), steeper in the case of the more mouthcoating sample until the differences between the two samples became negligible at a sliding speed of ?0.2 mm s(-1). The stark differences in the tribological behaviour in these regimes begin to allow correlation of data from sensory and physical measurements based on insight into the underlying material behaviour. The complex picture also included comparable behaviour of both samples in the late stages of the elasto-hydrodynamic regime and the early stages of the hydrodynamic regime, until a change of slope was observed and then, at higher sliding speeds, the less mouthcoating sample showed higher friction coefficients. In conclusion, this research uncovered novel correlations of a complex food composite between the sensory behaviour and the physical material properties relating to melting and friction behaviour. PMID:23254175

  5. Fluorescence-guided surgical resection of oral cancer reduces recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre; Poh, Catherine F.; Durham, J. Scott; Zhang, Lewei; Lam, Sylvia F.; Rosin, Miriam; MacAulay, Calum

    2011-03-01

    Approximately 36,000 people in the US will be newly diagnosed with oral cancer in 2010 and it will cause 8,000 new deaths. The death rate is unacceptably high because oral cancer is usually discovered late in its development and is often difficult to treat or remove completely. Data collected over the last 5 years at the BC Cancer Agency suggest that the surgical resection of oral lesions guided by the visualization of the alteration of endogenous tissue fluorescence can dramatically reduce the rate of cancer recurrence. Four years into a study which compares conventional versus fluorescence-guided surgical resection, we reported a recurrence rate of 25% (7 of 28 patients) for the control group compared to a recurrence rate of 0% (none of the 32 patients) for the fluorescence-guided group. Here we present resent results from this ongoing study in which patients undergo either conventional surgical resection of oral cancer under white light illumination or using tools that enable the visualization of naturally occurring tissue fluorescence.

  6. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections. PMID:26146997

  7. An oral-cavity component in retronasal smelling of natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Dragich, Ann M; Halpern, Bruce P

    2008-02-27

    Retronasal and oral-cavity-only identifications of six natural extract odorants, presented in air-phase, were compared in an initial experiment. Prior to identification testing, the 21 participants were given experience with air-phase presentations, and with the odorants and their correct identifications. Retronasal correct identifications for anise, cinnamon, coffee, orange, peppermint, and strawberry were 88%, 81%, 98%, 95%, 91%, and 83%; oral-cavity-only, 19%, 21%, 19%, 21%, 33%, and 24%. All participants correctly identified retronasal odorants above chance. Across participants only peppermint received correct oral-cavity-only identifications, but two participants gave correct oral-cavity-only identifications for all odorants. In a second experiment, different participants attempted to discriminate oral-cavity-only odorants from their solvents. Fifteen participants discriminated orange, peppermint, and strawberry odorants from their solvents, and five discriminated all odorants from their solvents. It had been hypothesized that peppermint would provide unique trigeminal stimulation; this was supported by correct oral-cavity-only identification of only peppermint. A second hypothesis posited oral-cavity-only discrimination of orange and peppermint from their solvents because of trigeminal stimuli, but strawberry extract discrimination was unexpected. Furthermore, oral-cavity-only discrimination of all odorants by one-quarter of the participants was not anticipated. Overall, these outcomes suggest that peppermint-like odorants can initiate sufficiently differential responses in the oral cavity to permit identification, indicate that not only odorants with known trigeminal stimulus components but also others may elicit oral-cavity-only air-phase responses, and imply that for a substantial minority of individuals, trigeminal input may enhance oral-cavity effectiveness of many odorants during retronasal smelling. PMID:18023826

  8. Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Pan, X.; Wong, H.H.; Wagner, C.A.; Lahey, L.J.; Robinson, W.H.; Sokolove, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Boswellic acid is a plant-derived molecule with putative anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to determine whether oral or topical administration of boswellic acid can attenuate joint damage in a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Levels of boswellic acid were measured in the blood and synovium of mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid. OA was generated by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Therapy with oral or topical boswellic acid was initiated one day after surgery and continued for 12 weeks, when knees were harvested and scored histologically for degree of cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and synovitis. Microdissected OA synovium was stimulated with IL-1? or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of boswellic acid and cytokine production by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiplex enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Results Topical treatment resulted in synovial concentrations of boswellic acid 2–6-fold higher than that measured in plasma. Cartilage loss was significantly reduced in mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid compared with vehicle control (P < 0.01 for both oral and topical therapies). Likewise, treatment with either oral boswellic acid or boswellic acid ointment reduced of synovitis (P = 0.006 and 0.025, respectively) and osteophyte formation (P = 0.009 and 0.030, respectively). In vitro, boswellic acid was able to inhibit IL-1? and TLR4 mediated induction of several inflammatory mediators from OA synovial explant tissue. Conclusions Significant synovial concentration and therapeutic efficacy can be achieved with topical boswellic acid treatment. These findings suggest that boswellic acid has potential as a disease-modifying agent in OA. PMID:24185109

