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Sample records for comparing oral pilocarpine

  1. Absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-pilocarpine following oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasuhiro; Endo, Takuro; Hara, Yoshiki; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Midgley, Ian; Smart, Clair I; John, Alexandra J; Chasseaud, Leslie F; McBurney, Alan; John, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    The absorption, distribution and excretion of pilocarpine (CAS 92-13-7) were studied after single oral doses of 14C-pilocarpine hydrochloride (CAS 54-71-7) to the Sprague-Dawley rat, administered in aqueous solution mainly at a dose level of 0.3 mg/kg. Rats also received single intravenous doses at 0.3 mg/kg so as to compare 14C pharmacokinetics and excretion. The oral 14C-dose was rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the duodenum and small intestine within 30 min in the male rat and 14C concentrations in plasma declined biexponentially with a terminal half-life of about 9 h. Over the oral dosage range studied, i.e. 0.1-1.0 mg/kg, there was no evidence of significant non-proportionality for Cmax of 14C, whereas there was some such evidence for AUG24. Tissue 14C concentrations in male and pregnant female (Day 18) rats peaked at 0.5 h and mostly declined in parallel with those in the plasma. Excluding tissues concerned with drug absorption and elimination, 14C concentrations in most tissues were similar to, or lower than, those in the plasma. The extent of placental transfer of 14C was small and less than 0.09% of a maternal dose reached a foetus. 14C diffused into maternal milk at concentrations similar to those in the plasma. The 14C-dose was rapidly excreted in male rats, mostly in the urine (about 80%) during 6 h post dose. Recoveries of 14C in mass balance (excretion) studies were in the range 96-100%. There were no apparent gender differences in the disposition of 14C-pilocarpine in the rat. PMID:15112864

  2. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model. PMID:2879688

  3. Stability of pilocarpine ophthalmic solutions.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, C; Torre, M C; Chiale, C; Spinetto, M

    1999-06-01

    The stability of pilocarpine and pilocarpine-timolol eyedrop preparations available on the Argentine market was studied. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method that allows the estimation of pilocarpine in the presence of degradation products was used for the study according to the preestablished design. It was found that pilocarpine solutions are stable, while pilocarpine in association with timolol shows significant degradation. PMID:10349567

  4. Comparative immunohistochemical study of the effects of pilocarpine on the mossy cells, mossy fibres and inhibitory neurones in murine dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Károly, Norbert; Dobó, Endre; Mihály, András

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with pilocarpine (PILO) induces variable degrees of loss of mossy cells (MCs) and mossy fibre (MF) sprouting in rodents, the relationships of which have not been examined in individual animals. Our aim was to test whether the loss of MCs and MF sprouting are coupled processes in PILO-treated rodents. Animals which exhibited intense PILO-induced convulsions for at least 30 min were used in this study. After a 2-month survival period, the incidence of epileptic seizures was checked individually by neuropeptide-Y (NPY) immunohistochemistry, and the numbers of MCs were counted by means of immunohistochemistry, for calretinin (CR) in mice and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats. MF sprouting was checked by using Timm's silver-sulphide method for zinc. In our comparative studies, NPY immunohistochemistry resulted in more positive animals than on zinc staining. The CR immunoreactivity remained unchanged even in those mice that displayed MF sprouting and greatly increased NPY immunoreactivity. CR immunoreactivity was also verified after transection of the fornix to exclude the extrahippocampal source of this peptide. However, the CGRP immunoreactivity was severely reduced in those rats that exhibited simultaneous increases in zinc content and NPY immunoreactivity in the supragranular layer and stratum lucidum. Our findings suggest that the MCs survive PILO treatment in mice, but not in rats. There is direct evidence of a close relationship between the loss of MCs and MF sprouting in rats, but not in mice. Thus, similar PILO seizures may result from different changes in the neuronal circuits of rodents. PMID:26232998

  5. In vivo evaluation of anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of phenobarbital microemulsion for transdermal administration in pilocarpine seizure rat model.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Kayo Alves; Medeiros, Shirlene Cesário; Neves, Jamilly Kelly Oliveira; da Silva, José Alexsandro; da Rocha Tomé, Adriana; Carvalho, André Luis Menezes; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a microemulsion system (ME) containing phenobarbital in epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine in rats and to oxidative stress and histologic lesions in hippocampus. The microemulsion was applied to the shaved back of Wistar rats. The animals were divided into the following groups: control group (P400); ME50 40mg/kg, topically-t.p.; ME100, 40mg/kg, t.p.; EM50, 40mg/kg, t.p.; phenobarbital solution 40mg/kg (PS), oral. After 60min, behavioral changes were evaluated for 1h in the model of epileptical crisis induced by pilocarpine. Phenobarbital in microemulsion was able to increase the latency for status epilepticus (SE) (p<0.05), decrease the number of epileptical crisis (ME50: p<0.001; ME100: p<0.01) and decrease mortality rate by 80% compared to P400. In EM50 and PS groups, deaths were decreased by 53.3% and 100% respectively. The ME50 and ME100 groups were able to reduce oxidative stress in experimental animals when compared to the P400. The microemulsion was still capable of reducing neuronal damage in the hippocampal areas. The results of this study come in an innovative way, demonstrating the ability of transdermal ME50 and ME100 to reduce pilocarpine-induced epileptical crisis, oxidative stress, besides neuronal damages. PMID:25620677

  6. Effect of Androsterone after Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inja; Cho, Yang-Je; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Heo, Kyung; Lee, Byung-In; Kim, Won-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Neurosteroids exert their antiepileptic effects via GABAA and NMDA receptors. Another cell death mechanism is excessive Ca2+ influx into cells. Calbindin-D28k (CB) is a protein that modulates intracellular Ca2+ in the nervous system. We evaluated whether androsterone up-regulates the expression of CB and has a neuroprotective effect by controlling Ca2+ after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in mice. Methods: SE was induced in ICR mice by injection of pilocarpine. Two hours after SE, mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with androsterone (100–200 mg/kg) or vehicle, and compared with other control groups. Two days after injection, immunohistochemical staining for CB was performed using a hippocampal slice from each mice group. We also used cresyl violet staining to compare changes in hippocampal structures. Results: Two days after pilocarpine-induced SE, androsterone increased the expression of CB in the hippocampus compared with control SE mice. The number of CB-positive cells was 1±0.4 cells/mm3 in pilocarpine-only group, 14±1.1 cells/mm3 in pilocarpine plus androsterone 100 mg group and 29±2.5 cells/mm3 in pilocarpine plus androsterone 200 mg group (p<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of androsterone after pilocarpine- induced SE may be mediated by an increased expression of CB. PMID:24977124

  7. Perirhinal Cortex Hyperexcitability in Pilocarpine-Treated Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Benini, Ruba; Longo, Daniela; Biagini, Giuseppe; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex (PC), which is heavily connected with several epileptogenic regions of the limbic system such as the entorhinal cortex and amygdala, is involved in the generation and spread of seizures. However, the functional alterations occurring within an epileptic PC network are unknown. Here, we analyzed this issue by using in vitro electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry in brain tissue obtained from pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats and age-matched, nonepileptic controls (NECs). Neurons recorded intracellularly from the PC deep layers in the two experimental groups had similar intrinsic and firing properties and generated spontaneous depolarizing and hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials with comparable duration and amplitude. However, spontaneous and stimulus-induced epileptiform discharges were seen with field potential recordings in over one-fifth of pilocarpine-treated slices but never in NEC tissue. These network events were reduced in duration by antagonizing NMDA receptors and abolished by NMDA + non-NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonists. Pharmacologically isolated isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials had reversal potentials for the early GABAA receptor-mediated component that were significantly more depolarized in pilocarpine-treated cells. Experiments with a potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 antibody identified, in pilocarpine-treated PC, a significant immunostaining decrease that could not be explained by neuronal loss. However, interneurons expressing parvalbumin and neuropeptide Y were found to be decreased throughout the PC, whereas cholecystokinin-positive cells were diminished in superficial layers. These findings demonstrate synaptic hyper-excitability that is contributed by attenuated inhibition in the PC of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats and underscore the role of PC networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20865722

  8. Design and evaluation of novel fast forming pilocarpine-loaded ocular hydrogels for sustained pharmacological response

    PubMed Central

    Anumolu, SivaNaga S.; Singh, Yashveer; Gao, Dayuan; Stein, Stanley; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Fast forming hydrogels prepared by crosslinking a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based copolymer containing multiple thiol (SH) groups were evaluated for the controlled ocular delivery of pilocarpine and subsequent pupillary constriction. Physical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometry, and swelling kinetics. Pilocarpine loading efficiency and release properties were measured in simulated tear fluid. The hydrogel formulations exhibited high drug loading efficiency (~74%). Pilocarpine release was found to be biphasic with release half times of ~2 and 94 h, respectively, and 85100% of the drug was released over 8-days. Pilocarpine-loaded (2% w/v) hydrogels were evaluated in a rabbit model and compared to a similar dose of drug in aqueous solution. The hydrogels were retained in the eye for the entire period of the study with no observed irritation. Pilocarpine-loaded hydrogels sustained pupillary constriction for 24 h after administration as compared to 3 h for the solution, an 8-fold increase in duration of action. A strong correlation between pilocarpine release and pupillary response was observed. In conclusion, the current studies demonstrate that in situ forming PEG hydrogels possess the viscoelastic, retention, and sustained delivery properties required for an efficient ocular drug delivery system. PMID:19341773

  9. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1 mg/kg) 30 min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20 mmol/kg), 15 min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline. Pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) was then administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. Mice were monitored for 2 h after pilocarpine injection, and seizure behavior grades were evaluated according to Racine's scale. All mice developed typical seizure behaviors of grade 3 or higher. Although the severity in terms of seizure behavior grade was not significantly different between groups, the mean (SD) latency to the onset of seizure was significantly prolonged in BHB-treated mice (5.152.19 min) compared with controls (2.951.06 min; p<0.001). This study demonstrates that treatment with BHB significantly prolongs the latency to the onset of seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice and suggests that BHB, one of the ketone bodies, may be direct anticonvulsant. PMID:21723679

  10. Pilocarpine

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a ...

  11. Albumin Microspheres as an Ocular Delivery System for Pilocarpine Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Sudha; Deshpande, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Pilocarpine nitrate loaded egg albumin microspheres were prepared by thermal denaturation process in the size range of 1-12 μm. A series of batches were prepared to study factors, which may affect the size and entrapment efficiency of drug in microspheres and optimized the process. Drug loaded microspheres so obtained were evaluated for their size, entrapment efficiency, release rate and biological response. Electron photomicrographs were taken (8000X) to study the morphological characteristics of microspheres. The entrapment and encapsulation of pilocarpine after process optimization was found to be 82.63% and 62.5% respectively. In vitro dissolution rate studies revealed that the release of drug from the microspheres followed spherical matrix mechanism. Biological response of microspheric suspension was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure in albino rabbit eyes and compared with marketed eye drops. Various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. onset of action, duration of action, Tmax and AUC were studied. A measurable difference was found in the mean miotic response, duration and AUC of pilocarpine nitrate microspheric suspension. PMID:20046711

  12. Developing the potential ophthalmic applications of pilocarpine entrapped into polyvinylpyrrolidone-poly(acrylic acid) nanogel dispersions prepared by γ radiation.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rehim, Hassan A; Swilem, Ahmed E; Klingner, Anke; Hegazy, El-Sayed A; Hamed, Ashraf A

    2013-03-11

    The aim of this study was to improve the stability and bioavailability of pilocarpine in order to maintain an adequate concentration of the pilocarpine at the site of action for prolonged period of time. Thus, pH-sensitive polyvinylpyrrolidone-poly(acrylic acid) (PVP/PAAc) nanogels prepared by γ radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) in an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a template polymer were used to encapsulate pilocarpine. Factors affecting size and encapsulation efficiency were optimized to obtain nanogel suitable for entrapping drug efficiently. The PVP/PAAc nanogel particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their size can be controlled by the feed composition and concentration as well as the irradiation dose. Pilocarpine was loaded into the nanogel particles through electrostatic interactions where the AAc-rich nanogels exhibited the highest loading efficiency. The transmittance, mucoadhesion, and rheological characteristics of the nanogel particles were studied to evaluate their ocular applicability. The in vitro release study conducted in simulated tear fluid showed a relatively long sustained release of pilocarpine from the prepared PVP/PAAc nanogel particles if compared with pilocarpine in solution. PMID:23414209

  13. Muscarinic excitation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons contributes to the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Feng; DeCan, Evan; Stoll, Kurt; Marceau, Eric; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective A common rodent model in epilepsy research employs the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist pilocarpine, yet the mechanisms underlying the induction of pilocarpine-induced seizures (PISs) remain unclear. Global M1 mAChR (M1R) knockout mice are resistant to PISs, implying that M1R activation disrupts excitation/inhibition balance. Parvalbumin-positive (PV) inhibitory neurons express M1 mAChRs, participate in cholinergically-induced oscillations, and can enter a state of depolarization block (DB) during epileptiform activity. Here, we test the hypothesis that pilocarpine activation of M1Rs expressed on PV cells contributes to PISs. Methods CA1 PV cells in PV-CRE mice were visualized with a floxed YFP or hM3Dq-mCherry adeno-associated virus, or by crossing PV-CRE mice with the RosaYFP reporter line. To eliminate M1Rs from PV cells, we generated PV-M1KO mice by crossing PV-CRE and floxed M1 mice. Action potential (AP) frequency was monitored during application of pilocarpine (200 µM). In behavioral experiments, locomotion and seizure symptoms were recorded in WT or PV-M1KO mice during PISs. Results Pilocarpine significantly increased AP frequency in CA1 PV cells into the gamma range. In the continued presence of pilocarpine, a subset (5/7) of PV cells progressed to DB, which was mimicked by hM3Dq activation of Gq-receptor signaling. Pilocarpine-induced depolarization, AP firing at gamma frequency, and progression to DB were prevented in CA1 PV cells of PV-M1KO mice. Finally, compared to WT mice, PV-M1KO mice were associated with reduced severity of PISs. Significance Pilocarpine can directly depolarize PV+ cells via M1R activation but a subset of these cells progress to DB. Our electrophysiological and behavioral results suggest that this mechanism is active during PISs, contributing to a collapse of PV-mediated GABAergic inhibition, dysregulation of excitation/inhibition balance, and increased susceptibility to PISs. PMID:25495999

  14. A Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Langerhans Cells in Oral Mucosa, Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Pasupula, Ajay Prakash; Thokala, Madhusudan Rao; Muddana, Keerthi; Ramavath, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Background Langerhans cells (LCs) are immunocompetent cells resident within oral mucosa which, together with intraepithelial lymphocytes, play a role in mucosal defence. LCs play a role in the pathogenesis of Oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic mucocutaneous disorder thought to result from cell-mediated immune damage. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), LCs are thought to present tumour antigens to the lymphocytes. Aim To assess and compare LCs immuno-histochemically in normal mucosa, oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma using anti S100 antibody and to know whether LCs play any role in local immune response to these diseases. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 65 cases (study group), 30 oral lichen planus and 35 oral squamous cell carcinoma (15 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated and 6 poorly differentiated), that were randomly selected from the archives of department of oral pathology and along with control group consisting of 30 normal healthy mucosa. The tissue sections were stained immunohisto-chemically by using anti S100 antibody in each group for detection of LCs. Results There was significant change in mean value of number of LCs in the study groups i.e. OLP and OSCC when compared to that of control group. The results of our study also revealed that there was decrease in the mean value of langerhans cells as the tumour progressed from well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma to poorly differentiated LCs carcinoma. Conclusion A better understanding and clarity of LCs is pivotal for designing novel or improved therapeutic approaches that will allow proper functioning of LC’s in patients with OLP and OSCC, thus significantly reducing the morbidity of OLP and OSCC patients. PMID:26393210

  15. The Numbers Game: Oral History Compared with Quantitative Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpless, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Based on the work of William Stephenson, the "Q methodology," formulated in 1935, is compared to classic oral history in a case study of urban renewal. Results showed the methods to be complementary, both providing the same general description of citizen reaction to the project. (JDH)

  16. Comparison of sweat rate during graded exercise and the local rate induced by pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Vimieiro-Gomes, A C; Magalhães, F C; Amorim, F T; Machado-Moreira, C A; Rosa, M S; Lima, N R V; Rodrigues, L O C

    2005-07-01

    Centrally stimulated sweat rate produced by graded exercise until exhaustion was compared to the local sweat rate induced by pilocarpine, often used as a sweating index for healthy individuals. Nine young male volunteers (22 +/- 4 years) were studied in temperate environment in two situations: at rest and during progressive exercise with 25 W increases every 2 min until exhaustion, on a cycle ergometer. In both situations, sweating was induced on the right forearm with 5 ml 0.5% pilocarpine hydrochloride applied by iontophoresis (1.5 mA, 5 min), with left forearm used as control. Local sweat rate was measured for 15 min at rest. During exercise, whole-body sweat rate was calculated from the body weight variation. Local sweat rate was measured from the time when heart rate reached 150 bpm until exhaustion and was collected using absorbent filter paper. Pharmacologically induced local sweat rate at rest (0.4 +/- 0.2 mg cm-2 min-1) and mean exercise-induced whole-body sweat rate (0.4 +/- 0.1 mg cm-2 min-1) were the same (P > 0.05) but were about five times smaller than local exercise-induced sweat rate (control = 2.1 +/- 1.4; pilocarpine = 2.7 +/- 1.2 mg cm-2 min-1), indicating different sudorific mechanisms. Both exercise-induced whole-body sweat rate (P < 0.05) and local sweat rate (P < 0.05) on control forearm correlated positively with pilocarpine-induced local sweat rate at rest. Assuming that exercise-induced sweating was a result of integrated physiological mechanisms, we suggest that local and whole-body sweat rate measured during graded exercise could be a better sweating index than pilocarpine. PMID:16007285

  17. A comparative study between oral melatonin and oral midazolam on preoperative anxiety, cognitive, and psychomotor functions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tushar; Kurdi, Madhuri S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims: Melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone in the human body, has been reported to cause preoperative anxiolysis and sedation without impairing orientation. The aim of the following study was to evaluate and to compare the effects of oral melatonin and oral midazolam on preoperative anxiety, sedation, psychomotor, and cognitive function. Materials and Methods: A study conducted on 120 patients aged 16-55 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 and 2 posted for elective surgery, with each group of melatonin, midazolam, and placebo comprising 40 patients. Patients were given either 0.4 mg/kg oral melatonin or 0.2 mg/kg oral midazolam or a placebo 60-90 min before induction. Preoperative anxiety was studied before and 60-90 min after giving medications using visual analog scale (VAS) anxiety score, orientation score, and sedation score. Psychomotor and cognitive functions were studied using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and trail making test (TMT) tests. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test or Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance and the value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Changes in VAS anxiety scores were significant when melatonin was compared with placebo (P = 0.0124) and when midazolam was compared with placebo (P = 0.0003). When melatonin was compared with midazolam, no significant difference (P = 0.49) in VAS anxiety scores was observed. Intergroup comparison of sedation scores showed melatonin (P = 0.0258) and midazolam (P = 0.0000) to be statistically significant when compared with placebo. No changes in orientation scores occurred in melatonin and placebo group. Change in DSST scores and TMT scores were seen to be significant only in midazolam group. Conclusion: Oral melatonin 0.4 mg/kg provides adequate anxiolysis comparable to that of oral midazolam. Unlike midazolam, oral melatonin 0.4 mg/kg does not impair the general cognitive and psychomotor function especially cognitive aspects such as working memory, memory retrieval, sustained attention, and flexibility of thinking. PMID:25788771

  18. Oral Microflora: A Comparative Study in HIV and Normal Patients.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Abhijit; Bhat, Gopalkrishna; Sreedharan, Suja

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the oral microbiota in normal and HIV-infected individuals. The study tries to establish a significant shift in oral microflora in HIV-infected patients. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed to establish any rise in resistance against the antibiotics. It was a two and half year prospective study conducted in a tertiary care centre. The study group consisted of eighty subjects divided into two groups of control and HIV. The age range for this group was 9-75 years. The mean age in this group was 39.7 years. The male:female ratio was 2.75:1. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection in patients with HIV infection. The most common commensal micro organism isolated was the Viridans streptococci in 60% followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae in 23.33%. HIV Group: The most common commensal micro organism isolated was the Viridans streptococci in 42%; this was followed by the Micrococci spp. in 22% cases. S. pneumoniae was isolated in 6% of cases. The colony count for Viridans streptococci showed a heavy growth in 55.56% of cases in controls whereas the same in HIV group was 62.5%. Micrococcus spp. was isolated from 11 subjects in HIV group while it was not isolated from the controls. 50% subjects in the HIV group showed a heavy growth of Klebsiella spp. whereas controls showed only moderate and scanty growth. In patients with CD4+ T cell count less than 50 cells/μl we found a heavy colonization of the oral cavity with Micrococcus spp., Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Viridans streptococcus was not isolated in any of the patients with CD4+ T cell count less than 50 cells/μl. As CD4+ T cells counts improved to 51-100 cells/μl Viridans streptococcus colonies returned and 37.5% patients showed a heavy growth. Micrococcus spp. colonies were isolated till the CD4+ T cells improved up to 300 cells/μl. At counts > 300 cells/μl the oral microbiota became comparable to that of the controls. Many of the opportunistic infections in HIV are caused by commensal bacteria which are otherwise harmless in a normal individual. Our study is unique in that such a study of the oral commensals in HIV patients has never been reported. We found an increased colonization of the oral cavity by Micrococcus spp. which is a normal commensal of the skin. PMID:24533371

  19. Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Hung, Adriana M; Roumie, Christianne L; Greevy, Robert A; Liu, Xulei; Grijalva, Carlos G; Murff, Harvey J; Ikizler, T Alp; Griffin, Marie R

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and oral antidiabetic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated their role on renal outcomes by using a national Veterans Administration database to assemble a retrospective cohort of 93,577 diabetic patients who filled an incident oral antidiabetic drug prescription for metformin, sulfonylurea, or rosiglitazone, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60?ml/min or better. The primary composite outcome was a persistent decline in eGFR from baseline of 25% or more (eGFR event) or a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was an eGFR event, ESRD, or death. Sensitivity analyses included using a more stringent definition of the eGFR event requiring an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in addition to the 25% or more decline; controlling for baseline proteinuria thereby restricting data to 15,065 patients; and not requiring persistent treatment with the initial oral antidiabetic drug. Compared to patients using metformin, sulfonylurea users had an increased risk for both the primary and the secondary outcome, each with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.20. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. The risk associated with rosiglitazone was similar to metformin for both outcomes. Thus, compared to metformin, oral antidiabetic drug treatment with sulfonylureas increased the risk of a decline in eGFR, ESRD, or death. PMID:22258320

  20. Central mechanisms involved in pilocarpine-induced pressor response.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Borella, Thais L; Paulin, Renata F; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

    2011-10-28

    Pilocarpine (cholinergic muscarinic agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally to produce pressor responses; in the present study, using c-fos immunoreactive expression, we investigated the forebrain and brainstem areas activated by pressor doses of intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine. In addition, the importance of vasopressin secretion and/or sympathetic activation and the effects of lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region in awake rats were also investigated. In male Holtzman rats, pilocarpine (0.04 to 4μmol/kg b.w.) i.v. induced transitory hypotension followed by long lasting hypertension. Sympathetic blockade with prazosin (1mg/kg b.w.) i.v. or AV3V lesions (1 day) almost abolished the pressor response to i.v. pilocarpine (2μmol/kg b.w.), whereas the vasopressin antagonist (10μg/kg b.w.) i.v. reduced the response to pilocarpine. Pilocarpine (2 and 4μmol/kg b.w.) i.v. increased the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, organ vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla. These data suggest that i.v. pilocarpine activates specific forebrain and brainstem mechanisms increasing sympathetic activity and vasopressin secretion to induce pressor response. PMID:21689994

  1. Effect of pilocarpine and substance P on ganglionic transmission.

    PubMed

    Wali, F A

    1983-05-01

    The effect of pilocarpine and substance P on the amplitudes of the postganglionic compound action potentials (unconditioned response, UR and post-train conditioned response, PTR) were studied in the isolated rabbit superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Pilocarpine (50 microM) and substance P (1 microM) produced an increase in the amplitudes of both UR & PTR responses in the rabbit SCG. Facilitation and subliminal fringe values decreased. It was concluded that both pilocarpine and substance P increase the amplitudes of the transmitted postganglionic compound action potentials and they may facilitate ganglionic transmission in the rabbit SCG. PMID:6193538

  2. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mohd. Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ–HA and CBZ–FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ–HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  3. Gamma scintigraphic comparison of eyedrops containing pilocarpine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, G; Buri, P; Plazonnet, B; Rozier, A; Gurny, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare, in healthy human volunteers (male and female), the corneal contact time of various formulations, each containing one viscosity enhancer from the following list: a phase-transition system (gellan gum, Gelrite), a heteropolysaccharide (xanthan gum) and currently used polymers hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, or poly(vinyl alcohol). These different solutions were compared to a reference solution containing no viscosity enhancers. The corneal contact time of the formulations was evaluated over more than 20 minutes by gamma scintigraphy using Technetium-99m (Tc-99m DTPA) as a radioactive label. An eyedrop containing pilocarpine salts (25 microliters) was instilled in one eye only. Each volunteer received 4 formulations, the interval between the instillations being one week. The protocol has been approved by the relevant institutional human experimentation committee. One minute after instillation, only 23% of the reference solution remained on the ocular surface, whereas the novel formulations maintained, respectively, 77% (xanthan gum) or 82% (Gelrite) of the tracer on the ocular surface. Twenty-one min after instillation, 12% (reference solution), 25% (xanthan gum solution), and 39% (gelrite solution) of the tracer remained on the ocular surface. The results confirm that an increase in viscosity of the formulation (xanthan) delays the clearance of the instilled solution by the tear flow. The effect of the gelation mechanism is superior, especially at the later time points. In this respect, xanthan gum and, particularly, Gelrite are suitable vehicles for ophthalmic drugs. PMID:8951684

  4. Comparing Students' Individual Written and Collaborative Oral Socioscientific Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Amanda M.; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing and critiquing scientific arguments has become an increasingly important goal for science education. Yet, the differences in the ways students construct collaborative oral and individual written socioscientific arguments are not well established. Our research with one middle school class in an urban New England school district…

  5. Pilocarpine-Induced Dilation of Schlemm's Canal and Prevention of Lumen Collapse at Elevated Intraocular Pressures in Living Mice Visualized by OCT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guorong; Farsiu, Sina; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Gonzalez, Pedro; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Overby, Darryl R.; Stamer, W. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The goal was to assess effects of IOP and pilocarpine-induced ciliary muscle contraction on conventional outflow pathway tissues in living anesthetized mice. Methods. Intraocular pressure was controlled by intracameral cannulation of mouse eyes while imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Time-lapse sagittal SD-OCT sections through Schlemm's canal (SC) were acquired while changing IOP stepwise between 10 and 45 mm Hg. After topical application of 1% pilocarpine, the series of IOP steps and imaging were repeated. Effects of pilocarpine on IOP and outflow facility in living mice were verified by rebound tonometry and flow measurements at three different IOPs, respectively. In vivo OCT images were compared with eyes analyzed by standard histology. Results. In living mice imaged by SD-OCT, the lumen of SC progressively collapsed with increasing IOP, reaching near complete closure at 20 mm Hg. Schlemm's canal collapse was reversible, with the lumen opening within minutes after returning IOP from 45 to 10 mm Hg. Pilocarpine-induced ciliary muscle contraction changed SC lumen area by 131.6% ± 21.0% compared with untreated controls at 10 mm Hg, opened the trabecular meshwork, and prevented complete collapse of the SC lumen at higher pressures. Similar results were observed by standard histology. Pilocarpine increased outflow facility 4-fold (P = 0.02) and lowered IOP (16.46 ± 2.23 vs. 11.08 ± 2.28 mm Hg, P = 0.03). Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT was effective at visualizing changes in SC lumen in living mice. Results with pilocarpine are consistent with the concept that a primary role for the ciliary muscle is to prevent collapse of SC. PMID:24595384

  6. Temporally unstructured electrical stimulation to the amygdala suppresses behavioral chronic seizures of the pilocarpine animal model.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jasiara Carla; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Cota, Vinícius Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Electrical stimulation applied to the basolateral amygdala in the pentylenetetrazole animal model of seizures may result in either a proconvulsant or an anticonvulsant effect depending on the interpulse intervals used: periodic or nonperiodic, respectively. We tested the effect of this electrical stimulation temporal coding on the spontaneous and recurrent behavioral seizures produced in the chronic phase of the pilocarpine animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, an experimental protocol that better mimics the human condition. After 45 days of the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, male Wistar rats were submitted to a surgical procedure for the implantation of a bipolar electrical stimulation electrode in the right basolateral amygdala and were allowed to recover for seven days. The animals were then placed in a glass box, and their behaviors were recorded daily on DVD for 6h for 4 consecutive days (control period). Spontaneous recurrent behavioral seizures when showed in animals were further recorded for an extra 4-day period (treatment period), under periodic or nonperiodic electrical stimulation. The number, duration, and severity of seizures (according to the modified Racine's scale) during treatment were compared with those during the control period. The nonperiodically stimulated group displayed a significantly reduced total number and duration of seizures. There was no difference between control and treatment periods for the periodically stimulated group. Results corroborate previous findings from our group showing that nonperiodic electrical stimulation has a robust anticonvulsant property. In addition, results from the pilocarpine animal model further strengthen nonperiodic electrical stimulation as a valid therapeutic approach in current medical practice. Our working hypothesis is that temporally unstructured electrical stimulation may wield its effect by desynchronizing neural networks involved in the ictogenic process. PMID:24935084

  7. Continuous Low-Dose Oral Chemotherapy in Recurrent and Persistent Carcinoma of Cervix Following Chemoradiation: A Comparative Study Between Prolonged Oral Cyclophosphamide and Oral Etoposide

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Upasana; Barmon, Debabrata; Hazarika, Munlima; Deka, Pankaj; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Shrivastava, Sushruta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy and toxicities of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide in patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with recurrent and persistent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease were enrolled in this trial. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients each with one group receiving low dose oral cyclophosphamide (100 mg/day) and the other group receiving low-dose oral etoposide (50 mg/day). Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: Oral etoposide was not well tolerated with grade 2 neutropenia occurring in 33.3% and grade 3 neutropenia in 6.6% and thrombocytopenia occurring in 13.3%. Oral cyclophosphamide group on the other hand was better tolerated with none of the patients having thrombocytopenia and 6.6% patients having grade 2 neutropenia. There were two complete response (15.38%) and one partial response at the end of study (7.6%) in the cyclophosphamide group whereas there was no complete response and two partial response (16.6%) in the oral etoposide group. Conclusion: Long-term, low-dose oral etoposide was found to be less tolerated without any significant effect with patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy in contrast to oral cyclophosphamide which was found to be effective and well-tolerated by the patients. PMID:25191008

  8. Synthesis of N-1', N-3'-disubstituted spirohydantoins and their anticonvulsant activities in pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Schanne, Francis A X; Yoganathan, Sabesan; Stephani, Ralph A

    2016-06-15

    Herein we report the synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of a library of eighteen new compounds that are structural mimics of phenytoin. These class of compounds contain a N-1', N-3'-disubstituted spirohydantoin scaffold, where the N-1' and N-3' positions are modified with an alkyl group or aryl group. Of the eighteen compounds synthesized and tested, compound 5c showed the best anticonvulsant activity. It completely prevented the precursor events of motor seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Additionally, ten of the analogs were more effective than phenytoin when compared using the Racine's score in the pilocarpine model. Based on the structure activity relationship (SAR), we concluded that alkyl groups (ethyl, propyl or cyclopropyl) at N-3' position and 4-nitro phenyl group at N-1' position are desirable. PMID:27133483

  9. Effect of Argemone mexicana (L.) against lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Asuntha, G; Raju, Y Prasanna; Sundaresan, C R; Rasheed, Arun; Chowdary, V Harini; Vandana, K R; Babu, K Satish; Prasad, K V S R G

    2015-01-01

    Argemone mexicana (L.) has a role in the treatment of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. We studied its effect on induced status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress in rats. SE was induced in male albino rats by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, ip) 24 h after injection of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, ip). Different doses of the ethanol extract of A. mexicana were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of SE was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter at every 30 min for another 90 min, using the Racine scoring system. In vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured utilizing thiobarbiturate-reactive substances. Both in vitro free radical nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the extract were also determined. The SE severity was significantly reduced following oral administration of the extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. None of the animals from groups 3 to 5 (with A. mexicana extract) have exhibited forelimb clonus of stage 4 seizure. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:25675709

  10. Physical training reverts hippocampal electrophysiological changes in rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Sanabria, Emilio Rafael Garrido; da Silva, Andre Cesar; Faria, Leonardo Coutinho; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2004-10-30

    Physical exercise and fitness programs in patients with epilepsy are still a matter of controversy. Effects of physical exercise in animals with epilepsy have been demonstrated. To further investigate the possible mechanisms by which physical activity interferes with epileptogenesis, the present work was aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise on "in vitro" hippocampal electrophysiological parameters observed in rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Electrophysiological changes were monitored by extracellular field potentials recorded from CA1 area. Control rats and rats with epilepsy were submitted to an aerobic exercise program. The number of population spikes (PS) and slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were analyzed. Trained rats with epilepsy exhibited a reduction in PS when compared with nontrained rats with epilepsy in different concentrations of extracellular potassium or bicuculline. Physical training also enhanced the late phase of LTP in rats with epilepsy. Our results indicate that physical training reduces CA1 hyperresponsiveness and can modify synaptic plasticity in rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of limbic epilepsy. PMID:15501504

  11. Amiloride suppresses pilocarpine-induced seizures via ASICs other than NHE in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Li-Fang; Chen, Xu-Ming; Pan, Song-Qing; Lu, Zu-Neng; Xiao, Zhe-Man

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although recent studies have indicated that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) may play an important role in suppressing status epilepticus (SE) in rats, the precise mechanism is unclear. We attempted to investigate the antiepileptic effect of amiloride in SE rats and its mechanism. Methods: Rats with seizures induced by Li-pilocarpine were randomly divided into four groups, phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group, amiloride group, levetiracetam group and acidic liquid group, respectively. The electroencephalogram (EEG) of each group was recorded. Then rats treated with different drugs (2 h after amiloride or PBS injection or 1 h after PBS injection) and a normal control group was selected for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of ASIC1a, ASIC3 and sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in each group was detected. Results: Amiloride reduced the frequency of discharge in 60~90 min after injection significantly. In acidic liquid group, the epileptic discharge was increased in 0~30 min. Moreover, the expression of ASIC1a, ASIC3 and NHE was obviously increased in the SE groups. Compared with SE groups, the expression of ASIC1a and ASIC3 mRNA in amiloride group decreased significantly. While NHE mRNA expression in the SE groups showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Amiloride inhibited pilocarpine-induced SE and the anti-epileptic mechanism was associated with deactivation of the ASIC1a and ASIC3 instead of NHE in rats. PMID:26823770

  12. Do pilocarpine drops help dry mouth in palliative care patients: a protocol for an aggregated series of n-of-1 trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 39,000 Australians die from malignant disease yearly. Of these, 60% to 88% of advanced cancer patients suffer xerostomia, the subjective feeling of mouth dryness. Xerostomia has significant physical, social and psychological consequences which compromise function and quality of life. Pilocarpine is one treatment for xerostomia. Most studies have shown some variation in individual response to pilocarpine, in terms of dose used, and timing and extent of response. We will determine a population estimate of the efficacy of pilocarpine drops (6 mg) three times daily compared to placebo in relieving dry mouth in palliative care (PC) patients. A secondary aim is to assess individual patients’ response to pilocarpine and provide reports detailing individual response to patients and their treating clinician. Methods/Design Aggregated n-of-1 trials (3 cycle, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials using standardized measures of effect). Individual trials will identify which patients respond to the medication. To produce a population estimate of a treatment effect, the results of all cycles will be aggregated. Discussion Managing dry mouth with treatment supported by the best possible evidence will improve functional status of patients, and improve quality of life for patients and carers. Using n-of-1 trials will accelerate the rate of accumulation of high-grade evidence to support clinical therapies used in PC. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: 12610000840088. PMID:24176001

  13. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    PubMed Central

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  14. Comparative study of the in situ immune response in oral and nasal mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, M R; Morgado, F N; Valete-Rosalino, C M; Martins, A C; Moreira, J; Quintella, L P; de Oliveira Schubach, A; Conceição-Silva, F

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) may occur in both nasal and oral mucosa. However, despite the impressive tissue destruction, little is known about the oral involvement. To compare some changes underlying inflammation in oral and nasal ML, we performed immunohistochemistry on mucosal tissue of 20 patients with ML (nasal [n = 12]; oral [n = 8] lesions) and 20 healthy donors using antibodies that recognize inflammatory markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD22, CD68, neutrophil elastase, CD1a, CLA, Ki67, Bcl-2, NOS2, CD62E, Fas and FasL). A significantly larger number of cells, mainly T cells and macrophages, were observed in lesions than in healthy tissue. In addition, high nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression was associated with a reduced detection of parasites, highlighting the importance of NOS2 for parasite elimination. Oral lesions had higher numbers of neutrophils, parasites, proliferating cells and NOS2 than nasal lesions. These findings, together with the shorter duration of oral lesions and more intense symptoms, suggest a more recent inflammatory process. It could be explained by lesion-induced oral cavity changes that lead to eating difficulties and social stigma. In addition, the frequent poor tooth conservation and gingival inflammation tend to amplify tissue destruction and symptoms and may impair and confuse the correct diagnosis, thus delaying the onset of specific treatment. PMID:22098533

  15. The Canadian Systemic Sclerosis Oral Health Study IV: oral radiographic manifestations in systemic sclerosis compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais, Marie; MacDonald, David; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Tatibouet, Solène; Steele, Russell; Gravel, Sabrina; Mohit, Shrisha; Sayegh, Tarek El; Pope, Janet; Fontaine, Audrey; Masseto, Ariel; Matthews, Debora; Sutton, Evelyn; Thie, Norman; Jones, Niall; Copete, Maria; Kolbinson, Dean; Markland, Janet; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Robinson, David; Gornitsky, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare oral radiologic abnormalities associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) against abnormalities in the general population. Study Design Patients with SSc and healthy controls were enrolled in a multi-site cross-sectional study. Included in the radiology examination were a panoramic radiograph, four bitewings, and an anterior mandibular periapical radiograph. Radiographs were evaluated by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists tested for interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to summarize the radiologic manifestations of patients and controls. Results We assessed 163 SSc patients and 231 controls. Widening of the periodontal ligament space (PLS) (P < .001), with higher percentage of teeth with PLS widening (P < .001), was significantly more frequent in patients with SSc than in controls. The most significant differences between the two groups were found in the molars and premolars (P < .001). Moreover, 26% of the patients with SSc had a periapical PLS greater than 0.19 mm compared with 13% of the controls (P = .003). Patients with SSc had significantly more erosions compared with controls (14.5% vs. 3.6%; P < .001), mostly in the condyles (P = .022), coronoid processes (P = .005) and other locations (P = .012). Conclusion Patients with SSc had more teeth with PLS widening and erosions of the mandible compared with controls. PMID:25959972

  16. [The effect of unintentional overdoses of pilocarpine on pulmonary surfactant in mice].