  9. Topical treatment of oral lichen planus with anthocyanins

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Amanda; Salomón, Susana; Lanfranchi, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is involved in oral lichen planus (OLP) pathogenesis; meanwhile anthocyanins are natural antioxidants present in grapes skin. Objectives: The aim of this research was to verify the utility of anthocyanins, extracted from grapes skin, for the local treatment of oral lichen planus and to compare it with clobetasol propionate- neomycin -nystatin cream (CP-NN). Study Design: Prospective, non-randomized study, with control group. Fifty-two patients with OLP were included. We divided patients into two categories: erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and non erosive oral lichen planus (NEOLP). 38 had EOLP (17 cases and 21 controls) and 14 presented NEOLP types (9 cases and 5 controls).Cases received local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes and controls, were treated with CP-NN. The clinical evolution of patients was followed up during six months. Results: The patients had a therapeutic response with anthocyanins. This was better than CP-NN treatment for patients with EOLP, in improving the involvement score of the oral mucosa and in the morphometric study of the affected areas. In EOLP there were no statistically significant differences in: therapeutic response time, the evolution of pain, or the relapse rate between the two groups. With respect to the treatment of NEOLP there was improved pain relief in the group treated with anthocyanins. This was not observed with CP-NN. The resting analized variables showed no significant difference with both treatments. Conclusions: OLP has a favorable response to local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes. We found an equal to or better response than with CP-NN treatment. Many of our patients have systemic diseases, which may contraindicate the use of steroids. With regard to this particular group, the use of this natural antioxidant present in the diet is considered advantageous. Key words:Anthocyanins, antioxidants, chemoprevention, morphometry, oral lichen, oxidative stress. PMID:24880442

  10. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  11. Oral health care during pregnancy recommendations for oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jayanth; Samelson, Renee

    2009-11-01

    Pregnancy is a unique time in a woman's life and is characterized by complex physiological changes. These changes can adversely affect oral health. Pregnancy is also an opportune time to educate women about preventing dental caries in young children, a common childhood problem. Although multiple studies have shown an association between periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as premature delivery and low birth weight, recent randomized clinical trials conducted in the United States failed to show that treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy improved birth outcomes. However, the studies confirmed the safety and effectiveness of providing oral health care during pregnancy. Pregnancy by itself is not a reason to defer routine dental care and necessary treatment for oral health problems. Diagnosis and treatment, including needed dental X-rays, can be undertaken safely during the first trimester of pregnancy. Needed treatment can be provided throughout the remainder of the pregnancy; however, the time period between the 14th and 20th week is considered ideal. PMID:20069785

  12. Laboratory analysis of remotely collected oral fluid specimens for opiates by immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R S; Kardos, K; Waga, J; Fritch, D; Yeager, L; Doddamane, S; Schoener, E

    2001-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a method for detecting opiates (morphine, codeine, heroin, and 6-acetylmorphine [6-AM]) in oral fluid specimens were examined and compared with methods for urine specimens. The oral fluid was easily obtained using a simple device that collects between 1 and 1.5 mL of fluid for laboratory analysis. Simultaneously collected specimens from 60 known opiate abusers from a drug-treatment center were first tested using an immunoassay cutoff of 10 ng/mL in oral fluids and 2,000 ng/mL in urine. Using a second aliquot, opiate confirmation in urine was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and in oral fluids by GC-MS-MS. The combined immunoassay and GC-MS-MS procedures were completed with less than 250 pL of oral fluid. Opiates identified in oral fluid specimens from heroin users included morphine, codeine, heroin, and 6-AM. The immunoassay was tested for precision, stability, and the effects of potential cross-reactants. The results yielded 93.6% agreement between oral fluid and urine, suggesting that oral fluid may be a reliable matrix for opiate detection. PMID:11499883

  13. An Assessment of the Oral Bioavailability of Three Ca-Channel Blockers Using a Cassette-Microdose Study: A New Strategy for Streamlining Oral Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shinji; Kataoka, Makoto; Suzaki, Yuki; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morimoto, Takuya; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Inano, Akihiro; Togashi, Kazutaka; Mutaguchi, Kuninori; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    A cassette-microdose (MD) clinical study was performed to demonstrate its usefulness for identifying the most promising compound for oral use. Three Ca-channel blockers (nifedipine, nicardipine, and diltiazem) were chosen as model drugs. In the MD clinical study, a cassette-dose method was employed in which three model drugs were administered simultaneously. Both intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration studies were conducted to calculate the oral bioavailability (BA). For comparison, p.o. studies with therapeutic dose (ThD) levels were also performed. In all studies, blood concentrations of each drug were successfully determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with the lower limit of quantification of 0.2-2.0 pg/mL. Oral BA of nifedipine in the MD study was approximately 50% and in the same range with that obtained in the ThD study, whereas other two drugs showed significantly lower BA in the MD study, indicating a dose-dependent absorption. In addition, compared with the ThD study, absorption of nicardipine was delayed in the MD study. As a result, nifedipine was considered to be most promising for oral use. In conclusion, a cassette-MD clinical study is of advantage for oral drug development that enables to identify the candidate having desired properties for oral use. PMID:26037531

  14. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  15. Pharmacological profile of estrogens in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, J

    2011-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE)given by mouth is stable and yields satisfactory results in terms of ovulation inhibition and effects on the endometrium. It increases however the risk especially for venous thrombotic events and to a lesser degree also arterial thrombosis. Therefore research focused on diminuition of the EE dosage and the development of a different estrogen component in oral contraceptives, specifically an estrogen occurring during physiological processes in the female body. Two estrogens emerge: 17ß Estradiol is the most potent natural estrogen and it is the major estrogen secreted by the ovaries. Estetrol is a human sex steroid (15 alpha hydroxyestriol) which is only produced during pregnancy by the fetal liver. The pharmacolokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these estrogens are compared to those of EE (absorption, metabolization, bioavailability etc.) and the clinical profile is described as far it is known from a limited number of studies. PMID:21654614

  16. Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466

  17. Epigenetic mechanisms in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gasche, Jacqueline A; Goel, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of gene expression is a frequent occurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, accumulating evidence suggests that in contrast to genetics, epigenetic modifications consisting of aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and altered expression of miRNAs induce OSCC tumorigenesis and perhaps play a more central role in the evolution and progression of this disease. The unifying theme among these three epigenetic mechanisms remains the same, which is aberrant regulation of gene expression. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the impact of epigenetics on oral tumorigenesis with a systematic report on aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA regulation in the pathogenesis of OSCC. We provide insights into recent studies on the prospect of biomarkers for early detection and indication of disease recurrence, and novel treatment modalities. PMID:23148615

  18. Transtracheal ventilation in oral surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Layman, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of transtracheal ventilation as a routine method of ventilation during anaesthesia for 60 patients with gross pathology requiring oral surgery is reported. Theoretical hazards of the technique and protection of the airway are discussed. There were no serious complications in this series. The technique is recommended as a simple and safe alternative to blind nasal intubation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6614769

  19. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  20. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  1. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  2. Chemo-radiotherapy induced oral mucositis during IMRT for head and neck cancer - An assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is conducted mainly to evaluate the changes in quality and quantity of oral epithelial cells during the course of IMRT. Material and Methods 30 Patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy were followed through course of treatment. They were compared with a group of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The procedure involved WHO clinical scoring, collection of oral washings and preparation of buccal smears from both study group and control group. The changes occurred were recorded as a way of assessing the severity of oral mucositis. Results Revealed a significant occurrence of oral mucositis in almost all patients during weekly follow up. There was a significant increase in percentage of viable buccal epithelial cells in study group when compared to normal controls (P<0.005) during and at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Conclusions Quantification of oral mucositis can be done at cellular level by determining the oral mucosal cell viability and their maturation during IMRT. Key words:Oral mucositis, in vitro assay, quantification, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, viable cells. PMID:25662542

  3. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These results demonstrate a feasibility to rapidly detect Pb in saliva and suggest that saliva may correlate best with plasma Pb concentration.

  4. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

    2013-10-01

    To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. PMID:23379968

  5. Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Bahar; Lindenmaier, Andras; Standish, Beau A.; Allo, Ghassan; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Vitkin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    A spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system and an oral imaging probe have been developed to visualize the microstructural morphology and microvasculature in the human oral cavity. Structural OCT images of ex vivo pig oral tissues with the histology of the same sites were acquired and compared for correlations. Structural in vivo OCT images of healthy human tissue as well as a pathologic site (ulcer) were obtained and analyzed based on the results of the ex vivo pig study, drawing on the similarity between human and swine oral tissues. In vivo Doppler and speckle variance OCT images of the oral cavity in human volunteers were also acquired, to demonstrate the feasibility of microvascular imaging of healthy and pathologic (scar) oral tissue. PMID:22567578

  6. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  7. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (p<0.05). Scores of oral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (p<0.05). A questionnaire survey of oral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (p<0.05). Our study suggests that the aroma candy is effective in oral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans. PMID:25855026

  8. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity. PMID:21815141

  9. The absorption and metabolism of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration: Effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Valente, Angelica; Carrillo, Andres E; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kenny, Glen P; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the absorption and metabolism pharmacokinetics of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration and the effects on human thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Twenty healthy adults were randomly distributed into oral (capsule) and skin (gel) groups and treated with 10 mg kg(-1) L-menthol (ORALMENT; SKINMENT) or control (lactose capsule: ORALCON; water application: SKINCON) in a random order on two different days. Levels of serum L-menthol increased similarly in ORALMENT and SKINMENT (p > 0.05). L-menthol glucuronidation was greater in ORALMENT than SKINMENT (p < 0.05). Cutaneous vasoconstriction, rectal temperature and body heat storage showed greater increase following SKINMENT compared to ORALMENT and control conditions (p < 0.05). Metabolic rate increased from baseline by 18% in SKINMENT and 10% in ORALMENT and respiratory exchange ratio decreased more in ORALMENT (5.4%) than SKINMENT (4.8%) compared to control conditions (p < 0.05). Levels of plasma adiponectin and leptin as well as heart rate variability were similar to control following either treatment (p > 0.05). Participants reported no cold, shivering, discomfort, stress or skin irritation. We conclude that a single L-menthol skin administration increased thermogenesis and metabolic rate in humans. These effects are minor following L-menthol oral administration probably due to faster glucuronidation and greater blood menthol glucuronide levels. PMID:26429629