    PubMed

    Curti, P C; Renovanz, H D

    1981-08-01

    Pilocarpine, used in the treatment of glaucoma, shows basically parasympathomimetic activities and in contrast to choline derivatives an extremely potent effect on salivary and sweat glands and a noticeable increase of bronchial secretion. Investigations were carried out in mice to determine whether the administration of pilocarpine results in an increase of bronchial secretion as such or whether it likewise influences the secretion of surfactant, i.e., the phospholipoprotein responsible for the stability of the alveoli. Our experiments (P/V diagrams and histochemical staining) demonstrate that pilocarpine decreases the secretion of pulmonary surfactant. When pilocarpine and Ambroxol are administered the effects on the two parameters are similar to the controls. In other words, Ambroxol increases the secretion of surfactant even in cases of intoxication with pilocarpine. PMID:6897089

  17. Oral health status and its inequality among education groups: comparing seven international study sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meei-shia

    2002-01-01

    This study compares oral health status and its inequality among education groups across seven study sites in five countries: Erfurt, Germany; Lodz, Poland; Yamanashi, Japan; New Zealand; and Baltimore and the Lakota and Navajo Indian Health Service sites in the United States. The data, from the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes, were collected through personal interviews and clinical examinations. The research group measured the study sites' overall oral health, examining the percentage of the population with five or more missing and two or more decayed teeth. The group also assessed the magnitude of inequality among education groups by using indices of excess morbidity. Baltimore had the lowest percentage (10.8 percent) of decayed teeth and second lowest percentage (17.3 percent) of missing teeth, but the greatest indices of excess morbidity (79.2 percent for missing, 73.1 percent for decayed). Lodz, by contrast, had the worst overall dentition status (75.3 percent for missing, 70.3 percent for decayed) but the lowest inequality indices (10.6 percent for missing, 13.8 percent for decayed). This study demonstrates the need for policymakers in the study countries to consider not only overall levels but also the distribution of oral health, and it presents various challenges for oral health professionals in designing and implementing oral health programs. PMID:11913854

  18. Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2002-01-01

    Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women) completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the mid point of the scales. T-values ranged from -13.1 and -12.1 for the perceived risk of being divorced and loosing all teeth to -8.2 and -7.8 (p < 0.001) for having gum disease and toothdecay. Multivariate analyses using General Linear Models, GLM, revealed gender differences in comparative risk judgements for gum disease, whereas social position varied systematically with risk judgements for tooth decay, gum disease and air pollution. The odds ratios for being comparatively optimistic with respect to having gum disease were 2.9, 1.9, 1.8 and 1.5 if being satisfied with dentition, having a favourable view of health situation, and having high and low involvement with health enhancing and health detrimental behaviour, respectively. Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience. PMID:12186656

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Chitosan Submicroparticles Containing Pilocarpine for Glaucoma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cleonice Marques; Louvisse de Abreu, Leticia Coli; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Franca Presgrave, Octavio Augusto; Rocha Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Nicoli, Sara; Ricci Junior, Eduardo; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to optimize the preparation of chitosan submicroparticles and to assess whether they enhanced ocular permeation of pilocarpine. Submicroparticles were produced by spray drying and characterized to determine process yield, encapsulation efficiency, morphology, size distribution, drug-polymeric matrix interaction, porcine sclera permeation as well as ocular irritancy and drug retention. Quantification of pilocarpine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography was found to be selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The spray drying method proved to be simple and reproducibly produced particles with satisfactory yields, thus showing potential for industrial scale applications. The pilocarpine-loaded chitosan particles exhibited adequate morphological characteristics as well as high encapsulation efficiency. The particles produced were on a submicrometric scale and compatible with intraocular administration. In pilocarpine-loaded particles, the interaction between pilocarpine and chitosan polymeric matrix resulted in delayed release of the drug, attributed to formation of a reservoir system. The best fit for drug release was obtained using the Higuchi equation. The chitosan submicroparticles enhanced the permeation effect and increased the passage of pilocarpine through porcine sclera and also demonstrated low irritancy potential. Therefore, the particles produced can be considered a promising system for the ocular delivery of pilocarpine. PMID:26324228

  20. The Uses of Literacy in Studying Computer Games: Comparing Students' Oral and Visual Representations of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the oral and visual representations which 12 to 13-year-old students produced in studying computer games as part of an English and Media course. It presents the arguments for studying multimodal texts as part of a literacy curriculum and then provides an overview of the games course devised by teachers and researchers. The…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Oral Health on the Santo Domingo Pueblo Reservation.

    PubMed

    Batliner, Terrence; Wilson, Anne; Davis, Elaine; Gallegos, Joaquin; Thomas, Jacob; Tiwari, Tamanna; Fehringer, Karen; Wilson, Katherine; Albino, Judith

    2016-06-01

    The study was done to compare oral health data from a tribe in a relatively accessible location between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico to national American Indian data and broader US data sets. Participants (N = 399) were recruited via random sampling of housing units. Dental health measures included DMFT/dmft and dental sealants. Comparisons were made using data from large-scale oral health surveillance studies. There was no difference in oral health for 3-5 year olds compared to a recent study of AI/AN preschool children. Compared to the general US population, Santo Domingo Pueblo children and adults showed higher prevalence of untreated decay. Children ages 5-19 had higher rates of sealant retention on permanent teeth, and adults showed lower prevalence of complete tooth retention. The children ages 5-19 and 12-19 with at least one sealant have significantly lower DMFT and less untreated decay than those without sealants. However, the percentage of children with and without sealants who had untreated decay was still more than two times higher than the general US population. Oral health of American Indian children and adults in Santo Domingo Pueblo was worse compared to the general US population but similar to previous results reported for the same Indian Health Service Area even though their location is less isolated than many other tribes. PMID:26611694

  2. Mandarin Oral Narratives Compared with English: The Pear/Guava Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbaugh, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)…

  3. Mandarin Oral Narratives Compared with English: The Pear/Guava Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbaugh, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)

  4. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE
    Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1
    1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  5. A Comparative Study: Oral Communication Education in Norway and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizer, Elizabeth

    Acknowledging that, although a survey of educational offerings in Norway reveals courses in theater, mass media, and speech therapy, the curriculum does not contain oral communication courses per se, such as those found in the United States, this article compares how and why general education systems and speech education have developed differently…

  6. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-08-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  7. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  8. Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.

    PubMed

    Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvão, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2015-02-01

    Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides--triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features--have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7% lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8% lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Total weight gain, intake, energy intake, and feed efficiency coefficient, prior to induction of SE, differed between groups (P < 0.05), where the triheptanoin-based KD group showed less weight gain than all other groups, less energy intake than the Control group and intermediate values of feed efficiency coefficient between Control and other KDs groups. Triheptanoin-based KD may have a neuroprotective effect on the establishment of SE in Wistar rats. PMID:25005004

  9. Oral leukoplakia: open trial of topical therapy with calcipotriol compared with tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Femiano, F; Gombos, F; Scully, C; Battista, C; Belnome, G; Esposito, V

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate, in an open trial, the clinical efficacy of topical calcipotriol compared with tretinoin in the therapy of hyperkeratotic oral lesions (leukoplakia). The study group consisted of 40 patients with histologically proven oral leukoplakias, 20 treated with calcipotriol, the other 20 with tretinoin. The treatment was for 5 weeks and follow-up at 4 months, with clinical assessments at 2, 4 and 5 weeks and regular laboratory assessments. The results showed a significant reduction in lesions (80%), in both calcipotriol and tretinoin groups, with no documented topical or systemic adverse reactions, results maintained at 4 months. Tretinoin however, potentially can induce erythema, angular cheilitis and xerostomia. The study suggests that topical calcipotriol is as effective in the therapy of oral leukoplakia as is topical tretinoin. PMID:11720042

  10. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  11. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

  12. Comparative study of frequency of micronuclei in normal, potentially malignant diseases and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Varsha Ajit; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Shah, Nishat; Kangane, Suresh; Ghule, Hrishikesh M.; Rani, SR Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Context: The assessment of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated oral epithelial cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aims: To detect MN in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms and also to detect frequency of MN in premalignant lesions and conditions (potentially malignant diseases [PMD's]) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To correlate frequency of MN in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC followed by a histopathological grading. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects (30 smokeless tobacco users, 30 smokers and 30 nontobacco users) consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of PMD's and OSCC were selected for the study. Cytosmears from the groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN was identified according to the Tolbert et al. criteria. Results: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers. The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in PMD's (P < 0.0001). The frequency of MN correlated with the histopathological grade was statistically significant. Conclusion: MN index can be used as a biomarker/screening test among the high-risk groups particularly the smokeless tobacco users and PMD's. MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC. PMID:27003966

  13. Time course evaluation of behavioral impairments in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mark William; Lopes, Samantha Cristiane; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Costa, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; de Mello, Nelson; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Farina, Marcelo; Walz, Roger; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy is a brain function disorder characterized by unpredictable and recurrent seizures. The majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is the most common type of epilepsy, have to live not only with seizures but also with behavioral alterations, including anxiety, psychosis, depression, and impaired cognitive functioning. The pilocarpine model has been recognized as an animal model of TLE. However, there are few studies addressing behavioral alterations in the maturation phase when evaluating the time course of the epileptogenic process after pilocarpine administration. Therefore, the present work was designed to analyze the neurobehavioral impairments of male adult Wistar rats during maturation and chronic phases in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Behavioral tests included: open-field tasks, olfactory discrimination, social recognition, elevated plus maze, and the forced swimming test. The main behavioral alterations observed in both maturation and chronic phases of the pilocarpine model were olfactory and short-term social memory deficits and decrease in the immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, increased anxiety-like responses were only observed in the maturation phase. These findings indicate that early behavioral impairments can be observed in the pilocarpine model during the maturation phase, and these behavioral deficits also occur during the acquired epilepsy (chronic phase). Several of the neurobehavioral impairments that are associated with epilepsy in humans were observed in the pilocarpine-treated rats, thus, rendering this animal model a useful tool to study neuroprotective strategies as well as neurobiological and psychopathological mechanisms associated with epileptogenesis. PMID:26773677

  14. Favorable therapeutic response of osteoporosis patients to treatment with intravenous zoledronate compared with oral alendronate

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bogami, Mohammed M.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed A.; Bystrom, Jonas; Akanle, Olufunso A.; Al-Adhoubi, Nasra K.; Jawad, Ali S.; Mageed, Rizgar A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of orally-administered alendronate compared with intravenously-administered zoledronate. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at Barts Health HNS Trust between April 2010 and March 2012. This study compares changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in 234 patients treated with 2 bisphosphonates: alendronate taken orally, and zoledronate administered intravenously. One hundred and eighteen patients received alendronate at 70 mg/week, while 116 patients received zoledronate once annually. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMD of the left hip and anterior-posterior spine (lumbar L1-L4) skeletal sites at baseline, and at one-, and 2-years post-treatment. Results: This study provides evidence that lumbar spine BMD increased by 3.6% in patients receiving alendronate, and 5.7% in patients receiving zoledronate after 2 years compared with baseline values (p=0.0001 for both). Total hip BMD decreased in patients treated with alendronate by 0.4% but increased in patients receiving zoledronate by 0.8% (p=0.0001). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that zoledronate is more effective than alendronate in treating patients with osteoporosis and with no gastrointestinal (GI) serious side effects. Furthermore, zoledronate appears to have the added advantage of a better safety profile in patients suffering from GI intolerance of oral bisphosphonates. PMID:26593163

  15. Relative bioavailability and comparative clinical efficacy of different ivermectin oral formulations in lambs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy among oral formulations routinely used in sheep. The main goal of the work reported here was to perform a pharmaco-parasitological assessment of three different IVM oral formulations in lambs infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The comparative drug systemic exposure (IVM plasma concentrations) and nematodicidal efficacies (clinical efficacy) in lambs were determined for a reference (RF) and two different test (T1, T2) IVM oral formulations. One hundred and fifty six (n= 156) healthy Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into four experimental groups (n=39). Animals in each group received treatment (200 μg/kg) with either the RF, one of the test IVM formulations or were kept as untreated control. Blood samples were collected over 15 days post-treatment (n=8). The IVM plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) (n=39) and evaluation of the clinical efficacy were performed at day 14 post-treatment (n=6), where a predominance of IVM highly resistant nematodes was observed. Results and conclusions Neither the overall kinetic behaviour nor the IVM systemic exposure differed among all the tested oral formulations. Equivalent efficacy results were obtained for the different preparations, with an evident therapeutic failure to control Haemonchus spp. and Teladorsagia circumcincta, which correlates with a high degree of nematode resistance to IVM. PMID:23398629

  16. Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Miln; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidn, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice. PMID:24060558

  17. Formulation Development, Evaluation and Comparative Study of Effects of Super Disintegrants in Cefixime Oral Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Remya, KS; Beena, P; Bijesh, PV; Sheeba, A

    2010-01-01

    The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate. PMID:21042477

  18. Is the burden of oral diseases higher in urban disadvantaged community compared to the national prevalence?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The urban low income has often been assumed to have the greatest dental treatment needs compared to the general population. However, no studies have been carried out to verify these assumptions. This study was conducted to assess whether there was any difference between the treatment needs of an urban poor population as compared to the general population in order to design an intervention programme for this community. Methods A random sampling of living quarters (households) in the selected areas was done. 586 adults over 19 years old living in these households were clinically examined using World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Survey criteria 4th edition (1997). Results The overall prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, denture wearers and temporomandibular joint problems were 70.5%, 97.1%, 16.7% and 26%, respectively. The majority (80.5%) needed some form of dental treatment. The highest treatment needs were found in the oldest age group while the lowest were in the youngest group (19-29 years) (p = 0.000). The most prevalent periodontal problem was calculus; regardless of gender, ethnicity and age. Significantly more females (20.5%) wore prosthesis than males (11.1%) (p = 0.003). Prosthetic status and need significantly increased with age (p = 0.000). About one in four adults had Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) problems. Overall, it was surprising to note that the oral disease burden related to caries, prosthetic status and treatment need were lower in this population as compared to the national average (NOHSA, 2010). However, their periodontal disease status and treatment needs were higher compared to the national average indicating a poor oral hygiene standard. Conclusions The evidence does not show that the overall oral disease burden and treatment needs in this urban disadvantaged adult population as higher than the national average, except for periodontal disease. The older age groups and elderly were identified as the most in need for oral health intervention and promotion. An integrated health intervention programme through a multisectoral common risk factor approach in collaboration with the Faculties of Medicine, Dentistry and other agencies is needed for the identified target group. PMID:25438162

  19. Comparing the OPI and the OPIc: The Effect of Test Method on Oral Proficiency Scores and Student Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Cox, Troy L.; Knapp, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    While studies have been done to rate the validity and reliability of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and Oral Proficiency Interview-Computer (OPIc) independently, a limited amount of research has analyzed the interexam reliability of these tests, and studies have yet to be conducted comparing the results of Spanish language learners who take…

  20. The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

  1. Comparing the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone on behaviors by undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joan S; Dawkins, Denise; Molhook, Lori; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E

    2014-09-01

    Complex healthcare, less resources, high-level medical equipment, and fewer available clinical settings have led many health professionals to use simulation as a method to further augment educational experiences for nursing students. While debriefing is recommended in the literature as a key component of simulation, the optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. This pre- and posttest two-group randomized quasi-experimental design compared the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing (VAOD) and oral debriefing alone (ODA) on behaviors of 48 undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Further, this study examined whether roles (e.g., team leader, medication nurse), type of scenarios (i.e., pulmonary and cardiac scenarios), and student simulation team membership (i.e., VAOD and ODA groups) influenced these behaviors. Behaviors observed in this study related to patient safety, communication among team members, basic- and problem-focused assessment, prioritization of care, appropriate interventions, and delegation to healthcare team members. Both human patient simulator practice and guidance using video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone appeared to be comparable regarding behaviors, regardless of roles, type of scenarios, and student simulation team membership. These findings suggest that nurse educators may use either video-assisted oral debriefing or oral debriefing alone to debrief undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. PMID:24929548

  2. Comparative pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral direct thrombin and factor xa inhibitors in development.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bengt I; Quinlan, Daniel J; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2009-01-01

    For the past five decades, there has been little progress in the development of oral anticoagulants, with the choices being limited to the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The situation is changing with the development of orally active small molecules that directly target thrombin or activated factor X (FXa). The two agents in the most advanced stages of development are dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban, which inhibit thrombin and FXa, respectively. Both are approved in the EU and Canada for venous thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective hip- or knee-replacement surgery. Other agents in the early stages of development include several FXa inhibitors (apixaban, DU 176b, LY 517717, YM 150, betrixaban, eribaxaban [PD 0348292] and TAK 442) and one thrombin inhibitor (AZD 0837). With a predictable anticoagulant response and low potential for drug-drug interactions, these new agents can be given in fixed doses without coagulation monitoring. This renders them more convenient than VKAs. While the anticoagulant effect of the new thrombin and FXa inhibitors is similar, differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters may influence their use in clinical practice. Here, we compare the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of these new oral agents. PMID:19071881

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines. PMID:26102179

  4. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  5. Variations in elemental compositions of rat hippocampal formation between acute and latent phases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Appel, K; Setkowicz, Z

    2012-06-01

    There is growing experimental evidence that tracing the elements involved in brain hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity, and/or subsequent neurodegeneration could be a valuable source of data on the molecular mechanisms triggering or promoting further development of epilepsy. The most frequently used experimental model of the temporal lobe epilepsy observed in clinical practice is the one based on pilocarpine-induced seizures. In the frame of this study, the elemental anomalies occurring for the rat hippocampal tissue in acute and silent periods after injection of pilocarpine in rats were compared. X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for the topographic and quantitative elemental analysis. The differences in the levels of elements such as P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn between the rats 3 days (SE72) and 6 h (SE6) after pilocarpine injection as well as naive controls were examined. Comparison of SE72 and control groups showed, for specific areas of the hippocampal formation, lower levels of P, K, Cu, and Zn, and an increase in Ca accumulation. These results as well as further analysis of the differences between the SE72 and SE6 groups confirmed that seizure-induced excitotoxicity as well as mossy fiber sprouting are the mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative processes which may finally lead to spontaneous seizures in the chronic period of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, in the light of the results obtained, Cu seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in this animal model. For all areas analyzed, the levels of this element recorded in the latent period were not only lower than those for controls but were even lower than the levels found in the acute period. The decreased hippocampal accumulation of Cu in the phase of behavior and EEG stabilization, a possible inhibitory effect of this element on excitatory amino acid receptors, and enhanced seizure susceptibility in Menkes disease (an inherited Cu transport disorder leading to Cu deficiency in the brain) suggest a neuroprotective role rather than neurodegenerative and proconvulsive roles of Cu in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. PMID:22447169

  6. Triheptanoin partially restores levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hadera, Mussie G; Smeland, Olav B; McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2014-04-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anticonvulsant in various epilepsy models. It is thought to improve energy metabolism in the epileptic brain by re-filling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with C4-intermediates (anaplerosis). Here, we injected mice with [1,2-(13) C]glucose 3.5-4 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) fed either a control or triheptanoin diet. Amounts of metabolites and incorporations of (13) C were determined in extracts of cerebral cortices and hippocampal formation and enzyme activity and mRNA expression were quantified. The percentage enrichment with two (13) C atoms in malate, citrate, succinate, and GABA was reduced in hippocampal formation of control-fed SE compared with control mice. Except for succinate, these reductions were not found in triheptanoin-fed SE mice, indicating that triheptanoin prevented a decrease of TCA cycle capacity. Compared to those on control diet, triheptanoin-fed SE mice showed few changes in most other metabolite levels and their (13) C labeling. Reduced pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in forebrains and decreased [2,3-(13) C]aspartate amounts in cortex suggest a pyruvate carboxylation independent source of C-4 TCA cycle intermediates. Most likely anaplerosis was kept unchanged by carboxylation of propionyl-CoA derived from heptanoate. Further studies are proposed to fully understand triheptanoin's effects on neuroglial metabolism and interaction. PMID:24236946

  7. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy. PMID:22642664

  8. Increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 expression reduces epileptogenic processes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiongman; Takahashi, Kou; Schulte, Delanie; Stouffer, Nathan; Lin, Yuchen; Lin, Chien-liang Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that glutamate plays a crucial role in the initiation of seizures and their propagation; abnormal glutamate release causes synchronous firing of large populations of neurons, leading to seizures. In the present study, we investigated whether enhanced glutamate uptake by increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, the major glutamate transporter, could prevent seizure activity and reduce epileptogenic processes. EAAT2 transgenic mice, which have a 1.5-2 fold increase in EAAT2 protein levels as compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, were tested in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model. Several striking phenomena were observed in EAAT2 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic littermates. First, the post-SE mortality rate and chronic seizure frequency were significantly decreased. Second, neuronal degeneration in hippocampal subfields after SE were significantly reduced. Third, the SE-induced neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were significantly decreased. The severity of cell loss in epileptic mice was positively correlated with that of mossy fiber sprouting and chronic seizure frequency. Our results suggest that increased EAAT2 expression can protect mice against SE-induced death, neuropathological changes, and chronic seizure development. This study suggests that enhancing EAAT2 protein expression is a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:22513140

  9. The antiarrhythmic effect and possible ionic mechanisms of pilocarpine on animal models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-ming; Qi, Han-ping; Liu, Ying; Chen, Wei; Xie, Jing; Pan, Zhen-yu; Han, Hong-mei; Chen, Li-peng; Li, Dan-lu; Wang, Li-yan; Sun, Hong-li; Liu, Yan

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of pilocarpine and explore the underlying ionic mechanism, using both aconitine-induced rat and ouabain-induced guinea pig arrhythmia models. Confocal microscopy was used to measure intracellular free-calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in isolated myocytes. The current data showed that pilocarpine significantly delayed onset of arrhythmias, decreased the time course of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, reduced arrhythmia score, and increased the survival time of arrhythmic rats and guinea pigs. [Ca(2+)](i) overload induced by aconitine or ouabain was reduced in isolated myocytes pretreated with pilocarpine. Moreover, M(3)-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine-methiodide) partially abolished the beneficial effects of pilocarpine. These data suggest that pilocarpine produced antiarrhythmic actions on arrhythmic rat and guinea pig models induced by aconitine or ouabain via stimulating the cardiac M(3)-mAChR. The mechanism may be related to the improvement of Ca(2+) handling. PMID:19721134

  10. Molecular analysis of acute and chronic reactive astrocytes in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Morel, Lydie; Barrios-Camacho, Camila M; Chiang, Ming Sum R; Zhang, Jinhua; Iyer, Lakshmanan; Haydon, Philip G; Yang, Yongjie

    2016-07-01

    Astroglia, the most abundant glial cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), are considered an emerging key player in seizure induction and progression. Although astrocytes undergo reactive gliosis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with dramatic morphological and molecular changes, specific astrocyte targets/molecular pathways that contribute to the induction and progression of seizure remain largely unknown. By combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP) with the pilocarpine model of TLE in BAC aldh1l1 TRAP mice, we profiled translating mRNAs from hippocampal or cortical astrocytes at different phases (3days, 30days, and 60days post-pilocarpine injections) of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy models. Our results found that hippocampal (but not cortical) astrocytes undergo early and unique molecular changes at 3days post-pilocarpine injections. These changes indicate a potentially primary pathogenic role of hippocampal astrocytes in seizure induction and progression and provide new insights about the involvement of specific astrocytic pathways/targets in epilepsy. In particular, we validated expression changes of ocrl and aeg1 in pilocarpine models. Follow-up studies on these genes may reveal new roles of hippocampal astrocytes in TLE. PMID:27060558

  11. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID:22783715

  12. Comparative Efficacy of Oil Pulling and Chlorhexidine on Oral Malodor: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Devi M, Aruna; Narang, Ridhi; V, Swathi; Makkar, Diljot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral malodor affects a large section of population. Traditional Indian folk remedy, oil pulling not only reduces it but can also bring down the cost of treatment. Aims: To compare the efficacy of oil pulling and chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes. Materials and Methods: Three week randomized controlled trial was conducted among 60 students of three hostels of Maharani College of science and arts and commerce and Smt V.H.D.College of Home Science. The hostels were randomized into two intervention groups namely chlorhexidine group, sesame oil and one control (placebo) group. Twenty girls were selected from each hostel based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The parameters recorded at the baseline (day 0) and post intervention on day 22 were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), objective (ORG1) and subjective (ORG2) organoleptic scores and anaerobic bacterial colony (ABC) count. Intra and inter group comparisons were made using Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxan sign rank test, ANOVA and student t-test. Results: There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters within sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Among the groups significant difference was observed in objective and subjective organoleptic scores. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean organoleptic scores of sesame oil and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Conclusion: Oil pulling with sesame oil is equally efficacious as chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes causing it. It should be promoted as a preventive home care therapy. PMID:25584309

  13. Evaluation of the Association between Oral Lichen Planus and Hypothyroidism: a Retrospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lavaee, Fatemeh; Majd, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. There are some reports of thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, to have association with OLP in some studies. Purpose Based on the controversial results of former studies in other populations about the association of hypothyroidism and OLP, the current study aimed to evaluate this association in a sample of Iranian population. Materials and Method This retrospective comparative study evaluated 523 patients with OLP referring to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Shiraz Dental Faculty as the test group and 523 age- and sex-matched patients as the control group. Those participants with oral lichenoid reactions and other mucosal lesions were excluded. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of OLP and thyroid diseases were estimated by logistic regression adjusted for the matched age and sex. Results In the test group, 74% (n=387) and in the control group 73.8% of the patients were female (n=386). In the test group, 26% (n=136) and in the control group 26.2% of the samples were male (n=137). A total of 4% of the patients in the control group (n=21) and 6.7% in the case group (n=35) had a history of hypothyroidism. The reported OR for association of thyroid disease and OLP was 1.714 (CI=0.984-2.987). Conclusion The results of this study showed no significant association between hypothyroidism and OLP in comparison with the age- and sex-matched control group. PMID:26966707

  14. Nanoparticle cross-linked collagen shields for sustained delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Agban, Yosra; Lian, Jiaxin; Prabakar, Sujay; Seyfoddin, Ali; Rupenthal, Ilva D

    2016-03-30

    Glaucoma is a common progressive eye disorder which remains the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current therapy involves frequent administration of eye drops which often results in poor patient adherence and therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations by developing a novel nanoparticle cross-linked collagen shield for sustained delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride (PHCl). Three metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs); titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped zinc oxide (ZnO/PVP), were evaluated for their cytotoxicity as well as shield transparency before selecting ZnO/PVP NPs as the ideal candidate. Cross-linked collagen shields were then characterized for their mechanical strength, swelling capacity and bioadhesive properties, with ZnO/PVP NP cross-linked shields showing the most favorable characteristics compared to plain films. The shield with the best properties was then loaded with PHCl and in vitro release of zinc ions as well as PHCl was measured without and with further cross-linking by ultraviolet irradiation. The concentration of zinc ions released was well below the IC50 rendering them safe for ocular use. Moreover, collagen shields cross-linked with ZnO/PVP NPs released PHCl over a period of 14 days offering a promising sustained release treatment option for glaucoma. PMID:26828672

  15. Development and characterization of pilocarpine loaded Eudragit nanosuspensions for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed S; Vishakante, Gowda D; Bathool, Afifa

    2013-01-01

    With aim of improving the availability of drug at intraocular level and to reduce the frequency of drug administration, pilocarpine nitrate nanosuspensions were made from inert polymer resin (Eudragit RL 100) with varying drug to polymer ratios using Lutrol F68 solution in various concentration. Nanosuspensions were successfully prepared by solvent displacement method. Size of nanoparticles varied between 121.5 +/- 2.28 to 291.5 +/- 1.28 nm, a polydispersity index ranging from 0.218 +/- 0.003 to 0.658 +/- 0.035 with zeta potential ranging +14.1 +/- 0.7 to +19.8 +/- 2.3 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies clearly suggest the compatibility of the drug with the polymer used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape having a smooth surface and the drug is molecularly dispersed uniformly throughout the whole polymer matrix. PRL4 was successfully able to sustain the drug release for 24 hr as compared to other batches of formulated nanosuspensions. No significant change in average particle size and zeta potential were observed after conducting stability studies. Results of the studies clearly suggest the suitability of Eudragit RL 100 as a promising potential drug delivery adjuvant for ocular drug administration. PMID:23627075

  16. A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xin, Hongliang; Xu, Qunwei

    2013-10-15

    Poor corneal penetration and short preocular retention of a clinical hydrophilic drug, pilocarpine nitrate (PN), for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, limit its ocular application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for ocular delivery of PN. LCNPs were developed by a top-down method using glyceryl monoolein (GMO) and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS). The size of LCNP is 202.28±19.32 nm and the encapsulation efficiency reached 61.03%. The in vitro release profiles indicated that PN could keep sustained release from PN-loaded LCNPs for 8h. An ex vivo corneal permeation study revealed that the apparent permeability coefficient of PN-loaded LCNPs was 2.05-fold higher than that of commercial eye drops. In addition, the topical administration test showed that PN-loaded LCNPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) of rabbits compared with commercial drug and physiological saline. In conclusion, LCNPs had been demonstrated to be potential for controlled-release ocular drug delivery. PMID:23916822

  17. Treatment of ocular rosacea: comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Aysegul; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Takmaz, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints. METHODS One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline. RESULTS Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes (P<0.001). Cyclosporine was more effective in symptomatic relief and in the treatment of eyelid signs (P=0.01). There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Cyclosporine as a topical drug can be used in the treatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage. PMID:26086005

  18. Neuroprotectants FK-506 and cyclosporin A ameliorate the course of pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Setkowicz, Zuzanna; Ciarach, Małgorzata

    2007-02-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether neuroprotective agents, FK506 or cyclosporin A (CsA), applied to rats undergoing pilocarpine-induced seizures can minimize further development of the status epilepticus. In order to solve this problem, pilocarpine was injected in 60-day-old Wistar rats to evoke status epilepticus. When epileptic seizures reached a defined, moderate level of intensity, the rats received a single FK506 or CsA injections. During a 6-h period following pilocarpine injection, the animals were observed continuously and motor symptoms were recorded and rated. In epileptic rats injected with FK-506 or CsA, signs of significant amelioration of the course of epilepsy accompanied by longer survival periods were observed. Moreover, some differences between effects of the two agents were seen. The obtained results appear to show that, in addition to neuroprotective action, FK506 and CsA can exert also antiepileptic influences. PMID:17095192

  19. Cytotoxicity of pilocarpine to human corneal stromal cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Wen, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the cytotoxic effect of pilocarpine, an anti-glaucoma drug, on human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected HCS cells. METHODS After HCS cells were treated with pilocarpine at a concentration from 0.15625 g/L to 20.0 g/L, their morphology and viability were detected by light microscopy and MTT assay. The membrane permeability, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructure were examined by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double-staining. DNA electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cell cycle, phosphatidylserine (PS) orientation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). And the activation of caspases was checked by ELISA. RESULTS Morphology observations and viability assay showed that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and time-dependent morphological abnormality and viability decline of HCS cells. AO/EB double-staining, DNA electrophoresis and TEM noted that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and/or time-dependent membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of the cells. Moreover, FCM and ELISA assays revealed that 2.5 g/L pilocarpine also induced S phase arrest, PS externalization, MTP disruption, and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation of the cells. CONCLUSION Pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L (1/32 of its clinical therapeutic dosage) has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing apoptosis in these cells, which is most probably regulated by a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:27162720

  20. Comparative study of a portable prothrombin time monitor employing three different systems in oral anticoagulant units.

    PubMed

    Vacas, M; Fernández, M A; Martínez-Brotons, F; Lafuente, P J; Ripoll, F; Alvarez, C; Iriarte, J A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the portable coagulometer CoaguChek (Roche Diagnostics) as a prothrombin time (PT) monitor, and to correlate capillary blood results with those of three different routine methods used for monitoring oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT): capillary, plasma and whole blood samples. Three hospitals participated in the study with a total of 235 patients on OAT. The international normalized ratio (INR) results obtained with CoaguChek were compared with those obtained using each of the routine methods. The study presents a good correlation between the PT monitor and the three methods studied: r = 0.9745 (hospital A), r = 0.9283 (hospital B), r = 0.9136 (hospital C). A simplified concordance test of the methods results in a nine-field comparison table showing concordances of 87.2, 85.7 and 68.4%, respectively. The absolute difference (mean +/- SD) between laboratory A and CoaguChek INRs was 0.0571 +/- 0.2042, with values of 0.04286 +/- 0.3906 for laboratory B and 0.6986 +/- 0.6170 for laboratory C. These results confirm that CoaguChek could be used as a new method for oral anticoagulant monitoring, and is in best agreement with the capillary blood PT system. PMID:11408745

  1. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpyrifos versus its Major Metabolites Following Oral Administration in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Campbell, James A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Barr, Dana; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-31

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used diethylphosphorothionate organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) are products of in vivo metabolism and environmental degradation of CPF and are routinely measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure. Hence, urinary biomonitoring of TCPy, DEP and DETP may be reflective of an individual’s contact with both the parent pesticide and exposure to these metabolites. In the current study, simultaneous dosing of 13C- or 2H- isotopically labeled CPF (13Clabeled CPF, 5 13C on the TCPy ring; or 2H-labeled CPF, diethyl-D10 (deuterium labeled) on the side chain) were exploited to directly compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of CPF with TCPy, and DETP. Individual metabolites were co-administered (oral gavage) with the parent compound at equal molar doses (14 μmol/kg; ~5mg/kg CPF). The key objective in the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites relative to their formation following a dose of CPF. Major differences in the pharmacokinetics between CPF and metabolites doses were observed within the first 3 h of exposure, due to the required metabolism of CPF to initially form TCPy and DETP. Nonetheless, once a substantial amount of CPF has been metabolized (≥ 3 h post-dosing) pharmacokinetics for both treatment groups and metabolites were very comparable. Urinary excretion rates for orally administered TCPy and DETP relative to 13C-CPF or 2H-CPF derived 13C-TCPy and 2H-DETP were consistent with blood pharmacokinetics, and the urinary clearance of metabolite dosed groups were comparable with the results for the 13C- and 2H-CPF groups. Since the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites were not modified by co-exposure to 3 CPF; it suggests that environmental exposure to low dose mixtures of pesticides and metabolites will not impact the pharmacokinetics of either.

  2. Indomethacin can downregulate the levels of inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Michele Juliane; Perosa, Sandra Regina; Argañaraz, Gustavo Adolfo; Silva, José Antônio; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refractory status epilepticus is one of the most life-threatening neurological emergencies and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs during this period is very controversial. Thus, this study has been designed to analyze the effect of a low dose of indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) on the expression of inflammatory molecules. METHOD: The hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced long-lasting status epilepticus was analyzed to determine the expression of inflammatory molecules with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with controls, reduced levels of the kinin B2 receptors IL1β and TNFα were found in the hippocampus of rats submitted to long-lasting status epilepticus and treated with indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that low doses of indomethacin could be employed to minimize inflammation during long-lasting status epilepticus. PMID:25318094

  3. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole Administered Orally as either Crushed or Whole Tablets▿

    PubMed Central

    Dodds Ashley, E. S.; Zaas, A. K.; Fang, A. F.; Damle, B.; Perfect, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal agent used to treat serious, invasive fungal infections including aspergillosis and candidemia. Limitations with existing formulations of voriconazole including restricted utility in patients with renal dysfunction (intravenous preparation) and the unavailability of an oral suspension in some countries make the administration of crushed tablets desirable in many clinical scenarios. However, concerns that this approach may alter the systemic absorption of voriconazole exist. Therefore, an open-label, randomized, two-way crossover comparative pharmacokinetic (PK) study using healthy volunteers was performed to compare these methods of tablet administration. In a random sequence, subjects received voriconazole tablets either crushed or whole. The voriconazole dose was 400 mg every 12 h for 1 day orally followed by 200 mg every 12 h orally for 5.5 days. Study periods were separated by 7 days. PK parameters were determined by the noncompartmental method. An equivalence approach with no-effect boundaries of 80 to 125% was used to assess bioequivalence. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males; aged 20 to 43 years) were enrolled in and completed the study. The adjusted mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to τ, where τ equals 12 h, for the crushed and whole tablet groups were 9,793 and 11,164 ng · h/ml, respectively (ratio, 87.72; 90% confidence interval [CI], 80.97, 95.04). The ratio of the maximum concentration of drug in serum for the crushed tablet versus whole tablet arms was 94.94 (90% CI, 86.51, 104.22). The only difference noted between groups was a slightly faster time to maximum concentration of drug in serum when subjects received crushed tablets, 0.5 h versus 1.5 h (90% CI, −0.75, −0.25). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 12 subjects receiving whole tablets and 9 subjects receiving crushed tablets; all were mild. The administration of crushed voriconazole tablets is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration. PMID:17145785

  4. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β)) and mean residence time (MRT) were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot) in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1) was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1). Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax) was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax) of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el)) at a significant slower rate (3.94 h) in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h). The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks. PMID:24707439

  5. Comparing disciplines: outcomes of non melanoma cutaneous malignant lesions in oral and maxillofacial surgery and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, M; Szamocki, S; Komath, D; Cascarini, L; Heliotis, M

    2015-01-01

    300 cases of non-melanoma cutaneous lesion procedures carried out by the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dermatology departments in a North West London hospital over a 6 month period between September 2011 and February 2012 were included in a retrospective case control study. The results from each speciality were compared. The mean age of the OMFS group was 75.8 years compared to 69.9 years in the dermatology group. There was no statistically significant difference in gender between the 2 groups. The OMFS group treated a higher proportion of atypical (17%) and malignant (64.9%) cases compared to the dermatology group (11.3% and 50.5% respectively). This could also account for the fact that the OMFS group carried out a higher number of full excisions compared to dermatology. Both groups had a similar number of false positives (a benign lesion initially diagnosed as malignant) and a similar proportion of false negatives (a malignant lesion initially diagnosed as benign). Overall, the results show that both specialities had similar outcomes when managing non-melanoma cutaneous lesions. Both groups adhere to the guidelines set out by the British Association of Dermatologists and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence when managing such lesions. PMID:25468744

  6. Comparative acid tolerances and inhibitor sensitivities of isolated F-ATPases of oral lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sturr, M G; Marquis, R E

    1992-01-01

    pH activity profiles and inhibitor sensitivities were compared for membrane ATPases isolated from three oral lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, Streptococcus mutans GS-5, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904, with, respectively, high, moderate, and low levels of acid tolerance. Membranes containing F1F0 ATPases were isolated by means of salt lysis of cells treated with muralytic enzymes. Membrane-free F1F0 complexes were then isolated from membranes by detergent extraction with Triton X-100 or octylglucoside. Finally, F1 complexes free of the proton-conducting F0 sector were obtained by washing membranes with buffers of low ionic strength. The pH activity profiles of the membrane-associated enzymes reflected the general acid tolerances of the organisms from which they were isolated; for example, pH optima were approximately 5.5, 6.0, and 7.0, respectively, for enzymes from L. casei, S. mutans, and S. sanguis. Roughly similar profiles were found for membrane-free F1F0 complexes, which were stabilized by phospholipids against loss of activity during storage. However, profiles for F1 enzymes were distinctly narrower, indicating that association with F0 and possibly other membrane components enhanced tolerance to both acid and alkaline media. All of the enzymes were found to have similar sensitivities to Al-F complexes, but only F1F0 enzymes were highly sensitive to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The procedures described for isolation of membrane-free F1F0 forms of the enzymes from oral lactic acid bacteria will be of use in future studies of the characteristics of the enzymes, especially in studies with liposomes. PMID:1386211

  7. Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso e Almendra Ibiapina; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Satyal, Prabodh; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-12

    Nimodipine has been shown to have an inhibitory action on seizures and brain damage in rodents. However, the pharmaceutical applicability of this drug is limited by its low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and high first-pass effect in the liver, which leads to low bioavailability. These difficulties can be overcome through the use of liposomes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine (NMD-Lipo) on pilocarpine-induced seizures. NMD-Lipo was prepared using the lipid-film hydration method. Central nervous system toxicity of NMD-Lipo was assessed by Hippocratic screening. Systemic toxicity was evaluated by analyses of biochemical and hematological parameters and by observing possible signs of toxicity. The possible anticonvulsant activity was tested by the pilocarpine model. The administration of the NMD-Lipo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg caused no toxicity in animals. Furthermore, NMD-Lipo prevented the installation of 100% of the pilocarpine-induced seizures and prevented the death of 100% of the mice treated with pilocarpine. These data shown that NMD-Lipo has an anticonvulsant activity significantly superior to free NMD, suggesting that the liposomes promoted a drug controlled release by improving its bioavailability and consequently increasing its pharmacological activity. PMID:25445375

  8. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  9. Comparing Discussion and Lecture Pedagogy When Teaching Oral Communication in Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Yao

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, oral communication skills are increasingly important for business graduates who will start their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the best method to help business students enhance their oral communication skills during their college years. This research also helps professors to make their…

  10. Studying Urban History through Oral History and Q Methodology: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rebecca S.