  10. Unique FISH Patterns Associated with Cancer Progression of Oral Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Poh, C.F.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, E.; Berean, K.W.; Wu, L.; Zhang, L.; Rosin, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Subgroups of patients with oral pre-malignant lesions (OPLs) are at extremely high risk for developing invasive cancer in spite of surgical excision. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of specific genes and their associated centromeres as markers to stratify OPLs for their cancer risk. Samples used in this study included 35 oral dysplasia with known outcome and 20 normal oral mucosa. Of the dysplasias, 20 were from an ongoing longitudinal study showing progression. The remaining 15 cases (2 of which progressed) were chosen from the population-based, provincial BC Oral Biopsy Service (OBS). Copy number alterations at EGFR, CEP7, CCND1, and CEP11 were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). There was no significant difference in demographics between progressors and non-progressors. Specific FISH profiles at these genes and their corresponding centromeres were associated with progression. High gene gain of CCND1 was associated with an 8-fold elevated risk of progression compared with those with no gain in time-to-progression analysis. Numerical alterations of EGFR and CCND1 and their centromeres might be an effective means for identifying OPLs at risk. Future studies will expand on this analysis and set the stage for application of this approach in routine clinical practice. PMID:21990607

  11. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: Oral and craniofacial phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, D.L.; Trujillo, M.I.; Council, S.E.; Merideth, M.A.; Gordon, L.B.; Wu, T.; Introne, W.J.; Gahl, W.A.; Hart, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare early-onset accelerated senescence syndrome. In HGPS, a recently identified de novo dominant mutation of the lamin A gene (LMNA) produces abnormal lamin A, resulting in compromised nuclear membrane integrity. Clinical features include sclerotic skin, cardiovascular and bone abnormalities, and marked growth retardation. Craniofacial features include “bird-like” facies, alopecia, craniofacial disproportion and dental crowding. Our prospective study describes dental, oral soft tissue, and craniofacial bone features in HGPS. METHODS Fifteen patients with confirmed p.G608G LMNA mutation (1–17 years, 7 males, 8 females) received comprehensive oral evaluations. Anomalies of oral soft tissue, gnathic bones and dentition were identified. RESULTS Radiographic findings included hypodontia (n=7), dysmorphic teeth (n=5), steep mandibular angles (n=11), and thin basal bone (n=11). Soft tissue findings included ogival palatal arch (n=8), median sagittal palatal fissure (n=7), and ankyloglossia (n=7). Calculated dental ages (9months–11y2m) were significantly lower than chronological ages (1y6m–17y8m) (p=0.002). Eleven children manifested a shorter mandibular body, anterior/posterior cranial base and ramus, but a larger gonial angle, compared to age/gender/race norms. CONCLUSION Novel oral-craniofacial phenotypes and quantification of previously reported features are presented. Our findings expand the HGPS phenotype and provide additional insight into the complex pathogenesis of HGPS. PMID:19236595

  12. The effect of low level laser therapy in different wavelengths in the treatment of oral mucositis—proposal for extra-oral implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, J. J. C.; Queiroga, A. S.; de Biase, R. C. C. G.; Leite, E. P.; Cabral Júnior, C. R.; Limeira Júnior, F. A.

    2009-09-01

    The oral mucositis is the most frequent acute oral complication resulting from antineoplastic treatment and may worsen the clinical condition of the patient and interfere with his/her quality of life. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate, from a clinical point of view, the effect of Laser Therapy ?660 nm (wavelength of the red Laser) and ?830 nm (wavelength of the infrared Laser), at extra-oral points, in remission of severity of oral mucositis and pain associated with it in pediatric oncological patients undergoing chemotherapy with the anticancer drug methotrexate, noting which of the two wavelength is the most appropriate to this new technique. The sample consisted of 13 patients placed at random in each group and subjected to sessions of Low Level Laser Therapy, at pre-determined extra-oral points for five consecutive days, starting at the beginning of the observation of mucositis injuries. It became possible to note that from the group of patients in the group of Laser ?830 nm ( n = 6; 46.15%), four ( n = 4; 66.67%) of these patients had remission of injuries to grade 0 (WHO), and as for pain, five patients ( n = 5; 83.33%) showed no painful symptoms for mucositis injuries. In the Laser ?660 nm group ( n = 7; 53.85%), only two patients ( n = 2; 28.57%) achieved a regression of lesions to grade 0 (WHO), while four patients ( n = 4; 57.14%) had no pain. So, the extra-oral application of Laser Therapy was effective in treating injuries of oral mucositis in the patients treated; and Laser Therapy in the infrared spectrum (?830 nm) was more effective in the treatment of oral mucositis injuries compared to the red spectrum (?660 nm), which can be explained by the greater power of penetration of infrared rays, acting in a more expressive way in deeper places.

  13. Comparison of the Oral Microbiomes of Canines and Their Owners Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Changin; Lee, Kunkyu; Cheong, Yeotaek; Lee, Sang-Won; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbiome, which is closely associated with many diseases, and the resident pathogenic oral bacteria, which can be transferred by close physical contact, are important public health considerations. Although the dog is the most common companion animal, the composition of the canine oral microbiome, which may include human pathogenic bacteria, and its relationship with that of their owners are unclear. In this study, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to compare the oral microbiomes of 10 dogs and their owners and to identify zoonotic pathogens. Pyrosequencing revealed 246 operational taxonomic units in the 10 samples, representing 57 genera from eight bacterial phyla. Firmicutes (57.6%), Proteobacteria (21.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.8%), Actinobacteria (7.1%), and Fusobacteria (3.9%) were the predominant phyla in the human oral samples, whereas Proteobacteria (25.7%), Actinobacteria (21%), Bacteroidetes (19.7%), Firmicutes (19.3%), and Fusobacteria (12.3%) were predominant in the canine oral samples. The predominant genera in the human samples were Streptococcus (43.9%), Neisseria (10.3%), Haemophilus (9.6%), Prevotella (8.4%), and Veillonella (8.1%), whereas the predominant genera in the canine samples were Actinomyces (17.2%), Unknown (16.8), Porphyromonas (14.8), Fusobacterium (11.8), and Neisseria (7.2%). The oral microbiomes of dogs and their owners were appreciably different, and similarity in the microbiomes of canines and their owners was not correlated with residing in the same household. Oral-to-oral transfer of Neisseria shayeganii, Porphyromonas canigingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Streptococcus minor from dogs to humans was suspected. The finding of potentially zoonotic and periodontopathic bacteria in the canine oral microbiome may be a public health concern. PMID:26134411

  14. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles. Methods A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS. Results Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported. Conclusion The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral contraceptives are at least patient convenient, efficacious, and safe for the treatment of PCOS. However, well-designed, prospective, long-term, large-scale, randomized clinical trials are necessary to elucidate the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or both in the treatment of PCOS, and to elucidate their individual roles in the treatment of this condition. PMID:26366087

  15. Dentistry in the future--on the role and goal of basic research in oral biology.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the state of affairs of oral biology cannot be endeavoured without considering the mutual interactions and interdependencies of sciences, and without considering the impact human acts will exert on these developments. Oral biology deals with the biochemical, chemical, molecular biologic, general biologic and physical aspects of all processes that take place in the oral cavity, in the masticatory organ, and in tissues and body fluids that are associated with the above processes. Oral biology also reaps the harvest sown by (other) basic sciences. From the methodological point of view, oral biology is indistinguishable from basic sciences; it is the anatomical object that makes it specific. Oral biology cannot be regarded as "big science" (i.e. compared with the human genome project, space research, AIDS research etc.). This fact may preserve the attractiveness of oral biology. Important science--this concerns oral biology as well--still emerges in smaller settings, although there are omens that large research cartels will swallow larger and larger portions of research appropriations. A key to staying competitive is to use new science sources and--in some cases--to join bigger groups. Once upon a time oral biologists--or scientists in general--assumed that a record of solid accomplishments was sufficient to maintain research support. Today, in several countries, politics and public visibility unfortunately determine the funding privileges. Provided that human operations on earth will render future development of sciences possible, the future of oral biology will depend 1) on concomitant development in the above basic fields, and 2) on innovations in the individual psyches. This combination will unravel the structure of genes involved in the development and metabolism of oral processes, clone important salivary and connective tissue proteins, and control most important oral diseases. To achieve these goals, oral biology must attract young talent and funding must be made available. There is no shortcut, however. Individual efforts and persistent labouring at the laboratory bench will still remain prerequisites. Although successful prevention of certain oral diseases, such as dental caries, may be possible in certain regions of the Earth, the prospects are much gloomier globally. PMID:8284302

  16. Serum and saliva collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in patients with oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) has been classified as a pre-malignant condition. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) or collagenase-3 may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva MMP-13 between patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 30 patients with OLP (8 reticular and 22 erosive forms) and 20 patients with OSCC (6 in low stage and 14 in advanced stage) who were selected randomly. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva MMP-13 were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient was performed. Results: There were no significant differences in mean saliva and serum levels of MMP-13 between patients with OSCC and OLP and their subgroups. Serum MMP-13 correlated significantly with unstimulated (r = 0.307, p= 0.048), but not with stimulated, saliva MMP-13. Conclusion: Serum and saliva MMP-13 levels appear to be statistically similar in OLP and OSCC. PMID:26478876

  17. Times to pain relief and pain freedom with rizatriptan 10 mg and other oral triptans

    PubMed Central

    Ng-Mak, D S; Hu, X H; Chen, Y; Ma, L; Solomon, G

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the clinical trial setting, oral rizatriptan 10 mg has greater efficacy than other oral triptans in freedom from migraine headache pain 2 h after dosing. Objective: The study objective is to compare the effectiveness of rizatriptan 10 mg and other oral triptans for acute migraine attack in a naturalistic setting. Methods: A total of 673 patients took rizatriptan 10 mg or their usual-care oral triptans for two migraine attacks in a sequential, cross-over manner and recorded outcomes using a diary and a stopwatch. Mean and median times to pain relief (PR) and pain freedom (PF) for rizatriptan and other oral triptans were compared. The effect of rizatriptan on times to PR and PF, adjusting for potential confounding factors (treatment sequence, treatment order and use of rescue medication), was computed via a Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Significantly, more patients taking rizatriptan achieved both PR and PF within 2 h after dosing than other oral triptans. Times to PR and PF were shorter with rizatriptan than with other oral triptans (median time to PR: 45 vs. 52 min, p < 0.0001; median time to PF: 100 vs. 124 min, p < 0.0001). The adjusted proportional hazard ratios (rizatriptan vs. other oral triptans) for times to PR and PF were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.22–1.44) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.16–1.39) respectively. Conclusion: The times to PR and PF in a ‘naturalistic’ setting were significantly shorter for patients treating a migraine attack with rizatriptan 10 mg than with other oral triptans. PMID:17537184

  18. Test Comparability

    E-print Network

    Keller, Christine; Shulenburger, David E.