    Oral history and Q methodology (a social science technique designed to document objectively and numerically the reactions of individuals to selected issues) were used to investigate urban renewal in Waco, Texas. Nineteen persons directly involved in the city's relocation and rehabilitation projects granted interviews. From these oral histories, 70…

  11. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  12. Comparative adherence to oral hormonal agents in older women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Winson Y; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-07-01

    We aim to (1) compare compliance of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, and tamoxifen in women and (2) identify clinical factors associated with medication non-adherence and non-persistence. Female Medicare beneficiaries who were new users of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, or tamoxifen between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed. Multivariate-modified Poisson and Cox regression models were constructed to compare non-adherence and non-persistence, respectively, across the different oral agents. A total of 5,150 women were included: mean age was 76.4 years, 2352 initiated anastrozole, 1401 letrozole, 248 exemestane, and 1149 tamoxifen. Non-adherence and non-persistence were 41 and 49% respectively, with exemestane being associated with the worst non-adherence and non-persistence (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.37-1.80, p < 0.001; HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.63-2.30, respectively, p < 0.001), followed by letrozole (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26-1.53, p < 0.001; HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.32-1.64, respectively, p < 0.001), and anastrozole (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.27, p = 0.003; HR 1.14, 95%CI 1.03-1.27, respectively, p = 0.011), whereas tamoxifen was associated with the best compliance. Use of statins and osteoporosis medications was correlated with improved adherence (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.82-0.96, p = 0.002 and RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.92, p < 0.001, respectively, for non-adherence) and persistence (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94, p < 0.001 and HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.78-0.96, p = 0.005, respectively, for non-persistence), but chronic kidney disease was correlated with worse non-persistence (HR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.33, p = 0.04). Age ≥ 70 years was also associated with worse compliance. Compliance to oral hormonal therapy varied depending on the type of agent, age, and concurrent medications, highlighting specific opportunities to improve adherence and persistence in older women with breast cancer. PMID:26070268

  13. Comparative analysis of oral treponemes associated with periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal diseases, such as periodontitis, are chronic inflammatory infections affecting the gingivae (gums), underlying connective tissues and bone that support the teeth. Oral treponemes (genus Treponema) are widely-considered to play important roles in periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis; however, precise relationships remain to be fully established. Methods A 16S rRNA clone library-based approach was used to comprehensively characterize and compare the diversity of treponeme taxa present in subgingival plaque sampled from periodontitis patients (n = 10) versus periodontitis-free controls (n = 10). 16S rRNA gene sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a 99% identity cut-off A variety of taxonomy (OTU) and phylogeny-based statistical approaches were used to compare populations of treponeme OTUs present in both subject groups. Results A total of 615 plasmid clones containing ca. 1500 bp Treponema 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained; 365 from periodontitis subjects, 250 from periodontitis-free controls. These were assigned to 110 treponeme OTUs. 93 OTUs were detected in the periodontitis subjects (mean 9.3 ± 5.2 OTUs per subject; range 9–26), and 43 OTUs were detected in controls (mean 4.3 ± 5.9 OTUs per subject; range 3–20). OTUs belonging to oral treponeme phylogroups 1–7 were detected in both subject sets. Phylogroup 1 treponemes had the highest levels of OTU richness (diversity) and clonal abundance within both subject groups. Levels of OTU richness and clonal abundance of phylogroup 2 treponemes were significantly higher in the periodontitis subjects (Mann Whitney U-test, p < 0.001). Both OTU-based and phylogeny-based analyses clearly indicated that there were significant differences in the composition of treponeme communities present in periodontitis versus control subjects. The detection frequency of five OTUs showed a statistically-significant correlation with disease status. The OTU (8P47) that corresponded to the type strain of Treponema denticola had the strongest association with periodontitis (p < 0.01). Conclusions Higher levels of treponeme taxon richness and clonal abundance were associated with periodontitis. However, our results clearly indicated that subjects free from clinical symptoms of periodontal disease also contained highly diverse populations of treponeme bacteria within their subgingival microbiota. Our data supports the hypothesis that specific treponeme taxa are associated with periodontal disease. PMID:23578286

  14. Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 μg/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (p<0.05, significant) but statistical difference between efficacy of topical Permethrin and oral Ivermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

  15. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  16. Oral Health Status of Children Attending a Mobile Dental Clinic--A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Enciso, Reyes; Sundaresan, Santosh; Yekikian, Matthew; Mulligan, Roseann

    2015-11-01

    Periodicity of dental visits for children is based on age and disease susceptibility. Frequently mobile dental clinics are unable to provide follow-up care at recommended intervals. This study compared the oral health of children attending the mobile clinic (MC) twice with matched children by age, gender, race, and ZIP code attending for the first time. Dental charts (n=888) were reviewed and scored for decayed and filled surfaces. Seventy-eight children (mean age 9.6 years; 98.7% Hispanic) attended the clinic twice over a mean interval between visits of 1.5 years. These children had statistically significant lower rates of decay in deciduous and permanent tooth surfaces than matched children visiting the clinic for the first time (p<.05; p<.001), and significantly less decay in their deciduous and permanent teeth than at the first visit (p<.001; p<.05). Mobile clinics can be effective in decreasing the decay in teeth, even when the interval between visits is longer than current recommendations. PMID:26548689

  17. A comparative study of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Dunson, T R; McLaurin, V L; Israngkura, B; Leelapattana, B; Mukherjee, R; Perez-Palacios, G; Saleh, A A

    1993-08-01

    A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate. PMID:8403908

  18. A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

  19. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Goutham, Bala Subramanya; Manchanda, Kavita; Sarkar, Avishek De; Prakash, Ravi; Jha, Kunal; Mohammed, Shafaat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to be useful adjuncts to daily oral home care in the control of plaque and gingivitis. The objective of the study was to evaluate effect of two oral rinses; Chlorohexidine and Listerine on Plaque and Gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A doubled blind study was done on 150 patients visiting OPD of oxford general hospital for 2 months to compare the efficiency of two commercially available mouth rinses i.e. chlorohexdine (0.2%) & Listerine on plaque & gingivitis, along with a Placebo. Results: At the end of 28 weeks chlorohexdine & listerine significantly reduced plaque growth & gingivitis compared to a Placebo however chlorohexdine was more effective than Listerine. Conclusion: Chlorehexidine (0.2%) and a phenolic mouth rinse significantly reduced plaque growth and gingival inflammation compared to a placebo mouthrinse, however chlorhexidine rinse was more effective against plaque regrowth than the phenolic rinse. How to cite this article: Goutham BS, Manchanda K, Sarkar AD, Prakash R, Jha K, Mohammed S. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):56-61. PMID:24155621

  20. A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was

  1. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean OHI-S (2.52±1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (p<0.05). The highest and lowest mean number of healthy sextants were found among those with only lower limb disability (4.53±2.05) and among those with both upper and lower limb disability (0.77±1.39), respectively (p<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictor for oral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. Conclusion: The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research. Key words:Poliomyelitis, upper limb disability, lower limb disability, oral hygiene, periodontal status. PMID:22549671

  2. Pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of mammalian hearts by activating a cardiac M3 receptor and a K+ current

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huizhen; Shi, Hong; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    Pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is widely used for treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It can also cause many other cellular responses by activating different subtypes of mAChRs in different tissues. However, the potential role of pilocarpine in modulating cardiac function remained unstudied.We found that pilocarpine produced concentration-dependent (0.1–10 μM) decrease in sinus rhythm and action potential duration, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential in guinea-pig hearts. The effects were nearly completely reversed by 1 μM atropine or 2 nM 4DAMP methiodide (an M3-selective antagonist).Patch-clamp recordings in dispersed myocytes from guinea-pig and canine atria revealed that pilocarpine induces a novel K+ current with delayed rectifying properties. The current was suppressed by low concentrations of M3-selective antagonists 4DAMP methiodide (2–10 nM), 4DAMP mustard (4–20 nM, an ackylating agent) and p-F-HHSiD (20–200 nM). Antagonists towards other subtypes (M1, M2 or M4) all failed to alter the current.The affinity of pilocarpine (KD) at mAChRs derived from displacement binding of [3H]-NMS in the homogenates from dog atria was 2.2 μM (65% of the total binding) and that of 4DAMP methiodide was 2.8 nM (70% of total binding), consistent with the concentration of pilocarpine needed for the current induction and for the modulation of the cardiac electrical activity and the concentration of 4DAMP to block pilocarpine effects.Our data indicate, for the first time, that pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of the hearts, likely by activating a K+ current mediated by M3 receptors. PMID:10372814

  3. Long-term increases in BK potassium channel underlie increased action potential firing in dentate granule neurons following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima

    2015-01-12

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of acquired epilepsy in adult. Since dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) play a critical role in hippocampal seizure generation, it is, therefore, important to understand changes in intrinsic properties of GCs in TLE. In this study, the electrophysiological properties of GCs obtained from epileptic rates were compared with the control group using whole cell patch-clamp recording. Results indicated a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) in depolarizing currents of 150 pA, 200 pA, and 250 pA. In addition, there was a significant decrease in AP half-width of GCs. The amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) in epileptic group significantly decreased compared to control group. Blockade of large conductance calcium activated potassium channel (BK), channels with paxilline and iberiotoxin reversed pilocarpine-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs in epileptic group. These results suggest that the BK channel blockers by reversing the firing properties of GCs might have beneficial preventative effects on pilocarpine-induced electrophysiological changes. PMID:25434869

  4. Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E.

    2013-11-20

    Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of single doses of doxylamine succinate following intranasal, oral and intravenous administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelser, Andries; Mller, Douw G; du Plessis, Jeanetta; du Preez, Jan L; Goosen, Colleen

    2002-09-01

    The intranasal route of administration provides a potential useful way of administering a range of systemic drugs. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach for the treatment of nausea and vomiting, doxylamine succinate was studied in rats for the pharmacokinetics (AUC, C(max), t(max)) following intranasal, oral and intravenous administrations. Subjects (six male Sprague-Dawley rats per time interval for each route of administration) received 2-mg doses of doxylamine succinate orally and I-mg doses intranasally and intravenously, respectively. The various formulations were formulated in isotonic saline (0.9% w/v) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. Doxylamine succinate concentrations in plasma were determined with a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay and a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Intranasal and oral bioavailabilities were determined from AUC values relative to those after intravenous dosing. Intranasal bioavailability was greater than that of oral doxylamine succinate (70.8 vs 24.7%). The intranasal and oral routes of administration differed significantly from the intravenous route of administration. Peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 887.6 ng/ml (S.D. 74.4), 281.4 ng/ml (S.D. 24.6) and 1296.4 ng/ml (S.D. 388.9) for the intranasal, oral and intravenous routes, respectively. The time to achieve C(max) for the intranasal route (t(max)=0.5 h) was faster than for the oral route (t(max)=1.5 h), but no statistically significant differences between the C(max) values were found using 95% confidence intervals. The results of this study show that doxylamine succinate is rapidly and effectively absorbed from the nasal mucosa. PMID:12214324

  6. Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. Result To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Conclusion Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally-required for soluble versus insoluble forms of the protein antigens. If an antigen, such as EGFP, is soluble and expressed at high levels, a low-copy plasmid-cytoplasmic expression strategy is recommended; since it provokes the highest B cell responses and also induces good T cell responses. If a T cell response is preferred, a eukaryotic expression plasmid or a chromosome-based, cytoplasmic-expression strategy is more effective. For insoluble antigens such as HA, an outer membrane expression strategy is recommended. PMID:23013063

  7. Mucosal HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through oral compared to vaginal and rectal routes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingke; Vajdy, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field There are currently over thirty million people infected with HIV and there are no vaccines available to prevent HIV infections or disease. The genitourinary, rectal and oral mucosa are the mucosal HIV transmission routes. An effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and local mucosal immunity is generally accepted as a major means of protection against mucosal HIV transmission and AIDS. What the reader will gain Structure and cells that comprise the oral, vaginal and rectal mucosa pertaining to HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through each mucosal route to prevent mucosal and systemic infection will be discussed. Areas covered in this review Covering publications from 1980’s through 2010, mucosal transmission of HIV and current and previous approaches to vaccinations are discussed. Take home message Although oral transmission of HIV is far less common than vaginal and rectal transmissions, infections through this route do occur through oral sex as well as vertically from mother to child. Mucosal vaccination strategies against oral and other mucosal HIV transmissions are under intense research but the lack of consensus on immune correlates of protection and lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems hamper progress towards a licensed vaccine. PMID:20624114

  8. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa and diagnosis of early precancerous changes in the oral cavity based on non-invasive monitoring of neovascularization. PMID:25987341

  9. Evaluation of sweat production by pilocarpine iontophoresis: a noninvasive screening tool for hypohidrosis in ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Basu, Surupa; Mitra, Monjori; Ghosh, Apurba

    2013-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a genetic disorder affecting the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The clinical presentation is heterogenous; however, hypohidrotic (reduced sweat) ectodermal dysplasia (HED) being the commonest. Also known as anhidrotic ED, sweat glands are sparse or rudimentary, leading to dysregulation of body temperature and episodes of uncontrolled hyperthermia due to reduced sweating. Of the many aids to document hypohidrosis in HED, we present here the technique of pilocarpine iontophoresis to induce, collect and measure sweat. Evaluation of sweat generated (against normally obtained values) is a non-invasive alternative to establish hypohidrosis in disorders such as HED. This augments clinical decision levels to plan skin biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis and facilitates patient management and early discharge. We present two cases of HED that were primarily diagnosed with sweat gland dysplasia using pilocarpine iontophoresis, and later confirmed with skin biopsy findings. PMID:24426251

  10. First report on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in exhaled breath compared to plasma and oral fluid after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Rosenborg, Staffan; Stenberg, Marta; Beck, Olof

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath (EB) is a promising matrix for bioanalysis of non-volatiles and has been routinely implemented for drugs of abuse analysis. Nothing is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and their metabolites in EB. Therefore, we used tramadol as a model drug. Twelve volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and repeated sampling of EB, plasma, and oral fluid (OF) was done for 48 h using a particle filter device for EB and the Quantisal-device for OF. Samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic correlations between matrices were investigated. The initial tramadol half-life in EB was shorter than in plasma but it reappeared in EB after 8-24 h. The ratio of O-desmethyltramadol to tramadol was considerably lower in EB and OF compared to plasma. This pilot study compared for the first time the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug and active metabolite in different biomatrices including EB and demonstrated its potential for bioanalysis. PMID:26388171

  11. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

  12. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

  13. Comparative metabolism studies of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers in male rats following a single oral dose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively 42% of dose for alpha-HBCD,...

  14. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers

  15. Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Chirag; Otero, Rafael; Partida, Carlos; Skinner, Frank; Thakker, Ravi; Pacheco, Luis F.; Zhou, Zhen-yu; Maglakelidze, Giorgi; Velkov, Jana; Velek, Libor; Romanovicz, Dwight; Jones, Theresa; Stanton, Patric K.

    2012-01-01

    In searching for persistent seizure-induced alterations in brain function that might be causally related to epilepsy, presynaptic transmitter release has relatively been neglected. To measure directly the long-term effects of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on vesicular release and recycling in hippocampal mossy fibre presynaptic boutons, we used (i) two-photon imaging of FM1-43 vesicular release in rat hippocampal slices; and (ii) transgenic mice expressing the genetically encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent reporter synaptopHluorin preferentially at glutamatergic synapses. In this study we found that, 12 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, there were significant increases in mossy fibre bouton size, faster rates of action potential-driven vesicular release and endocytosis. We also analysed the ultrastructure of rat mossy fibre boutons using transmission electron microscopy. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus led to a significant increase in the number of release sites, active zone length, postsynaptic density area and number of vesicles in the readily releasable and recycling pools, all correlated with increased release probability. Our data show that presynaptic release machinery is persistently altered in structure and function by status epilepticus, which could contribute to the development of the chronic epileptic state and may represent a potential new target for antiepileptic therapies. PMID:22344585

  16. Hypothermia mitigates neurochemical alterations in rat's cerebral cortex during status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2015-10-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a prolonged seizure activity associated with mortality and morbidity. SE is characterized by changes in neurotransmitter systems and oxidative stress that facilitate cellular damage. These alterations represent the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of seizure activity and co-existing morbidity. In the present study, amino acid levels (glutamine, glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and taurine) and oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide NO) were determined in the cerebral cortex during SE induced by pilocarpine in rats. The study has also evaluated the effects of hypothermia, as a physical non-invasive tool, on neurotransmitters and oxidative stress alterations. The results obtained revealed that there are significant increases in glutamate, GABA, glycine and taurine and NO in the cortex of pilocarpinzed rats. Hypothermia pretreatment mitigated most of the alterations induced by pilocarpine and significantly decreased GABA concentration. These findings emphasize the involvement of extrahippocampal amino acid neurotransmitters in pilocarpine-induced SE and the ameliorative role played by hypothermia. PMID:26221743

  17. Xenograft of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly as a potential therapy for rat pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Yu; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Tseng, Yi-Jhan; Ko, Tsui-Ling; Fu, Yu-Show; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of intra-hippocampal transplantation of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) on pilocarpine-treated rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: (1) a normal group of rats receiving only PBS, (2) a status epilepticus (SE) group of rats with pilocarpine-induced SE and PBS injected into the hippocampi, and (3) a SE+HUMSC group of SE rats with HUMSC transplantation. Spontaneous recurrent motor seizures (SRMS) were monitored using simultaneous video and electroencephalographic recordings at two to four weeks after SE induction. The results showed that the number of SRMS within two to four weeks after SE was significantly decreased in SE+HUMSCs rats compared with SE rats. All of the rats were sacrificed on Day 29 after SE. Hippocampal morphology and volume were evaluated using Nissl staining and magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that the volume of the dorsal hippocampus was smaller in SE rats compared with normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. The pyramidal neuron loss in CA1 and CA3 regions was more severe in the SE rats than in normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. No significant differences were found in the hippocampal neuronal loss or in the number of dentate GABAergic neurons between normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. Compared with the SE rats, the SE+HUMSCs rats exhibited a suppression of astrocyte activity and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. Implanted HUMSCs survived in the hippocampus and released cytokines, including FGF-6, amphiregulin, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factors receptor (GITR), MIP-3β, and osteoprotegerin. In an in vitro study, exposure of cortical neurons to glutamate showed a significant decrease in cell viability, which was preventable by co-culturing with HUMSCs. Above all, the expression of human osteoprotegerin and amphiregulin were significantly increased in the media of the co-culture of neurons and HUMSCs. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of HUMSC transplantation for the development of epilepsy, which are likely due to the ability of the cells to produce neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, HUMSC transplantation may be an effective therapy in the future. PMID:26732826

  18. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  19. Early metabolic responses to lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Imran, Imran; Hillert, Markus H; Klein, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus is a well-known animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We combined this model with in vivo microdialysis to investigate energy metabolites and acute cellular membrane damage during seizure development. Rats were implanted with dialysis probes and pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, they received pilocarpine (30 mg/kg s.c.) which initiated seizures within 30 min. In the dialysate from rat hippocampus, we observed a transient increase in glucose and a prominent, five-fold increase in lactate during seizures. Lactate release was because of neuronal activation as it was strongly reduced by infusion of tetrodotoxin, administration of atropine or when seizures were terminated by diazepam or ketamine. In ex vivo assays, mitochondrial function as measured by respirometry was not affected by 90 min of seizures. Extracellular levels of choline, however, increased two-fold and glycerol levels 10-fold, which indicate cellular phospholipid breakdown during seizures. Within 60 min of pilocarpine administration, hydroxylation of salicylate increased two-fold and formation of isoprostanes 20-fold, revealing significant oxidative stress in hippocampal tissue. Increases in lactate, glycerol and isoprostanes were abrogated, and increases in choline were completely prevented, when hippocampal probes were perfused with calcium-free solution. Similarly, administration of pregabalin (100 mg/kg i.p.), a calcium channel ligand, 15 min prior to pilocarpine strongly attenuated parameters of membrane damage and oxidative stress. We conclude that seizure development in a rat model of status epilepticus is accompanied by increases in extracellular lactate, choline and glycerol, and by oxidative stress, while mitochondrial function remains intact for at least 90 min. Membrane damage depends on calcium influx and can be prevented by treatment with pregabalin. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in rats by lithium-pilocarpine ('Pilo') administration, and extracellular metabolites were measured by microdialysis. Seizures caused several-fold increases in lactate levels which were attenuated by diazepam ('Diaz'), ketamine, atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX). Indicators of oxidative stress and membrane damage were also increased during seizures. Omission of calcium and pregabalin, a calcium channel blocker, reduced cellular damage induced by SE. PMID:26365376

  20. Comparative in vitro activities of six new fluoroquinolones and other oral antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Simor, A E; Ferro, S; Low, D E

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 56 clinical isolates of Campylobacter pylori to six new fluoroquinolones and other oral antimicrobial agents were determined by an agar dilution technique. Ciprofloxacin was the most active of the fluoroquinolones (MIC for 90% of strains tested [MIC90], 0.05 microgram/ml). Other fluoroquinolones had variable activities, although most isolates were moderately susceptible to fleroxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) and lomefloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml). PMID:2712542

  1. Effect of single oral dose of proanthocyanidin on postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy rats: A comparative study with sitagliptin

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Amal Ajaweed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of flavonoid rich natural products found to have a significant influence on postprandial hyperglycemia, a major risk factor for diabetic complications. Enhancement of insulinotropic gut hormones by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) are among the newest strategies for treatments of Type 2 diabetes which thought to be the underlying action through which flavonoid can reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. Aim: This study aim was designed to investigate the potential role of standardized grape seed proanthocyanidin in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by enhancing the regulatory incretin effect of gut hormones in response to oral and intraperitoneal (I.P) glucose load in healthy rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of animals each of six rats were used in this study, which was conducted in March 2013. Groups (II and V) treated with single oral dose of proanthocyanidin (50 mg/kg), Group III received single oral dose of sitagliptin (40 mg/kg) and Groups (I and IV) treated with vehicle serve as control groups. All treatments were given 30 min before oral or I.P glucose load. Blood glucose was estimated over 2 h duration at (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120) min from glucose load. Result: Both proanthocyanidin and sitagliptin significantly improve hyperglycemia induced by oral glucose load relative to control. While non-significant changes were achieved by proanthocyanidin after I.P glucose challenge compared to untreated control group. Conclusion: The result of this study indicated that proanthocyanidin may possess an enhancement of incretin effect of gut peptides, which could be responsible for some of its action on glucose homeostasis. This finding may provide an opportunity for further pharmacological studies using more specific models to clarify the possible action of proanthocyanidin as a natural DPP-IV inhibitor. PMID:26401351

  2. Comparative pharmacological evaluation of oral benzathine penicillin G and phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium in children.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Sakata, H; Murono, K; Hasegawa, H; Takimoto, M; Yoshioka, H

    1983-01-01

    Serum penicillin concentrations and urine excretion rates of oral benzathine penicillin G and phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium were evaluated in children. Mean peak serum concentration of 0.134 microgram/ml of benzathine penicillin G and 1.018 microgram/ml of phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium were measured at 125 and 35 min. The mean half-life times were 1.36 and 0.74 hr, and for area under the curve, the values were 0.34 and 1.68 microgram . hr/ml for benzathine penicillin G and phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium groups, respectively. Phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium had more reliable pharmacokinetic properties and would be the preferred forms of oral penicillin. However, all patients receiving penicillin G had penicillinemia, which was enough to inhibit most strains of Streptococcus pyogenes for a longer period than phenoxymethyl penicillin potassium. Palatability of phenoxymethyl penicillin is less than for benzathine penicillin G; the latter may be used for children in whom compliance may be a problem. PMID:6417621

  3. Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

    1986-01-01

    Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ifosfamide/mesna/methylene blue therapy.

    PubMed

    Aeschlimann, C; Küpfer, A; Schefer, H; Cerny, T

    1998-09-01

    Oral treatment with ifosfamide results in dose-limiting encephalopathy. Methylene blue is effective in reversal and prophylaxis of this side effect. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide after iv and po therapy in combination with prophylactic administration of methylene blue were investigated. Nine patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer were treated by a combination of ifosfamide (3 days), sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (4 days), and etoposide (8 days). Cycles were repeated every 28 days. Ifosfamide was administered orally, with the exception of one of the first two cycles, when it was administered as a short infusion (randomly assigned). The patients received methylene blue in doses of 50 mg po 3 times daily; an initial dose of 50 mg was given the evening before chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected over the entire treatment period, and concentrations of ifosfamide and its major metabolite, 2-chloroethylamine, were measured by gas liquid chromatography. By the same technique, 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide were determined in plasma and urine. Overall alkylating activity in urine was assayed by reaction of the alkylating metabolites with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. The chemotherapeutic regimen was well-tolerated by all of the patients studied. There was no evidence of a shift in the metabolic pattern dependent on the route of administration. From the data, we conclude that methylene blue has a neuroprotective effect and that the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide are not influenced by its comedication. PMID:9733667

  5. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Randomized Trial Comparing Oral Uracil and Tegafur and Oral Leucovorin Vs. Intravenous 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, Alejandro de la Garcia-Berrocal, Maria Isabel; Arias, Fernando; Marino, Alfonso; Valcarcel, Francisco; Magallon, Rosa; Regueiro, Carlos A.; Romero, Jesus; Zapata, Irma; Fuente, Cristina de la; Fernandez-Lizarbe, Eva; Vergara, Gloria; Belinchon, Belen; Veiras, Maria; Moleron, Rafael; Millan, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a randomized trial, 5-fluorouracil (FU) plus leucovorin (LV) (FU+LV) vs. oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus LV (UFT+LV) given concomitantly with preoperative irradiation in patients with cT3-4 or N+ rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients were entered onto the trial. Patients received pelvic radiotherapy (4500-5,040 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks) and chemotherapy consisting of two 5-day courses of 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d LV and 350 mg/m{sup 2}/d FU in the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy (77 patients) or one course of 25 mg/d oral LV and 300 mg/m{sup 2}/d UFT for 4 weeks beginning in the second week of radiotherapy (78 patients). The primary endpoints were pathologic complete response (pCR) and resectability rate. Secondary endpoints included downstaging rate, toxicity, and survival. Results: Grade 3-5 acute hematologic toxicity occurred only with FU+LV (leukopenia 9%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in resectability rates (92.1% vs. 93.4%; p = 0.82). The pCR rate was 13.2% in both arms. Tumor downstaging was more frequent with UFT+LV (59.2% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.04). Three-year overall survival was 87% with FU+LV and 74% with UFT+LV (p = 0.37). The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence were 7.5% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.619; relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval 0.32-6.55). Conclusion: Although this study lacked statistical power to exclude clinically significant differences between both groups, the outcome of patients treated with UFT+LV did not differ significantly from that of patients treated with FU+LV, and hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in the experimental arm.

  6. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  7. Neuroprotective action of FK-506 (tacrolimus) after seizures induced with pilocarpine: quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, Joanna; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Marciszko, Marianna; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Rickers, Karen; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, X-ray fluorescence microscopy with a synchrotron source for the exciting radiation was applied for topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of rat brain tissue in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy and neuroprotection with FK-506. The mass per unit area of the elements P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb was determined in four fields of the hippocampal formation (sectors 1 and 3 of Ammon's horn-CA1, CA3; dentate gyrus; hilus of dentate gyrus) and the parietal cortex. The results obtained for epileptic rats treated with FK-506 (SNF) were compared with data obtained previously for epileptic rats (SNS) and a control group. Many statistically significant differences in elemental composition were observed between the SNF and SNS groups. Higher mass per unit area of P was noticed in CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus of SNF rats in comparison with SNS rats. A similar relation was observed for K in all five brain areas analyzed. Also, Fe in CA3 and dentate gyrus, Cu in the parietal cortex, and Zn in CA3 and in the cortex were present at a higher level in the SNF group in comparison with the SNS group. The findings obtained in the present study suggest that the neuroprotective action of FK-506 in epileptic rat brain may involve not only the inhibition of calcineurin but also blockade of the K(+) channels. PMID:19862562

  8. Role of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Rat Hippocampal Neuronal Death After Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Yulin; Ge, Xinjie; Wang, Menglu

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is reportedly involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and many neurological diseases. However, the role of the MCU in epilepsy remains unknown. In this study, we found that the MCU inhibitor Ru360 significantly attenuated neuronal death and exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on rat hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), while the MCU activator spermine increased seizure-induced neuronal death and apoptosis. In addition, Ru360 decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampi. Moreover, Ru360 restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c (CytC) release in epileptic hippocampi. However, spermine treatment exerted an opposite effect on seizure-induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and CytC release compared with Ru360 treatment. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that MCU inhibition exerts a neuroprotective effect on seizure-induced brain injury possibly through the mitochondria/ROS/CytC pathway. PMID:26148531

  9. [Change in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in oral cancer patients based on a long-term comparative study].

    PubMed

    Végh, Dániel; Bányai, Dorottya; Ujpál, Márta

    2015-03-01

    Our research is focused on the incidence of diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolic disorders among oral cancer patients and the frequency of different oral localizations of cancer. Diabetes mellitus affects 7% of the Hungarian population. This study uses data spanning 14 years, with 2 datasets of 1998-1999 and 2012-2013, collected first hand by the authors. These datasets have led us to examine the blood glucose level in 267 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumours in the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus was found in 59 of them (22.1%), The blood glucose was elevated in 32 cases (12%). The most frequent tumor locations among the diabetic patients: labial, lingual and gingival tumors gingivae. Comparative epidemiological study demonstrates that in 2012-2013 dataset there was an increased observed percentage of people with diabetes mellitus [17.6% to 22.1%]. The percentage of patients with IFG (impaired fasting glucose) also increased from 9.8% to 12%. Overall the number of patients with glucose metabolic disorders climbed from 27.4% to 34.1%, (p > 0.05). Our intention of this introductory analysis is to emphasize the close connection of these two very important disease groups, and the wider spread of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26117953

  10. Comparative Study of Clinical Staging of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers Under Polarized Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Neha; Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a condition where excessive deposition of dense collagen fibers occurred in the connective tissue of oral mucosa. An alteration of collagen necessitates an in depth understanding of collagen in oral tissues as no breakthrough studies have been reported. T herefore the aim was to correlate the clinical, functional and histopathological staging and to analyze the polarization colors and thickness of the collagen fibers in different stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain under polarizing microscopy so as to assess the severity of disease. Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology at Padm. Dr. D. Y Patil Dental and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India (2012-13). A sample size was of a total 40 subjects, of which 30 patients had OSMF, and 10 were in control group. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging were done depending upon definite criteria. Collagen fibers were analyzed for polarizing colors and thickness. Further clinical, functional and histopathological stages as well as qualitative parameters of collagen fibers were compared. Results: The correlation between clinical and functional staging was not significant ( P >0.05) whereas the comparison of the functional staging with histopathological staging was more reliable (P <0.01) as an indication to the severity of the disease rather than clinical staging. One-way ANOVA analysis showed highly significant correlation between functional staging and polarization colors and thickness of collagen fibers (P <0.001). Conclusion: The qualitative change in the collagen fibers of OSMF patients using polarized microscopy would help to assess its role in diagnostic evaluation, to determine the prognosis of the disease as well as to provide useful predictive treatment modalities to them. PMID:26351471

  11. Treadmill exercise prevents GABAergic neuronal loss with suppression of neuronal activation in the pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Baek-Vin; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizure and loss of neuronal cells by abnormal rhythmic firing of neurons in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal loss in relation with neuronal activation using pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: control group, control and treadmill exercise group, pilocarpine-induced epilepsy group, and pilocarpine-induced epilepsy and treadmill exercise group. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 320 mg/kg pilocarpine hydrochloride. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 2 weeks. In the present results, neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region was increased after pilocarpine-induced seizure. Treadmill exercise inhibited hippocampal neuronal loss in the epileptic rats. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was reduced by pilocarpine-induced seizure. Treadmill exercise increased GAD67 expression in the epileptic rats. c-Fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was increased in response to epileptic seizure. Treadmill exercise inhibited c-Fos expression in the epileptic rats. Epileptic seizure increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus. Treadmill exercise suppressed BDNF and TrkB expressions in the epileptic rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise prevented GABAergic neuronal loss and inhibited neuronal activation in the hippocampal CA1 region through the down-regulation of BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:25960980

  12. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  13. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n = 10) and rectal lavage fluid (n = 10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense against HIV. PMID:24978053

  14. Comparative effects of parenteral and oral administration of selected dithiocarbamates on body burdens and organ distribution of cadmium in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), N-methyl-N-dithiocarboxyglucamine (MDCG), and 4-carboxamidopiperidine-N-dithiocarboxylate (CAP-N-DTC) were compared at equimolar doses administered by the ip and po routes for effectiveness in mobilizing metallothionein (MT)-bound cadmium (Cd) using 109Cd in mice. DDTC was highly effective by both routes in lowering hepatic, renal, and splenic Cd levels, but enhanced redistribution of Cd to testes and brain. While MDCG and CAP-N-DTC were much less active by the oral route, each effected a significant reduction of renal Cd levels, and MDCG reduced the testicular Cd burden. Neither analog lowered hepatic Cd levels impressively when given po.

  15. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  16. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  17. Cd34 and Mast Cell Analysis in Normal Oral Mucosa and Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kathuriya, Pargatsingh T; Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Narang, Bindiya R; Patil, Swati S; Pawar, Rasika B

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) remains a serious health problem worldwide. Prognosis of OSCC is poor and long term survival rate still remains below 50%. Angiogenesis or neovascularisation plays an important role in tumour progression and metastasis. Mast cells have been implicated in promoting tumour angiogenesis, especially of digestive tract, little is known in OSCC. Aim & Objective To study the correlation between blood vessel density (BVD) and mast cell density (MCD) in different grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods Methods: Thirty eight paraffin blocks of different grades of OSCC were retrieved from the department and sections were stained with CD34 followed by counterstaining with toluidine blue. The slides were then analysed using Leica Software (Version 4.5). Results Mean BVD and MCD were found to be increased in OSCC as compared to normal mucosa. Increase in BVD with co-current increase in MCD was also observed in different grades of OSCC Conclusion From our study, it was concluded that, mast cells play a major role in promoting tumour angiogenesis. But, as the grade of the tumour increases, other angiogenic factors may play a more significant role than mast cells in tumour progression. PMID:26417554

  18. Comparative Metabolism Studies of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Diastereomers in Male Rats Following a Single Oral Dose.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur

    2016-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively accounting for 42% of dose for α-HBCD, 59% for ß-HBCD, and 53% for γ-HBCD. Urine was also an important route of HBCD excretion, accounting for 13% of dose for α-HBCD, 30% for ß-HBCD, and 21% for γ-HBCD. Total metabolism of HBCD diastereomers followed the rank order ß > γ > α, and was >65% of that administered. The metabolites formed were distinct in male rats: α-HBCD did not debrominate or stereoisomerize, but formed two hydroxylated metabolites; ß- and γ-HBCD were both extensively metabolized via pathways of stereoisomerization, oxidation, dehydrogenation, reductive debromination, and ring opening. ß-HBCD was biotransformed to two mercapturic acid pathway metabolites. The metabolites of ß- and γ-HBCD were largely distinct, and could possibly be used as markers of exposure. These isomer-specific data suggest that α-HBCD would be the most dominant HBCD diastereomer in biological tissues because it was metabolized to the lowest degree and also accumulated from the stereoisomerization of the β- and γ- diastereomers. PMID:26629593

  19. Co-administration of subtherapeutic diazepam enhances neuroprotective effect of COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, after lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Trandafir, Cristina C.; Pouliot, Wendy A.; Dudek, F. Edward; Ekstrand, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Seizures during status epilepticus (SE) cause neuronal death and induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pilocarpine-induced SE was used to determine if COX-2 inhibition with NS-398, when administered alone or with diazepam, decreases the duration and/or intensity of SE and/or reduces neuronal injury in the rat hippocampus. Methods Electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. SE was induced with lithium-pilocarpine, and continuous EEG and video monitoring were performed for 24 h. Rats were divided into four groups (n = 8-14 rats/group) and received NS-398, diazepam, NS-398 and diazepam, or vehicle 30 min after the first motor seizure. Six hours later, NS-398 injection was repeated in the NS-398 and in the NS-398 + diazepam groups. The duration of SE (continuous spiking) and the EEG power in the γ-band were analyzed. FluoroJade B staining in the dorsal hippocampus at 24 h after SE was analyzed semi-quantitatively in CA1, CA3 and hilus. Results The duration and intensity of electrographic SE was not significantly different across the four groups. In rats treated with NS-398 alone, compared to vehicle-treated rats, neuronal damage was significantly lower compared to vehicle-treated rats in CA3 (27%) and hilus (27%), but neuroprotection was not detected in CA1. When NS-398 was administered with diazepam, decreased neuronal damage was further obtained in all areas investigated (CA1: 61%, CA3: 63%, hilus: 60%). Conclusions NS-398, when administered 30 min after the onset of SE with a repeat dose at 6 h, decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus. Administration of diazepam with NS-398 potentiates the neuroprotective effect of the COX-2 inhibitor. These neuroprotective effects occurred with no detectable effect on electrographic SE. PMID:25453777

  20. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J.; Harris, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. PMID:26568374

  1. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J; Harris, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. PMID:26568374

  2. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B versus Oral Minocycline in Treatment of Unstable Vitiligo: A Prospective Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Amir Hossein; Zeinali, Naser; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jamshidi, Kioumars; Khosravani, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Background. We have compared NB-UVB and oral minocycline in stabilizing vitiligo for the first time. Subjects and Methods. 42 patients were divided equally into two groups: the NB-UVB and minocycline groups. Phototherapy was administered twice a week on nonconsecutive days. In the minocycline group, patients were advised to take minocycline 100 mg once daily. The treatment period was 3 months. Vitiligo disease activity (VIDA) score was noted every 4 weeks for 12 months. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and monthly intervals. Results. Before the therapy, disease activity was present in 100% of the patients, which was reduced to 23.8% and 66.1% by the end of therapy in the NB-UVB and minocycline groups retrospectively (P < 0.05). 16 of the 21 (76/1%) patients with unstable disease in the NB-UVB group achieved stability, whereas this was the case for only 7 of the 21 (33.3%) in the minocycline group (P < 0.001). The diameter changes were statistically significant at the end of treatment in the NB-UVB group compared to the minocycline group (P = 0.031). Side effects in both groups were mild. Conclusion. NB-UVB was statistically more advantageous than oral minocycline in unstable vitiligo in terms of efficacy and the resulting stability. PMID:25221600

  3. Comparative Study of the Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives in Hemostatic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F.; Franceschini, Silvio A.; Martinez, Edson Z.; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M.; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S.; Toloi, Maria Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30 μg) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30 μg) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30 kg/m2, not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1 + 2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  4. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-02-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability. Our results showed that pilocarpine rats suffered persisting cognitive impairment during epileptogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Mozart music exposure can significantly enhance cognitive ability in epileptic rats, and music intervention may be more effective for improving cognitive function during the early stages after Status epilepticus. These findings strongly suggest that Mozart music may help to promote the recovery of cognitive damage due to seizure activities, which provides a novel intervention strategy to diminish cognitive deficits in TLE patients. PMID:26834859

  5. Minocycline inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Mi, X; Gao, B; Gu, J; Wang, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, X

    2015-02-26

    Mounting evidence suggests that brain inflammation mediated by glial cells may contribute to epileptogenesis. Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline and has potent antiinflammatory effects independent of its antimicrobial action. The present study aimed to investigate whether minocycline could exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal patterns of microglial and astrocytic activation were examined in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings displayed that SE caused acute and persistent activation of microglia and astrocytes. Based on these findings, Minocycline was administered once daily at 45 mg/kg for 14 days following SE. Six weeks after termination of minocycline treatment, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were recorded by continuous video monitoring. Minocycline inhibited the SE-induced microglial activation and the increased production of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex, without affecting astrocytic activation. In addition, Minocycline prevented the SE-induced neuronal loss in the brain regions examined. Moreover, minocycline significantly reduced the frequency, duration, and severity of SRS during the two weeks monitoring period. These results demonstrated that minocycline could mitigate SE-induced brain inflammation and might exert disease-modifying effects in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. These findings offer new insights into deciphering the molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis and exploring a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention of epilepsy. PMID:25541249

  6. Preparation and characterization of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles of pilocarpine HCl for ocular application.

    PubMed

    Lütfi, Genç; Müzeyyen, Demirel

    2013-01-01

    Pilocarpine is used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Various studies were performed to improve the bioavailability and prolong the residence time of drugs in ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles offer several favourable biological properties, such as biodegradability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and mucoadhesiveness. Therefore, preparing positively-charged pilocarpine HCl-loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles was the purpose of this study. Nanoparticles were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The non-biodegradable positively-charged polymer Eudragit(®) RS 100 and semi-solid lipid excipient Gelucire(®) 44/14 were used as a vehicle, the cationic lipid octadecylamine was used as a cationic agent. The formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential measurement, thermal behavior (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC), entrapment efficacy and pH. Characterizations of nanoparticles were analyzed during the storage period of 6 months for stability tests. Polymeric and lipid nanoparticles could be prepared successfully promising their use for ophthalmic delivery. PMID:22813238

  7. An 18-week home-use study comparing the oral hygiene and gingival health benefits of triclosan and fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Owens, J; Addy, M; Faulkner, J

    1997-09-01

    Several triclosan and stannous fluoride toothpastes have been shown to have plaque inhibitory and more particularly gingival health benefits when compared to minus active controls. There have been relatively few studies to compare such products with conventional fluoride toothpastes in home use. The aim of this study was to compare the relative gingival health benefits of a triclosan/zinc citrate, triclosan/copolymer, stannous fluoride and conventional fluoride toothpastes in a home use study. The study was a double blind, parallel design with a total 143 healthy dentate volunteers (41 male, 102 female) who toothbrushed 2x daily with 1 of 4 toothpastes over an 18 week period. At the beginning of the trial, each volunteer was scored for plaque and gingivitis and then received a thorough prophylaxis. Each volunteer was allocated a toothpaste according to a predetermined randomisation scheme. The volunteers were then re-examined after 6, 12 and 18 weeks. No other oral hygiene products were used during this period. The results showed no statistically significant treatment differences between products for the gingival index throughout the 18 week-trial. No statistically significant treatment effects between products for plaque index were found at 6 or 18 weeks. However, a small but statistically significant treatment effect for plaque index was seen at 12 weeks in favour of the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste compared to the stannous fluoride and conventional fluoride toothpastes, this difference had disappeared by the 18 week examination. All volunteers oral hygiene and gingivitis scores improved after the baseline examination, and this improvement continued throughout the trial. This is a feature of nearly all toothbrushing studies and can be attributed to the initial prophylaxis and the Hawthorne phenomenon. Such phenomena, noted in home use clinical trials, may mask the efficacy of proven antiplaque formulations. PMID:9378833

  8. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy--comparison with human epileptic samples.

    PubMed

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  9. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy – comparison with human epileptic samples

    PubMed Central

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  10. Treatment of Fast Breathing in Neonates and Young Infants With Oral Amoxicillin Compared With Penicillin–Gentamicin Combination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends hospitalization and injectable antibiotic treatment for young infants (0–59 days old), who present with signs of possible serious bacterial infection. Fast breathing alone is not associated with a high mortality risk for young infants and has been treated with oral antibiotics in some settings. This trial was designed to examine the safety and efficacy of oral amoxicillin for young infants with fast breathing compared with that of an injectable penicillin–gentamicin combination. The study is currently being conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods/Design: This is a randomized, open-label equivalence trial. All births in the community are visited at home by trained community health workers to identify sick infants who are then referred to a trial study nurse for assessment. The primary outcome is treatment failure by day 8 after enrollment, defined as clinical deterioration, development of a serious adverse event including death, persistence of fast breathing by day 4 or recurrence up to day 8. Secondary outcomes include adherence to study therapy, relapse, death between days 9 and 15 and adverse effects associated with the study drugs. Study outcomes are assessed on days 4, 8, 11 and 15 after randomization by an independent outcome assessor who is blinded to the treatment being given. Discussion: The results of this study will help inform the development of policies for the treatment of fast breathing among neonates and young infants in resource-limited settings. PMID:23945574

  11. EGFR status in oral squamous cell carcinoma: comparing immunohistochemistry, FISH and CISH detection in a case series study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Vanessa Fátima; Gleber-Netto, Frederico Omar; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; de Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) with the gene amplification evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and their association with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, we tested the sensibility and specificity of CISH in comparison with FISH. Design Case series study Setting Oral surgery and pathology department in a school of dentistry. Participants 52 patients with histopathological diagnosis of OSCC. Methods Tumour tissue samples from 52 patients with OSCC were evaluated by IHC, FISH and CISH using tissue microarray technology. Clinicopathological data from all patients were collected. Results EGFR+ rates were 53.8% (28/52) by IHC, 5.8% (3/52) by CISH and 15.4% (8/52) by FISH. Amplification detected by CISH and FISH with IHC negative occurred in 3.8% (2/52), and one case (1.9%) showed amplification detected by CISH and FISH and protein overexpression concomitantly. There were 9.6% FISH+ cases with IHC and CISH negative rates and 6/8 (75%) FISH+ and also EGFR+ cases; however, an association between protein expression and gene amplification was not found for both techniques. IHC and FISH rates were not associated with clinicopathological features. CISH+ rates were associated with T3–T4 status. Compared with FISH assay, CISH reached a sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions There is no association between EGFR expression and gene amplification in OSCC when the IHC is driven to external epitopes of the protein. Although CISH demonstrates specificity, technical problems may influence sensibility when compared with FISH. PMID:23358562

  12. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  13. Indian Education: Causal Comparative Research of Oral Reading Fluency for Native American First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redgrave, Crystal J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the reading research over the past forty years, there is a dearth of research in early literacy skills for Native American students. More specifically, there is a shortage of quantitative research for this population. The purpose of this quantitative causal comparative study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the oral…

  14. Detrimental effect of post Status Epilepticus treatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kourdougli, Nazim; Varpula, Saara; Chazal, Genevieve; Rivera, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults where 20–30% of the patients are refractory to currently available anti-epileptic drugs. The RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway activation has been involved in inflammatory responses, neurite outgrowth and neuronal death under pathological conditions such as epileptic insults. Acute preventive administration of ROCK inhibitor has been reported to have beneficial outcomes in Status Epilepticus (SE) epilepsy. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of chronic post SE treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. We used chronic i.p. injections of Y-27632 for 5 days in 6 week old control rats or rats subjected to pilocarpine treatment as a model of TLE. Surprisingly, our findings demonstrate that a systemic administration of Y-27632 in pilocarpine-treated rats increases neuronal death in the CA3 region and ectopic recurrent mossy fiber sprouting (rMFS) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Interestingly, we found that chronic treatment with Y-27632 exacerbates the down-regulation and pathological distribution of the K+-Cl− cotransporter KCC2, thus providing a putative mechanism for post SE induced neuronal death. The involvement of astrogliosis in this mechanism appears to be intricate as ROCK inhibition reduces reactive astrogliosis in pilocarpine rats. Conversely, in control rats, chronic Y-27632 treatment increases astrogliosis. Together, our findings suggest that Y-27632 has a detrimental effect when chronically used post SE in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. PMID:26557054

  15. Subjective vs. objective evaluation of gallbladder opacification during oral cholecystography in comparative clinical trials: implications for studies involving visual assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fon, G.T.; Hunter, T.B.; Berk, R.N.; Patton, D.D.; Capp, M.P.

    1982-07-01

    Radiographs and CT images taken during oral cholecystography in dogs were interpreted in an independent, blind fashion by three radiologists on two occasions and visual assessment of gallbladder density compared to the actual CT values. While there was significant intra- and inter-observer variation, the mean scores for the observers' interpretations of both radiographs and prints correlated well with the actual CT values (p > 0.05). In five out of six comparisons between first and second readings, the observers gave a lower score on the second reading. The considerable variation reflects the problems inherent in subjective evaluation of agents that produce small but measurable differences in radiographic density. Studies involving such subjective data have to be carefully designed in order to obtain meaningful results.

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of racemic oxiracetam and its pure enantiomers after oral administration in rats by a stereoselective HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Yang, Yue; Xing, Han; Zhang, Qing; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; He, Jiake; Yang, Shuoye; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-01-01

    Oxiracetam (ORC), a nootropic drug used for improving the cognition and memory, has an asymmetric carbon in its structure and exists as (S)- and (R)-ORC. The pharmacokinetic profiles of racemic oxiracetam and its pure enantiomers in rats were evaluated and compared by enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography, which was performed on a Chiralpak ID column with a mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v). The method was validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, stability and the limit of quantification. The validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. A saturating phenomenon of (S)-ORC was observed when the dosage ranged from 200 mg/kg to 800 mg/kg. The two enantiomers showed similar profiles in the absorb phase, and reached the maximum concentration at 2h after oral administration. However, compared with the racemate group, the AUC/dose and Cmax/dose ratios of (S)-ORC were higher and Cl/f was lower in enanpure (S)-ORC group. The Cmax of (S)-ORC decreased from 21.3 ± 5.0 μg/ml to 13.2 ± 4.2 when (R)-ORC was co-administrated at the dose of 200mg/kg. AUC0-t values of (S)-ORC were different after oral administration of 200 mg/kg (S)-ORC and 400 mg/kg racemic ORC (96.7 ± 15.5 and 50.1 ± 16.3 μg h/ml). The higher absorption and slower elimination suggest that enantiopure (S)-ORC could be a promising drug that efficiently reduces clinical dosage, improves therapeutic indices, decreases toxicology risks, and results in increased therapeutic ration. PMID:25886392

  17. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Different Pilocarpine-Induced Models of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; de Mendonça, Leila Rodrigues; Pereira, Marília Gabriela; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that the reference gene in a RT-qPCR should be properly validated to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. We investigated eight potential reference genes in two different pilocarpine PILO-models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKepeer softwares. Then, as a validation strategy, we conducted a relative expression analysis of the Gfap gene. Our results indicate that in the systemic PILO-model Actb, Gapdh, Rplp1, Tubb2a and Polr1a mRNAs were highly stable in hippocampus of rats from all experimental and control groups, whereas Gusb revealed to be the most variable one. In fact, we observed that using Gusb for normalization, the relative mRNA levels of the Gfap gene differed from those obtained with stable genes. On the contrary, in the intrahippocampal PILO-model, all softwares included Gusb as a stable gene, whereas B2m was indicated as the worst candidate gene. The results obtained for the other reference genes were comparable to those observed for the systemic Pilo-model. The validation of these data by the analysis of the relative expression of Gfap showed that the upregulation of the Gfap gene in the hippocampus of rats sacrificed 24 hours after status epilepticus (SE) was undetected only when B2m was used as the normalizer. These findings emphasize that a gene that is stable in one pathology model may not be stable in a different experimental condition related to the same pathology and therefore, the choice of reference genes depends on study design. PMID:24009668

  18. A comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral trimethoprim/sulfadiazine formulations in the horse.

    PubMed

    van Duijkeren, E; Vulto, A G; Sloet van Oldruitenborghoosterbaan, M M; Mevius, D J; Kessels, B G; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1994-12-01

    The biopharmaceutical properties of four fixed trimethoprim/sulfonamide combinations were investigated in the horse. Eight fasted horses were dosed at 1 week intervals in a sequentially designed study with one intravenous (i.v.) and three oral trimethoprim/sulfadiazine (TMP/SDZ) formulations (1, 2 and 3) administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg trimethoprim (TMP) and 25 mg/kg sulfadiazine (SDZ). Plasma concentrations of each compound were monitored for 48 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters (volume of distribution, bioavailability and total body clearance) for TMP and SDZ were calculated and compared. After oral administration plasma concentrations of TMP and SDZ increased rapidly. With all three paste formulations, TMP peak plasma concentrations were attained within 2 h. SDZ mean peak plasma concentrations were reached at 2.59 +/- 0.48 h for a commercial paste (1), and at 1.84 +/- 0.66 h and 1.95 +/- 0.61 h for the two self-made formulations (2 and 3). Mean peak plasma TMP concentrations (+/- SD) were 1.72 +/- 0.36 micrograms/ml, 1.42 +/- 0.37 micrograms/ml and 1.31 +/- 0.36 micrograms/ml, and mean peak plasma SDZ concentrations 12.11 +/- 4.55 micrograms/ml, 12.72 +/- 3.47 micrograms/ml and 15.45 +/- 4.74 micrograms/ml for preparations 1, 2 and 3. The bioavailability of TMP was 67.0 +/- 20.3%, 57.7 +/- 21.6% and 60.9 +/- 18.9% and of SDZ 57.6 +/- 14.8%, 59.3 +/- 19.5% and 65.9 +/- 5.8% for SDZ for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Following i.v. administration TMP/SDZ plasma concentration ratios approached the optimal 1:20 ratio (+/- 10%) for about 5 h, but following the oral administrations this ratio was only achieved for a very short time-span.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7707489

  19. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a new oral long-acting formulation of doxycycline hyclate: A canine clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Arciniegas Ruiz, Sara Melisa; Gutiérrez Olvera, Lilia; Bernad Bernad, María Josefa; Caballero Chacón, Sara Del Carmen; Vargas Estrada, Dinorah

    2015-12-01

    Doxycicline is used in dogs as treatment of several bacterial infections, mycoplasma, chlamydia and rickettsial diseases. However, it requires long treatments and several doses to be effective. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of four formulations of doxycycline hyclate, administered orally, with different proportions of excipients, acrylic acid-polymethacrylate-based matrices, to obtain longer therapeutic levels than conventional formulation. Forty-eight dogs were randomly assigned in five groups to receive a single oral dose (20mg/kg) of doxycycline hyclate without excipients (control) or a long-acting formulation containing doxycycline, acrylic acid polymer, and polymethacrylate in one of the following four proportions: DOX1(1:0.25:0.0035), DOX2(1:0.5:0.0075), DOX3 (1:1:0.015), or DOX4(1:2:0.0225). Temporal profiles of serum concentrations were obtained at several intervals after each treatment. Therapeutic concentrations were observed for 60h for DOX1 and DOX4, 48h for DOX2 and DOX3 and only 24h for DOX-C. None of the pharmacokinetic parameter differed significantly between DOX1 and DOX2 or between DOX3 and DOX4; however, the findings for the control treatment were significantly different compared to all four long-acting formulations. Results indicated that DOX1 had the most adequate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships for a time-dependent drug and had longer release times than did doxycycline alone. However, all four formulations can be effective depend on the minimum effective serum doxycycline concentration of the microorganism being treated. These results suggest that the use of any of these formulations can reduce the frequency of administration, the patient's stress, occurrence of adverse effects and the cost of treatment. PMID:26393684

  1. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  2. Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day) was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE) reports and weight. AEs with rates ≥5% and with a ≥2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95) and risperidone trials (n = 122) groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768). Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179), risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113) or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129) were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159). PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p < 0.05) and similar to risperidone 4-6 mg/day (0.2; p = 0.927). Placebo-adjusted AEs more common with paliperidone ER were insomnia, sinus tachycardia and tachycardia; more common with risperidone were somnolence, restlessness, nausea, anxiety, salivary hypersecretion, akathisia, dizziness and nasal congestion. Weight changes with paliperidone ER and risperidone were similar (paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.489; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.236). Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg/day. The AE-adjusted incidence rates suggest differences between treatments that may be relevant for individual patients. Additional randomized, direct, head-to-head clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21299844

  3. Comparing Oral Health Care Utilization Estimates in the United States Across Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Macek, Mark D; Manski, Richard J; Vargas, Clemencia M; Moeller, John

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare estimates of dental visits among adults using three national surveys. Data Sources/Study Design Cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and National Health Expenditure surveys (NMCES, NMES, MEPS). Study Design This secondary data analysis assessed whether overall estimates and stratum-specific trends are different across surveys. Data Collection Dental visit data are age standardized via the direct method to the 1990 population of the United States. Point estimates, standard errors, and test statistics are generated using SUDAAN. Principal Findings Sociodemographic, stratum-specific trends are generally consistent across surveys; however, overall estimates differ (NHANES III [364-day estimate] versus 1993 NHIS: –17.5 percent difference, Z=7.27, p value < 0.001; NHANES III [365-day estimate] vs. 1993 NHIS: 5.4 percent difference, Z=–2.50, p value=0.006; MEPS vs. 1993 NHIS: –29.8 percent difference, Z=16.71, p value < 0.001). MEPS is the least susceptible to intrusion, telescoping, and social desirability. Conclusions Possible explanations for discrepancies include different reference periods, lead-in statements, question format, and social desirability of responses. Choice of survey should depend on the hypothesis. If trends are necessary, choice of survey should not matter; however, if health status or expenditure associations are necessary, then surveys that contain these variables should be used, and if accurate overall estimates are necessary, then MEPS should be used. A validation study should be conducted to establish “true” utilization estimates. PMID:12036005

  4. Persistent impairment of mitochondrial and tissue redox status during lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Waldbaum, Simon; Liang, Li-Ping; Patel, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are known to occur following acute seizure activity but their contribution during epileptogenesis is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress, changes to redox status, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage during epileptogenesis in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, changes in tissue and mitochondrial redox status, and mtDNA damage were assessed in the hippocampus and neocortex of Sprague–Dawley rats at time points (24 h to 3 months) following lithium-pilocarpine administration. A time-dependent increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production coincident with increased mtDNA lesion frequency in the hippocampus was observed during epileptogenesis. Acute increases (24–48 h) in H2O2 production and mtDNA lesion frequency were dependent on the severity of convulsive seizure activity during initial status epilepticus. Tissue levels of GSH, GSH/GSSG, coenzyme A (CoASH), and CoASH/CoASSG were persistently impaired at all measured time points throughout epileptogenesis, that is, acutely (24–48 h), during the ‘latent period’ (48 h to 7 days), and chronic epilepsy (21 days to 3 months). Together with our previous work, these results demonstrate the model independence of mitochondrial oxidative stress, genomic instability, and persistent impairment of mitochondrial specific redox status during epileptogenesis. Lasting impairment of mitochondrial and tissue redox status during the latent period, in addition to the acute and chronic phases of epileptogenesis, suggests that redox-dependent processes may contribute to the progression of epileptogenesis in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:21219330

  5. Secretory process in Brunner's glands during recovery from stimulation with a single dose of pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.A.; Flickinger, C.J.

    1983-07-01

    The secretory pathway and kinetics of the secretory process were studied in Brunner's glands of mice after stimulation of secretion with a parasympathomimetic drug. Adult male mice were injected with pilocarpine. The animals were subsequently administered an intravenous injection of /sup 3/H-threonine, and tissue was prepared for electron microscope autoradiography at intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 2 hours after injection of the radioactive precursor. Stimulation with pilocarpine resulted in discharge of secretory granules, which was reflected in a significantly lower percentage of the cell volume occupied by granules. In both control and stimulated mice, at 5 minutes after injection of /sup 3/H-threonine, the highest percentage of silver grains was found over the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The proportion of silver grains over the rough endoplasmic reticulum declined at later intervals, and a peak of labeling was observed over the Golgi apparatus at 1 hour. Labeling of the secretory granules increased in the 1- and 2-hour samples from both control and stimulated mice, although the relative concentration of radioactivity in both Golgi-associated and apical secretory granules was greater in stimulated than control glands at 1 hour. The results suggest that the secretory protein produced by Brunner's glands was synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the Golgi apparatus where secretory granules were formed in both stimulated and control glands. Depletion of secretory granules by prior stimulation resulted in no change in the kinetics of arrival of radioactivity in the cell organelles involved in the secretory process. However, the drainage of the radioactive label from the rough endoplasmic reticulum was significantly slower in the stimulated glands than in the controls.

  6. Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy study of the rat hippocampal formation after pilocarpine-evoked seizures.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Dumas, P; Eichert, D; Dudala, J; Setkowicz, Z

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SRFTIR) micro-spectroscopy and imaging were used for topographic and semi-quantitative biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue in cases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The tissue samples were analyzed with a beam defined by small apertures and spatial resolution steps of 10 microm which allowed us to probe the selected cellular layers of hippocampal formation. Raster scanning of the samples has generated 2D chemical cartographies revealing the distribution of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Spectral analysis has shown changes in the saturation level of phospholipids and relative secondary structure of proteins. Special interest was put in the analysis of two areas of the hippocampal formation (sector 3 of the Ammon's horn, CA3 and dentate gyrus, DG) in which elemental abnormalities were observed during our previous studies. Statistically significant increase in the saturation level of phospholipids (increased ratio of the absorption intensities at around 2921 and 2958 cm(-1)) as well as conformational changes of proteins (beta-type structure discrepancies as shown by the increased ratio of the absorbance intensities at around 1631 and 1657 cm(-1) as well as the ratio of the absorbance at 1548 and 1657 cm(-1)) were detected in pyramidal cells of CA3 area as well as in the multiform and molecular layers of DG. The findings presented here suggest that abnormalities in the protein secondary structure and increases in the level of phospholipid saturation could be involved in mechanisms of neurodegenerative changes following the oxidative stress evoked in brain areas affected by pilocarpine-induced seizures. PMID:20362662

  7. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

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  8. Prospective, randomized trial comparing effect of oral versus intravenous pantoprazole on rebleeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Dua, Kulwinder S; Hanson, Kristin; Presberg, Kenneth

    2007-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce the rate of rebleeding in patients with nonvariceal upper GI bleed (NVGIB). Oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) pantoprazole are equipotent in raising gastric pH. We conducted a pilot study comparing the efficacy of PO vs. IV pantoprazole for reducing rebleeding after NVGIB. Patients with NVGIB were randomized to receive PO (80 mg BID for 3 days) or IV (80-mg IV bolus and 8 mg/hr infusion for 3 days) pantoprazole followed by pantoprazole, 40 mg PO BID, for 30 days. All patients underwent endoscopy within 24 hr and endotherapy was applied where necessary. Twelve patients randomized to the PO and 13 to the IV pantoprazole group were comparable in age, hematocrit, Rockall scores, ulcer characteristics, and endoscopic interventions. Two patients in the IV arm rebled and another in the IV arm developed reversible renal failure. No patient in the PO arm rebled, had organ failure, or had to be changed to IV pantoprazole. We conclude that in this pilot study, the effect of PO pantoprazole on 30-day rebleeding rate in patients with NVGIB was similar to that of IV pantoprazole. PMID:17429726

  9. A comparative study of oral health amongst trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 caries, malocclusion, trauma

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a genetic disorder stemming from a chromosomal abnormality and characterized by general and mental retardation. Depending on the population, T21 is known to affect 1 in every 600–2000 live births. The current literature provides a mixed view on the oral health status of T21 individuals. Aim To establish the prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma amongst children with T21 compared with non-T21 children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited non-T21 and T21 children between the ages of 7–15 years who were studying at the Saut Society. After informed consent was obtained from parents and both groups were matched by age and gender, trained examiners screened children at the dental clinic of King Saud University to record the presence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma in both groups. Results While there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (2.66 for T21 versus 3.11 for controls), T21 children had a higher prevalence of incisal fractures compared to the control group (24.73% versus 4.95%, respectively) and that was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were also highly significant group differences concerning the prevalence of malocclusion. Therein, 45% of T21 children had a Class III incisor relationship compared with 8% of control children, and 50% of T21 children had a Class III molar relationship compared with 8% of control children. Conclusions While there was no significant difference in the incidence of caries between children with and without T21, practitioners should be aware of the disparities in malocclusion and trauma in this vulnerable population. PMID:26644758

  10. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenoside Rg3 and Ginsenoside Rh2 after Oral Administration of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Normal and Walker 256 Tumor-bearing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, He; Xiao-ling, Sun; Yaliu, Su; Ming-ming, Lu; Xue, Feng; Xian-sheng, Meng; Li, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ginseng is Chinese traditional herbal medicine, and the ginsenoside Rg3 is the main bioactive ingredient for the anti-tumor effect. However, there is no study on pharmacokinetics (PKs) of ginsenoside Rg3 and its main metabolite after oral ginsenoside Rg3 in tumor-bearing plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the PK profiles of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 after oral administration of pure ginsenoside Rg3 were administered, and compare the difference of the PK profiles between normal and Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Materials and Methods: The concentrations of two ginsenosides in plasma were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (Walker 256 tumor-bearing and normal groups). Each group received oral administration of 50 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg3. Results: The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, possibly as a glycosylation hydrolysis product of ginsenoside Rg3, were found in plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3 to rats. Ginsenoside Rg3 had shown better absorption than ginsenoside Rh2, whether the oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3, normal rats showed better absorption than tumor-bearing rats. Discussion and Conclusion: The PKs properties of the ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 differed between tumor-bearing rats and normal rats, including area under the plasma level/time curve and concentration maximum (P < 0.05). SUMMARY Ginsenoside Rh2 was found in plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3 to ratsHPLC could be used to determine simultaneously, the concentration of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 in rat plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3Normal rats showed better absorption than tumor-bearing rats after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3.0. PMID:27019557

  11. Comparative evaluation of proliposomes and self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of nisoldipine.

    PubMed

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Rueda, Javier; Wang, Zhijun; Betageri, Guru V

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was to develop proliposomal formulation and self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for a poorly bioavailable drug, nisoldipine and to compare their in vivo pharmacokinetics. Proliposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using different lipids such as Soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Hydrogenated Soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol sodium (DMPG), Distearyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), and Cholesterol in various ratios. SMEDDS formulations were prepared using varying concentrations of Capmul MCM, Labrasol, Cremophor EL and Tween 80. Both proliposomes and SMEDDS were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability and in vivo pharmacokinetics. In vitro drug release was carried out in purified water using USP type II dissolution apparatus. In vitro drug permeation was studied using parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) and everted rat intestinal perfusion techniques. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Among the different formulations, proliposomes with drug:DMPC:cholesterol in the ratio of 1:2:0.5 and SMEDDS with Capmul MCM (13.04% w/w), Labrasol (36.96% w/w), Cremophor EL (34.78% w/w) and Tween 80 (15.22% w/w) demonstrated the desired particle size and zeta potential. Enhanced drug release was observed with proliposomes and SMEDDS compared to pure nisoldipine in purified water after 1h. Nisoldipine permeability across PAMPA and everted rat intestinal perfusion models was significantly higher with proliposomes and SMEDDS. Following single oral administration of proliposomes and SMEDDS, a relative bioavailability of 301.11% and 239.87% respectively, was achieved compared to pure nisoldipine suspension. PMID:27041124

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of mangiferin after oral administration of pure mangiferin and US patented polyherbal formulation to rats.

    PubMed

    Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Inampudi, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

    2015-04-01

    The US patented polyherbal formulation for the prevention and management of type II diabetes and its vascular complications was used for the present study. The xanthone glycoside mangiferin is one of the major effector constituents in the Salacia species with potential anti-diabetic activity. The pharmacokinetic differences of mangiferin following oral administration of pure mangiferin and polyherbal formulation containing Salacia species were studied with approximately the same dose 30 mg/kg mangiferin and its distribution among the major tissue in Wistar rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,440, 2,160, and 2880 min) and subsequently analyzed using a validated simple and rapid LC-MS method. Plasma concentration versus time profiles were explored by non-compartmental analysis. Mangiferin plasma exposure was significantly increased when administered from formulation compared to the standard mangiferin. Mangiferin resided significantly longer in the body (last mean residence time (MRTlast)) when given in the form of the formulation (3.65 h). Cmax values of formulation (44.16 μg/mL) administration were elevated when compared to equivalent dose of the pure mangiferin (15.23 μg/mL). Tissue distribution study of mangiferin from polyherbal formulation was also studied. In conclusion, the exposure of mangiferin is enhanced after formulation and administration and could result in superior efficacy of polyherbal formulation when compared to an equivalent dose of mangiferin. The results indicate that the reason which delays the elimination of mangiferin and enhances its bioavailability might the interactions of the some other constituents present in the polyherbal formulation. Distribution study results indicate that mangiferin was extensively bound to the various tissues like the small intestine, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver except brain tissue. PMID:25273025

  13. Programmed cell death in the lithium pilocarpine model: evidence for NMDA receptor and ceramide-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mikati, Mohamad A; Rizk, Elias; El Dada, Shirine; Zeinieh, Michele; Kurdi, Rana; El Hokayem, Jimmy; Rahmeh, Amal; Koubeissi, Mohamad; Kobeissi, Mohamad; Azzam, Diana; Usta, Julnar; El Sabban, Marwan; Dbaibo, Ghassan

    2008-09-01

    Ceramide is known to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in neural and non-neural tissues and to increase after kainic acid (KA) status epilepticus (SE). Ceramide increases have been shown to depend on NMDA receptor activation in the KA model, but these changes have not been studied in the lithium pilocarpine (LiPC) model. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if hippocampal ceramide levels increase after LiPC induced SE and if NMDA receptor blockade prevents PCD and any such ceramide increases. We found that LiPC induced SE resulted in ceramide increases and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus of adult, P21, and P7 rats. The administration of MK-801, the NMDA receptor antagonist, in adults, 15min prior to pilocarpine, prevented ceramide increases, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:18295995

  14. Effects on bone mineral density of low-dosed oral contraceptives compared to and combined with physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hartard, M; Bottermann, P; Bartenstein, P; Jeschke, D; Schwaiger, M

    1997-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the influence of exercise compared to and in combination with low-dosed oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD). One hundred twenty-eight women (20 to 35 years of age) were assigned to four groups with respect to the years of exercise and OC intake. Influence factors were determined by a detailed questionnaire and interview. BMD for L2-4 and the femoral neck was assessed by DXA. The highest BMD values were found in the group of women characterized by long-term exercise (9.45 +/- 4.32 yr) and short use of OC (1.6 +/- 1.69 yr). No beneficial effect of exercise on BMD was found in the group with a long exercise period (10.4 +/- 4.14 yr) and long-term intake of OC (8.2 +/- 4.14 yr). Differences in mean BMD values between the two groups were significant in all regions assessed (p < 0.05). No differences in mean BMD were found in the groups with short-term exercise but long or brief histories of OC. The question arises as to whether active women taking low-dosed OC at an earlier age will develop an adequate BMD. PMID:9071517

  15. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Akca, A Eralp; Akca, Gülçin; Topçu, Fulya Toksoy; Macit, Enis; Pikdöken, Levent; Özgen, I Şerif

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state. PMID:26949701

  16. Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

  17. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Akca, Gülçin; Topçu, Fulya Toksoy; Macit, Enis; Pikdöken, Levent; Özgen, I. Şerif

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state. PMID:26949701

  18. Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy alters the expression and daily variation of the nuclear receptor ROR? in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar; de Lima, Eliangela; Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar do; Peres, Rafael; Cipolla-Neto, Jos; Amado, Dbora

    2016-02-01

    It is widely known that there is an increase in the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Further, the seizures follow a circadian rhythmicity. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (ROR?) is related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant enzyme expression and is part of the machinery of the biological clock and circadian rhythms. However, the participation of ROR? in this neurological disorder has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ROR? mRNA and protein content profiles in the hippocampus of rats submitted to a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model at different time points throughout the 24-h light-dark cycle analyzing the influence of the circadian rhythm in the expression pattern during the acute, silent, and chronic phases of the experimental model. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry results showed that ROR? mRNA and protein expressions were globally reduced in both acute and silent phases of the pilocarpine model. However, 60days after the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (chronic phase), the mRNA expression was similar to the control except for the time point 3h after the lights were turned off, and no differences were found in immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine is able to change the expression and daily variation of ROR? in the rat hippocampal area during the acute and silent phases. These findings enhance our understanding of the circadian pattern present in seizures as well as facilitate strategies for the treatment of seizures. PMID:26731717

  19. MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ≥90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ≥130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124 PMID:23383037

  20. Carisbamate has powerful disease-modifying effects in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    François, Jennifer; Germe, Katuschia; Ferrandon, Arielle; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-pilocarpine, a relevant model of temporal lobe epilepsy was used to test the neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic effects of carisbamate. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in adult rats by lithium and pilocarpine. Carisbamate (30, 60, 90, and 120 mg/kg) was injected at 1 and 9 h after SE onset and continued twice daily for 6 additional days. The reference groups received diazepam instead of carisbamate. Neuroprotection was assessed during the first 24 h of SE with Fluoro-Jade B and after 14 days with thionine staining. SE severity and epileptic outcome were assessed by video, and surface and depth electroencephalographic recordings. At the two highest doses, carisbamate treatment reduced SE severity; produced strong neuroprotection of hippocampus, ventral cortices, thalamus, and amygdala; prevented mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus; and delayed or suppressed the occurrence of spontaneous motor seizures. Rats with no spontaneous motor seizures displayed spike-and-wave discharges that share all the characteristics of absence seizures. In conclusion, carisbamate is able to induce strong neuroprotection and affect the nature of epileptogenic events occurring during and after lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus, reflecting marked insult- and disease-modifying effects. PMID:21539848

  1. Effect of lactic acid suppositories compared with oral metronidazole and placebo in bacterial vaginosis: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, A J; Dekker, J H; van Eijk, J T; Kostense, P J; Bezemer, P D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the effect of lactic acid locally, metronidazole orally and placebo in women with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN--Randomised clinical trial. SETTING--30 general practices in the Netherlands. PATIENTS--125 women consulting the general practitioner for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of subjective symptoms, recurrence of symptoms, clinically diagnosed cure, adverse events. RESULTS--Survival analysis showed a significantly faster disappearance of symptoms in the metronidazole category compared with both lactic acid and placebo (p = 0.0005 metronidazole v placebo, p = 0.0002 metronidazole v lactic acid p = 0.6521 lactic acid v placebo [The stratified Mantel Cox test]). The median duration until absence of symptoms was 21 days for metronidazole and 80 days for placebo. Disappearance of symptoms did not occur in 50% of the lactic acid group in 90 days. Recurrence rates of symptoms were similar over the treatment categories (p = 0.13 metronidazole v placebo and p = 0.12 lactic acid v placebo). After 2 weeks cure rates (cure defined as less than three of four clinical criteria present) were 83%, 49% and 47% for metronidazole, lactic acid and placebo category respectively. At that time cure rates (cure defined as none of three clinical criteria present) were 10%, 0% and 3%. After four weeks and three months these figures were: 55%, 20%, 20% and 64%, 28%, 28%. No differences in adverse events were found between the three interventions. CONCLUSIONS--Lactic acid suppositories are ineffective, metronidazole capsules are effective on signs and symptoms in bacterial vaginosis. A considerable proportion of the patients recover without active medication. PMID:8244360

  2. COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer and racemic bambuterol after single-dose intravenous, oral administration in rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su; Hu, Chun-Yun; He, Meng-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tang, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jie-di; Huang, Li-Jie; Tan, Wen

    2015-12-01

    This study was to compare pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer bambuterol with its racemate. Pharmacokinetics of R-enantiomer was investigated after single-dose intravenous and three doses of oral administration to rats and beagle dogs. To compare the pharmacokinetics with racemic bambuterol, the same oral doses of racemic bambuterol were also administrated; the blood and bile samples were collected by cannulation. A validated LC-MS/MS method was used to assess the level of bambuterol in plasma and bile. After single intravenous administration, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs in pharmacokinetic data. After oral dosing of R-bambuterol, the AUCs of R-enantiomer presented linear correlation. After same oral dosing of R-enantiomer and its racemate, all the pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. However, the clearance and apparent distribution had different results due to species and administration route difference. The bile transformation of these two compounds was similar and implicated that liver transformation accounted for the major metabolism of them. The bioavailability of R-enantiomer and racemate were comparative and relatively high in beagle dogs. Thus, R-enantiomer had a comparative pharmacokinetic profile and bile transformation with racemic bambuterol in rats and beagle dogs. These findings provided references for further clinical study. PMID:25281237

  4. Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: a cost effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Geitona, Maria; Kousoulakou, Hara; Ollandezos, Markos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Papanicolaou, Sotiria; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Correction to Geitona M, Kousoulakou H, Ollandezos M, Athanasakis K, Papanicolaou S and Kyriopoulos I: Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: a cost effectiveness study. Annals of General Psychiatry 2008, 7:16. This correction reports changes in the values listed for Ziprasidone and Aripiprazole in Table Ten.

  5. Nanoparticle encapsulation improves oral bioavailability of curcumin by at least 9-fold when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, J; Ankola, D D; Beniwal, V; Singh, D; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2009-06-28

    Curcumin, a derived product from common spice turmeric that is safe and beneficial in several aliments was formulated into biodegradable nanoparticles with a view to improve its oral bioavailability. The curcumin encapsulated nanoparticles prepared by emulsion technique were spherical in shape with particle size of 264nm (polydispersity index 0.31) and 76.9% entrapment at 15% loading. The curcumin encapsulated nanoparticles were able to withstand the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) accelerated stability test conditions for refrigerated products for the studied duration of 3 months. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the encapsulated curcumin. The in vitro release was predominantly by diffusion phenomenon and followed Higuchi's release pattern. The in vivo pharmacokinetics revealed that curcumin entrapped nanoparticles demonstrate at least 9-fold increase in oral bioavailability when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer. Together the results clearly indicate the promise of nanoparticles for oral delivery of poorly bioavailable molecules like curcumin. PMID:19491009

  6. The comparative effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine and herbal oral rinse on dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Devaki; Jain, Sanjay; Kale, Rahul; Muglikar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as a gold standard of antimicrobial rinses. Various herbal oral rinses are available in the market. However, little is known of its effectiveness. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical changes after the usage of herbal oral rinse and 0.12% CHX. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis were assigned to Group I (Herbal Oral Rinse - Hiora®) and 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis to Group II (0.12% Chlorhexidine-Peridex®). Gingival index and Plaque index scores were recorded at baseline and 21 days after scaling. Results: Intragroup comparison in both groups showed that plaque index and gingival index scores were statistically significant after 21 days as compared to baseline. Intergroup comparison showed that plaque index scores and gingival index scores were statistically significant in Group II as compared to Group I. Conclusion: When herbal oral rinse was compared to 0.12% CHX, 0.12% CHX mouth rinse effectively reduced the clinical symptoms of plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:26392686

  7. Gabapentin Administration Reduces Reactive Gliosis and Neurodegeneration after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alicia Raquel; Angelo, Maria Florencia; Villarreal, Alejandro; Lukin, Jerónimo; Ramos, Alberto Javier

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces in rodents several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy, by inducing an acute status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. It has been proposed that the neuronal network reorganization that occurs during latency determines the subsequent appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuronal and glial responses during the latency period that follows SE. Given the potential role of astrocytes in the post-SE network reorganization, through the secretion of synaptogenic molecules such as thrombospondins, we also studied the effect of treatment with the α2δ1 thrombospondin receptor antagonist gabapentin. Adult male Wistar rats received 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine. Once SE was achieved, seizures were stopped with 20 mg/kg diazepam. Animals then received 400 mg/kg/day gabapentin or saline for either 4 or 14 days. In vitro experiments were performed in dissociated mixed hippocampal cell culture exposed to glutamate, and subsequently treated with gabapentin or vehicle. During the latency period, the hippocampus and pyriform cortex of SE-animals presented a profuse reactive astrogliosis, with increased GFAP and nestin expression. Gliosis intensity was dependent on the Racine stage attained by the animals and peaked 15 days after SE. Microglia was also reactive after SE, and followed the same pattern. Neuronal degeneration was present in SE-animals, and also depended on the Racine stage and the SE duration. Polysialic-acid NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression was increased in hippocampal CA-1 and dentate gyrus of SE-animals. Gabapentin treatment was able to reduce reactive gliosis, decrease neuronal loss and normalize PSA-NCAM staining in hippocampal CA-1. In vitro, gabapentin treatment partially prevented the dendritic loss and reactive gliosis caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. Our results show that gabapentin treatment during the latency period after SE protects neurons and normalizes PSA-NCAM probably by direct interaction with neurons and glia. PMID:24250797

  8. Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-01-30

    A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for Bravecto™. PMID:25564276

  9. Oxidative stress mediates hippocampal neuron death in rats after lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinzhi; Wang, Aihua; Li, Lili; Huang, Yanfei; Xue, Ping; Hao, Aijun

    2010-04-01

    Oxidative stress, which is defined as the over-production of free radicals, can dramatically alter neuronal function and has been linked to status epilepticus (SE). The pathological process and underlying mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress during SE are still not fully clear. In the current study, SE was induced in rats by lithium-pilocarpine administration. Our data show that hippocampal neuron death occurs at 6h and is sustained for 7 days after SE. The production of nitric oxide (NO) started to increase at 30 min and was evident at 6h and 7 days after SE, which coincided with increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) after SE, whereas, activated caspase-3 prominently appeared at 7 days after SE. Further, FK506, an immunosuppressant, partially rescued the neuron death and attenuated the expression of NO, nNOS, iNOS, MDA and activated caspase-3. Taken together, our study indicates that oxidative stress mediated hippocampal neuron death occurs prior to caspase-3 activation and that FK506 plays an important role in protecting hippocampal neurons during status epilepticus. PMID:20149694

  10. Involvement of Thalamus in Initiation of Epileptic Seizures Induced by Pilocarpine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Hua; Li, Jia-Jia; Lu, Qin-Chi; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested that thalamus is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the role of thalamus is still unclear. We obtained local filed potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activities from CA1 of hippocampus and parafascicular nucleus of thalamus during the development of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice. Two measures, redundancy and directionality index, were used to analyze the electrophysiological characters of neuronal activities and the information flow between thalamus and hippocampus. We found that LFPs became more regular during the seizure in both hippocampus and thalamus, and in some cases LFPs showed a transient disorder at seizure onset. The variation tendency of the peak values of cross-correlation function between neurons matched the variation tendency of the redundancy of LFPs. The information tended to flow from thalamus to hippocampus during seizure initiation period no matter what the information flow direction was before the seizure. In some cases the information flow was symmetrically bidirectional, but none was found in which the information flowed from hippocampus to thalamus during the seizure initiation period. In addition, inactivation of thalamus by tetrodotoxin (TTX) resulted in a suppression of seizures. These results suggest that thalamus may play an important role in the initiation of epileptic seizures. PMID:24778885

  11. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread most easily ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate-Containing Mouthwash Against Oral-Biofilm Forming Organisms: An Invitro Microbial Study

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, Charuta Sadanand; Shah, Mona; Bajaj, Monika; Doshi, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pomegranate is considered “A pharmacy unto itself”. Hydrolysable tannins called punicalagins which have free scavenging properties are the most abundant polyphenols found in pomegranate-containing mouthwash. Aim To evaluate antimicrobial effect of pomegranate- containing mouthwash on oral biofilm-forming bacteria. Materials and Methods The mouthwashes used were divided into three groups- Group A: Chlorhexidine mouthwash (Hexidine); Group B: Herbal Mouthwash (Hiora) and Group C: Pomegranate-containing Mouthwash (Life-extension). Each mouthwash was diluted to five different concentrations. Reference strains of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus salivarius (S.salivarius) (ATCC 7073), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) (NCTC 9710) were selected as being colonizers in dental biofilm formation. On each culture plate, five wells of 5mm were prepared and mouthwashes with different concentrations were added, followed by incubation in a CO2 jar for 24 hours at 37°C. Inhibition zone diameters were measured using a digital caliper. Results Chlorhexidine (0.12%) presented a zone of inhibition between 38.46% to 96.15% for all the three organisms, while Hiora presented zone of inhibition ranging from 33.33% to 69.23% but was resistant at <10 ml of dilution. Pomegranate mouthwash presented a zone of inhibition ranging from 38.48 to 57.69%, but was resistant at <10ml for S.mutans, and <25ml for A.a and S.salivarius. ANOVA test was done to compare the dilution of mouthwashes for a particular organism and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests were done to find the exact difference. A significant difference was seen between all the three groups at 50ml and 75 ml of dilution. At 75 ml concentration, a statistical difference was found between Groups B & C and Groups A & B; and at 50 ml between Groups A&C. Conclusion All the three types of mouthwash exhibit anti-microbial activity against biofilm forming organisms but at varying concentrations. Although Chlorhexidine still continues to be the gold standard, pomegranate-containing or herbal mouthwashes can be easily substituted for long term use, avoiding the side effects of chlorhexidine. PMID:27135005

  13. Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL); open trial of surgery compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in papillomavirus-related PVL.