    2010-01-01

    stream_size 3106 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Test Comparability ChangeJuly (2).pdf.txt stream_source_info Test Comparability ChangeJuly (2).pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Test Comparability 2010 by Christine Keller and David Shulenburger This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication and Copyright. Please share...

  19. The Bila Muuji oral health promotion partnership.

    PubMed

    Meihubers, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    In western NSW in 2006, a group of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations identified oral health as a priority need in their regions, considering the lack of regular dental services, poor access to oral health information, and high dental disease rates. A regional oral health promotion program was developed and implemented under the guidance of a regional coordinator who supports local staff in oral health promotion activities such as school-based toothbrushing and the provision of oral health information to targeted groups (e.g. young mothers and carers) and staff of chronic disease programs. The program's strength in its planning and continuity is due to many factors, one of the main being the active involvement of local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation staff in its genesis, planning and implementation. Combined with strong management support, local partnerships and regional coordination, the program continues to provide collaborative approaches to community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:24360210

  20. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  1. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth. PMID:19950517

  2. Charles McVey Oral History

    E-print Network

    McVey, Charles; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-17

    Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Charles McVey Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management... Return to Charles McVey's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All...

  3. Intravenous Voriconazole after Toxic Oral Administration?

    PubMed Central

    Alffenaar, J. W. C.; van Assen, S.; de Monchy, J. G. R.; Uges, D. R. A.; Kosterink, J. G. W.; van der Werf, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    In a male patient with rhinocerebral invasive aspergillosis, prolonged high-dosage oral administration of voriconazole led to hepatotoxicity combined with a severe cutaneous reaction while intravenous administration in the same patient did not. High concentrations in the portal blood precipitate liver enzyme abnormalities, and therefore, oral administration of voriconazole may have a hepatotoxicity profile different from that of intravenous (i.v.) administration. Intravenously administered voriconazole might still be an option after oral-voriconazole-induced toxicity has resolved. PMID:20385853

  4. Promoting oral health through community engagement.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Paul; Harrington, Maureen; Namakian, Maysa

    2014-07-01

    Persistent health disparities still exist in the U.S. despite decades of focus on the importance of prevention. Individual behaviors are the major contributor to oral health. By partnering and linking with community organizations, oral health professionals can expand their reach, overcome the obstacles to delivering effective prevention activities in dental offices and improve the oral health of the most underserved and vulnerable populations, who bear the greatest burden of dental disease. PMID:25076629

  5. Oral perception and oral motor ability in edentulous patients with stroke and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Leung, K C M; Pow, E H N; McMillan, A S; Wong, M C M; Li, L S W; Ho, S-L

    2002-06-01

    Oral perception and oral motor ability were assessed in edentulous patients with stroke, Parkinson's disease, and an age and gender matched control group. Standard stereognosis and oral motor ability tests were performed, with and without complete dentures in situ. Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA, Levene's test and paired t-tests. Stroke patients had significantly poorer stereognostic measures than Parkinson's disease patients and controls (P < 0.02). Stereognostic measures were better in all groups when dentures were worn. There were no differences in oral motor ability between groups. Oral stereognosis was significantly impaired in stroke patients. Oral stereognostic ability was better in all groups when dentures were worn. The oral motor ability test lacked the sensitivity to detect differences in motor ability between experimental groups. Edentulous patients with stroke should be encouraged to wear dentures during the rehabilitation phase as oral stereognosis is then less impaired. PMID:12071915

  6. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada. PMID:24452565

  7. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613

  8. Oral and pharyngeal epithelial keratinocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Primary human oral epithelial cells are readily available and have been recently employed for tissue engineering. These cells are currently being widely utilized in multiple research efforts, ranging from the study of oral biology, mucosal immunity, and carcinogenesis to stem cell biology and tissue engineering. This chapter describes step-by-step protocols for the successful isolation and culture of human oral epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and techniques for their use in two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture systems. The described methods will enable to generate reconstituted tissues that resemble epithelial like structures in vitro, which can recapitulate some of the key features of the oral epithelium in vivo. PMID:23097101

  9. Medical Imaging of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is associated with documented risk factors, yet no comprehensive screening program is in place in the United States for early detection of the disease. Oral cancer often is diagnosed in more advanced stages, resulting in a poor prognosis. Dental practitioners and radiographers play an important role in the management of the disease and in helping to improve the quality of life for people who have oral cancer. This article discusses types of oral and oropharyngeal cancer, their diagnosis, treatment options, and the role of dental imaging in patients with these cancers. PMID:26538220

  10. Children's Oral Health Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Okunseri, Christopher; Gonzalez, Cesar; Hodgson, Brian