    PubMed

    Femiano, F; Gombos, F; Scully, C

    2001-08-01

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a unique oral white lesion in which human papillomavirus (HPV) may play a role. PVL behaves far more aggressively than other forms of leukoplakia with a high rate of recurrence after surgical excision, and relentless progression to verrucous hyperplasia and to verrucous or squamous cell carcinomas. The treatment of PVL is usually by surgery, but there is often early recurrence. This study was an open trial of surgery in 25 patients with oral HPV-positive PVL, compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in another group of 25 patients with oral PVL. Six months postoperatively there was a significant difference, with 18 recurrences in the patients treated by surgery alone compared to only two recurrences in the patients treated also with methisoprinol (isoprinosine or inosine pranobex), a synthetic agent with immunomodulatory properties and some antiviral activity against HPV. Eighteen months postoperatively there were no further recurrences in the patients treated by surgery alone but another two recurrences in the patients treated with methisoprinol. Overall, by 18 months follow-up, there were 18 recurrences in the group treated by surgery alone, compared with four in those also receiving methisoprinol. The use of this antiviral agent appeared to offer a significant enhancement to the surgical management of PVL. PMID:11518355

  14. Subacute administration of fluoxetine prevents short-term brain hypometabolism and reduces brain damage markers induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiha, Ahmed Anis; de Cristóbal, Javier; Delgado, Mercedes; Fernández de la Rosa, Rubén; Bascuñana, Pablo; Pozo, Miguel A; García-García, Luis

    2015-02-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in epileptogenesis still remains controversial. In this regard, it has been reported that serotonergic drugs can alter epileptogenesis in opposite ways. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine administered subacutely (10mg/kg/day×7 days) on the eventual metabolic impairment induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. In vivo 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to assess the brain glucose metabolic activity on days 3 and 30 after the insult. In addition, at the end of the experiment (day 33), several histochemical and neurochemical assessments were performed for checking the neuronal functioning and integrity. Three days after the insult, a marked reduction of [(18)F] FDG uptake (about 30% according to the brain region) was found in all brain areas studied. When evaluated on day 30, although a hypometabolism tendency was observed, no statistically significant reduction was present in any region analyzed. In addition, lithium-pilocarpine administration was associated with medium-term hippocampal and cortical damage, since it induced neurodegeneration, glial activation and augmented caspase-9 expression. Regarding the effect of fluoxetine, subacute treatment with this SSRI did not significantly reduce the mortality rate observed after pilocarpine-induced seizures. However, fluoxetine did prevent not only the short-term metabolic impairment, but also the aforementioned signs of neuronal damage in surviving animals to lithium-pilocarpine protocol. Finally, fluoxetine increased the density of GABAA receptor both at the level of the dentate gyrus and CA1-CA2 regions in pilocarpine-treated animals. Overall, our data suggest a protective role for fluoxetine against pilocarpine-induced brain damage. Moreover, this action may be associated with an increase of GABAA receptor expression in hippocampus. PMID:25541342

  15. Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25 mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. PMID:25069786

  16. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  17. Loss of Microbiota-Mediated Colonization Resistance to Clostridium difficile Infection With Oral Vancomycin Compared With Metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brittany B; Buffie, Charlie G; Carter, Rebecca A; Leiner, Ingrid; Toussaint, Nora C; Miller, Liza C; Gobourne, Asia; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-11-15

    Antibiotic administration disrupts the intestinal microbiota, increasing susceptibility to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Metronidazole or oral vancomycin can cure C. difficile infection, and administration of these agents to prevent C. difficile infection in high-risk patients, although not sanctioned by Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines, has been considered. The relative impacts of metronidazole and vancomycin on the intestinal microbiota and colonization resistance are unknown. We investigated the effect of brief treatment with metronidazole and/or oral vancomycin on susceptibility to C. difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli infection in mice. Although metronidazole resulted in transient loss of colonization resistance, oral vancomycin markedly disrupted the microbiota, leading to prolonged loss of colonization resistance to C. difficile infection and dense colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli. Our results demonstrate that vancomycin, and to a lesser extent metronidazole, are associated with marked intestinal microbiota destruction and greater risk of colonization by nosocomial pathogens. PMID:25920320

  18. Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application.

    PubMed

    Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-01-01

    Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

  19. Persistent Hyperactivity of Hippocampal Dentate Interneurons After a Silent Period in the Rat Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaochen; Song, Xinyu; Wu, Lin; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Profile of GABAergic interneuron activity after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was examined in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus by analyzing immediate early gene expression and recording spontaneous firing at near resting membrane potential (REM). SE for exact 2 h or more than 2 h was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. Expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) was examined at 1 h, 1 week, 2 weeks or more than 10 weeks after SE. For animals to be examined at 1 h after SE, SE lasted for exact 2 h was terminated by an intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Spontaneous firing at near the REM was recorded in interneurons located along the border between the granule cell layer and the hilus more than 10 weeks after SE. Results showed that both c-fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) in hilar GABAergic interneurons were up-regulated after SE in a biphasic manner; they were increased at 1 h and more than 2 weeks, but not at 1 week after SE. Ten weeks after SE, nearly 60% of hilar GABAergic cells expressed c-fos. With the exception of calretinin (CR)-positive cells, percentages of hilar neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, parvalbumin (PV)-, and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells with c-fos expression are significantly higher than those of controls more than 10 weeks after SE. Without the REM to be more depolarizing and changed threshold potential level in SE-induced rats, cell-attached recording revealed that nearly 90% of hilar interneurons fired spontaneously at near the REM while only 22% of the same cell population did so in the controls. In conclusion, pilocarpine-induced SE eventually leads to a state in which surviving dentate GABAergic interneurons become hyperactive with a subtype-dependent manner; this implies that a fragile balance between excitation and inhibition exists in the dentate gyrus and in addition, the activity-dependent up-regulation of IEGs may underlie plastic changes seen in some types of GABAergic cells in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. PMID:27092056

  20. A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K; Altorjay, Istvan; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Gratzer, Cornelia; Nijhawan, Sandeep; Thomsen, Lars L

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label, non-inferiority study was conducted at 36 sites in Europe and India. Patients with known intolerance to oral iron were excluded. A total of 338 IBD patients in clinical remission or with mild disease, a hemoglobin (Hb) <12?g/dl, and a transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20% were randomized 2:1 to receive either IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 according to the Ganzoni formula (225 patients) or oral iron sulfate 200?mg daily (equivalent to 200?mg elemental iron; 113 patients). An interactive web response system method was used to randomize the eligible patient to the treatment groups. The primary end point was change in Hb from baseline to week 8. Iron isomaltoside 1,000 and iron sulfate was compared by a non-inferiority assessment with a margin of ?0.5?g/dl. The secondary end points, which tested for superiority, included change in Hb from baseline to weeks 2 and 4, change in s-ferritin, and TSAT to week 8, number of patients who discontinued study because of lack of response or intolerance of investigational drugs, change in total quality of life (QoL) score to weeks 4 and 8, and safety. Exploratory analyses included a responder analysis (proportion of patients with an increase in Hb ?2?g/dl after 8 weeks), the effect of regional differences and total iron dose level, and other potential predictors of the treatment response. RESULTS: Non-inferiority in change of Hb to week 8 could not be demonstrated. There was a trend for oral iron sulfate being more effective in increasing Hb than iron isomaltoside 1,000. The estimated treatment effect was ?0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.80, 0.06) with P=0.09 in the full analysis set (N=327) and ?0.45 (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.03) with P=0.04 in the per protocol analysis set (N=299). In patients treated with IV iron isomaltoside 1,000, the mean change in s-ferritin concentration was higher with an estimated treatment effect of 48.7 (95% CI: 18.6, 78.8) with P=0.002, whereas the mean change in TSAT was lower with an estimated treatment effect of ?4.4 (95% CI: ?7.4, ?1.4) with P=0.005, compared with patients treated with oral iron. No differences in changes of QoL were observed. The safety profile was similar between the groups. The proportion of responders with Hb ?2?g/dl (IV group: 67% oral group: 61%) were comparable between the groups (P=0.32). Iron isomaltoside 1,000 was more efficacious with higher cumulative doses of >1,000?mg IV. Significant predictors of Hb response to IV iron treatment were baseline Hb and C-reactive protein (CRP). CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate non-inferiority of IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 compared with oral iron in this study. Based on the doseresponse relationship observed with the IV iron compound, we suggest that the true iron demand of IV iron was underestimated by the Ganzoni formula in our study. Alternative calculations including Hb and CRP should be explored to gauge iron stores in patients with IBD. PMID:24145678

  1. Dual mechanisms of rapid expression of anxiety-related behavior in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shintaro; Ohkido, Taro; Itakura, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamori, Saori; Iida, Yuuki; Saito, Masanori; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masami

    2016-07-01

    A mouse model of epilepsy was generated by inducing status epilepticus (SE) for either 1.5 or 4.5h with pilocarpine to study anxiety-related behaviors, changes in the electroencephalogram of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and expression of hippocampal proteins. The viability and rate of success of SE induction were high in C57BL/6N mice but not in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6N mice were immotile during the first 2days after SE; however, by the third day, most mice were recovered and exhibited strong anxiety-related behaviors in response to the light/dark preference test and open field test. There was a striking difference in the temporal appearance of anxiety-related behavior between the two SE durations: 1.5h SE mice exhibited strong anxiety-related behavior 3days after SE that gradually attenuated over the next few weeks, whereas 4.5h SE mice exhibited strong anxiety-related behavior 3days after SE that persisted even at nearly 1year after SE. Mice receiving both SE durations exhibited generalized seizures (GS) after SE; however, there was a marked difference in the timing and duration of GS appearance. Mice in the 4.5h SE group exhibited spontaneous GS from 4days to at least 96days after SE. In contrast, mice in the 1.5h SE group exhibited GS only within the first several days after SE; however, epileptic spike clusters continuously appeared in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus for up to twelve days after SE. Among the hippocampal proteins tested, only brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exhibited altered expression in parallel with anxiety-related behavior. These results showed the possibility that BDNF expression in the hippocampus might cause anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. PMID:27132018

  2. Fish oil provides protection against the oxidative stress in pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nejm, Mariana B; Haidar, André A; Marques, Márcia J G; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nogueira, Fernando N; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. Neuronal loss observed in epileptic brain may be result of an overproduction of free radicals (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between antioxidant defenses and oxidizing agents (free radicals), which can lead to tissue injury. The n-3 PUFAs are important for the development and maintenance of central nervous system functions. Research by our group has shown that chronic treatment with fish oil, immediately after status epilepticus (SE), exhibits both neuroprotective effects and effects on neuroplasticity. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate if fish oil exhibits a protective effect against oxidative stress. Animals were subjected to TLE model by pilocarpine administration. After 3 h of SE they were randomly divided into the following groups: control animals treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil and animals with epilepsy treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil. After 90 days, superoxide anion production, enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p47(PHOX) and gp91(PHOX)) were analyzed. Our results showed evidences that reactive oxygen species are increased in animals with epilepsy and that fish oil supplementation could counteract it. Fish oil supplementation promoted protection against oxidative stress by multiple ways, which involved the reduction of activity and expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and increased the activity and expression of antioxidants enzymes, contributing to well-known neuroprotective effect in epilepsy. PMID:25893881

  3. Status epilepticus triggers early mitochondrial fusion in the rat hippocampus in a lithium-pilocarpine model.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Carrera-Calvo, Dulce; Solís-Navarrete, Jael; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Agredano-Moreno, Lourdes Teresa; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-07-01

    Many reports investigating the hippocampus have demonstrated an increase in neuronal damage, cellular loss, oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage during status epilepticus (SE); however, information regarding alterations in mitochondrial fission and fusion events in SE is lacking. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible imbalance between mitochondrial fission and fusion in the hippocampus of male rats after acute seizure mediated by SE. In this study, we used ninety animals were randomly divided into control and SE groups and subjected to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained at 3, 24 and 72h after SE, and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial fractions of the cells were used to analyze changes in the Drp1 and Fis1 fission proteins and the Mfn1 and Opa1 fusion proteins by western blot analysis. Moreover, changes in the expression of fission and fusion mRNA transcripts were evaluated by real-time PCR. Mitochondrial morphology was also analyzed using standard transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the fission-related mRNA Drp1 was down-regulated rapidly after SE, while Fis1 did not show any significant changes in expression. Moreover, the mitochondrial fusion-associated proteins Mfn1 and Opa1 exhibited an increase in expression at 72h after SE. Electron microphotography revealed several morphological changes, such as swollen mitochondria and damage of the inner mitochondrial membrane, at 24h; at 72h elongation of some mitochondrial was also observed. Our results suggest that after the initiation of SE, the main regulator of the fission mRNA Drp1 is down-regulated, which in turn regulates mitochondrial fission and leads to an increase in the Mfn1 and Opa1 proteins to induce mitochondrial fusion, suggesting an imbalance of the fission and fusion processes. PMID:27045873

  4. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Bernard; Vicenzi, Morgane; Garrel, Catherine; Denis, Frédéric M

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83 µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation. PMID:26262996

  5. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bernard; Vicenzi, Morgane; Garrel, Catherine; Denis, Frédéric M.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83 µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation. PMID:26262996

  6. A randomized comparative trial of a combined oral contraceptive and azelaic acid to assess their effect on sleep quality in adult female acne patients.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rachel Gimenes; da Rocha, Marco Alexandre Dias; Hirotsu, Camila; Hachul, Helena; Bagatin, Edileia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of adult female acne. This subtype of acne presents particular characteristics, and can be triggered by several factors such as smoking, stress, the use of oily cosmetics and even by poor sleep. Sleep quality is related to well-being and the maintenance of body homeostasis. In addition, several skin diseases present a bidirectional relationship with sleep, demonstrating an important connection between skin and the central nervous system. With this in mind, we aimed to compare the effect of two types of treatment for adult female acne (azelaic acid or a combined oral contraceptive) on sleep quality and on concentrations of stress hormones. Also, we proposed to assess the correlation of sleep and hormonal parameters with acne severity. In order to do this, 32 women underwent a clinical evaluation, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and had their blood collected for hormone assays. These procedures were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. At baseline there were no differences between the groups in terms of body mass index, age, acne severity and hormone concentrations. Results showed that both treatments demonstrated effectiveness but that women treated with azelaic acid presented a better sleep quality after the treatment compared to baseline and to the group treated with the combined oral contraceptive. The combined oral contraceptive group presented an increase in cortisol and a decrease in free testosterone concentration in relation to baseline. These data suggest that both azelaic acid and combined oral contraceptive are effective in the treatment of adult female acne but, azelaic acid seems to be a more suitable option for those women who may benefit from a better subjective sleep quality. PMID:26472098

  7. Oral Tranexamic Acid with Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Versus Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Alone in Melasma: An Open Labeled Randomized Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Pradhan, Swetalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation with no definitive therapy. Tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, has demonstrated depigmenting properties and combining this oral drug with other modalities of treatment has shown promising results. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of melasma of either sex attending to dermatology OPD were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply the cream only and Group B patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily and applied a triple combination cream containing fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, tretinoin 0.05%, and hydroquinone 2% once daily for 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using melasma area severity index (MASI) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results: 40 patients completed the study. The MASI scores at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks in group A were 15.425 + 1.09, 11.075 + 9.167 and 6.995 + 6.056 respectively and in group B 18.243 + 1.05, 6.135 + 4.94 and 2.19 + 3.38. Intergroup comparison showed a faster reduction in pigmentation in Group B as compared to Group A and the results were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P value 0.014) and 8 weeks (P value 0.000). The efficacy was maintained throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Addition of oral tranexamic acid to fluocinolone-based triple combination cream results in a faster and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma. PMID:26538719

  8. Reduced hippocampal manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) signal during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: edema or apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Persike, Daniele Suzete; Castro, Leticia Urbano Cardoso de; Sanches, Talita Rojas Cunha; Andrade, Lúcia da Conceição; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-05-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been considered a surrogate marker of Ca(+2) influx into activated cells and tracer of neuronal active circuits. However, the induction of status epilepticus (SE) by kainic acid does not result in hippocampal MEMRI hypersignal, in spite of its high cell activity. Similarly, short durations of status (5 or 15min) induced by pilocarpine did not alter the hippocampal MEMRI, while 30 min of SE even reduced MEMRI signal Thus, this study was designed to investigate possible explanations for the absence or decrease of MEMRI signal after short periods of SE. We analyzed hippocampal caspase-3 activation (to evaluate apoptosis), T2 relaxometry (tissue water content) and aquaporin 4 expression (water-channel protein) of rats subjected to short periods of pilocarpine-induced SE. For the time periods studied here, apoptotic cell death did not contribute to the decrease of the hippocampal MEMRI signal. However, T2 relaxation was higher in the group of animals subjected to 30min of SE than in the other SE or control groups. This result is consistent with higher AQP-4 expression during the same time period. Based on apoptosis and tissue water content analysis, the low hippocampal MEMRI signal 30min after SE can potentially be attributed to local edema rather than to cell death. PMID:24630048

  9. Interplay between interictal spikes and behavioral seizures in young, but not aged pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Bajorat, Rika; Goerss, Doreen; Brenndörfer, Linda; Schwabe, Lars; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Interictal spike activity is commonly observed in the EEG of patients with epilepsy, but the causal interrelationship between interictal spikes and behavioral seizures is poorly understood. We performed long-term video-EEG monitoring of 16 epileptic rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and five control animals. To quantify the interplay between periods of spikes and seizures, we calculated the time spent with spikes as well as the time spent with seizures for each animal. Within a given subject, we found a significant correlation between these two measures in 7/11 young epileptic rats (<400days); this correlation was positive in six cases and negative in one. By contrast, none of five aged pilocarpine-treated animals exhibited significant correlation coefficients between spike periods and seizures (>600days, P<0.05). Instead, aged epileptic rats showed a prominent predominance for either spike periods or seizures, which might explain the absence of significant correlation in this population. We found that there is a significant interplay between interictal periods of spikes and behavioral seizures in young epileptic animals, but this association is absent during aging. PMID:26926072

  10. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Herpes Main Content Title: Oral ...

  11. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  12. Evaluation of the effect of three supplementary oral hygiene measures on salivary mutans streptococci levels in children: A randomized comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Prathyusha, P.; Joseph, Elizabeth; Kaul, Rupali Borkar; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of tongue scraping, tongue brushing, and saturated saline on salivary MS levels. Materials and Methods: A single-blinded, randomized, parallel group clinical trial was conducted in children aged 912 years. Total sample of 45 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, that is, Group A, Group B, and Group C comprised of 15 each. Group A, Group B, and Group C were asked to do tongue scraping, tongue brushing and saturated saline rinsing twice daily, respectively for 21 days. Saliva samples, collected from the subjects on the baseline, 7th day and 21st day, were inoculated on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar and incubated at 37C for 48 h. The mean streptococcal colony forming counts were enumerated. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon signed rank sum test for intragroup comparisons and MannWhitney U-test for intergroup comparisons. Results: Intragroup comparisons showed statistically significant reduction in MS levels (P < 0.01). However, the intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The oral hygiene measures evaluated proved equal efficacy in reducing the colony counts. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the importance of incorporating supplementary oral hygiene measures in daily oral care. PMID:26929682

  13. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required to further assess the efficacy of NOACs. PMID:26150723

  14. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events.

    PubMed

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required to further assess the efficacy of NOACs. PMID:26150723

  15. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

  16. A randomised titrated crossover study comparing two oral appliances in the treatment for mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Liu, Y H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of two oral appliances in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) by the analysis of objective and subjective evaluations and measurement of upper airway parameter. A randomised crossover design trial was carried out on 16 patients with OSAHS. Two different types of oral appliances were tested in each patient, a one-piece monoblock and the SILENT NITE(®) (GlideWell Laboratories, Newport Beach, CA, USA), a two-piece appliance. Each oral appliance needed to be worn for two 3-month periods separated by a 2-week wash-out period in between. The objective and subjective efficiency and upper airway parameters associated with the oral appliances were assessed. One-way analysis of variance (anova) test was performed to compare the changes in upper airway morphology and the treatment efficiency between the appliances. The monoblock and SILENT NITE(®) (GlideWell Laboratories) appliances reduced Apnoea Hypopnoea Index (AHI) from 26·38 ± 4·13 to 7·58 ± 2·28 (P < 0·001) and 8·87 ± 2·88 (P < 0·001), respectively. The monoblock appliance was statistically more efficient in reducing AHI and Apnoea Index (AI) than the SILENT NITE(®) (GlideWell Laboratories) (P < 0·05). The scores on Epworth's Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Snoring Scale (SS) were improved significantly by both appliances. The upper airway spaces showed considerable enlargement by both mandibular advancement appliances (MAAs) (P < 0·05), while no significant differences were found between the two appliances (P > 0·05). Both MAAs showed good efficacy in the treatment for mild to moderate OSAHS. Use of the monoblock appliance should be considered when patients with OSAHS choose MAA treatment, as it was more efficient in reducing the AHI and AI compared to the two-piece appliance and was preferred by most patients. Long-term efficiency should be evaluated in future prospective studies. PMID:23016888

  17. A new era of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: comparing a new generation of oral anticoagulants with warfarin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but data from large, multinational, prospective, randomized studies suggest that novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be suitable alternatives. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. These data showed that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was more effective at preventing stroke than warfarin, with similar rates of major bleeding, while rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily was noninferior to warfarin, with no difference in major bleeding rates. In addition, apixaban 5 mg twice daily was shown to be superior to warfarin for preventing stroke, with lower bleeding rates. Currently, edoxaban is still in clinical trials. NOACs offer more predictable anticoagulant effects than warfarin and do not require regular monitoring; however, different NOACs are associated with varied drug interactions and limitations related to use in certain patient populations. Overall, the clinical data suggest that these novel agents will offer new options for stroke prevention in patients with AF. PMID:24171796

  18. Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 μg levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 μg ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 μg EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 μg LNG/30 μg EE [Treatment 2] or 150 μg desogestrel [DSG]/30 μg EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [− 18.3 pmol/L] > − 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

  19. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF may inhibit HDAC activity, thus increasing histone acetylation and producing changes in the chromatin structure, which likely facilitates the transcription of a subset of genes that confer anticonvulsant activity. PMID:26858603

  20. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF may inhibit HDAC activity, thus increasing histone acetylation and producing changes in the chromatin structure, which likely facilitates the transcription of a subset of genes that confer anticonvulsant activity. PMID:26858603

  1. Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    How, Kah Yan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2's catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity. PMID:25436236

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. PMID:26048667

  3. Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0.18). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral mucoperiosteal flap could be an option in the choice of interpositional materials in surgery of TMJ ankylosis. PMID:25745573

  4. Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-jun

    2014-01-01

    Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden. PMID:25419137

  5. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ► The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ► The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ► The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ► However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

  6. A rapid screen for lupus anticoagulant with good discrimination from oral anticoagulants, congenital factor deficiency and heparin, is provided by comparing a sensitive and an insensitive APTT reagent.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, V; Ames, P R; Glynn, J; Iannaccone, L; Mackie, I J

    1997-04-01

    Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and laboratory detection is of major importance. Various tests are available for LA screening and confirmation, but they differ in sensitivity and specificity, frequently lacking the ability to discriminate between the presence of LA, heparin and oral anticoagulants. We noticed that a patient with LA who had a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) by our routine method, gave a normal result with a different APTT reagent. This latter reagent, which contained soy bean phosphatides (SBP), was compared with a reagent containing rabbit brain phospholipids complexed with kaolin (RBK), for APTT measurement in a variety of patients. There was no significant difference in APTT ratio between the two reagents in plasma samples from healthy normal subjects. In LA samples, SBP gave consistently lower APTT ratios than RBK (mean +/- SEM, 1.04 +/- 0.05 and 2.08 +/- 0.19 for SBP and RBK respectively; P < 0.001). In LA patients receiving oral anticoagulants for antithrombotic prophylaxis or treatment, the APTT ratio was again significantly shorter with SBP (1.60 +/- 0.17 and 3.40 +/- 0.67; P < 0.05). In LA negative patients receiving oral anticoagulants, the relationship was reversed, and a higher APTT ratio was obtained with SBP than RBK (1.61 +/- 0.13 and 1.31 +/- 0.12; P < 0.001). In addition, there were no significant differences in APTT ratios for the two reagents when samples from patients receiving heparin therapy, or patients with acquired factor VIII deficiency or inherited deficiency of factor VIII or IX were studied. The use of the SBP reagent alongside a LA sensitive APTT reagent allows a rapid screening for LA, as well as a confirmation of the phospholipid dependency of the inhibitor. PMID:9167015

  7. Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide

    PubMed Central

    Pelaz, Alejandro; Gallego, Lorena; García-Consuegra, Luis; Junquera, Sonsoles; Gómez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Material and Methods: Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Results: Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bis-phosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. Conclusions: In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ. Key words:Osteonecrosis, oral bisphosphonate, treatment, teriparatide, plasma rich in growth factors. PMID:24608203

  8. Oral-Linguistic and Nonoral-Visual Styles of Attending: Navajo and Caucasian Children Compared in an Urban Classroom and on an Urban Playground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of frequency and directionality of 13 Navajo and 7 Caucasian preschool children's oral-linguistic and nonoral-visual behaviors in an urban classroom and playground revealed Navajo children to be far less oral-linguistic, considerably less oral-nonlinguistic, and strikingly more nonoral-visual than the Caucasian children. (NEC)

  9. Comparative cost-effectiveness of 11 oral antipsychotics for relapse prevention in schizophrenia within Singapore using effectiveness estimates from a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Zhao, Ying J; Zhou, Hui J; Khoo, Ai L; Teng, Monica; Soh, Lay B; Lim, Boon P; Sim, Kang

    2016-03-01

    This study modelled the cost-effectiveness of 11 oral antipsychotics for relapse prevention among patients with remitted schizophrenia in Singapore. A network meta-analysis determined the relative efficacy and tolerability of 11 oral antipsychotics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sulpiride, trifluoperazine and ziprasidone). The clinical estimates were applied in a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years gained. Quality-of-life data were obtained from published literature. Resource utilization and cost data were retrieved from local hospital databases. The annual direct cost of healthcare services for a patient experiencing a relapse episode was three-fold that of a patient not in relapse of schizophrenia. The most favourable pharmacological treatment for relapse prevention was olanzapine with an annual probability of relapse of 0.24 (0.13-0.38) with placebo as a reference of 0.75 (0.73-0.78). Olanzapine emerged as the dominant treatment with the highest quality-adjusted life-years gained and lowest lifetime costs. Ziprasidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone incurred higher lifetime costs compared with no treatment. Probability and cost of relapse were key drivers of cost-effectiveness in sensitivity analyses. The data can help prescribers in choosing appropriate treatment and payers in allocating resources for the clinical management of this serious psychiatric disorder. PMID:26619182

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... This Page Facebook External link – please review ...

  11. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I am bothered by the color of my gums”(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),“I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

  12. Cost-minimization study comparing annual infusion of zoledronic acid or weekly oral alendronate in women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro; Espinosa-Ortega, Fabricio

    2014-01-01

    Cost-minimization study to assess the annual direct costs of 2 antiresorptive strategies in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral densities (BMDs). Patients were randomly assigned to receive 70 mg of oral weekly alendronate or a 1-time 5mg of intravenous zoledronic acid. All medical and nonmedical direct costs were recorded for 1 yr. Student's t-test or the Chi-squared test was used. A total of 101 postmenopausal women were enrolled with a mean age of 58.3 ± 7.6 yr and a postmenopausal period of 13.5 ± 8.3 yr. A total of 50 patients completed 1 yr of alendronate and 51 patients received zoledronic acid. At baseline, no differences were seen between the 2 groups in anthropometric measures, comorbidities, and bone mineral density. The costs for medical attention for low bone mass were $81,532 (US Dollars) for the alendronate group and $69,251 for the zoledronic acid group; the cost per patient was $1631 in the alendronate group vs $1358 in the zoledronic acid group (p<0.0001). Therefore, zoledronic acid treatment provided an annual savings of 15% of the direct costs compared with oral alendronate treatment. Moreover, there was a significant increase in lumbar spine T-scores in the zoledronic acid group when compared with the alendronate group. Annual zoledronic acid infusion as an antiresorptive treatment in women with low BMD provides significant monetary savings when compared with weekly alendronate therapy for 1 yr. Zoledronic acid infusion is also linked to higher increase in BMD and compliance. PMID:24613450

  13. Long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate versus oral paliperidone extended release: a comparative analysis from two placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. Methods This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46–4.35; p < 0.001]. Similarly, risk of relapse after withdrawal of paliperidone ER treatment (placebo group of the paliperidone ER study) was higher than after withdrawal of PP (paliperidone ER placebo/PP placebo HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.59–3.18; p < 0.001). Stabilised schizophrenic subjects treated with PP maintained functioning demonstrated by the same proportions of subjects with mild to no difficulties in functioning at DB baseline and end point [Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale total score >70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar. Conclusions This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23845018

  14. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  15. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:26473160

  16. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species-specific and divergent changes are consistent with species-specific tumors.

  17. Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Dose Intravenous Peramivir with Oral Oseltamivir in Patients with Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Shigeru; Yen, Muh-Yong; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Ishida, Tadashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jingoro

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ≥20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. PMID:21825298

  18. Efficacy and tolerance of rifampicin-linezolid compared with rifampicin-cotrimoxazole combinations in prolonged oral therapy for bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Pasquet, A; Legout, L; Beltrand, E; Dubreuil, L; Migaud, H; Yazdanpanah, Y; Senneville, E

    2009-12-01

    Both linezolid and cotrimoxazole are antibiotics that are well suited for oral therapy of bone and joint infections (BJI) caused by otherwise resistant Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (resistance to fluoroquinolones, maccolides, betalactamines). However, in this context, no data are currently available regarding the safety and tolerance of these antibiotics in combination with rifampicin. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a combination of rifampicin and linezolid (RLC) with those of a combination of rifampicin and cotrimoxazole (RCC) in the treatment of BJI. Between February 2002 and December 2006, 56 adult patients (RLC, n = 28; RCC, n = 28), including 36 with infected orthopaedic devices (RLC, n = 18; RCC, n = 18) and 20 with chronic osteomyelitis (RLC, n = 10; RCC, n = 10), were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. Patients who discontinued antibiotic therapy within 4 weeks of commencing treatment were considered to represent cases of treatment failure and were excluded. Rates of occurrence of adverse effects were similar in the two groups, at 42.9% in the RLC group and 46.4% in the RCC group (p = 1.00), and led to treatment discontinuation in four (14.3%) RLC and six (21.4%) RCC patients. Cure rates were found to be similar in the two groups (RLC, 89.3%, RCC, 78.6%; p = 0.47). Prolonged oral RLC and RCC therapy were found to be equally effective in treating patients with BJI caused by resistant GPC, including patients with infected orthopaedic devices. However, the lower cost of cotrimoxazole compared with linezolid renders RCC an attractive treatment alternative to RLC. Further larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:19438638

  19. The bioavailability of oral penicillin V. A comparative study of the absorption of different salts of penicillin V in children.

    PubMed

    Bolme, P; Eriksson, M

    1976-03-01

    Different salts of penicillin V (pc-V): potassium pc-V (Calciopen and Kåvepenin), calcium pc-V (Penicals) and benzathine pc-V (Meropenin) were given to 37 children (age 2 months to 4 years) with upper respiratory infections. The gastro-intestinal absorption of the drug given in a mixture was followed for three hours after administration by determination of the serum levels from capillary samples. Administration of the mixtures containing the potassium pc-V resulted in a more rapid absorption and in significantly higher plasma concentrations at 30 min than did administration of the preparations containing the calcium and benzathine salts. In four children with coeliac disease, verified by intestinal biopsy, the absorption of potassium pc-V (Calciopen) was compared with that of calcium pc-V (Penicals). A decreased absorption was found and this was most pronounced when the calcium salt was given. PMID:816174

  20. Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail. PMID:23674915

  1. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

  2. Comparative effects on bone mineral density of tibolone, transdermal estrogen and oral estrogen/progestogen therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prelevic, G M; Bartram, C; Wood, J; Okolo, S; Ginsburg, J

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the comparative effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in routine clinical practice of tibolone and estrogen (given either unopposed or combined with cyclical progestogen) in postmenopausal women who had not previously received estrogen or other menopausal therapy. BMD was measured in the spine and hip by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 12-month intervals over 3 years in 82 consecutive postmenopausal women referred for climacteric therapy. Of these, 35 women received tibolone, 24 transdermal estradiol alone and 12 conjugated equine estrogens together with cyclical progestogen; 11 received no therapy other than calcium. BMD increased significantly in the spine in those taking tibolone over 3 years (p < 0.0001 at 1 year; p < 0.0001 at 2 years; and p = 0.03 at 3 years). In those treated with conjugated equine estrogens and cyclical progestogen, BMD in the spine also increased significantly over the first 2 years (p = 0.03 at 1 year; p = 0.004 at 2 years), but not at 3 years. However, although BMD in the spine also rose over 3 years in the women treated with transdermal estradiol alone, the increase was not statistically significant. No significant change in the BMD of either the spine or the hip was observed in the control group. A significant difference in the increase of BMD in the spine between the different treatment groups was observed at 2 years (p = 0.004) in favor of those taking tibolone or conjugated equine estrogens, compared to women who received transdermal estradiol. The highest proportion of individual responders to therapy after 2 years' treatment was observed in those receiving tibolone or conjugated equine estrogens. There was no significant change in the BMD of the hip over 3 years, irrespective of the therapy taken, although there was a tendency towards a progressive increase in the women on tibolone. Neither the age of the women, their body mass index or pretreatment BMD had a significant effect on changes in bone density. Since tibolone effected a greater increase in spine BMD than did either conjugated equine estrogen with progestogen or transdermal estradiol alone, it is particularly suitable for older women who often have more advanced osteoporosis and who would not accept a return of cyclical bleeding. PMID:9032569

  3. Different effects of neuroprotectants FK-506 and cyclosporin A on susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats with brain injured at different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Setkowicz, Zuzanna; Ciarach, Małgorzata; Guzik, Rafał; Janeczko, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility of the injured brain to epileptic seizures depends on the developmental stage at which the injury had been inflicted (our previous paper published in Epilepsy Res. 53 (2003) 216-224). The present study was designed to examine whether neuroprotective agents applied following the injury can decrease the seizure susceptibility. In order to solve this problem, the left cerebral hemisphere was mechanically injured in 6- and 30-day-old Wistar rats. Neuroprotectants FK506 or Cyclosporin A (CsA) were injected 20 min and 24h following the injury. On postnatal day 60, all the animals received single i.p. pilocarpine injections to evoke epileptic seizures. During a 6h period following the injection, the animals were observed continuously and pilocarpine-induced symptoms were recorded and rated. The animals were sacrificed 7 days after pilocarpine injection. In rats injured on postnatal days 6 or 30 (P6 or P30, respectively) and injected with FK-506 after the injury, signs of amelioration in the course of epilepsy were observed. Generally, proportions of rats suffering from heavy seizures were lower and/or their survival periods were longer. Following treatment with CsA, proportions of rats displaying heavy seizures were greater. It was accompanied by extremely high mortality (in rats injured on P6) or a longer duration of seizures (in rats injured on P30). The results appear to point to age-dependent differences between the mechanisms of action of the two neuroprotectants. PMID:15451009

  4. Effect of ketogenic diet on nucleotide hydrolysis and hepatic enzymes in blood serum of rats in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Mller, Alexandre Pastoris; Figueir, Fabrcio; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos L Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, used for treating refractory epilepsy in children. We have previously shown alterations in nucleotidase activities from the central nervous system and blood serum of rats submitted to different models of epilepsy. In this study we investigated the effect of KD on nucleotidase activities in the blood serum, as well if KD has any influence in the activity of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities in Wistar rats submitted to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. At 21 days of age, rats received an injection of lithium chloride and, 18-19 h later, they received an injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride for status epilepticus induction. The results reported herein show that seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine elicit a significant increase in ATP hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as a decrease in ADP hydrolysis and aspartate aminotransferase activity. The KD is a rigorous regimen that can be associated with hepatic damage, as shown herein by the elevated activities of liver enzymes and 5'-nucleotidase in blood serum. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of lithium on nucleotidases in blood serum. PMID:20443057

  5. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  6. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice: A comparison of spectral analysis of electroencephalogram and behavioral grading using the Racine scale.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Kevin D; Shwe, U T; Williams, David K; Greenfield, L John; Zheng, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a widely used seizure model in mice, and the Racine scale has been used to index seizure intensity. The goal of this study was to analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) quantitatively using fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and statistically evaluate the correlation of electrographic seizures with convulsive behaviors. Simultaneous EEG and video recordings in male mice in a mixed genetic background were conducted and pilocarpine was administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. The videos were graded using the Racine scale and the root-mean-square (RMS) power analysis of EEG was performed with Sirenia Seizure Pro software. We found that the RMS power was very weakly correlated with convulsive behavior induced by pilocarpine. Convulsive behaviors appeared long before electrographic seizures and showed a strong negative correlation with theta frequency activity and a moderate positive correlation with gamma frequency activity. Racine scores showed moderate correlations with RMS power across multiple frequency bands during the transition from first electrographic seizure to SE. However, there was no correlation between Racine scores and RMS power during the SE phase except a weak correlation with RMS power in the theta frequency. Our analysis reveals limitations of the Racine scale as a primary index of seizure intensity in status epilepticus, and demonstrates a need for quantitative analysis of EEG for an accurate assessment of seizure onset and severity. PMID:26432759

  7. A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed. PMID:23086987

  8. Comparative Study of Esterase and Hemolytic Activities in Clinically Important Candida Species, Isolated From Oral Cavity of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Poormohamadi, Farzad; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus as a chronic metabolic disease occurs in patients with partial or complete deficiency of insulin secretion or disorder in action of insulin on tissue. The disease is known to provide conditions for overgrowth of Candida species. Candida spp. cause candidiasis by many virulence factors such as esterase, hemolysin and phospholipase. Objectives: This study aimed to compare esterase and hemolytic activity in various Candida species isolated from oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Patients and Methods: Swab samples were taken from 95 patients with diabetes (35 men and 60 women) and 95 normal persons (42 men and 53 women) and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Identification of isolated yeasts was performed by germ tube test, morphology on CHROMagar Candida medium, corn meal agar and ability to grow at 45°C. Hemolysin activity was evaluated using blood plate assay and esterase activity was determined using the Tween 80 opacity test. Results: Different Candida species were isolated from 57 (60%) diabetic and 24 (25%) non-diabetic individuals. Esterase activity was detected in all Candida isolates. Only 21.6% of C. albicans from patients with diabetes had esterase activity as + 3, while it ranged from + 1 to + 2 in others. Hemolytic activity was determined in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. krusei as 0.79, 0.58, 0.66 and 0.74, respectively. Hemolytic activity was significantly different in the two groups of diabetics and non-diabetics. Conclusions: Oral carriage of C. albicans in the diabetic group (n = 42; 66.7%) was significantly greater than the control group (n = 16; 57.1%). Esterase activity of C. albicans in diabetic group was higher than non-diabetic group. Although C. albicans remains the most frequently pathogenic yeast for human, but other species are increasing. PMID:25861439

  9. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  10. A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Side-Effects of Intravaginal Ring (Nuvaring®) With Combined Oral Hormonal Preparation in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Neelam B.; Narang, Yam; Suneja, Amita; Guleria, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) pills are being used in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding, especially adolescents and reproductive age women considering their need for contraception. It decreases the blood loss due to haemostatic effect of estrogen and also regularizes the cycle. Intravaginal route has been found to be effective and acceptable; Gastrointestinal absorption and hepatic first-pass metabolism is avoided and steady, uniform blood concentration is achieved. Bioavailability of estrogen and progestogen through oral and vaginal route are same. The convenience of once-a-month administration is another major advantage. Materials and Mathods Sixty women fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomised into 2 groups in 1:1 ratio. In one group (n=30), monthly insertion of Nuvaring®) was done for three consecutive months. Nuvaring® releases 15μg ethinyl estradiol and 120 μg etonogesterol daily. The other group (n=30) received COC pill containing 30μg EE and 150 μg levonorgestrel for three consecutive months. Primary outcome measures were change in menstrual cycle pattern and pictorial Blood Loss Assessment chart (PBAC) score. Other Parameters included side effects, change in haemoglobin and weight. Data was analyzed by statistical software SPSS 20. Results Both Nuvaring® and COC were found to significantly decrease blood loss in each cycle. Decrease in PBAC score was more in Nuvaring® group compared to COC, however difference was not significant. Ideal bleed (IB) was frequently higher for Nuvaring® group than COC in all 3 cycles, although no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p-value=0.286). Late withdrawl, intermenstural spotting was higher in COC group. Compliance was better and women were more satisfied in Nuvaring® group compared to COC group. Minor side effects like headache, mastalgia, nausea and mood changes were seen in both groups, which were not significant. Continuation rate was significantly higher in Nuvaring® group. 30% women discontinued treatment in OCP group after 3 month compare to 10% in Nuvaring® group. Conclusion Present study shows Nuvaring® to be as effective as COC in controlling heavy menstural bleed, better cycle control, with minor acceptable systemic side effects. PMID:27134949

  11. Comparative effects of oral chlorpyrifos exposure on cholinesterase activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rat heart.