    2015-10-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to various aspects of oral health care in children, with emphasis on the epidemiology, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment modalities for dental caries. In addition, barriers to dental care and the involvement of pediatricians in advocating for and providing preventive dental care for children are reviewed. Oral health care is one of the most prevalent unmet needs among infants, toddlers, and adolescents in the United States. Routine or preventive dental visits are important for early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of oral diseases, and for establishing and maintaining good oral health and overall well-being. PMID:26318948

  11. Anti-cancer activity of bromelain nanoparticles by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Patnaik, Soma; Srivastava, Amit K; Mudiam, Mohan K R; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya K; Pant, Aditya B; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2014-12-01

    Oral administration of anti-cancer drugs is an effective alternative to improve their efficacy and reduce undesired toxicity. Bromelain (BL) is known as an effective anti-cancer phyto-therapeutic agent, however, its activity is reduced upon oral administration. In addressing the issue, BL was encapsulated in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). Further, the NPs were coated with Eudragit L30D polymer to introduce stability against the gastric acidic conditions. The resultant coated NPs were characterized for BL entrapment, proteolytic activity and mean particle size. The stability and release pattern of NPs were evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH conditions. Cytotoxicity studies carried out in human cell lines of diverse origin have shown significant dose advantage (-7-10 folds) with NPs in reducing the IC50 values compared with free BL. The cellular uptake of NPs in MCF-7, HeLa and Caco-2 cells monolayer was significantly enhanced several folds as compared to free BL. Altered expression of marker proteins associated with apoptosis and cell death (P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax) also confirmed the enhanced anti-carcinogenic potential of formulated NPs. Oral administration of NPs reduced the tumor burden of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and also increased their life-span (160.0 ± 5.8%) when compared with free BL (24 ± 3.2%). The generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells treated with NPs confirmed the suitability of Eudragit coated BL-NPs as a promising candidate for oral chemotherapy. PMID:26000370

  12. Oral health literacy comparisons between Indigenous Australians and American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Lisa M.; Divaris, K.; Parker, E.J.; Lee, J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare oral health literacy (OHL) levels between two profoundly disadvantaged groups, Indigenous Australians and American Indians, and to explore differences in socio-demographic, dental service utilisation, self-reported oral health indicators, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) correlates of OHL among the above. Methods OHL was measured using REALD-30 among convenience samples of 468 Indigenous Australians (aged 17–72 years, 63% female) and 254 female American Indians (aged 18–57 years). Covariates included socio-demography, dental utilisation, self-reported oral health status (OHS), perceived treatment needs and OHRQoL (prevalence, severity and extent of OHIP-14 ‘impacts’). Descriptive and bivariate methods were used for data presentation and analysis, and between-sample comparisons relied upon empirical contrasts of sample-specific estimates and correlation coefficients. Results OHL scores were: Indigenous Australians - 15.0 (95% CL=14.2, 15.8) and American Indians - 13.7 (95% CL=13.1, 14.4). In both populations, OHL strongly correlated with educational attainment, and was lower among participants with infrequent dental attendance and perceived restorative treatment needs. A significant inverse association between OHL and prevalence of OHRQoL impacts was found among American Indians (rho=?0.23; 95% CL=?0.34, ?0.12) but not among Indigenous Australians. Conclusions Our findings indicate that OHL levels were comparable between the two groups and lower compared to previously reported estimates among diverse populations. Although the patterns of association of OHL with most examined domains of correlates were similar between the two groups, this study found evidence of heterogeneity in the domains of self-reported OHS and OHRQoL. PMID:23550508

  13. Assessment of different mouthwashes on cannabis oral fluid concentrations.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana; Lendoiro, Elena; Fernández-Vega, Hadriana; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Cruz, Angelines

    2014-10-01

    Since the implementation of mandatory drug testing in drivers' oral fluid, several solutions to avoid an onsite positive result can be found on drug users' forums, especially for marijuana, including the use of different mouthwashes. Recently, a product for personal hygiene, Kleaner, has been sold for this purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of water, whole milk, and Kleaner mouthwashes on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) oral fluid concentrations, and those observed in passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions. The study was performed on four days. On day 0, study information was given to the participants. On days 1, 2, and 3, 11 chronic cannabis users smoked their usual daily dose, and oral fluid specimens were collected before smoking (t=-0.5h) and at t=0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-smoking. On day 1, participants rinsed their mouth with water before each specimen collection. On day 2, 5 participants rinsed their mouth with Kleaner and 6 with whole milk. On day 3, a specimen was collected before and after rinsing the mouth with water. Statistically significant lower concentrations were observed comparing concentrations in oral fluid specimens collected before and after a water rinse. However, maximum THC concentrations at t=0.25 h were >3-fold higher than the cut-off employed by the Spanish police (25 ng/mL) regardless of the use of any mouthwash. THC was also detected in the oral fluid of passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions; however, concentrations were <25 ng/mL in all cases. PMID:24453092

  14. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  15. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 63:529-535, 2005

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    -rich plasma (PRP) as an adjunct to bone grafting procedures in oral and maxillofa- cial surgery has seen *Assistant Professor, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia. ¶Professor and Chair, Hospital Dentistry/Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental and Oral Surgery

  16. Characterizing the immunological effects of oral healthcare ingredients using an in vitro reconstructed human epithelial model.