    PubMed

    Howard, Marcia D; Mirajkar, Nikita; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey N

    2007-09-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M(2) muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M(2) receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor-mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M(2) receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age-related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac cholinesterase (ChE) activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1x LD(10): neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1x LD(10), relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (approximately 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC(50) values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that differential A-esterase activity was not responsible for the age-related difference in cholinesterase sensitivity between age groups. Pre-incubation of neonatal and adult tissues with selective inhibitors of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) indicated that a majority (82-90%) of ChE activity in the heart of both neonates and adults was BChE. The rapid onset (by 4h after dosing) of changes in muscarinic receptor binding in adult heart may be a reflection of the more potent direct binding to muscarinic receptors by chlorpyrifos oxon previously reported in adult tissues. The results suggest that ChE activity (primarily BChE) in neonatal heart may be inherently more sensitive to inhibition by some anticholinesterases and that toxicologically significant binding to muscarinic receptors may be possible with acute chlorpyrifos intoxication, potentially contributing to age-related differences in sensitivity. PMID:17644233

  12. The prevalence of human herpes viruses in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to oral health providers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Leon; Elimelech, Rina; Szwarcwort-Cohen, Moran; Kra-Oz, Zipi; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-06-01

    The causative agents in periodontal disease are periopathogenic bacteria; however, viruses have been implicated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different HHVs in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and to compare it to two groups of healthy controls. Three groups were included: chronic periodontitis patients (CP), periodontally healthy patients (NP) and oral health providers with a healthy periodontium (NPOHP). For each subject, 1 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and mixed with 2 ml lysis buffer. HHVs assays were performed using real-time PCR. Fifteen percent of the subjects in the CP group tested positive for CMV compared to none in the NP and NPOHP groups (p = 0.04). Recurrent herpes was more frequent in females (51.7 %) than in males (33.3 %), and this was statistically significant (p = 0.038). The higher prevalence of CMV in the unstimulated saliva of CP patients suggests that CMV may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:23381395

  13. Changes of AMPA receptor properties in the neocortex and hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Sergey L; Amakhin, Dmitry V; Veniaminova, Ekaterina A; Kim, Kira Kh; Zubareva, Olga E; Magazanik, Lev G; Zaitsev, Aleksey V

    2016-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in humans. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rodents reproduces some of the main features of human TLE. Three-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. The changes in AMPA receptor subunit composition were investigated in several brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the temporal cortex (TC), and the dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH) during the first week following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PILO-induced SE). In the hippocampus, GluA1 and GluA2 mRNA expression slightly decreased after PILO-induced SE and returned to the initial level on the seventh day. We did not detect any significant changes in mRNA expression of the GluA1 and GluA2 subunits in the TC, whereas in the mPFC we observed a significant increase of GluA1 mRNA expression on the third day and a decrease in GluA2 mRNA expression during the entire first week. Accordingly, the GluA1/GluA2 expression ratio increased in the mPFC, and the functional properties of the pyramidal cell excitatory synapses were disturbed. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we found that on the third day following PILO-induced SE, isolated mPFC pyramidal neurons showed an inwardly rectifying current-voltage relation of kainate-evoked currents, suggesting the presence of GluA2-lacking calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs). IEM-1460, a selective antagonist of CP-AMPARs, significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked EPSC in pyramidal neurons from mPFC slices on the first and third days, but not on the seventh day. The antagonist had no effects on EPSC amplitude in slices from control animals. Thus, our data demonstrate that PILO-induced SE affects subunit composition of AMPARs in different brain areas, including the mPFC. SE induces transient (up to few days) incorporation of CP-AMPARs in the excitatory synapses of mPFC pyramidal neurons, which may disrupt normal circuitry functions. PMID:27109923

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Oral Antibiotics Regimens for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Outpatients: An Analysis of National Representative Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Tse Gabriel; Lee, Shih-Hao; Chang, Shy-Shin; Lee, Si-Huei; Lee, Matthew; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are very limited data on the postmarketing outcome comparison of different guideline antibiotic regimens for patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We carried out a population-based comparative effectiveness study from year 2000 through 2009, using the administrative data of 2 million patients from the National Health Informatics Project of Taiwan. Treatment failure was defined as either hospitalization or emergency department visits for UTI. Odd ratios were computed using conditional logistic regression models matched on propensity score. We identified 73,675 individuals with UTI, of whom 54,796 (74.4%) received trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 4184 (5.7%) received ciprofloxacin, 3142 (4.3%) received levofloxacin, 5984 (8.1%) received ofloxacin, and 5569 (7.6%) received norfloxacin. Compared with TMP-SMX, the composite treatment failure was significantly lowered for norfloxacin in propensity score (PS) matching analyses (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54–0.99). Both norfloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47–0.98) and ofloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49–0.99) had significantly lowered composite treatment failure rate when compared with ciprofloxacin. Subgroup analysis suggested that both norfloxacin and ofloxacin were more effective in female patients without complications (W/O indwelling catheters, W/O bedridden status and W/O spinal cord injury), when compared with either TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin. Among outpatients receiving oral fluoroquinolone therapy for UTIs, there was evidence of superiority of norfloxacin or ofloxacin over ciprofloxacin or TMP-SMX in terms of treatment failure. Given the observational nature of this study and regional difference in antibiotic resistance patterns, more studies are required to validate our results. PMID:25526477

  15. Comparative effectiveness of different oral antibiotics regimens for treatment of urinary tract infection in outpatients: an analysis of national representative claims database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Tse Gabriel; Lee, Shih-Hao; Chang, Shy-Shin; Lee, Si-Huei; Lee, Matthew; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2014-12-01

    There are very limited data on the postmarketing outcome comparison of different guideline antibiotic regimens for patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We carried out a population-based comparative effectiveness study from year 2000 through 2009, using the administrative data of 2 million patients from the National Health Informatics Project of Taiwan. Treatment failure was defined as either hospitalization or emergency department visits for UTI. Odd ratios were computed using conditional logistic regression models matched on propensity score. We identified 73,675 individuals with UTI, of whom 54,796 (74.4%) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 4184 (5.7%) received ciprofloxacin, 3142 (4.3%) received levofloxacin, 5984 (8.1%) received ofloxacin, and 5569 (7.6%) received norfloxacin. Compared with TMP-SMX, the composite treatment failure was significantly lowered for norfloxacin in propensity score (PS) matching analyses (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99). Both norfloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98) and ofloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49-0.99) had significantly lowered composite treatment failure rate when compared with ciprofloxacin. Subgroup analysis suggested that both norfloxacin and ofloxacin were more effective in female patients without complications (W/O indwelling catheters, W/O bedridden status and W/O spinal cord injury), when compared with either TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin. Among outpatients receiving oral fluoroquinolone therapy for UTIs, there was evidence of superiority of norfloxacin or ofloxacin over ciprofloxacin or TMP-SMX in terms of treatment failure. Given the observational nature of this study and regional difference in antibiotic resistance patterns, more studies are required to validate our results. PMID:25526477

  16. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise. PMID:25893979

  17. Time profiles and toxicokinetic parameters of key biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in orally exposed volunteers compared with previously available kinetic data following permethrin exposure.

    PubMed

    Ratelle, Mylène; Coté, Jonathan; Bouchard, Michèle

    2015-12-01

    Biomonitoring of pyrethroid exposure is largely conducted but human toxicokinetics has not been fully documented. This is essential for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring data. Time profiles and toxicokinetic parameters of key biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in orally exposed volunteers have been documented and compared with previously available kinetic data following permethrin dosing. Six volunteers ingested 0.1 mg kg(-1) bodyweight of cypermethrin acutely. The same volunteers were exposed to permethrin earlier. Blood samples were taken over 72 h after treatment and complete timed urine voids were collected over 84 h postdosing. Cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans- and cis-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) metabolites, common to both cypermethrin and permethrin, were quantified. Blood and urinary time courses of all three metabolites were similar following cypermethrin and permethrin exposure. Plasma levels of metabolites reached peak values on average ≈ 5-7 h post-dosing; the elimination phase showed mean apparent half-lives (t½ ) for trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA of 5.1, 6.9 and 9.2 h, respectively, following cypermethrin treatment as compared to 7.1, 6.2 and 6.5 h after permethrin dosing. Corresponding mean values obtained from urinary rate time courses were peak values at ≈ 9 h post-dosing and apparent elimination t½ of 6.3, 6.4 and 6.4 h for trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA, respectively, following cypermethrin treatment as compared to 5.4, 4.5 and 5.7 h after permethrin dosing. These data confirm that the kinetics of cypermethrin is similar to that of permethrin in humans and that their common biomarkers of exposure may be used for an overall assessment of exposure. PMID:25772368

  18. Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of New Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Uninterrupted Vitamin K Antagonists in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Yang, Yan-Min; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Huai-Bin; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Han; Shao, Xing-Hui

    2016-03-15

    Anticoagulation in catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) is of paramount importance for prevention of thromboembolic events, and recent studies favor uninterrupted vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) to uninterrupted VKAs for anticoagulation in CA by performing a meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched for studies comparing NOACs with uninterrupted VKAs in patients who underwent CA for AF from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. Odds ratio (OR) and Peto's OR (POR) were used to report for event rates >1% and <1%, respectively. A total of 11,686 patients with AF who underwent CA in 25 studies were included in this analysis. There was no significant difference between NOACs and uninterrupted VKAs in occurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attacks (POR 1.35, 95% CI 0.62 to 2.94) and major bleeding (POR 0.87, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.31), which were consistent in subgroup analysis of interrupted and uninterrupted NOACs. A lower risk of minor bleeding was observed with NOACs (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00), and no major differences were observed for the risk of thromboembolic events, cardiac tamponade or pericardial effusion requiring drainage, and groin hematoma. NOACs, whether interrupted preprocedure or not, were associated with equal rates of stroke or TIA and major bleeding complications and less risk of minor bleeding compared with uninterrupted VKAs in CA for AF. PMID:26803384

  19. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Raimond K.W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS.

  20. Oral Mucocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Oral Mucocele Information for adults A A A This image displays a mucocele inside the lip. Overview An oral mucocele is a harmless, fluid-containing (cyst-like) swelling ...

  1. Pilocarpine-induced seizures trigger differential regulation of microRNA-stability related genes in rat hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Erika R.; Higa, Guilherme S. V.; Santos, Bianca A.; de Sousa, Erica; Damico, Marcio V.; Walter, Lais T.; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.; Kihara, Alexandre H.

    2016-01-01

    Epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe elicits regulation of gene expression and protein translation, leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. In this process, miRNAs were described as being regulated in a cell-specific manner, although mechanistics of miRNAs activity are poorly understood. The specificity of miRNAs on their target genes depends on their intracellular concentration, reflecting the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Herein, we confirmed that pilocarpine application promptly (<30 min) induces status epilepticus (SE) as revealed by changes in rat electrocorticogram particularly in fast-beta range (21–30 Hz). SE simultaneously upregulated XRN2 and downregulated PAPD4 gene expression in the hippocampus, two genes related to miRNA degradation and stability, respectively. Moreover, SE decreased the number of XRN2-positive cells in the hilus, while reduced the number of PAPD4-positive cells in CA1. XRN2 and PAPD4 levels did not change in calretinin- and CamKII-positive cells, although it was possible to determine that PAPD4, but not XRN2, was upregulated in parvalbumin-positive cells, revealing that SE induction unbalances the accumulation of these functional-opposed proteins in inhibitory interneurons that directly innervate distinct domains of pyramidal cells. Therefore, we were able to disclose a possible mechanism underlying the differential regulation of miRNAs in specific neurons during epileptogenesis. PMID:26869208

  2. Replacement of Asymmetric Synaptic Profiles in the Molecular Layer of Dentate Gyrus Following Cycloheximide in the Pilocarpine Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Simone; Covolan, Luciene; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Faria, Flávio P.; Freymuller, Edna; Ottersen, Ole P.; Mello, Luiz E.

    2015-01-01

    Mossy fiber sprouting is among the best-studied forms of post-lesional synaptic plasticity and is regarded by many as contributory to seizures in both humans and animal models of epilepsy. It is not known whether mossy fiber sprouting increases the number of synapses in the molecular layer or merely replaces lost contacts. Using the pilocarpine (Pilo) model of status epilepticus to induce mossy fiber sprouting, and cycloheximide (CHX) to block this sprouting, we evaluated at the ultrastructural level the number and type of asymmetric synaptic contacts in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. As expected, whereas Pilo-treated rats had dense silver grain deposits in the inner molecular layer (IML) (reflecting mossy fiber sprouting), pilocarpine + cycloheximide (CHX + Pilo)-treated animals did not differ from controls. Both groups of treated rats (Pilo group and CHX + Pilo group) had reduced density of asymmetric synaptic profiles (putative excitatory synaptic contacts), which was greater for CHX-treated animals. For both treated groups, the loss of excitatory synaptic contacts was even greater in the outer molecular layer than in the best-studied IML (in which mossy fiber sprouting occurs). These results indicate that mossy fiber sprouting tends to replace lost synaptic contacts rather than increase the absolute number of contacts. We speculate that the overall result is more consistent with restored rather than with increased excitability. PMID:26635635

  3. Astrocytic Cx 43 and Cx 40 in the mouse hippocampus during and after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wu, X L; Tang, Y C; Lu, Q Y; Xiao, X L; Song, T B; Tang, F R

    2015-05-01

    Astrocytes have now been well accepted to play important roles in epileptogenesis by controlling gliotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, contributing to blood-brain barrier dysfunction and involving in brain inflammation. Recent studies indicate that abnormal expression of gap junction protein connexin (Cx) may also be a contributing factor for seizure generation. To further address this issue, we investigated the progressive changes of Cx 43 and Cx 40 in the mouse hippocampus at 4 h, 1 day, 1 week and 2 months during and after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). The co-localization of Cx 43 and Cx 40 with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was also examined. We observed that Cx 43 and Cx 40 protein expression remained unaltered at 4 h during and at 1 day (acute stage) after PISE. However, their expression was significantly increased in CA1 and CA3 areas and in the dentate gyrus at 1 week (latent stage) and 2 months (chronic stage) after PISE. Double immunofluorescence labeling indicated the localization of Cx 43 and Cx 40 in astrocytes. Combined with progressive neuronal loss in the mouse hippocampus, our results suggest that the increase in gap junctions in the neuronoglial syncytium of reactive astrocytes may be implicated in synchronization of hippocampal hyperactivity leading to neuronal loss and epileptogenesis. PMID:25690864

  4. Protective effects of curcumin against lithium–pilocarpine induced status epilepticus, cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in young rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE), one of the most severe forms of epilepsy is regarded a medical emergency with considerable morbidity and mortality. Due to the limited efficacy and enormous side effects of currently available drugs, a search for new safe and effective therapeutic agents is critical using experimentally induced SE in animals. The lithium–pilocarpine (Li–Pc) model of SE is most suitable and frequently used for pathophysiological and management strategies of SE. Recent studies have shown significant potential of pharmacological, prophylactic or therapeutic use of curcumin (Cur) in many beneficial activities in the body including neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases and antioxidant properties. The present study describes anticonvulsive effects of Cur in Li–Pc induced SE in young rats. The effect of Cur was examined on the intensity and frequency of SE, cognitive behavior in water maze as well as on oxidative stress related enzymes in the brain. Besides its anticonvulsant effect, Cur significantly ameliorates SE-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damages in the hippocampus and striatum areas of the brain. Possible therapeutic application of Cur as an anticonvulsant and as an antioxidant for the treatment of SE has a great potential and warrants further studies. PMID:23961231

  5. Spatiotemporal profile of Map2 and microglial changes in the hippocampal CA1 region following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schartz, Nicole D.; Herr, Seth A.; Madsen, Lauren; Butts, Sarah J.; Torres, Ceidy; Mendez, Loyda B.; Brewster, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) triggers pathological changes to hippocampal dendrites that may promote epileptogenesis. The microtubule associated protein 2 (Map2) helps stabilize microtubules of the dendritic cytoskeleton. Recently, we reported a substantial decline in Map2 that coincided with robust microglia accumulation in the CA1 hippocampal region after an episode of SE. A spatial correlation between Map2 loss and reactive microglia was also reported in human cortex from refractory epilepsy. New evidence supports that microglia modulate dendritic structures. Thus, to identify a potential association between SE-induced Map2 and microglial changes, a spatiotemporal profile of these events is necessary. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of Map2 and the microglia marker IBA1 in the hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced SE from 4 hrs to 35 days. We found a decline in Map2 immunoreactivity in the CA1 area that reached minimal levels at 14 days post-SE and partially increased thereafter. In contrast, maximal microglia accumulation occurred in the CA1 area at 14 days post-SE. Our data indicate that SE-induced Map2 and microglial changes parallel each other’s spatiotemporal profiles. These findings may lay the foundation for future mechanistic studies to help identify potential roles for microglia in the dendritic pathology associated with SE and epilepsy. PMID:27143585

  6. Variations of ATP and its metabolites in the hippocampus of rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doná, Flávia; Conceição, Isaltino Marcelo; Ulrich, Henning; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Freitas, Thalma Ariani; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahao; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José

    2016-06-01

    Although purinergic receptor activity has lately been associated with epilepsy, little is known about the exact role of purines in epileptogenesis. We have used a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine to study the dynamics of purine metabolism in the hippocampus during different times of status epilepticus (SE) and the chronic phase. Concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine in normal and epileptic rat hippocampus were determined by microdialysis in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extracellular ATP concentrations did not vary along 4 h of SE onset. However, AMP concentration was elevated during the second hour, whereas ADP and adenosine concentrations augmented during the third and fourth hour following SE. During chronic phase, extracellular ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations decreased, although these levels again increased significantly during spontaneous seizures. These results suggest that the increased turnover of ATP during the acute period is a compensatory mechanism able to reduce the excitatory role of ATP. Increased adenosine levels following 4 h of SE may contribute to block seizures. On the other hand, the reduction of purine levels in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats may result from metabolic changes and be part of the mechanisms involved in the onset of spontaneous seizures. This work provides further insights into purinergic signaling during establishment and chronic phase of epilepsy. PMID:26939579

  7. Pilocarpine-induced seizures trigger differential regulation of microRNA-stability related genes in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Erika R; Higa, Guilherme S V; Santos, Bianca A; de Sousa, Erica; Damico, Marcio V; Walter, Lais T; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C; Britto, Luiz R G; Kihara, Alexandre H

    2016-01-01

    Epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe elicits regulation of gene expression and protein translation, leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. In this process, miRNAs were described as being regulated in a cell-specific manner, although mechanistics of miRNAs activity are poorly understood. The specificity of miRNAs on their target genes depends on their intracellular concentration, reflecting the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Herein, we confirmed that pilocarpine application promptly (<30 min) induces status epilepticus (SE) as revealed by changes in rat electrocorticogram particularly in fast-beta range (21-30 Hz). SE simultaneously upregulated XRN2 and downregulated PAPD4 gene expression in the hippocampus, two genes related to miRNA degradation and stability, respectively. Moreover, SE decreased the number of XRN2-positive cells in the hilus, while reduced the number of PAPD4-positive cells in CA1. XRN2 and PAPD4 levels did not change in calretinin- and CamKII-positive cells, although it was possible to determine that PAPD4, but not XRN2, was upregulated in parvalbumin-positive cells, revealing that SE induction unbalances the accumulation of these functional-opposed proteins in inhibitory interneurons that directly innervate distinct domains of pyramidal cells. Therefore, we were able to disclose a possible mechanism underlying the differential regulation of miRNAs in specific neurons during epileptogenesis. PMID:26869208

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  9. Granisetron (IV) compared with ondansetron (IV plus oral) in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately-emetogenic chemotherapy. A cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bonneterre, J; Hecquet, B

    1995-12-01

    The French Northern Oncology Group carried out a randomised, cross-over study comparing two anti-emetic treatment strategies in 150 chemotherapy-naive patients, receiving their first two courses of moderately-emetogenic drugs. Nausea and vomiting were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire for five days. Anti-emetic treatments consisted of granisetron (G) 3 mg intravenously (iv) before chemotherapy or ondansetron (O) 8 mg intravenously, followed by 8 mg orally every eight hours for the next three days (for a total of 9 tablets). No significant difference was detected between treatment regimens in terms of their ability to control either acute vomiting (no vomiting - G = 72%; O = 77%) or acute nausea (no nausea - G = 54%; O = 47%), nor in terms of the number of total responders, (no emesis and no nausea) on day 1 (G = 52%; O = 45%) or on days 1- 5 ( mean G - 37%; O = 32%). Furthermore, there was also no significant difference between patient preference for the two treatments, either with regard to efficacy (G = 39%; O = 34%) or tolerability (G = 29%; O = 27%). In conclusion, no difference was observed between the two treatments. PMID:8745670

  10. Anticonvulsant effects of acute treatment with cyane-carvone at repeated oral doses in epilepsy models.

    PubMed

    Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Marques, Maria Leonildes Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damio Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy affects about 40 million people worldwide. Many drugs block seizures, but have little effect in preventing or curing this disease. So the search for new drugs for epilepsy treatment using animal models prior to testing in humans is important. Increasingly pharmaceutical industries invest in the Re?search & Drug Development area to seek safe and effective new therapeutic alternatives to the currently available epilepsy treatment. In this perspective, natural compounds have been investigated in epilepsy models, particularly the monoterpenes obtained from medicinal plants. In our study we investigated the effects of cyane-carvone (CC), a synthetic substance prepared from natural a monoterpene, carvone, against pilocarpine- (PILO), pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ) and picrotoxine (PTX)-induced seizures in mice after acute treatment with repeated oral doses (CC 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) for 14 days. CC in all doses tested showed increase in latency to first seizure, decrease in percentages of seizuring animals as well as reduction percentages of dead animals (p<0.05) in PILO, PTZ and PTX groups when compared with vehicle. However, these effects were not reversed by flumazenil, benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist used to investigate the CC action mechanism. Our results suggest that acute treatment with CC at the doses tested can exert anticonvulsant effects in PILO, PTZ and PTX epilepsy models. In addition, our data suggest that CC could act in an allosteric site of GABAA, which would be different from the site in which BDZ acts, since flumazenil was not able to reverse any of CC effects on the modulation of seizure parameters related with epilepsy models investigated. New studies should be conducted to investigate CC effects in other neurotransmitter systems. Nevertheless, our study reinforces the hypothesis that CC could be used, after further research, as a new pharmaceutical formulation and a promising alternative for epilepsy treatment, since it showed anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24967871

  11. Oral electricity.

    PubMed

    Certosimo, A J; O'Connor, R P

    1996-01-01

    "Oral electricity," "electrogalvanism," or "galvanic currents" has long been recognized as a potential source of oral pain and discomfort. This phenomenon of oral galvanism results from the difference in electrical potential between dissimilar restorative metals located in the mouth. In this case report, the literature is reviewed, and an interesting case study'is presented. The patient's clinical presentation, and the duration and constancy of the oral symptoms, pose diagnostic challenges. A simple, yet effective treatment regimen is proposed. PMID:8957826

  12. Itraconazole Oral Solution for Primary Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancy and Profound Neutropenia: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Placebo, Multicenter Trial Comparing Itraconazole and Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Harousseau, J. L.; Dekker, A. W.; Stamatoullas-Bastard, A.; Fassas, A.; Linkesch, W.; Gouveia, J.; De Bock, R.; Rovira, M.; Seifert, W. F.; Joosen, H.; Peeters, M.; De Beule, K.

    2000-01-01

    Systemic and superficial fungal infections are a major problem among immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancy. A double-blind, double-placebo, randomized, multicenter trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution (2.5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day) with amphotericin B capsules (500 mg orally four times a day) for prophylaxis of systemic and superficial fungal infection. Prophylactic treatment was initiated on the first day of chemotherapy and was continued until the end of the neutropenic period (>0.5 × 109 neutrophils/liter) or up to a maximum of 3 days following the end of neutropenia, unless a systemic fungal infection was documented or suspected. The maximum treatment duration was 56 days. In the intent-to-treat population, invasive aspergillosis was noted in 5 (1.8%) of the 281 patients assigned to itraconazole oral solution and in 9 (3.3%) of the 276 patients assigned to oral amphotericin B; of these, 1 and 4 patients died, respectively. Proven systemic fungal infection (including invasive aspergillosis) occurred in 8 patients (2.8%) who received itraconazole, compared with 13 (4.7%) who received oral amphotericin B. Itraconazole significantly reduced the incidence of superficial fungal infections as compared to oral amphotericin B (2 [1%] versus 13 [5%]; P = 0.004). Although the incidences of suspected fungal infection (including fever of unknown origin) were not different between the groups, fewer patients were administered intravenous systemic antifungals (mainly intravenous amphotericin B) in the group receiving itraconazole than in the group receiving oral amphotericin B (114 [41%] versus 132 [48%]; P = 0.066). Adequate plasma itraconazole levels were achieved in about 80% of the patients from 1 week after the start of treatment. In both groups, the trial medication was safe and well tolerated. Prophylactic administration of itraconazole oral solution significantly reduces superficial fungal infection in patients with hematological malignancies and neutropenia. The incidence of proven systemic fungal infections, the number of deaths due to deep fungal infections, and the use of systemic antifungals tended to be lower in the itraconazole-treated group than in the amphotericin B-treated group, without statistical significance. Itraconazole oral solution is a broad-spectrum systemic antifungal agent with prophylactic activity in neutropenic patients, especially for those at high risk of prolonged neutropenia. PMID:10858349

  13. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  14. Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: A cost effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Geitona, Maria; Kousoulakou, Hara; Ollandezos, Markos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Papanicolaou, Sotiria; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the costs and effects of paliperidone extended release (ER), a new pharmaceutical treatment for the management of schizophrenia, with the most frequently prescribed oral treatments in Greece (namely risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and ziprasidone) over a 1-year time period. Methods A decision tree was developed and tailored to the specific circumstances of the Greek healthcare system. Therapeutic effectiveness was defined as the annual number of stable days and the clinical data was collected from international clinical trials and published sources. The study population was patients who suffer from schizophrenia with acute exacerbation. During a consensus panel of 10 psychiatrists and 6 health economists, data were collected on the clinical practice and medical resource utilisation. Unit costs were derived from public sources and official reimbursement tariffs. For the comparators official retail prices were used. Since a price had not yet been granted for paliperidone ER at the time of the study, the conservative assumption of including the average of the highest targeted European prices was used, overestimating the price of paliperidone ER in Greece. The study was conducted from the perspective of the National Healthcare System. Results The data indicate that paliperidone ER might offer an increased number of stable days (272.5 compared to 272.2 for olanzapine, 265.5 f risperidone, 260.7 for quetiapine, 260.5 for ziprasidone and 258.6 for aripiprazole) with a lower cost compared to the other therapies examined (€7,030 compared to €7,034 for olanzapine, €7,082 for risperidone, €8,321 for quetiapine, €7,713 for ziprasidone and €7,807 for aripiprazole). During the sensitivity analysis, a ± 10% change in the duration and frequency of relapses and the economic parameters did not lead to significant changes in the results. Conclusion Treatment with paliperidone ER can lead to lower total cost and higher number of stable days in most of the cases examined. PMID:18755025

  15. In Vitro Virology Profile of Tenofovir Alafenamide, a Novel Oral Prodrug of Tenofovir with Improved Antiviral Activity Compared to That of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, George; Tian, Yang; Miller, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is an investigational oral prodrug of the HIV-1 nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir (TFV). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is another TFV prodrug, widely used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. TAF is converted mostly intracellularly to TFV and, in comparison to TDF, achieves higher tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As a result, TAF has demonstrated potent anti-HIV-1 activity at lower doses than TDF in monotherapy studies. Here, the in vitro virology profile of TAF was evaluated and compared to that of TDF. TAF displayed potent antiviral activity against all HIV-1 groups/subtypes, as well as HIV-2. TAF exhibited minimal changes in the drug concentration needed to inhibit 50% of viral spread (EC50) upon removal of the prodrug, similar to TDF, demonstrating intracellular antiviral persistence. While TAF and TDF exhibited comparable potencies in the absence of serum pretreatment, TAF maintained activity in the presence of human serum, whereas TDF activity was significantly reduced. This result demonstrates TAF's improved plasma stability over TDF, which is driven by the different metabolic pathways of the two prodrugs and is key to TAF's improved in vivo antiviral activity. The activity of TAF is specific for HIV, as TAF lacked activity against a large panel of human viruses, with the exception of herpes simplex virus 2, where weak TAF antiviral activity was observed, as previously observed with TFV. Finally, in vitro combination studies with antiretroviral drugs from different classes showed additive to synergistic interactions with TAF, consistent with ongoing clinical studies with TAF in fixed-dose combinations with multiple other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV. PMID:26149992

  16. Comparative study on effects of single and multiple oral administration of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) seed extract on the pharmacokinetics of aconitine by UHPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gao, Enze; Yu, Xiaohan; Liu, Ting; Li, Hualing; Wang, Pei; Wei, Yingqing; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effects of single and multiple oral administration of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) seed extract (ME) on the pharmacokinetics of aconitine in rats. The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (six rats each group). In group 1, rats were orally administered 500 µg/kg aconitine after receiving a single oral dose of 1 g/kg ME. In group 2, rats were orally administered with 500 µg/kg aconitine at day 7 of treatment with 1 g/kg/day ME. In group 3, rats were orally administered with 500 µg/kg aconitine. Blood samples were collected at different time points (0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 h). The concentration of aconitine in rats plasma was determined by a fully validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method. The results showed that single and multiple oral co-administration of ME significantly altered the pharmacokinetic parameters of aconitine. PMID:24590733

  17. Comparative study on the disposition of a new orally active dopamine prodrug, N-(N-acetyl-L-methionyl)-O,O-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)dopamine (TA-870) and dopamine hydrochloride in rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Endo, H.; Otsuka, M.; Yamaguchi, I.; Harigaya, S.

    1988-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a dopamine derivative, TA-870, and dopamine (DA) after oral administration are compared in rats and dogs. The maximum concentrations of free DA in plasma after oral administration of TA-870 were 150 ng/ml in the rat (30 mg/kg) and 234 ng/ml in the dog (33.5 mg/kg). On the contrary, the maximum plasma concentrations after oral administration of DA at an equimolar dose to TA-870 were 12 ng/ml in the rat (12 mg/kg) and 36 ng/ml in the dog (13.5 mg/kg). The AUC values of free DA in plasma after oral administration of TA-870 (30 or 33.5 mg/kg) were 4-6 times higher than those after DA in both animal species. The peak tissue levels of radioactivity in rats after oral administration of (/sup 14/C)TA-870 (30 mg/kg) were also 5.5 times higher in the liver and 1-2 times higher in other tissues than those after (/sup 14/C)DA dose (12 mg/kg). In rats, the main excretion route of radioactivity after oral administration of (/sup 14/C)TA-870 or DA was via the urine. The total recoveries of radioactivity in the urine and feces were 91-96% of the dose within 24 hr for both compounds. Biliary excretion in rats accounted for 19.8% of the dose of (/sup 14/C)TA-870 and 12.6% of the dose of (/sup 14/C)DA within 24 hr. These results demonstrate that TA-870 was well absorbed from the digestive tract, extensively metabolized to dopamine, and proved to be an orally usable dopamine prodrug.

  18. Efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin compared with oral vancomycin for the treatment of adults with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: data from the OPT-80-003 and OPT-80-004 studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke F; Anderson, Deverick J

    2012-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is emerging as one of the most important and devastating pathogens affecting hospitalized populations around the world. The incidence of C. difficile infection is increasing and disease severity is worsening. Thus, an effective alternative to metronidazole and oral vancomycin is urgently needed. Two Phase III trials, OPT-80-003 and OPT-80-004, showed that oral fidaxomicin for 10 days was noninferior compared with treatment with oral vancomycin among adult patients with toxin-positive C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Furthermore, fidaxomicin was associated with a lower rate of recurrence of CDAD within 4 weeks of completion of therapy. The safety and tolerability of fidaxomicin was consistent with earlier studies and established that fidaxomicin is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for CDAD. Despite these potential advantages, the cost-effectiveness of this expensive agent remains poorly understood. PMID:22702523

  19. A prospective randomised study comparing oral 13C-bicarbonate tracer technique versus indirect calorimetry for measurement of energy expenditure in adults

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Sherif; Cui, Helen; Wright, Jeff W; Jackson, Sarah; Macdonald, Ian A; Lobo, Dileep N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important in guiding nutritional therapy but current methods are unsatisfactory. This study compared the oral 13C-bicarbonate tracer (BT) technique using the IRIS® system (Wagner, Germany) against indirect calorimetry (IC, ventilated-hood) to measure CO2 output (VCO2) and thus estimate EE. Methods Ten overnight-fasted healthy male volunteers were randomised to studies at rest or mild exercise in a crossover manner. During each study BT-IRIS® and IC were used simultaneously to measure VCO2 and thus EE. Participants ingested a drink labelled with 50mg 13C-bicarbonate and breath samples were collected every 5 min for 180 min and analysed using IRIS®. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between the two techniques in measurements of VCO2 (L/day) and estimates of EE (kJ/day). Results Mean ± SE age and BMI of participants were 21.1 ± 1.1 yrs and 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2. Both at rest and exercise, there was small bias but overall poor agreement between the two techniques as evident by the wide 95% limits of agreement in measurements of VCO2 and EE: rest VCO2 (bias 1.4, SD 93, 95% limits of agreement −180 to 183), rest EE (−8.3, 1830, −3595 to 3578), exercise VCO2 (49.3, 66.1, −80.4 to 178.9) and exercise EE (1083, 1944, −2727 to 4893). Furthermore, there was also evidence of systematic error in these measurements. Conclusion Prior to clinical application, further optimisation of the BT-IRIS® system should be undertaken, given the poor agreement with IC in measuring VCO2 and estimating EE. PMID:24834380

  20. Characterization, Localization and Patterning of Lymphatics and Blood Vessels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Using D2-40 and CD-34 IHC Marker

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Deshant; Bajpai, Manas; Gupta, Shailendra; Mathur, Nikunj; Vanaki, S S; Puranik, R S; Mittal, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lymphatic metastasis has always been regarded as a major prognostic indicator for disease progression and as a guide for therapeutic strategies to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Differentiating lymphatic vessels from blood vessels is difficult, partly due to lack of specific method for identifying lymphatics. A new lymphatic vessel reactive antibody D2-40 has been introduced recently. Here we examined immunohistochemical localization of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels using D2-40 and CD-34 respectively in different histological grades of OSCC. Their expression in intra-tumoural and peri-tumoural region was also compared. Materials and Methods: Forty two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of excised specimens of OSCC were immunohistochemically evaluated using D2-40 and CD-34 antibodies. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) (D2-40 positivity) and micro vessel density (MVD) (CD34 positivity) in both intratumoural and peritumoural areas were assessed by hot spot method. Results: Regardless of histopathological differentiation, LVD–– and MVD in peritumoural areas were found greater than intratumoural areas (p>0.05). Interestingly, other than lymphatic vessels, D2-40 positivity was also detected in tumour cells as well as in basal layer of epithelium adjacent to OSCC. Two patterns of distribution of CD34 positive vessel - circumscribing type and penetrating type were also observed in the cancer nest area. Conclusion: D2-40 can be used as a marker to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. Lymphatic and blood vessel proliferation might be much more extensive in the peritumoural area. D2-40 expression in epithelium adjacent to tumour indicates its role in the process of differentiation. Further, its expression in potential malignant disorder may provide better insight in predicting prognosis and pathogenesis of these lesions. PMID:25478456

  1. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE). Methods In a randomised, open-label study, 121 healthy women, 18-50 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 for all indices. Results All parameters were similar at baseline between the two groups. Over six cycles, NOMAC/E2 had less effect on most haemostatic indices than LNG/EE. Lipids were essentially unchanged with NOMAC/E2, whereas with LNG/EE high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides slightly increased. NOMAC/E2 induced negligible changes in glucose and insulin parameters, in contrast to LNG/EE. A much smaller increase in CRP was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. Conclusions The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE. PMID:22066891

  2. Comparative evaluation of pressure generated on a simulated maxillary oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different spacer designs: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sakshi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Literature reveals that masticatory load on denture bearing tissues through complete dentures should be maximum on primary stress bearing areas and least on relief area in accordance with the histology of underlying tissues. A study to validate the existing beliefs was planned to compare the pressure on mucosa using selective pressure technique and minimal pressure technique, with the incorporation of two different impression materials utilizing the pressure sensors during secondary impression procedure. Materials and Methods: The study was performed using a maxillary analog. Three pressure sensors were imbedded in the oral analog, one in the mid palatine area and the other two in the right and left ridge crest. Custom trays of two different configurations were fabricated. The two impression materials tested were light body and zinc oxide eugenol. A total of 40 impressions were made. A constant weight of 1 kg was placed, and the pressure was recorded as initial and end pressures. Results: A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (P < 0.001). Light body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly lesser pressure than zinc oxide eugenol impression materials. The presence of relief did affect the magnitude of pressure at various locations. Conclusion: All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification is an important factor in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used also had a significant role to play on the pressures acting on the tissues during impression procedure. Clinical Implication: Light body VPS impression material may be recommended to achieve minimal pressure on the denture bearing tissues in both selective as well as minimal pressure techniques. PMID:27041902

  3. A ketogenic diet did not prevent effects on the ectonucleotidases pathway promoted by lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; da Silva, Rosane Souza; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Figueir, Fabrcio; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos Luis Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    A Ketogenic Diet (KD) mimics the anticonvulsant effects of fasting, which are known to suppress seizures. The purinergic system has been investigated in the matter of epilepsy development, especially the nucleoside adenosine, which has been considered a natural brain anticonvulsant. During epileptic seizures, extracellular adenosine concentration rises rapidly to micromolar levels. Adenosine can exert its anticonvulsant functions, after its release by nucleoside bidirectional transport, or by production through the sequential catabolism of ATP by ectonucleotidases, such as E-NTPDases (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Here, we have investigated the effect of a ketogenic diet on the nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDases expression in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy. For the induction of Status Epileticus (SE), 21-day-old female Wistar rats received an i.p. injection of lithium chloride (127mg/kg) and 18-19h later an i.p. injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (60mg/kg). The control groups received an injection of saline. After induction of SE, the control and Li-Pilo groups received standard or ketogenic diets for 6weeks. The lithium-pilocarpine exposure affected the ATP (a decrease of between 8% and 16%) and ADP (an increase of between 18% and 22%) hydrolysis in both groups whereas the diet did not impact the nucleotide hydrolysis. NTPDase2 and 3 mRNA expressions decreased in the Li-Pilo group (41% and 42%). This data highlights the participation of the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of this model of epilepsy, since nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase expressions were altered by Li-Pilo exposure, with no significant effects of the ketogenic diet. However, the interaction between purinergic signaling and a ketogenic diet on epilepsy still needs to be better elucidated. PMID:22945235

  4. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

  5. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated control of pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements is Parkinson's disease-associated GPR37 receptor-dependent.