    PubMed

    Hagi-Pavli, E; Williams, D M; Rowland, J L; Thornhill, M; Cruchley, A T

    2014-12-01

    Oral healthcare products are well tolerated and while adverse occurrences are rare there is still a need to explore the interaction between these products and the oral mucosa. This study assessed the effects of oral healthcare ingredients: sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a detergent; cinnamic aldehyde (CA), a flavouring agent; and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an antiseptic, using a reconstructed human oral mucosal model (OMM). Differential release of inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-8 and cytotoxicity was compared with other known irritants and sensitizers to identify a signature response profile that could be associated with oral mucosal irritation. Response profiles differed with irritants being more cytotoxic. CA and control sensitizers nickel sulphate (NiSO4) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) released lower levels of IL-1? than CPC and control irritant benzalkonium chloride (BC), whereas the opposite was observed for IL-8. Significant levels of IL-8 and IL-1? were released with 5-15?mg/ml (0.5-1.5% w/v) SLS. Quantitative PCR indicated that cytokine release at lower SLS concentrations is not entirely due to cell necrosis but in part due to de novo synthesis. These findings suggest that the OMM can be used to predict oral irritation thus making it a potentially valuable model for screening new oral healthcare ingredients prior to clinical release. PMID:25290854

  17. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    PubMed Central

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  18. Evaluation of topical external medicine for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Hiromi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji; Araki, Hiroaki

    2006-12-01

    Oral ulcerative mucositis is a common and painful toxicity associated with chemotherapy for cancer. Current treatment for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is largely palliative, and no adequate treatment with conclusive evidence exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the topical external medicines used in clinical settings, and the authors investigated the effects of 1% azulene ointment, 0.12% dexamethasone ointment, and polaprezinc-sodium alginate suspension on an animal model for oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters through a combination treatment of 5-fluorouracil and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch. Each drug was administered topically to the oral mucosa of hamsters, and the process of healing of damaged oral mucositis was examined by measuring the size of the mucositis. Azulene ointment did not reduce the size of the mucositis compared with the vaseline-treated control group. Polaprezinc-sodium alginate suspension significantly improved the recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced damage. In contrast, local treatment with dexamethasone exacerbated the mucositis markedly. These results suggested the healing effect of polaprezinc-sodium alginate suspension and the risk of steroids to severe oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy. PMID:17046745

  19. The oral nerve plexus in amphioxus larvae: function, cell types and phylogenetic significance

    PubMed Central

    C.Lacalli, T.; J.Gilmour, T. H.; J.Kelly, S.

    1999-01-01

    Serial electron microscope reconstructions were used to examine the organization and cell types of the nerve plexus that surrounds the mouth in amphioxus larvae. The plexus is involved in a rejection response that occurs during feeding: a number of oral spines project across the mouth, and debris impinging on them triggers a contraction of the gill slit and pharyngeal musculature that forces water through the mouth, dislodging the debris. The oral spine cells are secondary sense cells that synapse with neurites belonging to a class of peripheral interneurons intrinsic to the oral nerve plexus. These in turn synapse with a second class of peripheral neurons with large axons that we interpret as sensory cells and which probably transmit signals to the nerve cord. The intrinsic cells also appear to synapse with each other, implying that local integrative activities of some complexity occur in the oral plexus. In comparative terms, the intrinsic neurons most closely resemble the Merkel-like accessory cells of vertebrate taste buds, and we postulate a homology between oral spine cells and taste buds, despite differences in function. There are also similarities between the amphioxus oral plexus and adoral nerves and ganglia of echinoderm larvae, suggesting homology of both the oral nerve plexus and the mouth itself between lower deuterostome phyla and chordates.

  20. Feasibility of double-blind clinical trials with oral diacetylmorphine: a randomized controlled phase II study in an inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Colom Farran, Joan; Casas, Miguel; Pérez de Los Cobos, José; Del Río, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos; Castells, Xavier; Valero, Sergi; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Batlle, Francisca; Trujols, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting double-blind controlled randomized clinical trials using twice-a-day immediate-release oral diacetylmorphine (DAM) in heroin-dependent patients, by means of measuring the capacity of oral DAM to block opiate withdrawal and clinicians' ability to distinguish it from morphine and methadone. This was a randomized, phase II, double-blind, multicenter pilot study comparing immediate-release oral DAM, slow-release oral morphine and oral methadone administered twice a day during 10 days. Forty-five heroin-dependent patients were randomly assigned to these three treatment groups in an inpatient regime. Patients were stabilized with a mean of 350 mg (SD = 193) of immediate-release oral DAM, 108 mg (SD = 46.2) of slow-release oral morphine and 40 mg (SD = 17.9) of methadone. No statistically significant differences were found between any studied medication in clinical outcome. Neither patients nor clinicians were able to identify the administered medication. This study shows the feasibility of double-blind clinical trials using b.i.d. immediate-release oral DAM allowing further phase III clinical trials in the process of introducing oral DAM as a medication for heroin-dependent patients not responding to standard maintenance treatments. PMID:22854605