    PubMed

    Ganda, Jorge; Morat, Xavier; Stagljar, Igor; Fernndez-Dueas, Vctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2015-07-15

    GPR37, also known as parkin associated endothelin-like receptor (Pael-R), is an orphan GPCR that aggregates intracellularly in a juvenile form of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the function of this orphan receptor. Here, using a model for parkisonian tremor, the pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements (TJMs), we show that the deletion of GPR37 attenuated the TJMs in response to this cholinomimetic. Interestingly, the control that adenosine A2A receptor exerted over TJMs was lost in the absence of GPR37, thus pointing to a pivotal role of this orphan receptor in the adenosinergic control of parkinsonian tremor. PMID:25862943

  6. CRTC1 nuclear localization in the hippocampus of the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, D; Porter, B E

    2016-04-21

    cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB)-dependent genes are differentially expressed in brains of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and also in animal models of TLE. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of CREB regulated transcription in TLE. However, the role of the key regulator of CREB activity, CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1), has not been explored in epilepsy. In the present study the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE was used to study the regulation of CRTC1 during and following SE. Nuclear translocation of CRTC1 is critical for its transcriptional activity, and dephosphorylation at serine 151 residue via calcineurin phosphatase regulates cytoplasmic to nuclear transit of CRTC1. Here, we examined the localization and phosphorylation (Ser151) of CRTC1 in SE-induced rat hippocampus at two different time points after SE onset. One hour after SE onset, we found that CRTC1 translocates to the nucleus of CA1 neurons but not CA3 or dentate granule neurons. We further found that this CRTC1 nuclear localization is independent of Ser151 dephosphorylation since we did not detect any difference in dephosphorylation of Ser151 between control and SE animals at this time point. In contrast, 48h after SE CRTC1 shows increased nuclear localization in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the SE-induced rats. At 48h after SE, FK506 treatment blocked CRTC1 nuclear localization and dephosphorylation of Ser151. Our results provide evidence that CREB cofactor CRTC1 translocates into the nucleus of a distinct subset of hippocampal neurons during and following SE and this translocalization is regulated by calcineurin at a later time point following SE. Nuclear CRTC1 can bind to CREB possibly altering transcription during epileptogenesis. PMID:26844388

  7. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development

  8. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  9. Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Gaussem, Pascale; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Remones, Veronique; Ali, Fouad Dali; Aiach, Martine; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2011-03-01

    Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. NOMAC/E2 is a new monophasic OC that combines nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a highly selective progestogen, with 17β-estradiol (E2). The study objective was to compare the effects on markers of haemostasis of NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) versus the second-generation OC, levonorgestrel (LNG)/EE (100 μg/20 μg). Healthy women (age 18-38 years) received once-daily treatment for three consecutive 28-day cycles in a double-blind, randomised study: either NOMAC/E2 for 24 days with a four-day placebo interval (n=45) or LNG/EE for 21 days with a seven-day placebo interval (n=45) per cycle. Mean changes from baseline to end-of-treatment in coagulation markers, including prothrombin fragment 1+2 (primary endpoint), fibrinolysis markers and platelet functions were assessed. Mean prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels (primary endpoint) did not increase with NOMAC/E2 compared with LNG/EE ( -0.02 vs. +0.08 nM, p<0.01). Other significant differences between NOMAC/E2 and LNG/EE were mean changes in antithrombin (+0.3% vs. -4.4%, p<0.001), activated protein C resistance - normalised ratio (+0.20 vs. +0.46, p<0.01), D-dimer ( -53 vs. +43 ng/ml, p<0.001), plasminogen (+6% vs. +30%, p<0.0001) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( -3.1 vs. -8.0 ng/ml, p<0.001). There was no effect of either treatment on platelet aggregation. The NOMAC/E2 pill regimen has fewer adverse effects on blood biological coagulation and fibrinolysis markers than LNG/EE. This suggests that NOMAC/E2 could have a more favourable venous thromboembolism risk profile than LNG/EE; further epidemiological data are required to confirm this. PMID:21225090

  10. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day 28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)- methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups. PMID:22091463

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration. PMID:24325541

  12. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. Results: The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Conclusion: Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children. PMID:26942117

  13. Comparative Analysis of Substrate-Free Cultured Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Sheets from Cells of Subjects with and without Stevens—Johnson Syndrome for Use in Ocular Surface Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Eun Jung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Wee, Won Ryang; Jeon, Saewha; Kim, Mee Kum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the regenerative potential of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells sheets (COMECs) from Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) subjects with those from non-SJS subjects. Methods Human oral mucosal epithelial cells from SJS and non-SJS subjects were cultured, and colony-forming efficiency (CFE), proliferative and migration potential, expression of cytokines/growth factors and stem cells were compared. COMECs from SJS and non-SJS subjects were transplanted into 12 limbal stem cell-deficient rabbits, and their regenerative potential was analyzed at 1 week after transplantation. Results CFE (p>0.05, student’s t test), cell proliferation potential (p>0.05, two-way ANOVA) and expression of the cytokeratins (K3, K4, K13, K19) in the oral mucosal epithelial cells from SJS subjects were similar to those of the cells from non-SJS subjects. The initial migratory potential of SJS cells was delayed compared to that of non-SJS cells (p <0.05, RM two-way ANOVA). The SJS cells expressed lower levels of EGF and higher levels of VEGF compared to that of non-SJS cells (p<0.05, one-way ANOVA). In vivo transplanted SJS-COMECs showed similar expression of K3, K4, and K13, proliferation markers (Ki-67; p>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test), and stem cell markers (p63; p>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) compared to non-SJS COMECs. The initial epithelial defects in vivo were larger in the eyes treated with SJS-COMECs on day 3 (p<0.01, RM two-way ANOVA), but no differences were observed by day 7 between SJS- and non-SJS-COMECs. Conclusions These results suggest that, aside from differences in migratory potential, oral mucosal epithelial cells from SJS and non-SJS subjects are comparable in their regeneration potential in treating limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:26808056

  14. Evaluation of comparative performance of orally inhaled drug products in view of the classical bioequivalence paradigms: an analysis of the current scientific and regulatory dilemmas of inhaler evaluation.

    PubMed

    Horhota, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, there has been a continuous evolution in scientific understanding regarding bioequivalence (BE) of oral dosage forms, intermittently punctuated by some breakthrough research findings and conceptual advances. The accumulated knowledge from this body of research has been translated into a sophisticated risk management framework of regulations and guidelines supported by an extensive set of tools and decision rules. This has permitted us to arrive at a state that now allows, in the majority of cases, not only the unrestricted substitution of a generic product for the innovator version, but also unquestioned substitution between different generic manufacturers. This framework has been successfully extended or adapted to go beyond oral dosage forms to include, for example, topical semisolid applications and nasal sprays. In the case of orally inhaled locally acting drug products (OIP), a similar level of success has yet to be realized. For OIP's, the risk management toolbox is incompletely outfitted due to missing science, knowledge, and experience in some key areas. This article presents a gap analysis of the situation highlighting unresolved residual risks. Assessment of the residual risks by US and EU medicines authorities has interestingly led to different regulatory positions with respect to BE for this class of drug products in these two regions. A parallel comparison with the history for BE of oral dosage forms shows that resolution for inhaled products will come eventually with the final outcome and timeframe, depending as much on science as it does on economics and the degree to which legislators intervene. PMID:25237840

  15. Comparative study on the excretion of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside in mice after oral and intravenous administration by using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Chen, Yinghui; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the excretion of pure vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VOG) in mice following oral and intravenous administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A sensitive and specific HPLC method with hespridin as internal standard, a Diamonsil C18 column protected with a KR C18 guard column and a mixture consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.1% glacial acetic acid (6:2:18:74, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was developed and validated for quantitative analysis in biological samples. VOG could be excreted as prototype in excreta including urine and feces after both routes of administration, and the cumulative excretion of VOG was 24.31 ± 11.10% (17.97 ± 5.59% in urinary excretion; 6.34 ± 5.51% in fecal excretion) following oral dosing and 5.66 ± 3.94% (4.78 ± 3.13% in urinary excretion; 0.88 ± 0.81% in fecal excretion) following intravenous dosing. The results showed that the elimination of VOG after the two routes was fairly low, which meant that VOG was metabolized as other forms and the elimination after oral dosing was almost 4.3-fold that after intravenous dosing. For both routes of administration, VOG excreted as prototype in urine was much more than that in feces, nearly 2.83-fold for oral administration and 5.43-fold for intravenous administration, which should be attributed to enterohepatic circulation. Taken together, renal excretion was the dominant path of elimination of VOG for oral and intravenous administration in mice and biliary excretion contributed less. PMID:23760836

  16. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  17. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

  18. AVP-825 Breath-Powered Intranasal Delivery System Containing 22 mg Sumatriptan Powder vs 100 mg Oral Sumatriptan in the Acute Treatment of Migraines (The COMPASS Study): A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial Across Multiple Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Stewart J; Cady, Roger K; Silberstein, Stephen; Messina, John; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Shin, Paul; Siffert, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of AVP-825, an investigational bi-directional breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing low-dose (22 mg) sumatriptan powder, vs 100 mg oral sumatriptan for acute treatment of migraine in a double-dummy, randomized comparative efficacy clinical trial allowing treatment across multiple migraine attacks. Background In phases 2 and 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, AVP-825 provided early and sustained relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults, with a low incidence of triptan-related adverse effects. Methods This was a randomized, active-comparator, double-dummy, cross-over, multi-attack study (COMPASS; NCT01667679) with two ≤12-week double-blind periods. Subjects experiencing 2-8 migraines/month in the past year were randomized 1:1 using computer-generated sequences to AVP-825 plus oral placebo tablet or an identical placebo delivery system plus 100 mg oral sumatriptan tablet for the first period; patients switched treatment for the second period in this controlled comparative design. Subjects treated ≤5 qualifying migraines per period within 1 hour of onset, even if pain was mild. The primary end-point was the mean value of the summed pain intensity differences through 30 minutes post-dose (SPID-30) using Headache Severity scores. Secondary outcomes included pain relief, pain freedom, pain reduction, consistency of response across multiple migraines, migraine-associated symptoms, and atypical sensations. Safety was also assessed. Results A total of 275 adults were randomized, 174 (63.3%) completed the study (ie, completed the second treatment period), and 185 (67.3%) treated at least one migraine in both periods (1531 migraines assessed). There was significantly greater reduction in migraine pain intensity with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan in the first 30 minutes post-dose (least squares mean SPID-30 = 10.80 vs 7.41, adjusted mean difference 3.39 [95% confidence interval 1.76, 5.01]; P < .001). At each time point measured between 15 and 90 minutes, significantly greater rates of pain relief and pain freedom occurred with AVP-825 treatment compared with oral sumatriptan. At 2 hours, rates of pain relief and pain freedom became comparable; rates of sustained pain relief and sustained pain freedom from 2 to 48 hours remained comparable. Nasal discomfort and abnormal taste were more common with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan (16% vs 1% and 26% vs 4%, respectively), but ∼90% were mild, leading to only one discontinuation. Atypical sensation rates were significantly lower with AVP-825 than with conventional higher dose 100 mg oral sumatriptan. Conclusions AVP-825 (containing 22 mg sumatriptan nasal powder) provided statistically significantly greater reduction of migraine pain intensity over the first 30 minutes following treatment, and greater rates of pain relief and pain freedom within 15 minutes, compared with 100 mg oral sumatriptan. Sustained pain relief and pain freedom through 24 and 48 hours was achieved in a similar percentage of attacks for both treatments, despite substantially lower total systemic drug exposure with AVP-825. Treatment was well tolerated, with statistically significantly fewer atypical sensations with AVP-825. PMID:25941016

  19. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–∞ (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  20. A randomized trial to compare pain control using oral analgesia with epidural analgesia after cesarean section following combined spinal-epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, T D; Liu, Q; Zhao, J N; Wang, H W; Konstantatos, A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether combined oral oxycodone hydrochloride-controlled release tablets plus paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride tablets are more effective than epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control and side effects after cesarean section. We randomly enrolled 60 patients scheduled for cesarean section into either: patient-controlled epidural analgesia with 0.1% ropivacaine+0.1 μg/mL sufentanil (for postoperative 48 h)+injected pethidine on demand (E group); or controlled-release oxycodone (2x15 mg for the first postoperative 24 h; 2x10 mg for the second postoperative 24 h)+paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride tablets (8x1 tablet for the postoperative 48 h) orally+injected pethidine on demand (O group). The E group experienced more evoked pain and uterine cramping pain at all times postoperatively. The patients who received oral analgesia had less resting pain at 6, 12, 24, and 36 h after surgery. Two patients in the E group injected pethidine (150 mg total) during the oxytocin infusion, whereas none of the O group patients injected pethidine. Pruritus was more common in the E group (P<0.05). Maternal satisfaction with the analgesia regimen was lower in the E group (P<0.01). The median duration of hospital stay was about 5 days for both groups. Postoperative pain control after cesarean section with oral oxycodone hydrochloride-controlled release tablets plus paracetamol and tramadol hydrochloride tablets is preferable to epidural analgesia, even when side effects and maternal satisfaction are taken into account. PMID:24682986

  1. Topical diclofenac does not affect the antiplatelet properties of aspirin as compared to the intermediate effects of oral diclofenac: A prospective, randomized, complete crossover study.

    PubMed

    Rowcliffe, M; Nezami, B; Westphal, E S; Rainka, M; Janda, M; Bates, V; Gengo, F

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely interact with aspirin, diminishing its antiplatelet effect and potentially placing patients at an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events. This crossover study aimed to determine whether the topical NSAID diclofenac epolamine 1.3% patch or oral diclofenac 50?mg interfered with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin 325?mg. Twelve healthy men and women aged 18-50 were included. Participants were randomized into 5 treatment arms: aspirin, diclofenac potassium 50?mg, diclofenac patch, diclofenac potassium plus ASA 325?mg, and diclofenac patch plus aspirin. Platelet responsiveness was determined using whole-blood impedance aggregation (WBA) to collagen 1??g/mL and arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5?mM and was sampled every 2 hours. No significant difference in platelet function was observed following the diclofenac patch and aspirin vs aspirin alone. Oral diclofenac produced a mixed effect with significant reduction in platelet inhibition at hour 2 and hour 8 following aspirin administration. Topical diclofenac does not significantly interfere with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and may be a safer alternative to the oral formulation. PMID:26265197

  2. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  3. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Periodontists: Dentists who treat gum disease and place dental implants. Oral surgeons: Dentists who operate on your mouth and supporting tissues. Orthodontists: Dentists who straighten teeth and align jaws. Endodontists: Dentists who perform root ...

  4. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... possible signs of cancer. Some parts of the pharynx are not visible during an oral cancer exam. ... dentist about whether a specialist should check your pharynx. This pamphlet was developed by the National Institute ...

  5. Oral calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Both injectable and nasal spray calcitonins have been utilized in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis for over 25years. More widespread use of calcitonin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been hampered in part due to poor patient acceptability and compliance and the inability of patients to take this medication as an oral pill. In recent years, an oral preparation of calcitonin has been developed that combines the active peptide hormone with a caprylic acid derivative to enhance bioavailability. Clinical trials with oral calcitonin in patients with osteoarthritis are currently being conducted. A recent phase 3 study failed to demonstrate significant vertebral fracture reduction, and as a result the clinical program for oral calcitonin in osteoporosis is under review for further consideration. PMID:22281725

  6. A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis. PMID:21191530

  7. Compared efficiency of a killed vaccine of Salmonella typhimurium, a live vaccine and an antigenic fraction in oral immunization of mice.

    PubMed

    Fontanges, R; Ivanoff, B; Creach, O

    1976-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the best method of immunizing mice by oral route against Salmonella typhimurium, the animals were vaccinated by means of a killed-pathogenic strain, an avirulent mutant of the same bacteria, and a protective antigen removed from the supernatant culture of this mutant. After changing doses of vaccines and the interval between vaccination and challenge, the results obtained show the superiority of the live vaccine and protective antigen with regard to the killed one. Under our experimental conditions enteral vaccination appears to be more effective than the parenteral one. PMID:782961

  8. Oral delivery of plant-derived HIV-1 p24 antigen in low doses shows a superior priming effect in mice compared to high doses.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Ingrid; Bråve, Andreas; Hallengärd, David; Hadad, Ronza; Kalbina, Irina; Strid, Åke; Andersson, Sören

    2014-04-25

    During early infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), there is a rapid depletion of CD4(+) T-cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, immediate protection at these surfaces is of high priority for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Thus, transgenic plants expressing HIV-1 antigens, which are exposed to immune competent cells in the GALT during oral administration, can be interesting as potential vaccine candidates. In the present study, we used two HIV-1 p24 antigen-expressing transgenic plant systems, Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota, in oral immunization experiments. Both transgenic plant systems showed a priming effect in mice and induced humoral immune responses, which could be detected as anti-p24-specific IgG in sera after an intramuscular p24 protein boost. Dose-dependent antigen analyses using transgenic A. thaliana indicated that low p24 antigen doses were superior to high p24 antigen doses. PMID:24631072

  9. A comparative study between the efficacy of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shanehsaz, Siavash M; Ishkhanian, Silva

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major world health problem, which is increasing in incidence. Pentavalent antimonials have been considered as standard treatment for leishmaniasis. Many studies are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for patients with CL. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL. This study was, to our knowledge, the first to show the effect of combination therapy oral cimetidine and MA in the treatment of CL all over the world. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 patients with suspected CL were referred to the Aleppo University Hospital Clinic; 90 of these patients with the clinical and parasitological diagnosis of CL were recruited and were randomly divided into three treatment groups of 30 subjects each. Group A was treated with MA 60 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo. Groups B and C received MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral cimetidine 1200 mg/d, MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo, respectively. The duration of treatment was three weeks for all groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was classified in three levels as complete response, partial response, and no response. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using KI square, Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Mayer, and ANOVA tests. At the end of the study (12 weeks), the rate of complete response was 91.11% in the first group, and 84.66% and 78.33% in groups B and C, respectively (P < 0.05). The highest response rate was for the group treated with a standard dose of systemic MA and placebo. Our results showed that although oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic MA had less efficacy in comparison to a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL, it still can be considered as a replacement therapy in high-risk patients (such as patients with heart, kidney, and/or liver disease) under close supervision of physicians. PMID:26108265

  10. The inhibition of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 contributed to neuroprotection via inflammatory reaction in pilocarpine-induced rats with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Q; Xiao, Q; Yu, W; Gu, M; Zhao, N; Lü, Y

    2016-06-14

    Recently, more and more studies support that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Although TGFβ signaling is involved in epileptogenesis, whether TGFβ-associated neuroinflammation is sufficient to regulate epilepsy remains unknown to date. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which are the key elements of TGFβ-associated inflammation, is still unclear in epilepsy. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the role of TRAF6 and TAK1 in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rat model. Firstly, the gene levels and protein expression of TRAF6 and TAK1 were detected in different time points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). 5z-7-oxozeaenol treatment (TAK1 antagonist) was then performed; the changes in TRAF6, TAK1, phosphorylated-TAK1 (P-TAK1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, neuronal survival and apoptosis, and seizure activity were detected. Our results showed that expressions of TRAF6 were increased after SE, reached the peak in 7day, maintained at the high level to 30days, and the TAK1, P-TAK1 levels were increased after SE following time. After 5z-7-oxozeaenol treatment in epileptic rats, TRAF6-TAK1-P-TAK1 signaling protein expressions were reduced, inflammatory cytokine IL-1β expression was decreased, neuron survival index was improved, the neuron apoptosis index was decreased and seizure durations were alleviated. In conclusion, the expression of TRAF6 and TAK1 are related to the progression of epilepsy. TAK1 might be a potential intervention target for the treatment of epilepsy via neuroprotection. PMID:27012613

  11. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

  12. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... notice signs of oral cancer during regular checkups. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) also make note of unusual or abnormal ... 186,000 members and affiliates who are audiologists; speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech- ...

  13. Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 – Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 – oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain. PMID:26538690

  14. A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Myrislignan by UHPLC-MS After Oral Administration of a Monomer and Myristica fragrans Extract to Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Yang, Shu; Zhao, Waiou; Li, Rui; Zhao, Chengliang

    2016-05-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method was developed and validated to quantify myrislignan in rat plasma using podophyllotoxin as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of myrislignan and IS was performed on a 3.0 µm Hypersil C18column (50 mm × 4.6 mm) with methanol and water containing 0.1% acetic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. An electrospray ionization was used in the positive selective-ion monitoring mode for the target ions atm/z397 andm/z437 for the quantification of myrislignan and IS. The total run time was 3.6 min for each run. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.75-300 ng/mL (r> 0.995) with the lower limit of quantitation at 0.75 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision was below 11.49%, and the mean accuracy ranged from -9.75 to 7.45%. The proposed method was successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan after oral administration of the myrislignan monomer andMyristica fragransextract in rats. Statistical analyses indicate that the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan in rats have significant differences between two groups. PMID:26774114

  15. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability study of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in healthy volunteers--a comparative study of two oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, P; Bieniecki, M

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the evaluation was to establish bioequivalence between two oral 3.0 g sachet forms of L-ornithine-L-aspartate (LOLA). It was designed as randomised, two-way crossover study with a 1-week washout interval. Blood samples were collected throughout a 12 h period after administration of reference and test product to 12 fasting healthy male volunteers. Plasma were analyzed by sensitive, reproducible, accurate and rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with UV detection. Many pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and Kel were determined from plasma concentration. First three of them after log-transformation of data were examined for bioequivalence. Based on ANOVA with 90% confidence level no significant difference was found. All of tested parameters were found to be within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125%. Based on these and other statistical tests it was concluded that Hepatil is bioequivalent to Hepa-Merz granulate. PMID:16524681

  16. A multicenter, randomized study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin versus ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    File, T M; Segreti, J; Dunbar, L; Player, R; Kohler, R; Williams, R R; Kojak, C; Rubin, A

    1997-01-01

    Five hundred ninety patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of 7 to 14 days of levofloxacin treatment with that of ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Patients received either intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin (500 mg once daily) or the comparative agents, parenteral ceftriaxone (1 to 2 g once to twice daily) and/or oral cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily). Erythromycin or doxycycline could be added to the comparator arm at the investigator's discretion. The decision to use an intravenous or oral antimicrobial agent for initial therapy was made by the investigator. Clinical and microbiological evaluations were completed at the baseline, during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Four hundred fifty-six patients (226 given levofloxacin and 230 administered ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil) were evaluable for clinical efficacy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated in 15 and 12%, respectively, of clinically evaluable patients. One hundred fifty atypical pathogens were identified: 101 were Chlamydia pneumoniae, 41 were Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and 8 were Legionella pneumophila. Clinical success at 5 to 7 days posttherapy was superior for the levofloxacin group (96%) compared with the ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil group (90%) (95% confidence interval [CI] of -10.7 to -1.3). Among patients with typical respiratory pathogens who were evaluable for microbiological efficacy, the overall bacteriologic eradication rates were superior for levofloxacin (98%) compared with the ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil group (85%) (95% CI of -21.6 to -4.8). Levofloxacin eradicated 100% of the most frequently reported respiratory pathogens (i.e., H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae) and provided a >98% clinical success rate in patients with atypical pathogens. Both levofloxacin and ceftriaxone-cefuroxime axetil eradicated 100% of the S. pneumoniae cells detected in blood culture. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 5.8% of patients receiving levofloxacin and in 8.5% of patients administered ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil. Gastrointestinal and central and peripheral nervous system adverse events were the most common events reported in each treatment group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that treatment with levofloxacin is superior to ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil therapy in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. PMID:9303395

  17. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4-8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months-<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  19. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  20. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  1. Estimates of the effect on hepatic iron of oral deferiprone compared with subcutaneous desferrioxamine for treatment of iron overload in thalassemia major: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Caro, J Jaime; Huybrechts, Krista F; Green, Traci C

    2002-01-01

    Background Beta thalassemia major requires regular blood transfusions and iron chelation to alleviate the harmful accumulation of iron. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of the available agents, desferrioxamine and deferiprone, is derived from small, non-comparative, heterogeneous observational studies. This evidence was reviewed to quantitatively compare the ability of these chelators to reduce hepatic iron. Methods The literature was searched using Medline and all reports addressing the effect of either chelator on hepatic iron were considered. Data were abstracted independently by two investigators. Analyses were performed using reported individual patient data. Hepatic iron concentrations at study end and changes over time were compared using ANCOVA, controlling for initial iron load. Differences in the proportions of patients improving were tested using ?2. Results Eight of 11 reports identified provided patient-level data relating to 30 desferrioxamine- and 68 deferiprone-treated patients. Desferrioxamine was more likely than optimal dose deferiprone to decrease hepatic iron over the average follow-up of 45 months (odds ratio, 19.0, 95% CI, 2.4 to 151.4). The degree of improvement was also larger with desferrioxamine. Conclusions This analysis suggests that desferrioxamine is more effective than deferiprone in lowering hepatic iron. This comparative analysis despite its limitations should prove beneficial to physicians faced with the challenge of selecting the optimal treatment for their patients. PMID:12441006

  2. Comparative in vitro activity of oral antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Kresken, M; Körber-Irrgang, B; Biedenbach, D J; Batista, N; Besard, V; Cantón, R; García-Castillo, M; Kalka-Moll, W; Pascual, A; Schwarz, R; Van Meensel, B; Wisplinghoff, H; Seifert, H

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae causing community-acquired urinary tract infections were examined in selected outpatient clinics and hospitals in Belgium, Germany and Spain using EUCAST breakpoints for susceptibility. A total of 1190 isolates were collected. Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (28.1%), ciprofloxacin (23.4%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21.4%) compared with fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin (each, <1.5%). Ceftibuten (MIC50/90 0.25/0.5 mg/L) and ceftriaxone activity (MIC50/90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was comparable. Ceftibuten (MIC90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was also active against Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes were 7.1% for E. coli, 5.6% for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 0.4% for P. mirabilis. Resistance was common among men and elderly women. PMID:26321667

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Oral Drug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Meng, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in elder men and a number of drugs alone or combined are clinically used for this disorder. But available studies investigating the comparative effects of different drug therapies are limited. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH with network meta-analysis. Materials and Methods An electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH within 24 weeks. Comparative effects were calculated using Aggregate Data Drug Information System. Consistency models of network meta-analysis were created and cumulative probability was used to rank different therapies. Results A total 66 RCTs covering seven different therapies with 29384 participants were included. We found that α-blockers (ABs) plus phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) ranked highest in the test of IPSS total score, storage subscore and voiding subscore. The combination therapy of ABs plus 5α-reductase inhibitors was the best for increasing maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) with a mean difference (MD) of 1.98 (95% CI, 1.12 to 2.86) as compared to placebo. ABs plus muscarinic receptor antagonists (MRAs) ranked secondly on the reduction of IPSS storage subscore, although monotherapies including MRAs showed no effect on this aspect. Additionally, PDE5-Is alone showed great effectiveness for LUTS/BPH except Qmax. Conclusions Based on our novel findings, combination therapy, especially ABs plus PDE5-Is, is recommended for short-term treatment for LUTS/BPH. There was also evidence that PDE5-Is used alone was efficacious except on Qmax. Additionally, it should be cautious when using MRAs. However, further clinical studies are required for longer duration which considers more treatment outcomes such as disease progression, as well as basic research investigating mechanisms involving PDE5-Is and other pharmacologic agents alleviate the symptoms of LUTS/BPH. PMID:25216271

  4. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  5. Screening South Asians for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes: (1) comparing oral glucose tolerance and haemoglobin A1c test results and (2) comparing the two sets of metabolic profiles of individuals diagnosed with these two tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level may be used for screening for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes instead of a more burdensome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, among the high-risk South Asian population, little is known about the overlap of the methods or about the metabolic profiles of those disconcordantly diagnosed. Methods We included 944 South Asians (18–60 years old), whom we screened with the HbA1c level and the OGTT in The Hague, the Netherlands. We calculated the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC) with a 95% confidence interval of HbA1c using the American Diabetes Association classifications, and determined the sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals at different thresholds. Moreover, we studied differences in metabolic characteristics between those identified by HbA1c and by the OGTT alone. Results The overlap between HbA1c and OGTT classifications was partial, both for diabetes and prediabetes. The AUROC of HbA1c for OGTT defined diabetes was 0.86 (0.79–0.93). The sensitivity was 0.46 (0.29–0.63); the specificity 0.98 (0.98–0.99). For prediabetes, the AUROC was 0.73 (0.69–0.77). Each of the 31 individuals with diabetes and 353 with prediabetes identified with the HbA1c level had a high body mass index, large waist circumference, high blood pressure, and low insulin sensitivity, all of which were similar to the values shown by those among the 19 with diabetes or 62 with prediabetes who only met the OGTT criteria, but not the HbA1c criteria. Conclusions The HbA1c level identified a partially different group than the OGTT did. However, both those identified with the HbA1c level and those identified with the OGTT alone were at increased metabolic risk. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR1499 PMID:23442875

  6. An Open Randomized Trial Comparing the Effects of Oral NSAIDs Versus Steroid Intra-Articular Infiltration in Congestive Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Dieu-Donné, Ouédraogo; Théodore, Ouédraogo; Joëlle, Zabsonré/Tiendrébéogo; Pierre, Dionou; Smaïla, Ouédraogo; Christian, Compaoré; Fulgence, Kaboré; Joseph, Drabo Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy on pain and joint function of NSAIDs versus steroid intra-articular infiltration in congestive knee osteoarthritis. Patients and Methods: Open randomized study comparing a series of patients treated with NSAIDs for 21 days and another who received steroid intra-articular infiltration (SIAI) spaced at every 7 days. The visual analog scale was used for the weekly assessment of spontaneous pain and pain when walking. Lequesne functional pain scale was used to assess the functional impact of knee osteoarthritis. Results: Seventy patients were enrolled, including 35 in the NSAID arm and 35 in SIAI arm. Forty-nine (70%) had stage III of Kellgren and Lawrance scale. On admission, the average pain intensity was 50.46 ± 30.93 in the NSAID arm and 60.92 ± 30 in SIAI arm (p = 0.0189). At the end of follow-up, pain intensity was 6.72 ± 13 in NSAIDs patients and 17.80 ± 21 in SIAI one (p = 0.001). The average intensity of pain on walking was 64.41 ± 22.61. It was 53.33 ± 22.31 in NSAID’s against 74.85 ± 17.55 in SIAI patients (P <0.0001). At the end of the treatment, they were respectively 19.11 ± 11.37, and 35 ± 30.69 (P = 0.0085). Conclusion: Corticosteroid injections have a short efficacy compared to NSAIDs. Prescribing NSAIDs should consider the cons-indications, comorbidities and their deleterious digestive, renal, and cardiovascular effect. PMID:27006727

  7. Comparative genomics of oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico genome subtraction does not reveal accessory DNA associated with severe early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5% to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

  8. A comparative evaluation of plaque-removing efficacy of air polishing and rubber-cup, bristle brush with paste polishing on oral hygiene status: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Saurabh S.; Rakhewar, Purshottam S.; Limaye, Priyanka S.; Chaudhari, Niraj P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Over the years, professional dental prophylaxis has involved the use of rubber-cup, bristle brush, and abrasive paste for coronal polishing. Although air polishing is an excellent alternative for removal of tooth stain and dental plaque, very few studies have compared their efficacy in vivo. The present study attempts to evaluate and compare the efficacy of air polishing (test) alone versus rubber-cup polishing (control). Materials and Methods: A total of 35 individuals having generalized mild to moderate gingivitis were enrolled as the study population after obtaining their informed consent. Before commencement of the study, all subjects underwent scaling to remove calculus deposits (if any), following which the ipsilateral quadrant of the patient's mouth was randomly assigned as the test side and the contralateral quadrant of the same arch was assigned as the control side for polishing procedures. Time employed for both methods of polishing was held constant at 5 min for each technique. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after polishing and again after 15 days following treatment, for plaque and gingival status along with gingival bleeding. Results: Overall, the results of the intra-group comparison of both the polishing procedure sites indicated similar but significant plaque and gingival status changes, whereas the inter-group comparison showed no significant difference between the efficacies of both the groups. Conclusions: Air polishing and the rubber-cup, bristle brush with paste polishing demonstrated equivalent efficacy regarding removal of supragingival plaque and in reducing gingival inflammation. PMID:26759798

  9. A new co-micronized composite containing palmitoylethanolamide and polydatin shows superior oral efficacy compared to their association in a rat paw model of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Esposito, E; D, Impellizzeri; G, Bruschetta; M, Cordaro; R, Siracusa; E, Gugliandolo; R, Crupi; S, Cuzzocrea

    2016-07-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a special food for medical purposes, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, PEA lacks direct ability to prevent free radical formation. Polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol, has antioxidant activity. The combination of PEA and PLD could have beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by inflammatory processes. In the present study, we compared the effects of micronized PEA (PEA-m) and PLD association (PEA-m+PLD) with a new co-micronized composite containing PEA and PLD (m(PEA/PLD)) in the rat paw model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced acute inflammation. Intraplantar injection of CAR led to a time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, in terms of paw edema, cytokine release in paw exudates, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. m(PEA/PLD) reduced all measured parameters. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were also markedly reduced. At the spinal cord level, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was found to be nitrated and subsequently deactivated. Further, m(PEA/PLD) treatment increased spinal MnSOD expression, prevented IkB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB translocation, suggesting a possible role on central sensitization. m(PEA/PLD) showed more robust anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects compared to the simple association of PEA-m and PLD. This composite formulation approach opens a new therapeutic strategy for the development of novel non-narcotic anti-hyperalgesic agents. PMID:27095683

  10. Randomized controlled trial to compare growth parameters and nutrient adequacy in children with picky eating behaviors who received nutritional counseling with or without an oral nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30-60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ≤25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120. PMID:25342910

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Growth Parameters and Nutrient Adequacy in Children with Picky Eating Behaviors Who Received Nutritional Counseling With or Without an Oral Nutritional Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30–60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ≤25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120. PMID:25342910

  12. The Effects of Quinacrine, Proglumide, and Pentoxifylline on Seizure Activity, Cognitive Deficit, and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lithium-Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M.; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E.; Ajarem, Jamaan S.

    2014-01-01

    The present data indicate that status epilepticus (SE) induced in adult rats is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and cerebral oxidative stress (OS). This has been demonstrated using lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of SE. OS occurring in hippocampus and striatum of mature brain following SE is apparently due to both the increased free radicals production and the limited antioxidant defense. Pronounced alterations were noticed in the enzymatic, glutathione-S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as in the nonenzymatic; thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GST), indices of OS in the hippocampus and striatum of SE induced animals. Quinacrine (Qcn), proglumide (Pgm), and pentoxifylline (Ptx) administered to animals before inducing SE, were significantly effective in ameliorating the seizure activities, cognitive dysfunctions, and cerebral OS. The findings suggest that all the drugs were effective in the order of Ptx < Pgm < Qcn indicating that these drugs are potentially antiepileptic as well as antioxidant; however, further studies are needed to establish this fact. It can be assumed that these antiepileptic substances with antioxidant properties combined with conventional therapies might provide a beneficial effect in treatment of epilepsy through ameliorating the cerebral OS. PMID:25478062

  13. Impairment of GABA release in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Soukupová, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Roncon, Paolo; Palma, Eleonora; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Simonato, Michele

    2014-07-01

    The alterations in GABA release have not yet been systematically measured along the natural course of temporal lobe epilepsy. In this work, we analyzed GABA extracellular concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high K(+)-evoked conditions) and loss of two GABA interneuron populations (parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons) in the ventral hippocampus at different time-points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat, i.e. during development and progression of epilepsy. We found that (i) during the latent period between the epileptogenic insult, status epilepticus, and the first spontaneous seizure, basal GABA outflow was reduced to about one third of control values while the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was reduced by about 50% and that of somatostatin-positive cells by about 25%; nonetheless, high K(+) stimulation increased extracellular GABA in a proportionally greater manner during latency than under control conditions; (ii) at the time of the first spontaneous seizure (i.e., when the diagnosis of epilepsy is made in humans) this increased responsiveness to stimulation disappeared, i.e. there was no longer any compensation for GABA cell loss; (iii) thereafter, this dysfunction remained constant until a late phase of the disease. These data suggest that a GABAergic hyper-responsiveness can compensate for GABA cell loss and protect from occurrence of seizures during latency, whereas impaired extracellular GABA levels can favor the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and the maintenance of an epileptic state. PMID:24768627

  14. Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

  15. Comparing a motivational and a self-regulatory intervention to adopt an oral self-care regimen: a two-sequential randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lhakhang, Pempa; Gholami, Maryam; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    A sequential intervention to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of dental flossing was conducted among 205 students in India, aged 18-26 years. Two experimental groups received different treatment sequences and were observed at three assessment points, 34 days apart. One group received first a motivational intervention (intention, outcome expectancies, and risk perception, followed by a self-regulatory intervention (planning, self-efficacy, and action control). The second group received the same intervention in the opposite order. Both intervention sequences yielded gains in terms of flossing, planning, self-efficacy, and action control. However, at Time 2, those who had received the self-regulatory intervention first, were superior to their counterparts who had received the motivational intervention first. At Time 3, differences vanished as everyone had then received both interventions. Thus, findings highlight the benefits of a self-regulatory compared to a mere motivational intervention. PMID:25145870

  16. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of magnolol and honokiol after oral administration of Magnolia officinalis cortex extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Gongjun; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD) is one of the famous antidepressant Chinese formulas and is composed of Magnolia officinalis cortex (HP), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (ZZ) and Citrus aurantium L. (ZS). Magnolol (MN) and honokiol (HN) from HP are the major active ingredients responsible for the therapeutic effects of ZZHPD. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics and rat brain distribution of MN and HN after oral administration of HP extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in ZZHPD by HPLC-FLD. Compared with the HP group, Tmax (time to reach peak drug concentration in plasma) and AUC(0-τ) significantly increased in the ZZHPD and HP-ZZ groups. There was little change in the HP-ZS group in comparison with the HP group, which indicated that ZZ promotes absorption extent and defers the absorption rate of MN. The different compatibility of ZZHPD had a different degree of impact on the concentration of MN and HN in brain. The concentration of MN significantly increased in the HP-ZZ group while it decreased in the HP-ZS group compared with the HP group, which explained the concentration of compounds being slightly greater in the ZZHPD group than in the HP group. HP mixed with other medicines resulted in a decrease in HN concentration in the brain, particularly HP compatible with ZS. The results could be helpful for revealing the compatibility mechanism and providing clinical medication guidance for ZZHPD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26173910

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of two boswellic acids in normal and arthritic rat plasma after oral administration of Boswellia serrata extract or Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chenning; Wu, Yun; Ai, Yu; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2014-10-01

    Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a Chinese herbal formula composed of 11 different herbs, has been used traditionally for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetic profile of its anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds has not been elucidated. Boswellic acids are the bioactive compounds with potent anti-inflammatory activity isolated from Boswellia serrate which is one of the 11 herbs of HLXLD. The objective of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the two bioactive bowsellic acids: 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic following oral administration of HLXLD or Boswellia serrata extract alone in normal and arthritic rats. An LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic in the comparative pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between normal and arthritic groups. Interestingly, the absorptions of two boswellic acids were significantly higher in HLXLD than Boswellia serrata extract alone, indicating the synergistic effect of other herbal ingredients in HLXLD. This comparative pharmacokinetic study provided direct evidence supporting the notion that the efficacy of a complex mixture such as HLXLD is better than that of single components in treating human diseases. PMID:24806456

  19. Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and morphology of adult Wistar rats fed either low or normal protein-energy diets and orally dosed with aqueous Cuscuta australis extracts.

    PubMed

    Omirinde, J O; Ozegbe, P C; Oyeyemi, M O

    2014-01-01

    Cuscuta australis (C. australis) seed and stem are commonly used as dietary supplements in a maize-meal, "Ogi", by the local population for the management of male and female reproductive dysfunctions. This study, as a part of on-going efforts, therefore, evaluated and compared the effects of Low Protein-energy (LP) and Normal Protein-energy (NP) diets on the sperm morphology and characteristics of adult Wistar rats orally dosed aqueous extracts of C. australis seed (LPSE and NPSE) and stem (LPST and NPST), 300 mg of extract/kg body weight of rat/day, for seven days. The control groups (LPWA and NPWA) received vehicle, water. Live-dead ratio and percentage of sperms with curved tail were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in the NPST relative to the NPWA, LPWA, LPST, NPSE and LPSE. Total abnormal sperm counts, acephalic sperms and tailless head sperms were significantly decreased (p<0.001, p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) in the LPST and NPST relative to LPSE, NPSE, LPWA and NPWA. The LPSE, LPST and NPST showed significantly decreased (p<0.05) percentages of sperms with either bent mid-piece or curved mid-piece relative to the LPWA. Significantly decreased (p<0.05) percentage of sperms with curved mid-piece was also observed in the NPSE relative to LPWA. Protein-energy diet significantly influenced (at least p<0.05) the effect of each extract on sperm motility and percentage of sperms with curved tail. Stem extract significantly decreased (p<0.01) the percentages of acephalic sperms and tailless head sperms. Diet-stem extract interaction significantly influenced (p<0.05) live-dead ratio. Our data suggest that orally administered aqueous extracts of C. australis generally enhanced the sperm morphology and characteristics of the male Wistar rat and that the stem extract maintained sperm morphology better than the seed extract. It also showed that the stem extract decreased live-dead ratio and that the efficacy of orally administered aqueous C. australis stem extract may be affected by variations in dietary protein-energy levels. PMID:26196567

  20. NWP06, an Extended-Release Oral Suspension of Methylphenidate, Improved Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Compared with Placebo in a Laboratory Classroom Study

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Belden, Heidi W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NWP06, a novel extended-release (ER) liquid formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), compared with placebo in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a laboratory school. Methods A total of 45 subjects ages 612 years were enrolled in this dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study. Following open-label dose optimization, subjects received 2 weeks of double-blind treatment (1 week of NWP06 and 1 week of placebo). The treatment sequence (NWP06/placebo or placebo/NWP06) was randomly assigned with the last day of each week-long treatment occurring on the laboratory school test day. Efficacy measures included Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) mathematics tests measured at pre-dose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dose on each laboratory classroom day. Safety assessments included physical examination, screening electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event measures, and assessment of suicidality with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results NWP06 resulted in significant (p<0.0001) improvements in the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dose (mean=7.12) as compared with placebo (mean=19.58) in the completers (n=39). Significant separation from placebo occurred at each time point tested (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours), with onset of action of NWP06 at 45 minutes post-dose and duration of efficacy extending to 12 hours post-dose. Adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs following NWP06 treatment were generally mild and consistent with the known safety profile of MPH. The most common AEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (55.6%), upper abdominal pain (42.2%), affect lability (26.7%), initial insomnia (22.2%), insomnia (17.8%), and headache (17.8%). Conclusions NWP06 treatment effectively reduced symptoms of ADHD in children beginning at 45 minutes and continuing for 12 hours post-dose. NWP06 was well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00904670. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00904670. PMID:23289899

  1. Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience

    PubMed Central

    Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

  2. A comparative evaluation of the effect of diclofenac sodium with and without per-orally administered methylprednisolone on the sequelae of impacted mandibular third molar removal: A cohort randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prashar, Deepti V.; Pahwa, Deepti; Kalia, Vimal; Jindal, Govind; Kaur, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of oral methylprednisolone and diclofenac sodium on post-operative sequelae after third molar surgery. Settings and Design: A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted (with institutional and university approval for dissertation) to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone with diclofenac sodium (group A) as compared with diclofenac sodium and placebo (group B) on three variables: Pain, swelling and trismus, after third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive consenting patients for surgical removal of mandibular impacted third molar were randomly placed into two groups of 15 each (groups A and B). Pain, swelling and trismus were observed by visual analog scale, facial measurements and inter-incisal opening. Scores were recorded after 24 and 72 h and on the seventh post-operative day. Results were subjected to the Chi-square test and independent sample t-test (P = 0.05). Results: Mean difference in pain experienced between the two groups was statistically significant at 24 h (P = 0.015) and 72 h (P = 0.001) and on the seventh day (P = 0.005). Difference in inter-incisal distance was insignificant (P = 0.239) pre-operatively, but significant after 24 h (P = 0.014) and 72 h (P = 0.001) and on the seventh post-operative day (P = 0.001). Mean difference in swelling was highly significant after 24 h (P = 0.001) and 72 h (P = 0.0001) and on the seventh post-operative day (P = 0.047). Conclusions: The combination of oral dose of methylprednisolone (a corticosteroid) diclofenac sodium (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) was found to be more effective than diclofenac sodium alone on the sequelae of surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. PMID:27134449

  3. Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412

  4. Psychomotor and cognitive effects of a single oral dose of talnetant (SB223412) in healthy volunteers compared with placebo or haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Liem-Moolenaar, M; Gray, F A; de Visser, S J; Franson, K L; Schoemaker, R C; Schmitt, J A J; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A

    2010-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) effects of talnetant, an NK-3 antagonist in development for schizophrenia, were compared to those of haloperidol and placebo. The study was randomised, double-blind, three-way crossover of talnetant 200 mg, haloperidol 3 mg or placebo. Twelve healthy males participated and EEG, saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, adaptive tracking, body sway, finger tapping, hormones, visual analogue scales (VAS) for alertness, mood and calmness and psychedelic effects, left/right distraction task, Tower of London and Visual and Verbal Learning Task were assessed. Haloperidol showed (difference to placebo; 95% CI; p-value) decreases in EEG alpha power (-0.87microV; -1.51/-0.22; p = 0.0110), saccadic inaccuracy (2.0%; 0.5/3.6; p = 0.0133), smooth pursuit eye movements (-7.5%; -12.0/-3.0; p = 0.0026), adaptive tracking (-3.5%; -5.4/-1.7; p = 0.0009), alertness (-6.8 mm; -11.1/-2.4; p = 0.0039), negative mood (-4.6 mm; -8.6/-0.6; p = 0.0266), the ability to control thoughts (1.2 mm; 0.2/2.3; p = 0.0214), and an increase of serum prolactin (ratio 4.1; 3.0/5.6; p < 0.0001). Talnetant showed decreased alpha power (-0.69 muV; -1.34/-0.04; p = 0.0390), improved adaptive tracking (1.9%; 0.1/3.7; p = 0.0370) and reduced calmness on VAS Bond and Lader (-4.5 mm; -8.0/-1.0; p = 0.0151). Haloperidol effects were predominantly CNS-depressant, while those of talnetant were slightly stimulatory. The results suggest that talnetant penetrates the brain, but it remains to be established whether this dose is sufficient and whether the observed effect profile is class-specific for NK3-antagonists. PMID:18755817

  5. Oral glucose decreases hepatic extraction of insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Gibby, O M; Hales, C N

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral venous (plasma) insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in eight normal subjects given oral or intravenous glucose sufficient to produce similar plasma glucose concentrations. The expected increased insulin response to oral as compared with intravenous glucose was not matched by a comparable increase in C-peptide concentration. The ratio of insulin to C-peptide concentrations doubled 30 minutes after oral glucose was given; no comparable rise was seen with intravenous glucose (p = 0.01). This finding is interpreted as evidence for decreased hepatic extraction of insulin after administration of oral glucose. Such a decrease could account for at least half of the well known difference in peripheral insulin concentrations after administration of oral as compared with intravenous glucose. PMID:6403135

  6. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions. PMID:26632800

  7. Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

  8. Postnatal maturation of cytochrome oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase activity and age-dependent consequences of lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus in the rat: a regional histoenzymology study.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Emmanuel; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2004-10-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy reproduces some pathophysiological, temporal, and developmental features of human temporal lobe epilepsy. In this model, rates of cerebral glucose utilization measured by the [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique increased during the initial status epilepticus (SE) and decreased during the latent or chronic periods. To correlate these metabolic changes with the activities of the enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, we measured by histoenzymology the regional activity of two key enzymes of glucose metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for the anaerobic pathway and cytochrome oxidase (CO) for the aerobic pathway coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, at various times after SE induced by Li-Pilo in 10- (P10), 21-d-old (P21) and adult rats for CO and in adult rats only for LDH. CO activity was slightly affected in P10 and P21 rats only at 4 and 24 h and normalized by 14 d after SE. In adult rats, CO activity decreased at 4 and 24 h in damaged areas, like entorhinal cortex, hippocampal CA3 area, amygdala, and thalamus. At 14 d after SE, CO activity was decreased only in entorhinal cortex and increased in brainstem regions involved in the remote control of seizures. In adult rats, LDH activity decreased at 24 h and 14 d after SE in sensorimotor and entorhinal cortex. These data show that the enzymatic equipment underlying the metabolism of glucose is not severely affected by Li-Pilo SE and confirm our previous observations concerning the relative metabolic hyperactivity of brain regions involved in the seizure circuit despite marked neuronal loss. PMID:15295083

  9. Pluronic P85-coated poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles overcome phenytoin resistance in P-glycoprotein overexpressing rats with lithium-pilocarpine-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ziyan; Chen, Shuda; Qin, Jiaming; Chen, Bao; Ni, Guanzhong; Chen, Ziyi; Zhou, Jueqian; Li, Ze; Ning, Yuping; Wu, Chuanbin; Zhou, Liemin

    2016-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression in the blood brain barrier (BBB) is hypothesized to lower brain drug concentrations and thus inhibit anticonvulsant effects in drug-resistant epilepsy. Recently, the poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticle system was shown to overcome the obstacle of the BBB to deliver drugs into the brain. To determine whether pluronic P85-coated phenytoin poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs) target PHT to the brain, PHT-resistant rats overexpressing Pgp in the BBB were screened by response to PHT treatment after chronic temporal lobe epilepsy induced by lithium-pilocarpine, followed by direct verification of PHT transport via measurement of brain PHT concentrations using microdialysis. Thereafter, the PHT-resistant rats were divided into three groups, which were treated with PHT, PHT + tariquidar (TQD), or P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs. PHT + TQD and P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs showed anticonvulsant activity in the PHT-resistant rats and increased the ratio of the area under the curve of the PHT concentrations in the brain/plasma in comparison with that observed in animals subjected to PHT treatment. However, the ratios of the PHT concentrations in the liver/plasma and kidney/plasma following P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs treatment were much lower than those measured following PHT + TQD treatment. Thus, Pgp overexpression decreases therapeutic drug concentrations in the brains of subjects with drug-resistant epilepsy and P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs could increase these drug concentrations. PMID:27162079

  10. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  11. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  12. Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

  13. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Afoxolaner Chewable (NexGard®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This randomised controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours postinfestation on dogs when compared to oral afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) / flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) afoxolaner chewable (dosage 3.1 - 6.2 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, and 28; live (attached and non-attached) and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against live D. variabilis at 6 hours for Group 1 was 95 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 38 - 48 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 97 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 27 - 59 %. Efficacy against A. americanum at 6 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 % and for Group 2 was < 0 - 38 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 98 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 1 - 40 %. Live and total (total live and dead attached) tick counts in Group 1 against both tick species were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than Group 2 and 3 at all time points. The number of live or total ticks on Group 2 dogs was never significantly lower when compared to the respective number of ticks on Group 3 (controls). This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than afoxolaner on all challenge days. PMID:26152410

  14. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ≤ 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  15. Comparative pharmacokinetics of puerarin, daidzin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, berberine, palmatine and jateorhizine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and active components alignment (ACA) to rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beilei; Li, Pengyue; Zhang, Guijun

    2015-04-15

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous analysis of puerarin, daidzin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, berberine, palmatine and jateorhizine of Gegenqinlian Decoction (GQD) and active components alignment (ACA) in rat plasma using hesperidin as the internal standard (I.S.). Chromatography was performed using a C18 column, with gradient elution with 1% acetic acid-0.001 mol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile at 0.2 ml/min. All analytes including I.S. were monitored under positive ionization conditions by selected reaction monitoring with an electrospray ionization source. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 471/297 for puerarin, 471/255 for daidzin, 447/271 for baicalin, 823/453 for glycyrrhizic acid, 419/257 for liquiritin, 336/320 for berberine, 352/336 for palmatine, 338/322 for jateorhizine and 611/303 for hesperidin. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.15-63.0 to 6.3-6340.0 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were within 15.0%, and accuracy (RE%) ranged from -7.4 to 13.2%. The extraction recoveries were ranged from 60.4 to 93.3%. The proposed method was further applied to compare the pharmacokinetics of all analytes following a single oral administration of GQD and ACA. In conclusion, the eight analytes of GQD and ACA had partly similar pharmacokinetics, which were different from single composition (such as puerarin). PMID:25746576

  16. Simultaneous determination of seven coumarins by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and arthritic rats after oral administration of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan or single-herb extract.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of seven coumarins, the bio-active ingredients of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ether-dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) was used to prepare the plasma samples. Analytes and internal standard (IS) of bifendate were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75mm×3.0mm, 2.2μm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.05% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 0.03-0.25ng/mL for all the analytes. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the seven analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The matrix effect and the mean extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all within satisfaction. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the seven active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and arthritic rats after oral administration of HLXLD, Angelica pubescens extract and Notopterygium incisum extract, respectively. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes among the different groups. PMID:25932790

  17. Oral health and older adults.

    PubMed

    DeBiase, Christina B; Austin, Shari L

    2003-01-01

    The population of individuals aged 65 and older is growing dramatically and is expected to increase 126% by 2011, compared to only a 42% rise in the population of the United States as a whole. The fastest growing segment of the older adult population is persons aged 85 and older (Figure 1). Although many members of this generation lead healthy independent lives, the challenge faced by oral health care professionals is providing care to the chronically ill and/or homebound or institutionalized older adult, particularly the oldest old and those with limited finances. Effective communication skills are essential when dealing with older adults and their families. Collaboration between medical/allied health professionals and oral health care professionals is also critical in order to accurately assess and manage the oral health needs of the aging patient. A preventive approach to oral health with sensitivity to the physical, mental, and social status of the patient is the focus of this course. Marketing strategies to alleviate common barriers to seeking oral health care among this age group are provided. PMID:12861793

  18. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... OCF Funded Research Partners OCF funded Peer Reviewed Science Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical Trial ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce ...

  19. Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Pedro; Arajo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  20. Oral insulin delivery: how far are we?

    PubMed

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The mainbarriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  1. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  2. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  3. Women's oral health issues.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B J

    2000-09-01

    Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when hormonal fluctuations may affect oral tissues. PMID:11324047

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans ...

  5. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

  6. The Uptake of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes by Means of Glycated Hemoglobin versus the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among 18 to 60-Year-Old People of South Asian Origin: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vlaar, Everlina M. A.; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct comparisons of the effect of a glycated haemoglobin measurement or an oral glucose tolerance test on the uptake and yield of screening in people of South Asian origin have not been made. We evaluated this in 18 to 60-year-old South Asian Surinamese. Materials and Methods We invited 3173 South Asian Surinamese for an oral glucose tolerance test between June 18th 2009- December 31st 2009 and 2012 for a glycated hemoglobin measurement between April 19th 2010-November 11th, 2010. Participants were selected from 48 general practices in The Hague, The Netherlands. We used mixed models regression to analyse differences in response and participation between the groups. We described differences in characteristics of participants and calculated the yield as the percentage of all cases identified, if all invitees had been offered screening with the specified method. Results The response and participation in the glycated hemoglobin group was higher than in the group offered an oral glucose tolerance test (participation 23.9 vs. 19.3; OR: 1.30, 95%-confidence interval1.01–1.69). After adjustment for age and sex, characteristics of participants were similar for both groups. Overall, glycated hemoglobin identified a similar percentage of type 2 diabetes cases but a higher percentage of prediabetes cases, in the population than the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion We found that glycated hemoglobin and the oral glucose tolerance test may be equally efficient for identification of type 2 diabetes in populations of South Asian origin. However, for programs aimed at identifying people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (i.e. with prediabetes), the oral glucose tolerance test may be a less efficient choice than glycated hemoglobin. PMID:26317417

  7. Brain mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and glutamate level reduction in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smeland, Olav B; Hadera, Mussie G; McDonald, Tanya S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Although certain metabolic characteristics such as interictal glucose hypometabolism are well established for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of brain metabolism in a mouse model of TLE, induced by pilocarpine–status epilepticus (SE). To investigate glucose metabolism, we injected mice 3.5–4 weeks after SE with [1,2-13C]glucose before microwave fixation of the head. Using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantified metabolites and 13C labeling in extracts of cortex and hippocampal formation (HF). Hippocampal levels of glutamate, glutathione and alanine were decreased in pilocarpine–SE mice compared with controls. Moreover, the contents of N-acetyl aspartate, succinate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) NAD(P)H were decreased in HF indicating impairment of mitochondrial function. In addition, the reduction in 13C enrichment of hippocampal citrate and malate suggests decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover in this region. In cortex, we found reduced 13C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate via the pyruvate carboxylation and pyruvate dehydrogenation pathways, suggesting slower turnover of these amino acids and/or the TCA cycle. In conclusion, mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and altered amino-acid metabolism is found in both cortex and HF in this epilepsy model. PMID:23611869

  8. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  9. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  10. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  11. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

  12. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with glargine 100 U/ml in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes on oral glucose-lowering drugs: a randomized controlled trial (EDITION 3)

    PubMed Central

    Bolli, G B; Riddle, M C; Bergenstal, R M; Ziemen, M; Sestakauskas, K; Goyeau, H; Home, P D

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) with that of glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes using oral glucose-lowering drugs. Methods The EDITION 3 study was a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group study. Participants were randomized to Gla-300 or Gla-100 once daily for 6 months, discontinuing sulphonylureas and glinides, with a dose titration aimed at achieving pre-breakfast plasma glucose concentrations of 4.4–5.6 mmol/l (80–100 mg/dl). The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to month 6. The main secondary endpoint was percentage of participants with ≥1 nocturnal confirmed [≤3.9 mmol/l (≤70 mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemia from week 9 to month 6. Other measures of glycaemia and hypoglycaemia, weight change and insulin dose were assessed. Results Randomized participants (n = 878) had a mean (standard deviation) age of 57.7 (10.1) years, diabetes duration 9.8 (6.4) years, body mass index 33.0 (6.7) kg/m2 and HbA1c 8.54 (1.06) % [69.8 (11.6) mmol/mol]. HbA1c levels decreased by equivalent amounts with the two treatments; the least squares mean difference in change from baseline was 0.04 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.09 to 0.17] % or 0.4 (−1.0 to 1.9) mmol/mol. Numerically fewer participants reported ≥1 nocturnal confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia from week 9 to month 6 [relative risk (RR) 0.89 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.20)] with Gla-300 versus Gla-100; a significantly lower risk of hypoglycaemia with this definition was found over the 6-month treatment period [RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.99)]. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were identified. Conclusions Gla-300 is as effective as Gla-100 in reducing HbA1c in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, with lower hypoglycaemia risk. PMID:25641260

  13. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15 years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02084433. PMID:26163031

  14. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    PubMed

    Hideo, Sakaguchi

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

  15. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  16. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  17. Health-oriented electronic oral health record: development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wongsapai, Mansuang; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Beach, Daryl; Kawaguchi, Sachiko

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to develop and evaluate a new Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record that implements the health-oriented status and intervention index. The index takes the principles of holistic oral healthcare and applies them to the design and implementation of the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. We designed an experiment using focus groups and a consensus (Delphi process) method to develop a new health-oriented status and intervention index and graphical user interface. A comparative intervention study with qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compare an existing Electronic Oral Health Record to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record, focusing on dentist satisfaction, accuracy, and completeness of oral health status recording. The study was conducted by the dental staff of the Inter-country Center for Oral Health collaborative hospitals in Thailand. Overall, the user satisfaction questionnaire had a positive response to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. The dentists found it easy to use and were generally satisfied with the impact on their work, oral health services, and surveillance. The dentists were significantly satisfied with the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record compared to the existing Electronic Oral Health Record (p < 0.001). The accuracy and completeness values of the oral health information recorded using the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record were 97.15 and 93.74 percent, respectively. This research concludes that the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record satisfied many dentists, provided benefits to holistic oral healthcare, and facilitated the planning, managing, and evaluation of the healthcare delivery system. PMID:24810725

  18. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  19. New issues in oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphisms in CYP2C9, a critical cytochrome P-450 enzyme in the metabolism of warfarin, alters its clearance and affects dosing. CYP*1 has higher activity than either the *2 or *3 variants, and patients with the *2 or *3 variants require a lower dose. VKORC1 is the enzyme inhibited by warfarin, and its levels are affected by several polymorphisms that can be divided into high or low level haplotypes, and patients with high level haplotypes require higher warfarin doses. The use of algorithms for dosing that incorporate pharmacogenomic information perform better than those using clinical data alone. Considerable effort is ongoing to develop new oral anticoagulants as alternatives to warfarin, and three agents are in advanced development. Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been compared with enoxaparin for prevention of VTE following hip or knee replacement. Based on non-inferiority results in European trials, it has now been approved for marketing in Europe. Phase III trials with a new oral Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, have been completed in hip or knee replacement, and rivaroxaban was superior to enoxaparin in prevention of VTE with no increase in bleeding complications. Phase III studies with apixaban, another oral Xa inhibitor, are in progress. These agents are also being evaluated in large studies for prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation and for VTE treatment. PMID:19074093

  20. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  1. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies. PMID:25638423

  2. Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

    2011-10-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

  3. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self-efficacy and net benefits. Discussion IQuaD will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing periodontal disease in dentate adults in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners and patients in treatment decision making. Trial registration Protocol ID: ISRCTN56465715 PMID:24160246

  4. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  5. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

  6. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed. PMID:7148975

  7. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  8. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  9. Oral manifestations of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Leão, Jair Carneiro; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino; Porter, Stephen R

    2006-04-01

    The past decade has shown a significant rise in the prevalence of infective syphilis in the developed world, and striking increases in its frequency have occurred in Eastern Europe, particularly the UK, and in the US. Although oral manifestations of syphilis are most likely to be observed during secondary disease, all stages of the disease can give rise to oral lesions. Significant oral lesions such as gumma-associated bony destruction and a possible predisposition to oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with tertiary disease. Since the prevalence of infective syphilis in heterosexuals has been increasing, there has now been a gradual rise in the number of children born with congenital syphilis. Consequently, the congenital disease gives rise to dental anomalies as well as bone, skin, and neurological anomalies of the face. The aim of this report is to review syphilis-related oral lesions, as well as to summarize the relations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:16680334

  10. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  11. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  12. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  13. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  14. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  15. The oral microbiome and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laura; Ganly, Ian

    2014-12-01

    The role that bacteria play in the etiology and predisposition to cancer is of increasing interest, particularly since the development of high-throughput genetic-based assays. With this technology, it has become possible to comprehensively examine entire microbiomes as a functional entity. This article focuses on the understanding of bacteria and its association with oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25439271

  16. Is oral contraceptive associated with genital warts?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between oral contraceptive use and the prevalence of genital warts in women. METHODS: Cross sectional case control study comparing oral contraceptive use in women with and without genital warts attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic controlling for recent sexual activity, the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, socio-economic class and history of pregnancy using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding variables women with genital warts were significantly more likely to be current users of the oral contraceptive pill (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2). CONCLUSION: The study suggests that women taking the oral contraceptive may be at increased risk of presenting with genital warts. Previously published papers provide some support for this hypothesis and potential biological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:8976847

  17. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  18. Oral antibiotics enhance antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in orally but not muscularly immunized chickens.

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens. PMID:26304689

  19. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder. PMID:26617710

  20. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  1. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  2. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  3. Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.

    2012-10-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

  4. Role of tissue eosinophils in oral Leukoplakia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Madhura, MG; Gajalakshmi, S; Kumar, B Veerendra; Suma, S; Sarita, Y; Shweta, RD

    2015-01-01

    Context: Tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well - recognized. Studies have reported both favorable and unfavorable prognoses associated with tissue eosinophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of eosinophils in the development of tumor is still unclear. Aims: The present study was an attempt to elucidate the potential role of tissue eosinophils in oral leukoplakia, a potentially malignant lesion. Settings and Design: To count eosinophils in tissues of normal subjects and oral leukoplakia cases. To compare tissue eosinophil count (TEC) between normal and oral leukoplakia cases. To compare TEC between dysplastic and non-dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia and to correlate with degree of epithelial dysplasia. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 cases (59 cases of oral leukoplakia and 26 normal oral tissues) constituted the study material. Tissue eosinophils were counted in 10 different high- power fields. Statistical Analysis Used: Non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney post hoc analysis and Spearman's correlation statistics). Results: Mean eosinophil count (MEC) in oral leukoplakia cases was significantly more when compared to normal subjects. MEC in dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia was significantly more when compared to those without epithelial dysplasia (Mann-Whitney U-test). Furthermore, MEC was directly proportional to the degree of epithelial dysplasia (Spearman's correlation statistics). Conclusions: TEC may be used as an adjunct to predict the malignant transformation of dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia. Eosinophilic infiltration in oral dysplastic cases should prompt a thorough evaluation for invasiveness, especially when features of invasion are absent or suspected in smaller biopsy specimens. Use of TEC as a prognostic indicator demands larger sample size and mandates long-term follow-up. PMID:26980954

  5. Oral Melanotic Macule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral melanotic macule is a non-cancerous (benign), dark spot found on the lips or inside the ... are more common in middle-aged people, in dark-skinned people, and in females. Signs and Symptoms ...

  6. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults and children 6 years of age and older. It is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. Flunisolide works ...

  7. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults and children 12 years of age and older. Ciclesonide is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. It works ...

  8. Oral health and HIV.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, David I

    2004-01-01

    Most oral health problems can be found in people who are either HIV positive or negative. Yet there are some important differences. A few conditions are seen almost exclusively in people with HIV, while some that are found in both populations are more problematic for people with HIV, especially those with advanced disease. A diminished immune system can alter the course of oral disease and require more aggressive treatment to prevent minor troubles from escalating into major health problems. Over 30 different oral manifestations of HIV disease have been reported since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. This article will address several of the most common of these oral health issues. As with any health condition faced by HIV positive people, early identification and treatment should be emphasized. In many cases, referral to a dentist should be made as soon as possible. PMID:15104067

  9. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Albuterol is used to prevent and treat difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness ... of diseases that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is ...

  10. Pain in oral galvanism.

    PubMed

    Hampf, G; Ekholm, A; Salo, T; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Aalberg, V; Tuominen, S; Alfthan, G

    1987-06-01

    The present study reports on a controlled investigation of 38 patients with signs and symptoms of presumed oral galvanism, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Helsinki for examination and treatment. A significant difference in mental health and in intraoral sensitivity threshold was found between patients and controls: patients with oral galvanism were mentally more disturbed and had a lower sensibility threshold than those in the control group. There was no statistical difference in electrical currents, potential or energy capacity in the dental metallic restorations between patients and controls. The frequency of allergies and oral candida infection was similar to that of a normal population. The possibility of exposure to mercury was excluded through a head hair analysis. The psychic background of complaints and findings is emphasized and a hypothesis for the mechanism giving rise to discomfort is presented. PMID:3614966

  11. Oral galvanism in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Molin, C

    1990-08-01

    Although a questionnaire response showed that many Swedes are concerned about oral galvanism, it seems that the symptoms changed as each theory was challenged. The symptoms changed with additional knowledge of the patient and the environment. PMID:2205644

  12. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  13. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  14. Oral Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

    2014-09-01

    'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  15. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  16. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  17. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  18. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Paula Regina Rodrigues; da Fonsêca, Diogo Vilar; Braga, Renan Marinho; de Melo, Cynthia Germoglio Farias; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-01-01

    Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC), namely (+)-cis-EC, (-)-cis-EC, (+)-trans-EC, and (-)-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg) increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+) and (-)-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+) and (-)-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg) showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+)-cis-EC and (+)-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+)-cis-EC, (+)-trans-EC, and (-)-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes. PMID:26528962

  19. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  20. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  1. Menopause and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

  2. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat ?nan; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  3. Ecology of Human Oral Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    van Houte, Johannes; Gibbons, Ronald J.; Pulkkinen, Andrea J.

    1972-01-01

    Lactobacilli were found in saliva, on teeth, and on the dorsum of the tongue, the vestibular mucosa, and the hard palate in humans. Their proportions in saliva, expressed as percentage of the anaerobically cultivable flora, were 10- to 100-fold higher than those on the tooth surface, but were comparable to those on the epithelial surfaces. The adherence of Lactobacillus casei and L. fermenti to oral surfaces was compared with that of streptomycin-labeled Streptococcus sanguis and S. salivarius by using in vitro-cultivated cells. The affinity of both Lactobacillus species for the tooth surface was very low compared with that of S. sanguis but was somewhat higher than that of S. salivarius. The lactobacilli and both Streptococcus species adhered to a similar extent to the dorsum of the tongue, whereas the affinity of the lactobacilli and S. salivarius for the vestibular mucosa was about one-half of that of S. sanguis. The results suggest that the affinity of lactobacilli for oral surfaces significantly influences their proportional distribution in the mouth. The relatively low affinity of lactobacilli for the tooth surface suggests that their recognized association with carious lesions and mechanical appliances under certain conditions may be due primarily to mechanical retention rather than unique growth conditions. PMID:4637297

  4. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  5. Comparative Oncology Program

    Cancer.gov

    COTC021 and COTC022: Evaluation of Orally Administered mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin in Dogs in the Adjuvant Setting with Osteosarcoma Compared to Standard of Care Status: Open Purpose: All dogs will receive standard of care. Standard of care includes surgical

  6. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  7. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions

  8. Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2011-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost. PMID:21938271

  9. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  10. Rehearsed Oral L2 Output and Reactive Focus on Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennim, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Describes a reactive focus on form task that was part of a university English-as-a-Foreign-Language oral presentation course. Students in the study were encouraged to focus on their oral output by taping and transcribing a rehearsal of their presentation. Describes the effect of this treatment by comparing the language of the rehearsal transcript…

  11. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  12. Communication among oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kolenbrander, Paul E; Andersen, Roxanna N; Blehert, David S; Egland, Paul G; Foster, Jamie S; Palmer, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  13. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  14. Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli

    2016-01-01

    Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion histological consequences of TLE in a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:27051565

  15. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  16. Oral films as breakthrough tools for oral delivery of proteins/peptides.

    PubMed

    Castro, Pedro M; Fonte, Pedro; Sousa, Flávia; Madureira, Ana Raquel; Sarmento, Bruno; Pintado, Manuela E

    2015-08-10

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides demonstrate unique, peerless, pharmacological characteristics such as high specificity to receptors and superior biological mimicking of physiological mechanisms, resulting in a better therapeutic index compared to conventional chemical-derived drugs. However, proteins also present inherent bioavailability limitations. Thus, this paper proposes several effective tools to improve protein/peptide drugs stability, permeability and pharmacokinetics with special emphasis on oral polymeric films as oral delivery platforms. Indeed, oral films present inherent characteristics that can greatly enhance biological performance of proteins and peptides and patient compliance along with other advantages that are critically discussed in this review. A rational choice of excipients addressed in and manufacture processes are also focused. In addition, possible toxicity issues to be overtaken and critical analysis regarding current market tendencies respecting oral films and protein/peptides along with future prospects are disclosed. PMID:25979328

  17. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    PubMed

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  18. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  19. Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

  20. Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Karl A.

    A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

  1. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions. PMID:23643021

  2. Discoloration of Provisional Restorations after Oral Rinses

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, K?van Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II, Luxatemp and Fill-In) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (?E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). A* values were found to be significantly higher with oral rinses (p<0.05), except Protemp II immersed in benzydamine HCl or alcohol-containing mouthwash. Conclusions: The type of the oral rinse did not affect the discoloration process. For long-term esthetic results, choosing MMA-based materials for provisional restorations appears to be more effective. PMID:24046524

  3. The impact of home-prepared diets and home oral hygiene on oral health in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; Colyer, Alison; Skrzywanek, Michal; Jodkowska, Katarzyna; Kurski, Grzegorz; Gawor, Jerzy; Ceregrzyn, Michal

    2011-10-01

    Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health. An oral health index (OHI) ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for each animal by combining examination scores, where 0 indicates good oral health and 8 indicates poorest oral health. Information was collected on age, diet and home oral hygiene regimens. There was a significant effect of diet on the OHI (P < 0.001) whereby feeding the HP diet increased the probability of an oral health problem in both cats and dogs. There was a significant beneficial effect of feeding only commercial pet food compared with the HP diet when at least part of the diet was composed of dry pet food. Daily tooth brushing or the offering of daily dental treats were both effective in significantly reducing the OHI in both cats and dogs compared with those receiving sporadic or no home oral hygiene. Feeding only a dry diet was beneficial for oral health in cats and dogs. Tooth brushing and the offering of dental treats were very effective in maintaining oral health, provided they were practised daily. PMID:22005407

  4. Oral health of substance-dependent individuals: impact of specific substances.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Meredith M; Cheng, Debbie M; Kressin, Nancy R; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns. PMID:21474269

  5. Advances in computationally modeling human oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-06-23

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  6. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  7. Do caterpillars secrete "oral secretions"?

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2009-03-01

    The oral secretions or regurgitant of caterpillars contain potent elicitors of plant induced responses. These elicitors are recognized by host plants to differentiate between simple mechanical injury and the presence of herbivores. In some cases, this level of recognition is highly specific. Despite the in-depth chemical characterization of these elicitors, little is known about the amounts delivered in regurgitant during feeding. In this study, we use a fluorescent dye to label regurgitant in order to visualize caterpillar regurgitation during feeding. The procedure is highly sensitive and allows us to visualize nanoliter amounts of regurgitant. We examined the propensity of larval Helicoverpa zea, Heliothis virescens, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, and Manduca sexta to regurgitate on various host plants. These species were selected because they have been among the most intensely studied in terms of elicitors. Our results indicate that most larvae did not regurgitate following a brief feeding bout ( approximately 10 min) during which they ate ca. 0.40 cm(2) of leaf. When larvae did regurgitate, it was typically less than 10 nl. This is several orders of magnitude less than is typically used in most studies on oral secretions. The frequency of regurgitation appears to vary depending upon the host plant. Larval H. zea are less likely to regurgitate when feeding on tomato leaves compared to corn mid-whorl tissue. Our results have importance in understanding the role of oral secretions in plant recognition of herbivory. Because caterpillars did not routinely regurgitate during feeding, it is likely that they avoid the elicitation of some plant defensive responses during most feeding bouts. PMID:19221841

  8. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  9. A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the i.art. injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition, the serum naproxen pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds, administered at the highest equimolar doses, were obtained during the first 6 h after dosing. Results At the two highest tested doses, both naproxen and ATB-346 reduced edema and pain score (measured 3 and 5 h after CGN; P < 0.001). Tactile allodynia was similarly inhibited by ~45% 4 h after CGN by both naproxen (at 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) and ATB-346 (at 1.6 and 4.8 mg/kg; P < 0.001), as well as leukocyte infiltration. Naproxen (but not ATB-346) induced significant gastric damage and, despite the increased gastric MPO activity by ~130% in the naproxen-, but not in the ATB-346-treated rats, this effect was of no statistical significance. Conclusion The presence of a H2S-releasing moiety in the ATB-346 structure does not impair the antiinflammatory activity of the parent compound in rats with CGN-induced synovitis. In addition, released H2S may account for the absence of deleterious gastric effects, thus making of ATB-346 a potentially useful therapeutic alternative to traditional naproxen for treatment of patients with arthritis. PMID:24237604

  10. ORAL LICHEN PLANUS AND ORAL LICHENOID REACTION--AN UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Rotim, Zeljko; Bolanca, Zeljana; Rogulj, Ana Andabak; Andabak, Matej; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) are clinically and histopathologically similar diseases. Whereas OLP is a consequence of T cell mediated autoinflammatory process to a still unknown antigen, OLR might be caused by drugs, dental restorative materials and dental plaque. Pubmed was searched and 24 publications published over the last three years regarding etiology, diagnosis and malignant alteration were included in this study. Patients with OLR who have amalgam fillings near lesions should have them replaced, i.e. when possible they should be referred to patch test, as well as when drug-induced OLR are suspected. OLR lesions induced by drugs should disappear when the offending drug has been discontinued. Histology finding in OLR consists of more eosinophils, plasma cells and granulocytes in comparison to OLP lesions. Furthermore, OLP lesions showed more p53, bcl-2 and COX-2 positivity when compared to OLR. OLP is characterized by infiltration, atrophic epithelium, rete pegs and Max Joseph spaces, while deep infiltration into connective tissue and hyperkeratosis were the criteria for making the diagnosis of OLR. The number of degranulated mastocytes in the reticular layer, as well as the number of capillaries was higher in OLR in comparison to OLP. It seems that OLR are more prone to malignant alteration in comparison to OLP. PMID:27017728

  11. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota

  12. Imaging in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

  13. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  14. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  15. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  16. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  17. Oral Communication in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.

    Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal

  18. Oral Communication in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J. Daryll

    1976-01-01

    Investigated was the kind of communication that takes place in oral teaching. Analysis of tape-recorded transcripts of fifteen half-hour biology lessons delivered to high school and college students revealed a high degree of teacher-dominance and infrequency of discussion involving several pupils. (CS)

  19. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  20. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  1. Reduction of oral malodor by oxidizing lozenges.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, R B; Goldberg, S; Marku-Cohen, S; Sterer, N; Rosenberg, M

    1997-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the anti-malodor properties of oxidizing lozenges, as compared to breath mints and chewing gum. Healthy, young adult volunteers (N = 123; mean age 24.5 years) were measured for oral malodor-related parameters (whole mouth odor measured by 2 judges; tongue dorsum posterior odor using the spoon test; volatile sulphide levels; salivary levels of cadaverine and putrescine; and 2 versions of an oral rinse test) on the first afternoon of the study. They were then assigned randomly to one of 6 groups (2 brands of breath mints, chewing gum with no active ingredients, regular and full-strength oxidizing lozenges, and a no-treatment control), and instructed to employ the treatment before bedtime, the next morning, and in the early afternoon 3 hours prior to measurements, which were carried out 24 hours following baseline measurements. Volunteers also estimated the level of their own whole mouth and tongue odors at baseline and post-treatment. The data showed that, among treatments, only the full-strength oxidizing lozenge significantly reduced tongue dorsum malodor, as determined by the spoon test. The full-strength lozenge also yielded a significant increase in the modified oral rinse test, presumably due, at least in part, to residual oxidizing activity retained in the oral cavity. Self-estimations of whole mouth and tongue malodor by volunteers were significantly correlated with corresponding-judge assessments, suggesting some degree of objectivity in assessing one's own oral malodor. PMID:9444592

  2. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer. PMID:26580700

  3. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur before the menstrual period each month) in women who have chosen to use an oral contraceptive ... taking oral contraceptives. If you have had an abortion or miscarriage, talk to your doctor about when ...

  4. Pictorial/Oral and Written Responses of First Grade Students: Can Aesthetic Growth Be Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Applies an aesthetic instrument to first-grade students' pictorial/oral and written responses to determine if significant aesthetic growth was demonstrated in responses collected over a three-month period. Compares students' written growth to growth demonstrated in pictorial/oral responses. Finds that pictorial and oral responses can serve as…

  5. Oral Reading Fluency Assessment: Issues of Construct, Criterion, and Consequential Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine…

  6. A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Dale April; Hinojosa, Fanny

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the varying degrees to which learners of Spanish at the intermediate and advanced levels use paragraph-like structure in their answers during a simulated oral proficiency exam. Subjects were 24 students preparing for the Spanish Texas Oral Proficiency Test. Data from simulated oral proficiency interviews were compared to a model…

  7. Effect of oral contraceptives on respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Resmi, S S; Samuel, Elizabeth; Kesavachandran, C; Shashidhar, Shankar

    2002-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the lung functions in oral contraceptive administered women. Lung function tests were carried out with Spirometer (Vitallograph Compact II). A significant increase in vital capacity (VC) was observed in these women as compared to normal control. There was also a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec./vital capacity (FEV1/VC%) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec./forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) among oral contraceptive administered women as compared to controls. Further, a significant increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), reduction in forced expiratory flow rate (FEF75-85%) and FEF75% were observed among oral contraceptive administered women as compared to controls. The increase in VC and PEF might be due to the synthetic form of progesterone (progestins) present in oral contraceptive pills which causes hyperventilatory changes. Synthetic progesterone during luteal phase of menstrual cycle might increase the static and dynamic volumes of lung i.e. VC and PEF. But FEF75% showed a decrease which might be due to the lower neuromuscular coordination during breathing. PMID:12613402

  8. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

  9. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  10. Oral Lichen Planus in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children. PMID:25206101

  11. [Oral manifestations of systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Fistarol, S K; Itin, P H

    2009-11-01

    Many systemic diseases may present with oral manifestations and the oral mucosa may act as a mirror of internal involvement. We discuss the most common, specific and unspecific, as the most peculiar oral mucosal manifestations of systemic disease in the different organ systems. The most prevalent conditions of the oral mucosa in the course of HIV infection and marker lesions of multisystemic genodermatoses are elucidated. PMID:19855944

  12. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  13. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  14. Oral History and Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that oral history is a way to involve students in thinking about and understanding history and the contemporary world. Includes a family history chart, recommendations for creating an oral history questionnaire, sample interview questions, and four student oral history writing models. (CFR)

  15. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

  16. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,

  17. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Zidovudine Entrapped in Biodegradable Nanospheres in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Diana P.; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Bell, Aaron; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Petratienes, Ruta; Candelario, Myrna; Schaufele, Robert; Dunn, James M.; Sei, Shizuko; Walsh, Thomas J.; Balis, Frank M.

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of oral zidovudine entrapped in a 50:50 polyactide-coglycolide matrix (nanospheres) was compared to those of standard oral and parenteral zidovudine formulations in rabbits. The bioavailability of zidovudine nanospheres at 50 mg/kg of body weight was 76%, and this dose achieved prolonged exposure to zidovudine compared to standard formulations without an increase in the drug’s peak concentration. PMID:10103214

  19. Assessment and management of oral health in liver transplant candidates

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA SANTOS, Paulo Sérgio; FERNANDES, Karin Sá; GALLOTTINI, Marina H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become a standard treatment for end-stage liver disease and the number of recipients has grown rapidly in the last few years. Dental care during pre-transplant workup is important to reduce potential sources of infection in the drug-induced immunosuppression phase of liver transplantation. Objectives The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence of oral abnormalities in patients on a liver transplant waiting list presenting to an urban dental school clinic, discuss the appropriate dental treatment according their systemic conditions and compare their oral manifestations with those of healthy individuals. Material and Methods A pilot study was conducted involving 16 end-stage liver disease individuals (study group- SG) attending the Special Care Dentistry Center of the University of São Paulo and 16 control individuals (control group- CG) with no liver diseases, receiving dental care at the Dental School of the University of São Paulo. These individuals were assessed for their dental status (presence of oral disease or abnormalities), coagulation status, and dental treatment indications. Results The patients from SG exhibited a greater incidence of oral manifestations compared with CG (p=0.0327) and were diagnosed with at least one oral disease or condition that required treatment. Coagulation abnormalities reflecting an increased risk of bleeding were found in 93.75% of the patients. However, no bleeding complications occurred after dental treatment. Conclusions The patients with chronic liver diseases evaluated in this study exhibited a higher incidence of oral manifestations compared with the control group and had at least one oral disease or abnormality which required dental treatment prior to liver transplantation. Careful oral examination and evaluation of the patient, including laboratory tests, will ensure correct oral preparation and control of oral disease prior to liver transplantation. PMID:22666844

  20. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis