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Pilocarpine is used to treat dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer ... the body such as the eyes and mouth). Pilocarpine is in a class of medications called cholinergic ...


Oral Pilocarpine for Treatment of Opioid-induced Oral Dryness in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilocarpine induces a profuse flow of saliva when administered orally, but effects on drug-induced oral dryness have not been examined. The aim of this trial was to investigate if pilocarpine increases production of saliva in individuals suffering from dry mouth due to treatment with opioids. Sixty-five individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The subjects received tramadol (50

B. Götrick; S. Åkerman; D. Ericson; R. Torstenson; G. Tobin



Pilocarpine-induced salivary fluid secretion in the perfused submandibular gland of the rat.  


Xerostomia is the symptom of dry mouth often seen in patients who receive head and neck radiation therapy or in patients who have Sjögren's syndrome. The primary treatment to relieve xerostomia symptom is oral administration of pilocarpine, a parasympathomimetic agent with muscarinic action. Increase in salivary secretion induced by systemic administration of pilocarpine is considered to be mediated by actions on muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system and salivary glands. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of pilocarpine on salivary fluid secretion in the isolated, perfused rat submandibular gland. Pilocarpine provoked salivary fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The Na(+)-channel blocker tetrodotoxin had almost no effect on the pilocarpine-induced salivary fluid secretion, indicating that pilocarpine directly stimulates submandibular gland. Pilocarpine induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in dispersed submandibular gland cells at 37 degrees C, but not 25 degrees C. The salivary fluid secretion induced by pilocarpine was consisted of a rapid and transient phase and a subsequent sustained phase, which profile was different from that evoked by carbachol, another typical muscarinic agonist. Pilocarpine also induced Lucifer yellow secretion via paracellular route. PMID:20224203

Qi, Bing; Narita, Takanori; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masataka



The effect of pilocarpine on the glaucomatous visual field.  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic open angle glaucoma are traditionally managed by medical therapy during the early stages of the disease. Pilocarpine is a well established topical agent, but suffers troublesome sequelae, the most apparent of which is pupillary constriction. This study assesses the effect of miosis (produced by one drop of 2% pilocarpine) on the static threshold perimetry of 20 subjects with chronic open angle glaucoma and documented visual field loss, using the 30-2 program of the Humphrey field analyser. Following miosis, the Statpac mean defect deteriorated by an average of -1.49 dB compared with baseline (p = 0.004). This dB deterioration is twice that reported in studies on younger normal subjects following miosis. The decrease in mean defect showed a positive correlation with the degree of pupillary constriction, the correlation being greater in those eyes with a miosed pupil diameter of 2 mm or less. There was no significant decrease in the other Statpac global indices following miosis. A parallel study using the fellow eye of the same glaucoma patients showed a high degree of intertest variability, but no significant learning or fatigue effect. We conclude that pilocarpine-induced miosis causes a significant deterioration in visual field in a population of patients with chronic open angle glaucoma: this factor should be considered when choosing therapy for glaucoma particularly in cases where field loss approaches the permitted legal minimum for driving. PMID:8280687

Webster, A R; Luff, A J; Canning, C R; Elkington, A R



Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.  


Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average latency after i.v. pilocarpine was 0.31 ± 0.03; 0.25-0.34 min with a time constant of 0.19 ± 0.07; 0.11-0.31 s. During i.v. pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in five monkeys, lens diameters decreased by 0.54 ± 0.09; 0.42-0.64 mm with a rate of change of 0.052 ± 0.002; 0.050-0.055 mm/D. Accommodative responses with i.v. pilocarpine were more rapid, consistent and stable than those with carbachol iontophoresis. The accommodative decrease in lens diameter with i.v. pilocarpine as a function of age was consistent with previous results using constant topical pilocarpine. Intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation is safe, more consistent and more rapid than carbachol iontophoresis and it requires no contact with or obstruction of the eye thus allowing continuous and uninterrupted refraction and ocular biometry measurements. PMID:23850971

Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian



Comparative evaluation of midazolam and clonidine as pediatric oral premedication  

PubMed Central

Background: Clonidine provides many desirable effects like sedation, analgesia, anxiolysis, and hemodynamic stability and these properties make it a potentially useful anesthetic premedication in the pediatric settings. The aim of this study was to compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg), which is considered gold standard with oral clonidine (5 mcg/kg) as a premedication in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty children classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I, aged between 2 and 12, who were scheduled to undergo an elective surgery, were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, and double blind controlled trial. They received either oral midazolam (Group M) or oral clonidine (Group C) 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia and were submitted to an evaluation of anxiety and sedation scores. We also evaluated secondary outcomes such as palatability, parental separation, effect on hemodynamic status, co-operation during venipuncture and facemask application, postoperative analgesic requirement, and recovery profile. Results: Oral midazolam had better efficacy in the preoperative period as sedative and anxiolytic (P < 0.001), allowed better cooperation during venipuncture and facemask application (P < 0.001), whereas, oral clonidine provided better palatability (P < 0.001), parental satisfaction (P < 0.001), stable perioperative hemodynamics (P < 0.001), better postoperative analgesia (P < 0.001), and night sleep pattern (P < 0.05) without any noticeable side effects (P > 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that under the conditions of this study, oral midazolam is a better medication than clonidine in children in preoperative period while clonidine is a better medication postoperatively with added advantage of palatability, hemodynamic stability, and no significant side effects.

Sahoo, Sangeeta; Kaur, Manpreet; Tripathy, Hemant Kumar; Kumar, Ajeet; Kohli, Santavana; Nanda, Samridhi



Comparative Effectiveness of Instructional Methods: Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Examination  

PubMed Central

This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students’ baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p < 0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. PMID:24706693

Clark, Nereyda P.; Marks, John G.; Sandow, Pamela R.; Seleski, Christine E.; Logan, Henrietta L.



Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and oral antidiabetic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated their role on renal outcomes by using a national Veterans Administration database to assemble a retrospective cohort of 93,577 diabetic patients who filled an incident oral antidiabetic drug prescription for metformin, sulfonylurea, or rosiglitazone, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60?ml/min or better. The primary composite outcome was a persistent decline in eGFR from baseline of 25% or more (eGFR event) or a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was an eGFR event, ESRD, or death. Sensitivity analyses included using a more stringent definition of the eGFR event requiring an eGFR <60?ml/min per 1.73?m2 in addition to the 25% or more decline; controlling for baseline proteinuria thereby restricting data to 15,065 patients; and not requiring persistent treatment with the initial oral antidiabetic drug. Compared to patients using metformin, sulfonylurea users had an increased risk for both the primary and the secondary outcome, each with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.20. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. The risk associated with rosiglitazone was similar to metformin for both outcomes. Thus, compared to metformin, oral antidiabetic drug treatment with sulfonylureas increased the risk of a decline in eGFR, ESRD, or death. PMID:22258320

Hung, Adriana M; Roumie, Christianne L; Greevy, Robert A; Liu, Xulei; Grijalva, Carlos G; Murff, Harvey J; Ikizler, T Alp; Griffin, Marie R



Preoperative anxiolysis in pediatric population: A comparative study between oral midazolam and oral ketamine  

PubMed Central

Context: Preoperative anxiety is synonymous with pediatric surgery. Anxiolysis is of crucial importance and poses a significant challenge to the pediatric anesthesiologist. Orally administered midazolam and ketamine can be used as anxiolytic premedication in children. Aim: To compare the efficacy of orally administered midazolam and ketamine for preoperative sedation and anxiolysis in children and determine the minimum interval required between premedication and parental separation. Setting and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 children aged 2-8 years, belonging to ASA grade 1 and 2, scheduled to undergo elective infraumbilical and peripheral surgeries were randomized into two groups of 35 each to receive either midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) or ketamine (5 mg/kg) orally. They were assessed at an interval of 5 minutes up to 40 minutes, at the time of parental separation, intravenous cannulation, and application of face mask for ventilation. Sedation was noted according to Ramsay Sedation Scale and anxiolysis was noted according to Anxiolysis Scores used in previous published studies. Statistical Analysis Used: Skewed data between groups were analyzed by Mann Whitney U Test. Data within a group were analyzed using Friedman's Analysis of variance and a post hoc test. Results: No statistically significant difference in sedation and anxiolysis scores were obtained between the groups at any point of time. Maximum sedation score was achieved at 20 minutes in both the groups, with no statistically significant difference with scores obtained thereafter. Statistically significant difference occurred in anxiolysis score at study points in group receiving midazolam. Conclusion: The study documents the rapid achievement of preoperative sedation and anxiolysis in children with orally administered midazolam or ketamine, with the latter producing a superior quality of anxiolysis. An interval of 20 minutes is sufficient between premedication and parental separation.

Sen, Sreyashi; Thakurta, Rajarshi G.; Gupta, Sampa D.; Bhattacharya, Subir; Mukherji, Sudakshina



Randomized Trial of Oral Sodium Phosphate Compared with Oral Sodium Picosulphate (Picolax) for Elective Colorectal Surgery and Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sodium picosulphate (Picolax) is considered by most British surgeons as standard preparation for colonoscopy and elective surgery. Oral sodium phosphate may be better tolerated and more efficient as bowel preparation. Methods: A randomized trial was performed to compare oral sodium phosphate (n = 76) with Picolax (n = 77) as bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. A parallel study

K. Yoshioka; A. B. Connolly; O. A. Ogunbiyi; H. Hasegawa; D. G. Morton; M. R. B. Keighley



Entorhinal cortex entrains epileptiform activity in CA1 in pilocarpine-treated rats.  


Layer III neurons of the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) project to CA1 via the temporoammonic pathway and exert a powerful feed-forward inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The present study evaluates the hypothesis that disrupted inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons causes an eased propagation of entorhinal seizures to the hippocampus via the temporoammonic pathway. Using a method to induce a confined epileptic focus in brain slices, we investigated the spread of epileptiform activity from the disinhibited mEC to CA1 in control and pilocarpine-treated rats that had displayed status epilepticus and spontaneous recurrent seizures. In pilocarpine-treated rats, the mEC showed a moderate layer III cell loss and an enhanced susceptibility to epileptiform discharges compared to control animals. Entorhinal discharges propagated to CA1 in pilocarpine-treated rats but not in controls. Disconnecting CA3 from CA1 did not affect the spread of epileptiform activity to CA1 excluding its propagation via the trisynaptic hippocampal loop. Mimicking the invasion of epileptiform discharges by repetitive stimulation of the temporoammonic pathway caused a facilitation of field potentials in CA1 that were contaminated by population spikes and afterdischarges in pilocarpine-treated but not control rats. Single cell recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed a dramatic loss of feed-forward inhibition and the occurrence of strong postsynaptic excitatory potentials in pilocarpine-treated rats. Excitatory responses in CA1 were characterized by multiple NMDA receptor-mediated afterdischarges and a strong paired-pulse facilitation in response to activation of the temporoammonic pathway. Our results suggest that, irrespective of the enhanced seizure-susceptibility of the mEC in epileptic rats, the loss of feed-forward inhibition and the enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated excitability CA1 pyramidal cells ease the spread of epileptiform activity from the mEC to CA1 via the temporoammonic pathway bypassing the classical trisynaptic hippocampal loop. PMID:16023587

Wozny, C; Gabriel, S; Jandova, K; Schulze, K; Heinemann, U; Behr, J



Topical and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Many studies have used pilocarpine to stimulate accommodation in both humans and monkeys. However, the concentrations of pilocarpine used and the methods of administration vary. In this study, three different methods of pilocarpine administration are evaluated for their effectiveness in stimulating accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed in 17 iridectomized, anesthetized rhesus monkeys aged 4–16 years. Maximum accommodation was stimulated in all these monkeys with a 2% pilocarpine solution maintained on the cornea for at least 30 min in a specially designed perfusion lens. In subsequent topical pilocarpine experiments, baseline refraction was measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and then while the monkeys were upright and facing forward, commercially available pilocarpine (2, 4, or 6%) was applied topically to the cornea as 2 or 4 drops in two applications or 6 drops in three applications over a five minute period with the eyelids closed between applications. Alternatively, while supine, 10–12 drops of pilocarpine were maintained on the cornea in a scleral cup for 5 min. Refraction measurements were begun 5 min after the second application of pilocarpine and continued for at least 30 min after initial administration until no further change in refraction occurred. In intravenous experiments, pilocarpine was given either as boluses ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg or boluses followed by a constant infusion at rates between 3.06 mg/kg/h and 11.6 mg/kg/h. Constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye in the perfusion lens produced 10.88 ± 2.73 D (mean ± SD) of accommodation. Topically applied pilocarpine produced 3.81 D ± 2.41, 5.49 D ± 4.08, and 5.55 D ± 3.27 using 2%, 4%, and 6% solutions respectively. When expressed as a percentage of the accommodative response amplitude obtained in the same monkey with constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye, the responses were 34.7% for 2% pilocarpine, 48.4% for 4% pilocarpine, and 44.6% for 6% pilocarpine. Topical 4% and 6% pilocarpine achieved similar, variable accommodative responses, but neither achieved maximum accommodation. IV boluses of pilocarpine achieved near maximal levels of accommodation at least ten times faster than topical methods. Doses effective for producing maximum accommodation ranged from 0.25 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg. IV pilocarpine boluses caused an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface, a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface, and a slight net anterior movement of the entire lens. Considerable variability in response amplitude occurred and maximum accommodative amplitude was rarely achieved with topical application of a variety of concentrations of commercially available pilocarpine. Intravenous infusion of pilocarpine was a rapid and reliable method of producing a nearly maximal accommodative response and maintaining accommodation when desired. PMID:20159011

Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian



Topical and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.  


Many studies have used pilocarpine to stimulate accommodation in both humans and monkeys. However, the concentrations of pilocarpine used and the methods of administration vary. In this study, three different methods of pilocarpine administration are evaluated for their effectiveness in stimulating accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed in 17 iridectomized, anesthetized rhesus monkeys aged 4-16 years. Maximum accommodation was stimulated in all these monkeys with a 2% pilocarpine solution maintained on the cornea for at least 30 min in a specially designed perfusion lens. In subsequent topical pilocarpine experiments, baseline refraction was measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and then while the monkeys were upright and facing forward, commercially available pilocarpine (2, 4, or 6%) was applied topically to the cornea as 2 or 4 drops in two applications or 6 drops in three applications over a five minute period with the eyelids closed between applications. Alternatively, while supine, 10-12 drops of pilocarpine were maintained on the cornea in a scleral cup for 5 min. Refraction measurements were begun 5 min after the second application of pilocarpine and continued for at least 30 min after initial administration until no further change in refraction occurred. In intravenous experiments, pilocarpine was given either as boluses ranging from 0.1mg/kg to 2mg/kg or boluses followed by a constant infusion at rates between 3.06 mg/kg/h and 11.6 mg/kg/h. Constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye in the perfusion lens produced 10.88+/-2.73 D (mean+/-SD) of accommodation. Topically applied pilocarpine produced 3.81 D+/-2.41, 5.49 D+/-4.08, and 5.55 D+/-3.27 using 2%, 4%, and 6% solutions respectively. When expressed as a percentage of the accommodative response amplitude obtained in the same monkey with constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye, the responses were 34.7% for 2% pilocarpine, 48.4% for 4% pilocarpine, and 44.6% for 6% pilocarpine. Topical 4% and 6% pilocarpine achieved similar, variable accommodative responses, but neither achieved maximum accommodation. IV boluses of pilocarpine achieved near maximal levels of accommodation at least ten times faster than topical methods. Doses effective for producing maximum accommodation ranged from 0.25mg/kg to 1.0mg/kg. IV pilocarpine boluses caused an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface, a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface, and a slight net anterior movement of the entire lens. Considerable variability in response amplitude occurred and maximum accommodative amplitude was rarely achieved with topical application of a variety of concentrations of commercially available pilocarpine. Intravenous infusion of pilocarpine was a rapid and reliable method of producing a nearly maximal accommodative response and maintaining accommodation when desired. PMID:20159011

Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian



Four-year investigation of salt and peroxide regimen compared with conventional oral hygiene.  


This study of 171 subjects compared the effectiveness of a patient-applied salt and peroxide oral hygiene regimen with the use of conventional oral hygiene methods on clinical measures of periodontal disease, and determined patient compliance with and acceptance of using these two oral hygiene regimens. Results indicated that both regimens, when combined with professional care, were effective in changing clinical measures of periodontal disease to a state favoring periodontal health. PMID:2536410

Wolff, L F; Pihlstrom, B L; Bakdash, M B; Schaffer, E M; Aeppli, D M; Bandt, C L



Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: a study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p?compared to 1% of dentists (p?oral health behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists. PMID:24655533



Salt and peroxide compared with conventional oral hygiene. I. Clinical results.  


The purposes of this 2-year longitudinal study were to: compare the clinical effectiveness of patient applied sodium bicarbonate, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride (S/P) to the use of conventional oral hygiene methods and to investigate the motivational effect of using phase-contrast microscopy in teaching effective oral hygiene. Initially, 972 subjects were screened for signs of periodontitis. From these, 347 with early to moderate periodontitis were selected and each was randomly assigned to one of four home treatment regimens after scaling and root planing. The four treatment regimens included: conventional oral hygiene procedures, conventional oral hygiene procedures plus phase-contrast demonstration of subgingival microbial forms for oral hygiene motivation, S/P oral hygiene, and S/P oral hygiene plus phase-contrast demonstration of subgingival microbial forms for oral hygiene motivation. Plaque, bleeding, gingival inflammation, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline, 8, 16, and 24 months. Subjects were recalled for reinforcement of oral hygiene and periodontal prophylaxis at various intervals. Data were analyzed based on disease severity, location of index sites and compliance. The results indicated that both conventional oral hygiene procedures and the S/P regimen were effective in reducing clinical signs of disease when combined with professional care. There were no differences between the two regimens in clinical effectiveness and trends favoring microscopic viewing of subgingival plaque for motivational purposes were not statistically significant. PMID:3035164

Pihlstrom, B L; Wolff, L F; Bakdash, M B; Schaffer, E M; Jensen, J R; Aeppli, D M; Bandt, C L



A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair



Oral Rinse as a Simpler Approach to Exfoliative Cytology: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral rinse is a novel method that can be used to detect dysplasia in potentially malignant disorders and malignant oral lesions in resource challenged areas. A study was undertaken to compare the quality of the normal smears prepared with the oral rinse and that of the wooden tongue spatula. Material and Methods: One hundred five normal subjects were selected for the study. Two smears were prepared from clinically normal mucosa using an oral rinse and further two smears were scraped from clinically normal buccal mucosa using a wooden spatula. Statistical Analysis: The smears were graded for cell yield, dispersion and cellular clarity on a three-point scale by two observers. The results were analyzed using Mann Whitney non parametric test. Results: The Oral rinse was found to be significantly more efficient than the wooden spatula, in terms of cell yield (p<0.0001), cell dispersion (p =.0052) and cellular detail (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The study showed that the Oral rinse is an effective method for use in exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa. PMID:24551721

Mulki, Shaila; Shetty, Pushparaj; Pai, Prakash



Comparative efficacy of oral and intravenous granisetron for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis.  


Intravenous 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are now established antiemetics in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis. For optimal convenience and acceptability, oral therapy is desirable. Retrospective comparisons indicate that oral granisetron may have an efficacy comparable with that of intravenous granisetron. Recent new data are available on the use of granisetron in the prophylaxis of acute emesis in randomized, double-masked trials. After moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, the optimal regimen appears to be 1 mg twice daily, although 2 mg once daily is equally effective. Oral granisetron is significantly superior to oral prochlorperazine. After high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy, oral granisetron is as effective as metoclopramide plus dexamethasone; the addition of dexamethasone further enhances its efficacy. Oral granisetron was well tolerated in all these trials. Headache and constipation were the most common adverse events, as has been reported for other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. No randomized trials of oral-only tropisetron or dolasetron have yet been published. PMID:8879888

Perez, E A



Comparative Study of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Induction of Labour, Maternal and Foetal Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally. PMID:24551660

Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya



New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex. Participants The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Methods The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed. Results Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE. PMID:22915898

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette



Temporally unstructured electrical stimulation to the amygdala suppresses behavioral chronic seizures of the pilocarpine animal model.  


Electrical stimulation applied to the basolateral amygdala in the pentylenetetrazole animal model of seizures may result in either a proconvulsant or an anticonvulsant effect depending on the interpulse intervals used: periodic or nonperiodic, respectively. We tested the effect of this electrical stimulation temporal coding on the spontaneous and recurrent behavioral seizures produced in the chronic phase of the pilocarpine animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, an experimental protocol that better mimics the human condition. After 45 days of the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, male Wistar rats were submitted to a surgical procedure for the implantation of a bipolar electrical stimulation electrode in the right basolateral amygdala and were allowed to recover for seven days. The animals were then placed in a glass box, and their behaviors were recorded daily on DVD for 6h for 4 consecutive days (control period). Spontaneous recurrent behavioral seizures when showed in animals were further recorded for an extra 4-day period (treatment period), under periodic or nonperiodic electrical stimulation. The number, duration, and severity of seizures (according to the modified Racine's scale) during treatment were compared with those during the control period. The nonperiodically stimulated group displayed a significantly reduced total number and duration of seizures. There was no difference between control and treatment periods for the periodically stimulated group. Results corroborate previous findings from our group showing that nonperiodic electrical stimulation has a robust anticonvulsant property. In addition, results from the pilocarpine animal model further strengthen nonperiodic electrical stimulation as a valid therapeutic approach in current medical practice. Our working hypothesis is that temporally unstructured electrical stimulation may wield its effect by desynchronizing neural networks involved in the ictogenic process. PMID:24935084

de Oliveira, Jasiara Carla; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Cota, Vinícius Rosa



Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.  


Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro



Comparative molecular and histological grading of epithelial dysplasia of the oral cavity and oropharynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological grading of epithelial dysplasia in the oral cavity and oropharynx is used to predict the risk for cancer and to determine the treatment strategy. This grading, however, is subjective and not well reproducible. Recent publications have shown that molecular markers are promising in cancer risk assessment. The aim of the present study was to compare classical histological and molecular

Maarten P Tabor; Boudewijn JM Braakhuis; Wal van der J. E; Diest van P. J; Ruud H Brakenhoff; J Alain Kummer



Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.  


Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population. PMID:19146503

Silver, Heidi J



The traditional method of oral as-needed pain medication delivery compared to an oral patient-controlled analgesia device following total knee arthroplasty.  


As-needed (PRN) oral pain medication is an essential part of multimodal pain therapy. Medication delivery is often delayed because of multiple demands upon nursing time in a busy postoperative nursing unit. Postoperative pain control was compared using either the manual delivery of PRN oral pain medication or a bedside oral patient-controlled analgesia device. Thirty patients in each group completed a survey on the day of discharge, and additional data were collected by chart reviews. Device patients had significantly better pain scores than the usual care group on postoperative Day 2 and within the last 24 hours prior to discharge. The device group reported statistically less pain interference overall with general activity, mood, physical therapy, sleep, and appetite. Use of an oral patient-controlled analgesia device may improve pain management and patient function following total knee arthroplasty compared to the traditional delivery of oral PRN pain medication. PMID:25058727

Lambert, Teresa L; Cata, Denise M



Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip



InVivo and InVitro Effects of Pilocarpine: Relevance to Ictogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives A common experimental model of status epilepticus (SE) utilizes intraperitoneal administration of the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine preceded by methyl-scopolamine treatment. Currently, activation of cholinergic neurons is recognized as the only factor triggering pilocarpine SE. However, cholinergic receptors are also widely distributed systemically and pretreatment with methyl-scopolamine may not be sufficient to counteract the effects of systemically injected pilocarpine. The extent of such peripheral events and the contribution to SE are unknown and the possibility that pilocarpine also induces SE by peripheral actions is yet untested. Methods We measured in vivo at onset of SE: brain and blood pilocarpine levels, blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, T-lymphocyte activation and serum levels of IL-1? and TNF-?. The effects of pilocarpine on neuronal excitability was assessed in vitro on hippocampal slices or whole guinea pig brain preparations in presence of physiologic or elevated [K+]out. Results Pilocarpine blood and brain levels at SE were 1400 ± 200 ?M and 200 ± 80 ?M, respectively. In vivo, after pilocarpine injection, increased serum IL-1?, decreased CD4:CD8 T-lymphocyte ratios and focal BBB leakage were observed. In vitro, pilocarpine failed to exert significant synchronized epileptiform activity when applied at concentrations identical or higher to levels measured in vivo. Intense electrographic seizure-like events occurred only in the copresence of levels of K+ (6 mM) mimicking BBB leakage. Conclusions Early systemic events increasing BBB permeability may promote entry of cofactors (e. g. K+) into the brain leading to pilocarpine-induced SE. Disturbance of brain homeostasis represents an etiological factor contributing to pilocarpine seizures. PMID:17645533

Marchi, Nicola; Oby, Emily; Batra, Ayush; Uva, Laura; De Curtis, Marco; Hernandez, Nadia; Van Boxel-Dezaire, Anette; Najm, Imad; Janigro, Damir



Salt and peroxide compared with conventional oral hygiene. III. Patient compliance and acceptance.  


This study was undertaken to evaluate patient compliance with, and acceptance of, a salt and peroxide oral hygiene regimen compared with conventional oral hygiene regimens without or with the use of phase-contrast microscope viewing of subgingival plaque over a period of 2 years. A total of 231 subjects with early to moderate periodontitis were randomly divided into four groups. All groups were repeatedly instructed and motivated in their respective regimens. Subjects also received scaling and root planing using clinical and microbial criteria. Compliance with, and acceptance of, the two oral hygiene regimens were determined at the end of the study using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results indicated that 74% and 58% (P less than or equal to 0.01) of subjects in the conventional and salt/peroxide groups, respectively, used their assigned regimen 4 to 7 days a week during the entire study. More than half of the subjects (54%) using each of the oral hygiene regimens indicated that they flossed once daily. Inconvenience was cited by 23% of the conventional and 43% of the salt/peroxide groups (P less than or equal to 0.01) as the main reason for not using their regimens. Twenty-three per cent of conventional group and 14% of salt/peroxide group indicated that shared their oral hygiene supplies with others. Eighty per cent and 57% (P less than or equal to 0.01) of the conventional and salt/peroxide groups, respectively, stated that they liked their regimens. Ninety-six per cent of all subjects felt that their regimen helped their periodontal status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3035166

Bakdash, M B; Wolff, L F; Pihlstrom, B L; Aeppli, D M; Bandt, C L



A comparative study for selectivity of micronuclei in oral exfoliated epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Micronucleus (MN) represents small, additional nuclei formed by the exclusion of chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes lagging at mitosis. MN rates, therefore, indirectly reflect chromosome breakage or impairment of the mitotic apparatus. During the last few decades, micronuclei (“MNi”) in oral exfoliated epithelial cells are widely used as biomarkers of chromosomal damage, genome instability and cancer risk in humans. However, until now only little attention has been given to the effect of different staining procedures on the results of these MN assays. Aim: To compare the MNi frequencies in oral exfoliated epithelial cells using three different stains, i.e.,Feulgen stain, Papanicolaou stain (Pap) and hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). Materials and Methods: Oral exfoliated cells from 45 cases of potentially malignant disorders (15 oral submucous fibrosis, 15 lichen planus and 15 leukoplakia) and 15 controls with healthy mucosa, were taken and MNi frequencies (No. of MNi/1000 cells) were compared using three different stains. Results: Mean MNi frequency in cases was found to be 3.8 with Feulgen stain, 16.8 with PAP and 25.9 with H and E. In controls, mean MNi frequency was 1.6 with Feulgen stain, 7.7 with PAP and 9.6 with H and E stain. Statistically significant value (P < 0.01) were observed when the three stains were compared together using Kruskal Walli's ANOVA test. Conclusion: Feulgen being a DNA-specific stain gave the least counts, although statistically significant results from the comparison of MNi frequency between cases and controls were obtained with all the three stains. PMID:23326025

Grover, S; Mujib, ABR; Jahagirdar, A; Telagi, N; Kulkarni, PG



Long-term alteration of calcium homeostatic mechanisms in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy is an animal model that shares many of the clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of temporal lobe or limbic epilepsy in humans. This model of acquired epilepsy produces spontaneous recurrent seizure discharges following an initial brain injury produced by pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating these long lasting changes in neuronal excitability

Mohsin Raza; Shubhro Pal; Azhar Rafiq; Robert J. DeLorenzo



Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Oral Reading Practices: Round-Robin Reading and the Shared Book Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the effectiveness of two oral reading practices on second graders' reading growth: shared book reading and round-robin reading. Concludes that the shared book experience was superior to round-robin reading in reducing young children's oral reading errors, improving their reading fluency, and improving their reading comprehension. (PA)

Eldredge, J. Lloyd; And Others



The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin



Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745



The contraceptive vaginal ring compared with the combined oral contraceptive pill: a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe purpose of this review was to compare pharmacology, contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, side effects and acceptability with the combined contraceptive vaginal ring (CCVR) and combined oral contraceptives (COCs).

Frans J. M. E. Roumen



Comparative absorption, distribution, and excretion of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration  

PubMed Central

Background The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated. Methods Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sample was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results TiO2 nanoparticles had extremely low absorption, while ZnO nanoparticles had higher absorption and a clear dose-response curve. Tissue distribution data showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were not significantly increased in sampled organs, even in the group receiving the highest dose (1041.5 mg/kg body weight). In contrast, Zn concentrations in the liver and kidney were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control. ZnO nanoparticles in the spleen and brain were minimally increased. Ti concentrations were not significantly increased in the urine, while Zn levels were significantly increased in the urine, again with a clear dose-response curve. Very high concentrations of Ti were detected in the feces, while much less Zn was detected in the feces. Conclusions Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated higher absorption and more extensive organ distribution when administered orally. The higher absorption of ZnO than TiO2 nanoparticles might be due to the higher dissolution rate in acidic gastric fluid, although more thorough studies are needed. PMID:23531334



Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Materials and methods: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for res-pective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. Results: A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. The mean patient age was 28.6±9.92 years. Fifty-five vestibular infiltrations and 45 mandibular blocks were performed. All patients were also subjected to IA. The type of intervention (conservative or endodontic) exerted no significant influence (p=0.58 and p=0.62, respectively). The latency period was 8.52±2.44 minutes for the conventional techniques and 0.89±0.73 minutes for IA – the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding patient anesthesia sensation, the infiltrative techniques lasted a maximum of one hour, the inferior alveolar nerve blocks lasted between 1-3 hours, and IA lasted only 2.5 minutes – the differences being statistically significant (p?0.0000, ?=0.29). Anesthetic success was recorded in 89% of the conventional procedures and in 78% of the IA. Most patients preferred IA (61%) (p=0.0032). Conclusions: The two anesthetic procedures have been compared for latency, duration of anesthetic effect, anesthetic success rate and patient preference. Intraosseous anesthesia has been shown to be a technique to be taken into account when planning conservative and endodontic treatments. Key words: Anesthesia, intraosseous, oral anesthesia, Stabident®, infiltrative, mandibular block. PMID:22143700

Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardo, Maria J.; Penarrocha-Diago, Maria; Penarrocha, Miguel



Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) dose of 10?mg?kg?1?bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(?)) and mean residence time (MRT) were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot) in renal damaged ducks (0.20?L?kg?1?h?1) was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41?L?kg?1?h?1). Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax) was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax) of 2.47 and 2.05?h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el)) at a significant slower rate (3.94?h) in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89?h). The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10?mg?kg?1?bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks. PMID:24707439

Soliman, Ahmed



Abnormal metabolic connectivity in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model: a multiscale network analysis based on persistent homology.  


Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Here we investigated metabolic connectivity in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model and applied a new multiscale framework to the analysis of metabolic networks of small-animal brains. [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET was acquired in pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy rats and controls to yield interregional metabolic correlation by inter-subject manner. When interregional correlation of epilepsy rats and controls was compared directly, the epilepsy rats showed reduced connectivity involving the left amygdala and left entorhinal cortex. When regional graph properties were calculated to characterize abnormal nodes in the epileptic brain network, the epilepsy rats showed reduced nodal and local efficiencies in the left amygdala. Then, a new multiscale framework, persistent brain network homology, was used to examine metabolic connectivity with a threshold-free approach and the difference between two networks was analyzed using single linkage distances (SLDs) of all pairwise nodes. We found a tendency for longer SLDs between the left insula/left amygdala and bilateral cortical/subcortical structures in the epilepsy rats. Persistent brain network homology analysis as well as interregional correlation study implied the abnormal left limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat models. In conclusion, we found a globally disrupted network in the epileptic brain in rats, particularly in the limbic and paralimbic structures by direct comparison, graph properties and multiscale network analysis. These results demonstrate that the multiscale and threshold-free network analysis can be used to find the network abnormality in small-animal brains as a preclinical research. PMID:24857713

Choi, Hongyoon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyekyoung; Im, Hyung-Jun; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, E Edmund; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo



Enhanced oral bioavailability of nevirapine within micellar nanocarriers compared with Viramune(®).  


In this work, Nevirapine (NVP) was encapsulated within three derivatives of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers (Tetronic(®) 904, 1107 and Pluronic(®) F127) with and without the addition of three pharmaceutical cosolvents (glycerin, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400) over a wider range of concentrations (0-40% v/v). Also, we evaluated the effect of addition of the cosolvents on the micellar size as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solubilization capacity of the systems was investigated by UV-spectrophotometry (282nm) and the systems stability was evaluated for 1 month at 25°C. Finally, oral bioavailability of the NVP-loaded micellar systems (2mg/mL) was assessed in male Wistar rats (8mg/kg) and compared with a pediatric commercially available formulation (Viramune(®)). The present study demonstrates that PEO-PPO-PEO polymeric micelles were able to enhance apparent aqueous solubility of NVP with the addition of cosolvents. Moreover, micellar nanocarriers significantly (p<0.05) improved the oral bioavailability of the drug versus Viramune(®). Overall results support the suitability of the strategy toward the development of an optimized NVP aqueous formulation to prevent HIV/AIDS mother-to-child transmission. PMID:25016545

Moretton, Marcela A; Cohen, Laura; Lepera, Leandro; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Taira, Carlos; Höcht, Christian; Chiappetta, Diego A



Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Oral Reading Practices: Round-Robin Reading and the Shared Book Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of two oral reading practices on second graders' reading growth: shared book reading and round-robin reading. The results indicated that the Shared Book Experience was superior to round-robin reading in reducing young children's oral reading errors, improving their reading fluency, increasing their vocabulary acquisition, and improving their reading comprehension. An analysis of the primary-grade basal

J. Lloyd Eldredge; D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth



Interactions of b-Lactamases with Sanfetrinem (GV 104326) Compared to Those with Imipenem and with Oral b-Lactams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanfetrinem is a trinem b-lactam which can be administered orally as a hexatil ester. We examined whether its b-lactamase interactions resembled those of the available carbapenems, i.e., stable to AmpC and extended- spectrum b-lactamases but labile to class B and functional group 2f enzymes. The comparator drugs were imipenem, oral cephalosporins, and amoxicillin. MICs were determined for b-lactamase expression variants,




Antiepileptic Drugs Prevent Changes Induced by Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy in Brain Ecto-Nucleotidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecto-nucleotidases, one of the main mechanisms involved in the control of adenosine levels in the synaptic cleft, have shown\\u000a increased activities after the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Here we have investigated the effect of the antiepileptic drugs\\u000a (AEDs) on ecto-nucleotidase activities from hippocampal and cerebral cortical synaptosomes of rats at seven days after the\\u000a induction of the pilocarpine model. Expression

Giana de Paula Cognato; Alessandra Nejar Bruno; Rosane Souza da Silva; Maurício Reis Bogo; João José Freitas Sarkis; Carla Denise Bonan



Neuroprotection of Muscarinic Receptor Agonist Pilocarpine Against Glutamate-induced Apoptosis in Retinal Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroprotection offers potential as an alternative therapy for glaucoma. Pilocarpine, as a typical muscarinic receptor agonist,\\u000a remains among the major intraocular pressure lowering drugs for the conventional treatment of glaucoma. However, whether pilocarpine\\u000a also possesses neuroprotection against glutamate cytotoxicity in retinal neurons is still unknown. In rat primary retinal\\u000a cultures, identification of neuron, cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration, mitochondrial

Wei Zhou; Xu Zhu; Liang Zhu; Yong Yao Cui; Hao Wang; Hong Qi; Qiu Shi Ren; Hong Zhuan Chen



An analytical chemical study of pilocarpine hydrochloride and its hydrolysis products  

E-print Network

'orm. The chloxoform 'is then removed by careful heating and the alkaloid is taken up in a measured excess oi' sulfuric acid. The free 'base is sufficiently alkaline in reaction for the titration of the reserve acid with a standaxd alkali. The ionization constants... . The pilocarpine hydrochloride was furnished by Alcon Laboratories of Fort Vcrth, Texas and assayed 100. 1$ by chloride titration. Development of Bromination Procedure It has been reported in the literature and confirmed in this laboratory that, pilocarpine...

Ibert, Edward R



Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey. PMID:16849247

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony



Capacity of dermatologists to diagnose oral and perioral lesions compared with orthodontists, primary care physicians, and pediatricians.  


: Oral pathology is an interdisciplinary field of unclear boundaries. Only a few studies have been previously published comparing the diagnostic capacity among different specialists taking care of the disorders involving oral mucosa and perioral skin. The goal of this study was to assess the capacity for diagnosing dermatologic conditions involving the oral mucosa and perioral skin in children and adults among orthodontists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians. Samples of orthodontists (n = 118), dermatologists (n = 100), pediatricians (n = 75), and family doctors (n = 68) were selected for the study. Two tests of 30 color clinical photographs each were prepared, one containing oral lesions in children and other one in adults. Statistical and comparative analyses of correct and incorrect answers were performed in each group and subgroup of participants. Dermatologists were clearly better trained than other specialists in oral and perioral pathology. This advantage over their counterparts in other specialties was seen in both residents and board-certified dermatologists. Though by small margin, orthodontists showed better performance than pediatricians and family doctors. Dermatologists showed higher capacity to achieve the right diagnosis in common oral and perioral disorders than orthodontists, pediatricians, and family doctors. PMID:25014104

García-Camba, Pablo; Varela, Margarita; Requena, Luis



Comparative bioavailability of two cefdinir suspension formulations in Middle Eastern healthy volunteers after single oral administration.  


The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability, after oral administration, of the generic "Adcef Suspension" (test) (125 mg/5 ml cefdinir; CAS 91832-40-5), with that of a commercially available original preparation (reference) (125 mg/ 5 ml cefdinir). For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers. The Middle Eastern selected volunteers were divided into two groups of 12 subjects. One group was treated with the reference standard and the other one with the test, with a crossover after the drug washout period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and cefdinir concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC assay method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-24), AUC(0-infinity), C(max), T(max), K(e) and T1/2 were determined for both formulations and were compared statistically to evaluate the bioequivalence betwee the two brands of cefdinir, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals (CI) fell within the acceptable range for bioequivalence. Based on the statistical evaluation it was concluded that the two formulations exhibit. PMID:18488813

Zaid, Abdel Naser; Alhaique, Franco; Kort, Jamal; Sweileh, Waleed



Continuation of Prescribed Compared with Over-the-Counter Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate differences in continuation of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) between U.S.-resident women obtaining pills in U.S. family planning clinics compared with over-the-counter in Mexican pharmacies. Methods In El Paso, Texas, we recruited 514 OCP users who obtained pills over-the-counter from a Mexican pharmacy and 532 who obtained OCPs by prescription from a family planning clinic in El Paso. A baseline interview was followed by three consecutive surveys over 9 months. We asked about date of last supply, number of pill packs obtained, how long they planned to continue use, and experience of side effects. Retention was 90%, with only 105 women lost to follow-up. Results In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, discontinuation was higher for women who obtained pills in El Paso clinics (25.1%) compared with those who obtained their pills without a prescription in Mexico (20.8% [hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1--2.3]). Considering the number of pill packs dispensed to clinic users, discontinuation rates were higher (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2 -- 2.7) for clinic users who received 1-5 pill packs. However, there was no difference in discontinuation between clinic users receiving 6 or more pill packs and users obtaining pills without a prescription. Conclusion Results suggest providing OCP users with more pill packs and removing the prescription requirement would both lead to increased continuation. PMID:21343757

Potter, Joseph E.; McKinnon, Sarah; Hopkins, Kristine; Amastae, Jon; Shedlin, Michele G.; Powers, Daniel A.; Grossman, Daniel



A randomised controlled trial to compare intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron in treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.  


The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose with oral iron therapy in pregnant patients with anemia. The primary outcome of the study was increase in haemoglobin on day 7, 14 & 28 and rise of serum ferritin over 28 days. The study population consisted of 100 patients with singleton pregnancy between 24 and 34 weeks, hemoglobin levels between 7.0-9.0 gm/dL and serum ferritin levels less than 15 ng/mL. The participants in the oral group were given daily 180 mg elemental iron in three divided oral doses for 4 weeks. Total calculated dose of iron sucrose with a target hemoglobin of 11 gm %, was given in 200 mg dose on alternate days. Mean haemoglobin rise was 0.58 gm/dL in the IV group as compared to 0.23 gm/dL in the oral group on day 14 and 1.9 gm/dL in the IV group & 1.3 gm/dL in the oral group on day 28, (p <0.05). In the IV group, 76% of the subjects achieved haemoglobin levels of ?11 gm% at the time of delivery, as compared to only 54% of the subjects in the oral group who achieved these levels. Serum ferritin value was significantly higher in the IV group, 37.45 ± 5.73 ng/mL as compared to 13.96 ± 1.88 ng/mL in the oral group at 4th week (p <0.001). There was no major side effect in the IV group. 36% subjects in the oral group developed gastrointestinal side effects & 10% of the subjects were non compliant. The rate of hemoglobin rise is faster with intravenous iron sucrose therapy as compared to oral iron therapy which can be beneficial in pregnant women presenting with anemia at a later period of gestation. Intravenous iron sucrose is very well tolerated during pregnancy. PMID:24839366

Gupta, Avantika; Manaktala, Usha; Rathore, Asmita Muthal



How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene



Distinct array comparative genomic hybridization profiles in oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring in young patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Oral cancer typically affects smokers older than 50 years of age. Recently, however, a marked increase in the number of patients 40 years old and younger, many with no history of tobacco smoking, has been noted. Studies in this age group have so far been restricted to genomic areas well recog- nized as abnormal in typical patients with oral

Esther M. O'Regan; Mary E. Toner; Paul C. Smyth; Stephen P. Finn; Conrad Timon; Susanne Cahill; Richard Flavin; John J. O'Leary; Orla Sheils



The mechanism of action of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – compared with other anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results of some phase III clinical trials of new oral anticoagulants are now known, it is important to understand the mechanisms of their actions. These new agents exert their anticoagulant effect via direct inhibition of a single Factor within the coagulation cascade (such as Factor Xa or thrombin). Rivaroxaban – the first oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – is

Meyer Michel Samama



Morpho-physiologic characteristics of dorsal subicular network in mice after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  


The goal of this study was to examine the morpho-physiologic changes in the dorsal subiculum network in the mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy using extracellular recording, juxtacellular and immunofluorescence double labeling, and anterograde tracing methods. A significant loss of total dorsal subicular neurons, particularly calbindin, parvalbumin (PV) and immunopositive interneurons, was found at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). However, the sprouting of axons from lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt) was observed to contact with surviving subicular neurons. These neurons had two predominant discharge patterns: bursting and fast irregular discharges. The bursting neurons were mainly pyramidal cells, and their dendritic spine density and bursting discharge rates were increased significantly in SE mice compared with the control group. Fast irregular discharge neurons were PV-immunopositive interneurons and had less dendritic spines in SE mice when compared with the control mice. When LEnt was stimulated, bursting and fast irregular discharge neurons had much shorter latency and stronger excitatory response in SE mice compared with the control group. Our results illustrate that morpho-physiologic changes in the dorsal subiculum could be part of a multilevel pathologic network that occurs simultaneously in many brain areas to contribute to the generation of epileptiform activity. PMID:19298597

He, De Fu; Ma, Dong Liang; Tang, Yong Cheng; Engel, Jerome; Bragin, Anatol; Tang, Feng Ru



Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies  

PubMed Central

Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 ?g/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (p<0.05, significant) but statistical difference between efficacy of topical Permethrin and oral Ivermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu



CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco



Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of fast dissolving film and oral solution of ondansetron in rats.  


Ondansetron, selective serotonin (5-HT3) receptor blocker, is used in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Mouth dissolving films containing ondansetron were developed to have better onset and patient compliances. The drug content of prepared films was within 85%-115%. The films were found to be stable for 4 months when stored at 40 %°C and 75% RH. In-vitro dissolution studies suggested a rapid disintegration, in which most of ondansetron was released (91.5±3.4%) within 90 sec. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulated films with oral administration of pure drug solution. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between the two groups in which AUC0-t (ng h/ml), AUC0-? (ng h/ml), Cmax (ng/ml), Tmax (min), Kel (h(-1)) and t1/2 (h) of reference was 109.091±15.73, 130.32±18.56, 28.5±4.053, 60, 0.1860±0.0226, and 3.771±0.498 respectively; and for formulated film 113.663±16.64, 151.79±16.54, 30±3.51, 60, 0.1521±0.0310 and 4.755±0.653 respectively. These results suggest that the fast dissolving film containing ondansetron is likely to become one of the choices to treat chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. PMID:23755722

Choudhary, Dhagla R; Patel, Vishnu A; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Patel, Harsha V; Kundawala, Aliasgar J



A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

Wei, Ming



Comparative study between the Hybrid Capture II test and PCR based assay for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Oral malignancy is a major global health problem. Besides the main risk factors of tobacco, smoking and alcohol, infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic alterations are likely to play an important role in these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of HC-II assay and PCR for the detection of specific HPV type (HPV 16 E6) in OSMF and OSCC cases as well as find out the prevalence of the high risk HPV (HR-HPV) in these lesions. Methods and materials Four hundred and thirty patients of the potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were taken from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India from Sept 2007-March 2010. Of which 208 cases were oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 222 cases were oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The HC-II assay and PCR were used for the detection of HR-HPV DNA. Result The overall prevalence of HR-HPV 16 E6 DNA positivity was nearly 26% by PCR and 27.4% by the HC-II assay in case of potentially malignant disorder of the oral lesions such as OSMF. However, in case of malignant oral lesions such as OSCC, 32.4% HPV 16 E6 positive by PCR and 31.4% by the HC-II assay. In case of OSMF, the two test gave concordant result for 42 positive samples and 154 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 85.4% (Cohen's kappa = 66.83%, 95% CI 0.553-0.783). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 73.7% and 92.05% (p < 0.00). In case of OSCC, the two test gave concordant result for 61 positive samples and 152 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 88.3% (Cohen's kappa = 79.29, 95% CI 0.769-0.939) and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 87.14% and 92.76% (p < 0.00). Conclusion This study concluded that slight difference was found between the positivity rate of HR-HPV infection detected by the HC-II and PCR assay in OSMF and OSCC cases and the HC II assay seemed to have better sensitivity in case of OSCC. PMID:20863370



Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean OHI-S (2.52±1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (p<0.05). The highest and lowest mean number of healthy sextants were found among those with only lower limb disability (4.53±2.05) and among those with both upper and lower limb disability (0.77±1.39), respectively (p<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictor for oral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. Conclusion: The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research. Key words:Poliomyelitis, upper limb disability, lower limb disability, oral hygiene, periodontal status. PMID:22549671

Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar



Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas  

E-print Network

and smokeless tobacco), alcohol use, poor diet, HPV infection, poor oral care and tooth loss, low socio-economic status, gender and genetics, and older age 7 . 9 Literature Review Alcohol and Tobacco Use In industrialized areas such as Europe... . Tobacco Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use are risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of smoking among adults in the United States was 20.8% (45.3 million people) in 2006, according to the National Health Interview Survey...

Womack, Catherine Marie



Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping



Development and characterization of pilocarpine loaded Eudragit nanosuspensions for ocular drug delivery.  


With aim of improving the availability of drug at intraocular level and to reduce the frequency of drug administration, pilocarpine nitrate nanosuspensions were made from inert polymer resin (Eudragit RL 100) with varying drug to polymer ratios using Lutrol F68 solution in various concentration. Nanosuspensions were successfully prepared by solvent displacement method. Size of nanoparticles varied between 121.5 +/- 2.28 to 291.5 +/- 1.28 nm, a polydispersity index ranging from 0.218 +/- 0.003 to 0.658 +/- 0.035 with zeta potential ranging +14.1 +/- 0.7 to +19.8 +/- 2.3 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies clearly suggest the compatibility of the drug with the polymer used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape having a smooth surface and the drug is molecularly dispersed uniformly throughout the whole polymer matrix. PRL4 was successfully able to sustain the drug release for 24 hr as compared to other batches of formulated nanosuspensions. No significant change in average particle size and zeta potential were observed after conducting stability studies. Results of the studies clearly suggest the suitability of Eudragit RL 100 as a promising potential drug delivery adjuvant for ocular drug administration. PMID:23627075

Khan, Mohammed S; Vishakante, Gowda D; Bathool, Afifa



A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate.  


Poor corneal penetration and short preocular retention of a clinical hydrophilic drug, pilocarpine nitrate (PN), for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, limit its ocular application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for ocular delivery of PN. LCNPs were developed by a top-down method using glyceryl monoolein (GMO) and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS). The size of LCNP is 202.28±19.32 nm and the encapsulation efficiency reached 61.03%. The in vitro release profiles indicated that PN could keep sustained release from PN-loaded LCNPs for 8h. An ex vivo corneal permeation study revealed that the apparent permeability coefficient of PN-loaded LCNPs was 2.05-fold higher than that of commercial eye drops. In addition, the topical administration test showed that PN-loaded LCNPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) of rabbits compared with commercial drug and physiological saline. In conclusion, LCNPs had been demonstrated to be potential for controlled-release ocular drug delivery. PMID:23916822

Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xin, Hongliang; Xu, Qunwei



Oral anticancer drugs: how limited dosing options and dose reductions may affect outcomes in comparative trials and efficacy in patients.  


Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials. PMID:24711558

Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R; Fojo, Tito



Endocrine effects of inhaled budesonide compared with inhaled fluticasone propionate and oral prednisolone in healthy Beagle dogs.  


Orally administered corticosteroids are commonly used to treat chronic respiratory disease, but adverse effects suggest that the inhalation route may be safer. To compare the systemic effects of inhaled and oral corticosteroids, a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted. Six healthy neutered female Beagle dogs were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: (1) budesonide inhalation (200 ?g twice daily); (2) fluticasone inhalation (250 ?g twice daily); (3) oral prednisolone (1mg/kg once daily); and (4) placebo inhalation (room air twice daily). Each treatment and wash-out period lasted 4 weeks. The endocrine status of each dog was assessed on days 0, 28 and 35 using the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. The effects of treatments were assessed using a linear mixed effects model. After the 4 week treatment period, a significant decrease was observed in the basal serum cortisol level of the prednisolone group (P<0.03), and a decrease was also seen in the ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol levels of both the prednisolone and fluticasone groups (P<0.001), compared with the budesonide group in which no suppression was detected. The results showed that cortisol production in dogs was strongly suppressed by oral prednisolone and by inhaled fluticasone. PMID:22640563

Melamies, Marika; Vainio, Outi; Spillmann, Thomas; Junnila, Jouni; Rajamäki, Minna M



A comparative study of pre-operative oral clonidine and pregabalin on post-operative analgesia after spinal anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Pregabalin and clonidine have anti-nociceptive properties. This study assesses their efficacy in prolonging the analgesic effect of spinal anesthesia and post-operative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 females in the age group of 30-60 years were randomly allocated in to three groups of 30 each, to receive either oral clonidine (150 ?g) or oral pregabalin (150 mg) or oral multivitamin as placebo 1.5 h before spinal anesthesia with 3ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Intensity of pain was measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) at the end of operation (0 h) then at 1,2,4,6,12 and 24 h thereafter. Diclofenac sodium intramuscularly 1 mg/kg was provided when the VASscore was >4 in the study period. Sedation was defined by Ramsay sedation scale at 0,6,12 and 24 h. Side-effects such as nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression and dryness of mouth were noted. Results: The VAS scores were significantly less in the pregabalin group compared with the clonidine group at 6,12 and 24 h post-operatively with a P < 0.0001. More sedation was seen in the clonidine group than in the pregabalin group (P < 0.05). Analgesic consumption and VAS scores were lower in clonidine and pregabalin group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Oral pregabalin (150 mg) prolongs the post-operative pain relief after spinal anesthesia but produces less sedation compared with oral clonidine (150 ?g).

Prasad, Anu; Bhattacharyya, Susmita; Biswas, Atanu; Saha, Mrityunjaya; Mondal, Sudeshna; Saha, Dona



Altered expression and function of small-conductance (SK) Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.  


Small conductance calcium (Ca(2+)) activated SK channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability in hippocampus. Accordingly, these channels are thought to play a key role in controlling neuronal activity in acute models of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate the expression and function of SK channels in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. For this purpose, protein expression was assessed using western blotting assays and gene expression was analyzed using TaqMan-based probes and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) comparative method delta-delta cycle threshold ( big up tri, open big up tri, openCT) in samples extracted from control and epileptic rats. In addition, the effect of SK channel antagonist UCL1684 and agonist NS309 on CA1 evoked population spikes was studied in hippocampal slices. Western blotting analysis showed a significant reduction in the expression of SK1 and SK2 channels at 10days following status epilepticus (SE), but levels recovered at 1month and at more than 2months after SE. In contrast, a significant down-regulation of SK3 channels was detected after 10days of SE. Analysis of gene expression by qPCR revealed a significant reduction of transcripts for SK2 (Kcnn1) and SK3 (Kcnn3) channels as early as 10days following pilocarpine-induced SE and during the chronic phase of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, bath application of UCL1684 (100nM for 15min) induced a significant increase of the population spike amplitude and number of spikes in the hippocampal CA1 area of slices obtained control and chronic epileptic rats. This effect was obliterated by co-administration of UCL1684 with SK channel agonist NS309 (1microM). Application of NS309 failed to modify population spikes in the CA1 area of slices taken from control and epileptic rats. These data indicate an abnormal expression of SK channels and a possible dysfunction of these channels in experimental MTLE. PMID:20553876

Oliveira, Mauro S; Skinner, Frank; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Garcia, Ileana; Mello, Carlos F; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Otalora, Luis F Pacheco; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R



Indomethacin can downregulate the levels of inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Refractory status epilepticus is one of the most life-threatening neurological emergencies and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs during this period is very controversial. Thus, this study has been designed to analyze the effect of a low dose of indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) on the expression of inflammatory molecules. METHOD: The hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced long-lasting status epilepticus was analyzed to determine the expression of inflammatory molecules with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with controls, reduced levels of the kinin B2 receptors IL1? and TNF? were found in the hippocampus of rats submitted to long-lasting status epilepticus and treated with indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that low doses of indomethacin could be employed to minimize inflammation during long-lasting status epilepticus. PMID:25318094

Vieira, Michele Juliane; Perosa, Sandra Regina; Arganaraz, Gustavo Adolfo; Silva, Jose Antonio; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrao; da Graca Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria



Comparative study on sensory recovery after oral cavity reconstruction by free flaps: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical restoration was once the only goal of reconstructive surgery, but now it represents only one step in the complete functional recovery process to allow resumption of physiological activity. Soft tissue and nerves play important roles in functional recovery, but the potential of these structures is not yet well known. Rehabilitation after oral cavity reconstruction by free flaps needs an

Andrea Cicconetti; Claudio Matteini; Giorgio Cruccu; Antonietta Romaniello




EPA Science Inventory

Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...


Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.  


Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. PMID:23119054

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won



Evaluation of the antiepileptic effect of curcumin and Nigella sativa oil in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy in comparison with valproate.  


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin and Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on amino acid neurotransmitter alterations and the histological changes induced by pilocarpine in the hippocampus and cortex of rats. Epilepsy was induced by i.p. injection of pilocarpine, and the animals were left for 22 days to establish spontaneous recurrent seizures. They were then treated with curcumin, NSO or valproate for 21 days. Pilocarpine induced a significant increase in hippocampal aspartate and a significant decrease in glycine and taurine levels. In the cortex, a significant increase in aspartate, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and taurine levels was obtained after pilocarpine injection. Treatment of pilocarpinized rats with curcumin and valproate ameliorated most of the changes in amino acid concentrations and reduced the histopathological abnormalities induced by pilocarpine. N. sativa oil failed to improve the pilocarpine-induced abnormalities. This may explain the antiepileptic effect of curcumin and suggest its use as an anticonvulsant. PMID:22575751

Noor, Neveen A; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Faraag, Abdel Razik; Khadrawy, Yasser A



A comparative study of efficacy of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and locally injectable steroid for the treatment of plantar fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and locally injectable steroid (methylprednisolone) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis were recruited and randomly allocated to two study groups. Group I (NSAIDs group) (n=60) received oral tablet diclofenac (50 mg) and paracetamol (500 mg) twice a day (BD) along with tab. ranitidine 150 mg BD. Group II (injectable steroid group) (n=60) received injection of 1 ml of methylprednisolone (Depomedrol) (40 mg) and 2 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine into the inflammed plantar fascia. Pain intensity was measured using 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects were evaluated clinically before, and 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks (2 months) after the initiation of treatment in both the groups. The outcome was assessed in terms of VAS score and recurrence of the heel pain. Statistical Analysis Used: “Z” test and Chi-square test were used wherever applicable. Results: Pain relief was significant after steroid injection (P<0.001) and the improvement was sustained. The recurrence of heel pain was significantly higher in the oral NSAIDS group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Local injection of steroid is more effective in the treatment of plantar fasciitis than oral NSAIDs.

Biswas, Chaitali; Pal, Anirban; Acharya, Amita



Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references.

Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))



The effects of sleep deprivation on microRNA expression in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  


Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with significant prevalence and the individuals affected by this disease have a great probability of occurrence of a lethal phenomenon known as Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP occurs mainly during the night and probably during sleep. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this lethal phenomenon are still obscure and new evidences that could corroborate in this area are warranted. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation in the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in the frontal cortex and heart tissues of adult male rats after 50days of saline (SAL) or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PILO). Initially 389 miRNA expressions were evaluated between SAL and PILO groups by microarray. Subsequently, 3 differentially expressed miRNAs of each tissue were investigated after total sleep deprivation (TSD 6h) and paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD 24h). Still, it was analyzed that the effects of sleep rebound with equivalent duration of PSD and TSD. There was a significant increase of miR-146a expression, an important inflammatory modulator in the frontal cortex of PILO rats when compared to SAL animals. Animals treated with pilocarpine were affected by TSD (through overexpression of miRNAs related to inflammatory process) and these changes were maintained even after a sleep window of 6h. In contrast, miRNAs associated with heart diseases were down-regulated in PSD rebound, suggesting a possible restoration of homeostasis in cardiovascular system of SAL and PILO groups. PMID:24530830

Matos, Gabriela; Scorza, Fulvio A; Mazzotti, Diego R; Guindalini, Camila; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L



Suppression of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the late development of epilepsy in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status epilepticus (SE) has been related to subsequent development of epilepsy. The present work was aimed at elucidating the relationship between the duration of pilocarpine- (PILO)-induced SE and the subsequent development of epilepsy in rats. The latency for the appearance of the first spontaneous seizure, the frequency of spontaneous seizures, the cell density in the hippocampal formation and the density

Tadeu Lemos; Esper A. Cavalheiro



The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg



Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.  


Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J



Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.  

PubMed Central

Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J



Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).  


Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with ?-2 microglobulin (?-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and ?-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to ?-2MG level in saliva. PMID:24948960

Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran



Downregulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures. PMID:18295190

Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Hernandez, Eder F.; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; rancisco, Sebastian F; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.



AMPA receptor properties are modulated in the early stages following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  


Glutamate over-activation and the consequent neuronal excitotoxicity have been identified as crucial players in brain dysfunctions such as status epilepticus (SE). Owing to the central function of 2-amino-3-(hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-yl) propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) in fast excitatory neurotransmission, these receptors have been recognized to play a prominent role in the development and generation of epileptic seizure. This study was undertaken to investigate both the early changes that affect glutamatergic neurons in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus and the level and channel properties of AMPARs in response to SE. The results obtained after 3 h of pilocarpine (PILO)-induced SE showed a disorganization of glutamatergic neurons in the CA3 and a thinner neuronal cell layer in the dentate gyrus (DG) region as compared with controls. A significant increase in AMPAR GluA2 protein expression, a decrease in GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 expression, and a reduction in the phosphorylation of Ser831-GluA1 and Ser880-GluA2 were also observed. In addition, we report a downregulation of R/G editing levels and of Flip splicing isoforms, with a prominent effect on the hippocampus of PILO-treated rats. Our results suggest the presence of an attenuation of AMPARs' post-synaptic excitatory response to glutamate after PILO treatment, thus conferring neuronal protection from the excitotoxic conditions observed in the SE. This study suggests a role for AMPARs in alterations of the glutamatergic pathway during the onset and early progression of epilepsy, thus indicating additional targets for potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23494293

Russo, Isabella; Bonini, Daniela; Via, Luca La; Barlati, Sergio; Barbon, Alessandro



A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n?=?10) and rectal lavage fluid (n?=?10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense against HIV. PMID:24978053

Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.



Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.  


Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions. PMID:25053835

Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya



Randomized Controlled Trial of Sequential Intravenous (i.v.) and Oral Moxifloxacin Compared with Sequential i.v. and Oral Co-Amoxiclav with or without Clarithromycin in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Initial Parenteral Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present trial was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (400 mg) given intravenously (i.v.) once daily followed by oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) for 7 to 14 days with the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of co-amoxiclav (1.2 g) administered by i.v. infusion three times a day followed by oral co-amoxiclav (625 mg) three times

R. Finch; D. Schurmann; O. Collins; R. Kubin; J. McGivern; H. Bobbaers; J. L. Izquierdo; P. Nikolaides; F. Ogundare; R. Raz; P. Zuck; G. Hoeffken



A comparative analysis of pupil attitudes toward selected oral language activities used with fifth graders in the public schools of Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network


Brusse, Frances Williams



Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine  

SciTech Connect

Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E. (Kansas) [Kansas; (HWMRI)



Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B versus Oral Minocycline in Treatment of Unstable Vitiligo: A Prospective Comparative Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. We have compared NB-UVB and oral minocycline in stabilizing vitiligo for the first time. Subjects and Methods. 42 patients were divided equally into two groups: the NB-UVB and minocycline groups. Phototherapy was administered twice a week on nonconsecutive days. In the minocycline group, patients were advised to take minocycline 100?mg once daily. The treatment period was 3 months. Vitiligo disease activity (VIDA) score was noted every 4 weeks for 12 months. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and monthly intervals. Results. Before the therapy, disease activity was present in 100% of the patients, which was reduced to 23.8% and 66.1% by the end of therapy in the NB-UVB and minocycline groups retrospectively (P < 0.05). 16 of the 21 (76/1%) patients with unstable disease in the NB-UVB group achieved stability, whereas this was the case for only 7 of the 21 (33.3%) in the minocycline group (P < 0.001). The diameter changes were statistically significant at the end of treatment in the NB-UVB group compared to the minocycline group (P = 0.031). Side effects in both groups were mild. Conclusion. NB-UVB was statistically more advantageous than oral minocycline in unstable vitiligo in terms of efficacy and the resulting stability. PMID:25221600

Siadat, Amir Hossein; Zeinali, Naser; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jamshidi, Kioumars; Khosravani, Parastoo



Mitochondrial base excision repair pathway failed to respond to status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been implicated as an important mechanism underlying mitochondrial deficiency in epileptic seizures. In focusing on the role of the DNA repair pathway, we determined the response of the mitochondrial base excision repair (mtBER) pathway in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in hippocampi of male Wistar rats. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and

Youting Lin; Jingjing Xu; Lili Cao; Yuxiang Han; Jing Gao; Nanchang Xie; Xiuhe Zhao; Hong Jiang; Zhaofu Chi



The inhibition of CYP enzymes in mouse and human liver by pilocarpine.  

PubMed Central

1. Pilocarpine is a cholinomimetic natural alkaloid. Its interactions with testosterone hydroxylations, coumarin 7-hydroxylase (COH), dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylase (DMNA), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), which are indicative of the activities of cytochrome P4502A5 (CYP2A5) or 6, 2E1, 2B, 1A, were examined in mouse and human liver microsomes. 2. In mouse liver microsomes the IC50 values of pilocarpine were 6 microM for COH and testosterone 15 alpha-hydroxylase (T15 alpha OH) activities, 4 microM for PROD, approximately 100 microM for DMNA and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase (T6 beta OH) activities and > 1 mM for EROD activity. 3. In human liver microsomes, the IC50 value for COH was 6 microM and for DMNA 10 microM; T15 alpha OH and PROD activities were not detectable but T6 beta OH and testosterone 16 beta/2 beta-hydroxylase activities were moderately inhibited (IC50 70 microM). 4. These results suggest that pilocarpine has (i) a high affinity towards phenobarbitone-inducible CYP2A4/5 and CYP2B activities in mouse liver, (ii) a high affinity towards CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes and (iii) a moderate affinity towards CYP3A enzyme(s) in both microsomal preparations. 5. The low IC50 concentrations in vitro indicate potential metabolic interactions between pilocarpine and several P450 enzymes. PMID:7773543

Kimonen, T; Juvonen, R O; Alhava, E; Pasanen, M



Acute and chronic structural effects of pilocarpine on monkey outflow tissues.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Determine the effects of supraclinical topical doses of pilocarpine on the structure of the trabecular meshwork (TM), ciliary muscle (CM), and ciliary processes in monkeys. METHODS: Cynomolgus monkeys received topical pilocarpine hydrochloride doses of 1 to 2 mg unilaterally once or twice daily for 1 to 211 days. Both eyes were examined by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: After 1 dose, the TM was expanded and the flow pathways open. Some elastic anterior CM tendons were disconnected from the muscle tips and/or the tips themselves were disrupted; macrophage-like cells accumulated in these regions. In eyes that had long-term treatment, scar tissue at the muscle tips and disruption of myofibrils within muscle cells indicated regions of previous disconnection. Most collagen tendons inserting into the peripheral cornea were unaffected. With increasing treatment duration in younger monkeys, there was anteroposterior shortening of Schlemm's canal, TM densification due to collapse, and increased cellularity in the subendothelial region of Schlemm's canal. TM densification and Schlemm's canal shortening were not found in older monkeys, implicating posterior movement of the elastic young limbal region induced by strong CM contraction, rather than pilocarpine toxicity. In the ciliary body we found vasodilation, Greeff's vesicles, and blood-aqueous barrier breakdown in the anterior ciliary processes and vasodilation, edema, and round-cell infiltration in the posterior pars plana. CONCLUSIONS: Large pilocarpine doses induce morphologic changes in the monkey anterior segment, likely consequent to intense CM contraction. Changes in the TM and Schlemm's canal are seen only in young monkeys, apparently owing to mechanical deformation of the elastic limbal region. Images FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 5 PMID:10360289

Lutjen-Drecoll, E; Wiendl, H; Kaufman, P L



Comparative assessment of the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic forms of Hypericum perforatum extract on induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters.  


Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John's wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. PMID:24948410

Tanideh, N; Namazi, F; Andisheh Tadbir, A; Ebrahimi, H; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O



Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544) followed by generic risperidone ($9,080). In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719). The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:19351408

Furiak, Nicolas M; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Klein, Robert W; Smolen, Lee J; Lawson, Anthony H; Conley, Robert R; Culler, Steven D



Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

Burlage, Fred R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Roesink, Judith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kampinga, Harm H. [Department of Cell Biology, Section for Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)



Pharmacokinetics and comparative bioavailability of two oral formulations of tamoxifen citrate in healthy male volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To access the pharmacokinetics and comparative bioavailability of two tamoxifen citrate (TAM) formulations in 20 healthy Chinese male subjects under fasting conditions. Methods TAM test capsules and reference tablets were administered as a single dose on two treatment days separated by a 3-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 72 hr, and

Shao-Jun Shi; Zhong-Fang Li; Shun-Qing Xu; Hua-Ting Chen; Fan-Dian Zeng



Subjective vs. objective evaluation of gallbladder opacification during oral cholecystography in comparative clinical trials: implications for studies involving visual assessment  

SciTech Connect

Radiographs and CT images taken during oral cholecystography in dogs were interpreted in an independent, blind fashion by three radiologists on two occasions and visual assessment of gallbladder density compared to the actual CT values. While there was significant intra- and inter-observer variation, the mean scores for the observers' interpretations of both radiographs and prints correlated well with the actual CT values (p > 0.05). In five out of six comparisons between first and second readings, the observers gave a lower score on the second reading. The considerable variation reflects the problems inherent in subjective evaluation of agents that produce small but measurable differences in radiographic density. Studies involving such subjective data have to be carefully designed in order to obtain meaningful results.

Fon, G.T. (Univ. of Arizona Coll. of Medicine, Tucson); Hunter, T.B.; Berk, R.N.; Patton, D.D.; Capp, M.P.



Increased dissolution and oral absorption of itraconazole/Soluplus extrudate compared with itraconazole nanosuspension.  


The purpose of this article was to compare the in vitro and in vivo profiles of itraconazole (ITZ) extrudates and nanosuspension separately prepared by two different methods. And it was proved truly to form nanocrystalline and amorphous ITZ characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The release of ITZ/Soluplus solid dispersions with amorphous ITZ was almost complete while only 40% release was obtained with ITZ nanocrystals. The amorphous state need not to cross over the crystal lattice energy upon dissolution while the crystalline need to overcome it. In the in vivo assay, the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of ITZ/Soluplus were 6.9- and 11.6-time higher than those of pure ITZ. The formulation of the extrudate had an AUC(0-t) and C(max) similar to those of ITZ and also OH-ITZ compared with the commercial capsule (Sporanox®). The relative bioavailability values with their 95% confidence limit were calculated to be 98.3% (92.5-104.1%) and 101.3% (97.9-104.1%), respectively. The results of this study showed increased dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of Soluplus-based carrier loading ITZ prepared by HME compared with the ITZ nanosuspension prepared by wet milling. PMID:23562534

Zhang, Keru; Yu, Hongxia; Luo, Qing; Yang, Shenshen; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Bin; Tang, Xing



Dynamics of hippocampal acetylcholine release during lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.  


The lithium-pilocarpine model is a rat model of epilepsy that mimics status epilepticus in humans. Here, we report changes of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus before, during and after status epilepticus as monitored by microdialysis in unanesthetized rats. Administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg s.c.) to rats pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg i.p.) caused a massive, six-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release, paralleling the development of tonic seizures. When seizures were stopped by administration of diazepam (10 mg/kg i.p.) or ketamine (75 mg/kg i.p.), ACh levels returned to normal. Extracellular concentrations of glutamate remained unchanged during this procedure. Administration of atropine (1 mg/kg i.p.) 2 h after pilocarpine caused a further increase of ACh but did not affect seizures, whereas injection of mecamylamine (5 mg/kg i.p.) reduced ACh levels and seizures in a delayed fashion. Local infusion of tetrodotoxin, 1 ?M locally) or hemicholinium (10 ?M locally) strongly reduced ACh release and had delayed effects on seizures. Administration of glucose or inositol (250 mg/kg each i.p.) had no visible consequences. In parallel experiments, lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus also enhanced striatal ACh release, and hippocampal ACh levels equally increased when status epilepticus was induced by kainate (30 mg/kg i.p.). Taken together, our results demonstrate that seizure development in status epilepticus models is accompanied by massive increases of extracellular ACh, but not glutamate, levels. Treatments that reduce seizure activity also reliably reduce extracellular ACh levels. Status epilepticus was induced in rats by lithium-pilocarpine administration, and extracellular levels of acetylcholine (ACh) were measured in the hippocampus by microdialysis. Seizures caused several-fold increases of ACh levels which were reduced to control levels when seizures were stopped by diazepam or ketamine. Further experiments confirmed that cholinergic hyperexcitation accompanies status epilepticus, even when kainate was used as inducing agent. PMID:24909269

Hillert, Markus H; Imran, Imran; Zimmermann, Martina; Lau, Helene; Weinfurter, Stefanie; Klein, Jochen




PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if low doses of topical latrunculin B (LAT-B) will increase outflow facility and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) without adversely affecting the cornea, and inhibit miotic and accommodative responses to pilocarpine, in ocular normotensive monkeys. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann tonometry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.005% and 0.01% topical LAT-B/vehicle given twice daily on successive weeks. Outflow facility was then measured by perfusion following 15 doses. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B/vehicle. Pupillary diameter (calipers) and accommodation (refractometry) before and after one dose of 0.005% and 0.02% LAT-B were determined. Results LAT-B dose-dependently decreased IOP, multiple doses more than a single dose. Maximal hypotension after one dose was 2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 2.7 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .005); maximal hypotension after nine doses was 3.2 ± 0.5 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 4.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001). Outflow facility was increased by 75 ± 13% (n = 7; P < .005). Central corneal thickness was not changed after one or nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B. The miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular pilocarpine were dose-dependently inhibited. At 0.02% LAT-B, the inhibition of miosis was essentially complete when compared with the pre-LAT-B value, whereas the inhibition of accommodation was only about 25%. At 0.005% LAT-B, the effects were trivial. Conclusions In ocular normotensive monkeys, 0.005/0.01% LAT-B administered topically increases outflow facility and/or decreases IOP, but does not affect the cornea. Multiple doses reduce IOP more than a single dose. LAT-B dose-dependently relaxes the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle, with some separation of the miotic and accommodative effects. PMID:15747763

Okka, Mehmet; Tian, Baohe; Kaufman, Paul L



Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in North Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus.  


Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

Ye, Yixin H; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F; O'Neill, Scott L; Beebe, Nigel W; McGraw, Elizabeth A



Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.



Direct oral anticoagulants compared with vitamin K antagonists for acute venous thromboembolism: evidence from phase 3 trials.  


In the last 4 years, 6 phase 3 trials including a total of 27?023 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). To aid the clinician in assessing the amount of information, we address frequently raised clinical questions in a review of combined trial results. We included the phase 3 trials that compared dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban with VKA therapy in patients with acute symptomatic VTE. Recurrent VTE occurred in 2.0% of DOAC recipients compared with 2.2% in VKA recipients (relative risk [RR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.06). Treatment with a DOAC significantly reduced the risk of major bleeding (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.83). In parallel, intracranial bleeding, fatal bleeding, and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred significantly less in DOAC recipients. The efficacy and safety of DOACs were consistent in patients with pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, a body weight ?100 kg, moderate renal insufficiency, an age ?75 years, and cancer. In conclusion, DOACs and VKAs have similar efficacy in the treatment of acute symptomatic VTE, a finding that is consistent in key clinical subgroups. Treatment with a DOAC significantly reduces the risks of major bleeding. PMID:24963045

van Es, Nick; Coppens, Michiel; Schulman, Sam; Middeldorp, Saskia; Büller, Harry R



Topical Azithromycin and Oral Doxycycline Therapy of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Clinical and Spectroscopic Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common clinical problem that is often associated with evaporative dry eye disease. Alterations of the lipids of the meibomian glands have been identified in several studies of MGD. This prospective, observational, open label clinical trial documents the improvement in both clinical signs and symptoms of disease as well as spectroscopic characteristics of the meibomian gland lipids after therapy with topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution and oral doxycycline treatment. Methods Subjects with symptomatic MGD were recruited. Signs of MGD were evaluated with a slit lamp. Symptoms of MGD were measured by the response of subjects to a questionnaire. Meibum lipid-lipid interaction strength, conformation and phase transition parameters, and meibum protein content were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and principal component analysis (PCA). Terpenoids, short chain CH3 moieties, lipid oxidation, wax, cholesterylesters and glycerides were measured with a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectrometer. Results Topical therapy with azithromycin and oral therapy with doxycycline relieved signs and symptoms and restored the lipid properties of the meibomian gland secretion towards normal. Compared to 4 weeks of azithromycin treatment reported in our previous study, oral doxycycline treatment was slightly less effective in improving foreign body sensation and the signs of plugging and secretion. In subjects with clinical evidence of MGD, changes in ordering of the lipids and phase transition temperature were brought closer to normal with azithromycin treatment than doxycycline treatment. Treatment with doxycycline but not azithromycin restored the FTIR PCA scores and relative area of the 1H-NMR resonance at 1.26 ppm. Both doxycycline and azithromycin treatment restored the levels of the relative areas of the 1H-NMR resonances at 5.2 and 7.9 ppm to normal levels. The level of meibum protein and meibum lipid oxidation were not influenced by azithromycin or doxycycline treatment. Conclusions The mechanism of action of doxycycline may be different than that of azithromycin in therapy of MGD. It is notable that when carotenoids in meibum are low, as in MGD, the tear film is unstable and patients have the signs and symptoms of dry eye. When carotenoids are restored with azithromycin and doxycycline treatment, tear film stability is restored and patients no longer have the signs and symptoms of dry eye. PMID:22668581

Foulks, Gary N; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta; Kakar, Shelley



Comparative study of the efficacy of herbal antioxdants oxitard and aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent due to areca nut, tobacco and their products. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of oxitard and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and Methods: 120 subjects with OSMF were included in the study. The patients were clinico-pathologically diagnosed and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (oxitard group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 2 oxitard capsules twice daily and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Different clinical parameters were evaluated at regular intervals. Data was analyzed using the Student’s paired t test and Chi-square test. P-value <0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening and tongue protrusion was significant in the oxitard group (p=0.0005). Subjective symptoms of pain associated with the lesion (p=0.0003), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000) and speech (p=0.0001) also significantly improved in the Group A. The improvement in burning sensation was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p=0.002). There was a mild to moderate decrease in the size of the lesion. Conclusions: Though there is no definitive treatment for the condition however, overall assessment of symptoms like mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in swallowing and speech and pain associated with the lesion showed that oxitard capsules can bring about significant clinical improvements than aloe vera gel in the treatment of OSMF. Key words:Oral submucous fibrosis, oxitard capsules, aloe vera, burning sensation, mouth opening. PMID:25136428

Halgatti, Vishal; Maheshwari, Sneha; Santosh, B S.



Comparative study of ampicillin and amoxycillin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in homing pigeons (Columba livia).  


Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and amoxycillin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration was investigated in homing pigeons. The pharmacokinetic parameters in a cross-over study after intravenous administration of the sodium salts were comparable. The only significant difference was found for the distribution phase. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection of the sodium salts was especially low for ampicillin (26 per cent, as against 57 per cent for amoxycillin). The mean peak blood levels at 0.5 hours were 13.65 and 28.80 mg litre-1 for ampicillin and amoxycillin, respectively. After oral administration of trihydrate solutions (8 mg ml-1) the bioavailability was 20 and 35 per cent, respectively, and the mean peak blood levels were 8.46 and 16.98 mg litre-1, found at 1.04 and 1.26 hours. The recovery from the droppings, which include in birds the urine fraction as well, was unexpectedly low. Based on controls for recovery of added penicillin from the droppings and uric acid suspensions, indications were found that the pigeon enzymically inactivates penicillins. The in vitro activity of ampicillin against 266 strains of bacteria isolated from birds was determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 65.4 per cent of the Escherichia coli was lower than 4 mg litre-1, for 91.1 per cent of the Salmonella species was lower than 2 mg litre-1 and for 100 per cent of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was lower than 0.25 mg litre-1. Based on these data and a literature study dosage regimens were calculated for MIC values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg litre-1. PMID:3112878

Dorrestein, G M; Van Gogh, H; Rinzema, J D; Buitelaar, M N



Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin



Comparative analysis and meta-analysis of major clinical trials with oral factor Xa inhibitors versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Objectives A comparative analysis of three major clinical trials with factor Xa inhibitor oral anticoagulant (XOAC) drugs versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation—Rocket-AF (rivaroxaban), Aristotle (apixaban) and Engage AF Timi 48 (edoxaban; two different doses and sets of data)—was carried out. Methods Data were extracted from the original reports (study level) and a meta-analysis was carried out. Results When compared with warfarin, XOAC therapy was associated with a decrease in haemorrhagic stroke, with a similar pattern for all regimens and meta-analysis showing a risk ratio of 0.488 (95% CI 0.396 to 0.601). Regarding total mortality, a favourable pattern was seen for all four regimens and meta-analysis showed a risk ratio of 0.892 (95% CI 0.840 to 0.947). Major bleeding and gastrointestinal bleeding provided two examples regarding which heterogeneity would seem to exist, when XOAC drugs are compared with warfarin. In what concerns the incidence of myocardial infarction, the primary end point (stroke plus systemic embolism) and ischaemic stroke, the situation is less clear. These results are inconsistent with a putative ‘group effect’ for all the seven parameters under study, and for some of them it would probably be best to look at each of the individual trial data rather than at the meta-analysis data (which seem to lack a clear biological meaning). Conclusions Apixaban, rivaroxaban and edoxaban have shown interesting effects, when compared with warfarin in clinical trials, in patients with atrial fibrillation, particularly with regard to haemorrhagic stroke and to the mortality rate. No other consistent conclusions concerning a putative ‘group effect’ can be reached at the present stage. Concerns regarding adherence to therapy, possible drug interactions, cost and current absence of antidotes may be taken into consideration when choosing an anticoagulant drug. PMID:25332806

Nunes, Jose Pedro L; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Goncalves, Francisco Rocha



The effect of paxilline on early alterations of electrophysiological properties of dentate gyrus granule cells in pilocarpine-treated rats.  


The dentate gyrus of hippocampus has long been considered as a focal point for studies on mechanisms responsible for the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Change in intrinsic properties of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) has been considered as an important factor responsible in temporal lobe seizures. In this study, we evaluated the intrinsic properties of GCs, during acute phase of seizure (24 h after i.p. injection of pilocarpine) compared to sham group using whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Our results showed a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) after applying depolarizing currents of 200 pA (p < 0.01) and 250pA (p < 0.05) compared to sham group. The evaluation of AP properties revealed a decrease in half-width of AP in GCs of seizure group (1.27 ± 0.03 ms) compared to sham group (1.60 ± 0.11). Moreover, addition of BAPTA to pipette solution prevented changes in AP half-width in seizure group (1.71 ± 0.11 ms) compared to sham group (1.91 ± 0.08 ms). In contrast, an increase in the amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization was observed in GCs of seizure group (-11.68 ± 0.72 mV) compared to sham group (-8.28 ± 0.59 mV). Also, GCs of seizure group showed a significant increase in both firing rate and instantaneous firing frequency at depolarizing currents of 200 pA (P < 0.01) and 250 pA (P < 0.05) compared to sham group. The changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs were attenuated after bath application of paxilline suggesting possible involvement of large conductance Ca(2+)- activated K(+) channel (BK channel). Our results suggested the possible involvement of certain potassium channels in early changes of intrinsic properties of GCs which eventually facilitate TLE development. PMID:24711838

Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima



The Comparative Effectiveness of Long-Acting Injectable vs. Oral Antipsychotic Medications in the Prevention of Relapse: A Case Study in CER in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Objective As psychopathology and social functioning can worsen with repeated psychotic episodes in schizophrenia, relapse prevention is critical. Because high non-adherence rates limit the efficacy of pharmacotherapy, the use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) is considered an important treatment option. To date, many studies comparing LAIs and oral antipsychotics have been conducted; however, the results are mixed, and careful interpretation of the data is required. Study Design Selective review of existing literature regarding LAIs. We especially focused the discussion on the impact of the design of studies with different approaches comparing LAIs and oral antipsychotics in preventing relapse. Result The results were diverse and were influenced by the design utilized, i.e., randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed LAIs and oral antipsychotics to have similar effects, whereas mirror-image and some large cohort studies showed LAIs to be superior to oral antipsychotics. Conclusion Divergent results from studies using different methodologies creates a dilemma for comparative effectiveness research, and LAI studies may serve as an example of a situation where a conventional RCT is not the gold standard. Traditional RCTs generally increase adherence compared to clinical practice and, therefore, might not be well suited to detect differences between LAIs and oral medications, because any increase in adherence effects patients on oral medications more than those on LAIs and thus leads to an underestimation of any potential difference in effectiveness. A possible solution would be the implementation of a true effectiveness trial,. in which post-randomization involvement would be kept to a minimum to better reflect routine practice. PMID:23849151

Kane, John M.; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Correll, Christoph U.



Genes Involved in Epithelial Differentiation and Development are Differentially Expressed in Oral and Genital Lichen Planus Epithelium Compared to Normal Epithelium.  


Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with unknown cause. Patients with LP often have both oral and genital lesions, but these conditions are often considered as separate diseases and treated accordingly. To find out which genes are differently expressed in mucosal LP compared to normal mucosa and establish whether oral and genital LP are in fact the same disease, whole genome expression analysis was performed on epithelium from 13 patients diagnosed with oral and/or genital LP and normal controls. For confirmation of keratin 4 and corneodesmosin expression, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry were used. Many genes involved in epithelial development and differentiation are differently expressed in epithelium from LP compared to normal epithelium. Several of the differentially expressed genes are common for oral and genital LP and the same biological processes are altered which supports the fact that oral and genital LP are manifestations of the same disease. The change in gene expression indicates that differentiation is altered leading to changes in the epithelial barrier. PMID:24626344

Danielsson, Karin; Coates, Philip J; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nylander, Elisabet; Wahlin, Ylva Britt; Nylander, Karin



Rapamycin attenuates aggressive behavior in a rat model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric disorders are fairly common comorbidities of epilepsy in humans. Following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), experimental animals not only developed spontaneous recurrent seizures, but also exhibited significantly elevated levels of aggressive behavior. The cellular and molecular mechanism triggering these behavioral alterations remains unclear. In the present study, we found that aggression is positively correlated with development of spontaneous seizures. Treatment with rapamycin, a potent mTOR pathway inhibitor, markedly diminished aggressive behavior. Therefore, the mTOR pathway may have significance in the underlying molecular mechanism leading to aggression associated with epilepsy. PMID:22522471

Huang, Xiaoxing; McMahon, John; Huang, Yunfei



Comparative pharmacokinetics study of a kaurane diterpenoid after oral administration of monomer and Siegesbeckiae pubescens Makino extract to rats.  


In this paper, a sensitive, rapid and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to analyze 16?-hydro-ent-kauran-17,19-dioic acid in rat plasma. First, this study compared the pharmacokinetics of 16?-hydro-ent-kauran-17,19-dioic acid after oral administration of monomer and Siegesbeckiae pubescens Makino extract in rat plasma with approximately the same dosage of 6.0?mg/kg. Second, chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Symmetry C18 column (2.1?×?100?mm, 3.5?µm) with isocratic elution using methanol-water containing 5?mmol/L ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2?mL/min. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 30-12000?ng/mL for monomer. At different time points (0, 0.083, 0.25, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72?h) after administration, the concentrations of monomer in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The double absorption presented in this study indicates that the pharmacokinetics of monomer in rat plasma have significant differences between different groups. PMID:24338899

Lei, Ming; Jiang, Zhen; Liu, Hongjiao; Cui, Yan; Ye, Xiaoxia; Ji, Bin; Guo, Xingjie



Oral rehydration therapy: a community trial comparing the acceptability of homemade sucrose and cereal-based solutions.  

PubMed Central

Sugar-based oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea is promoted in many countries of the world. One programme in Bangladesh has instructed more than 13 million mothers in the preparation of a sugar-salt solution in the home; despite very high rates of correct mixing and knowledge, subsequent application was found in only some 20% of all diarrhoea episodes. Since rice is far more available in rural homes (95%) than any type of sugar (30%) and rice gruel is a widely accepted food during illness, a field trial was conducted in three areas (total population, 68,345) to compare the acceptability and use of rice-based ORT with that of sugar-based ORT. Although the mothers unanimously agreed that the rice-based solutions "stopped" the diarrhoea more quickly, they used the sugar-based solutions twice as often (in 40% of severe watery episodes) as the rice-based solutions (in 18%), because the rice-ORT was much more time-consuming and difficult to prepare. The observed reduced utilization of home-made rice-ORT makes it a poor substitute for sugar-ORT at the community level in rural Bangladesh. PMID:1860151

Chowdhury, A. M.; Karim, F.; Rohde, J. E.; Ahmed, J.; Abed, F. H.



Cytoarchitectonics and afferent/efferent reorganization of neurons in layers II and III of the lateral entorhinal cortex in the mouse pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  


With the mouse pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we showed a progressive loss of both principal cells and calbindin (CB)-, calretinin (CR)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-immunopositive interneurons in layers II-III of lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt) from 2 months to 1 year after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). In the efferent pathway of LEnt, more Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L)-labelled en passant and terminal boutons with larger diameters were shown in the hippocampus and subiculum; in the prefrontal, piriform, and perirhinal cortices; and in the amygdaloid complex in experimental mice at the two time points compared with the control after iontophoretical injection of an anterograde tracer PHA-L into the LEnt. Furthermore, the numbers of CB- or CR-immunopositive neurons contacted by PHA-L-labelled en passant and terminal boutons decreased in most of these areas at 2 months or 1 year after PISE. In the afferent pathway of LEnt, the numbers of retrogradely labelled neurons were reduced significantly in the ipsilateral piriform cortex and endopiriform nucleus at 2 months and 1 year and in the reuniens thalamic nucleus only at 1 year after injection of a retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the LEnt. The percentages of the number of CTB and CB or CR double-labelled neurons of all the retrogradely labelled neurons were also decreased in the reunions thalamic nucleus at 1 year after PISE. It is concluded that both cytoarchitectonic change and reorganization of afferent and efferent pathways in LEnt may be involved in the occurrence of TLE. PMID:18058944

Ma, Dong Liang; Tang, Yong Cheng; Tang, Feng Ru



Pilocarpine seizures cause age-dependent impairment in auditory location discrimination.  


Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this question using an animal model of status epilepticus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline on postnatal day (P) 20, or a convulsant dose of pilocarpine on P20 or P45. Pilocarpine on either day induced status epilepticus; status epilepticus at P45 resulted in CA3 cell loss and spontaneous seizures, whereas P20 rats had no cell loss or spontaneous seizures. Mature rats were trained with sound-source location and sound-silence discriminations. Control (saline P20) rats acquired both discriminations immediately. In status epilepticus (P20) rats, acquisition of the sound-source location discrimination was moderately impaired. Status epilepticus (P45) rats failed to acquire either sound-source location or sound-silence discriminations. Status epilepticus in rat causes an age-dependent, long-term impairment in auditory discrimination. This impairment may explain one cause of impaired auditory location discrimination in humans. PMID:16596970

Neill, John C; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L



Pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in the rat is associated with increased dopamine neuron activity.  


Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous seizures that involve the limbic system, with the hippocampal formation and associated structures being central to the most prevalent refractory form of adult focal epilepsy. TLE is often associated with psychotic features resembling the hallucinations and delusions that occur with schizophrenia. Given evidence that the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the maintenance of temporal lobe seizures, we investigated whether an animal model of TLE using intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine induces alterations in mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity. We found that in 60% of rats in which pilocarpine induced seizure activity, there was a significant increase in the number of dopamine neurons firing per electrode track. Furthermore, this occurred in concert with an increase in amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. Both observations are similar to those observed in a rodent developmental model of psychosis. Therefore, as in animal models of schizophrenia, TLE-associated psychosis is probably due to abnormal hippocampal overdrive of dopamine neuron activity. PMID:21745437

Cifelli, Pierangelo; Grace, Anthony A



Pilocarpine Induced Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in the Rat is Associated with Increased Dopamine Neuron Activity  

PubMed Central

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous seizures that involve the limbic system, with the hippocampal formation and associated structures being central to the most prevalent refractory form of adult focal epilepsy. TLE is often associated with psychotic features resembling the hallucinations and delusions that occur with schizophrenia. Given evidence that the ventral hippocampus (vHipp) plays an important role in the maintenance of temporal lobe seizures, we investigated whether an animal model of TLE using intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine induces alterations in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neuron activity. We found that in 60% of rats in which pilocarpine induced seizure activity, there was a significant increase in the number of dopamine neurons firing per electrode track. Furthermore, this occurred in concert with an increase in amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. Both observations are similar to those observed in a rodent developmental model of psychosis. Therefore, as in animal models of schizophrenia, TLE-associated psychosis is likely due to abnormal hippocampal overdrive of dopamine neuron activity. PMID:21745437

Cifelli, Pierangelo; Grace, Anthony A.



Facilitation of granule cell epileptiform activity by mossy fiber-released zinc in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent mossy fiber synapses in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain facilitate the synchronous firing of granule cells and may promote seizure propagation. Mossy fiber terminals contain and release zinc. Released zinc inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and may therefore oppose the development of granule cell epileptiform activity. Hippocampal slices from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and

Olga Timofeeva; J. Victor Nadler



Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression after liver transplantation: a randomised study comparing dual versus triple low-dose oral regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive induction therapy, 130 primary orthotopic\\u000a liver transplant (OLT) recipients were randomised to treatment in an open, parallel-group, European multicentre trial. Following\\u000a OLT, patients were immediately administered either tacrolimus (0.10 mg\\/kg) and prednisolone (dual therapy group) or tacrolimus\\u000a (0.06 mg\\/kg) in conjunction with prednisolone and azathioprine (triple therapy group) both orally.

Peter Neuhaus; Jan M. Langrehr; Roger Williams; Roy Y. Calne; Rudolf Pichlmayr; Paul McMaster



Herpes - oral  


... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...


Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits  

E-print Network

The effects of a novel, modified ?-cyclodextrin (SBE4-?-CD; a variably substituted sulfobutyl ether with an average degree of substitution of four) on eye irritation and miotic response of an ophthalmically applied pilocarpine prodrug, O...

Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto



Comparative effects of oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis and insulin injection on serum biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrullus colocynthis seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. An experiment was designed to evaluate\\u000a the comparative effects of oral administration of C. colocynthis and insulin injection on the serum biochemical parameters of diabetic dogs. Twelve apparently healthy mixed breed dogs were\\u000a selected and randomly allocated into three groups, two diabetic groups and one control group (n?=?4).

Ameneh Khoshvaghti; Ahmad Reza Hamidi


Efficacy and safety of a contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) compared with a combined oral contraceptive: a 1-year randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This open-label, randomized, Phase III study compared the efficacy and tolerability of and compliance with NuvaRing, a combined contraceptive vaginal ring releasing 15 ?g of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 120 ?g of etonogestrel daily, with those of and with a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 150 ?g of levonorgestrel (LNG) and 30 ?g of EE. Subjects received NuvaRing or a COC

Kristjan Oddsson; Beate Leifels-Fischer; Nilson Roberto de Melo; Dominique Wiel-Masson; Chiara Benedetto; Carole H. J. Verhoeven; Thom O. M. Dieben



Bone mineral density in adolescent and young Thai girls receiving oral contraceptives compared with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate: a cross-sectional study in young Thai women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study of bone mineral density in adolescent and young Thai girls receiving oral contraceptives compared with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate was performed to evaluate the differences among these groups. Thirty current OC users and 30 current depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users were included in the study. The mean duration of OC use was 28.8 ± 3.4 months and of

W Tharnprisarn; S Taneepanichskul



Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL); open trial of surgery compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in papillomavirus-related PVL.  


Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a unique oral white lesion in which human papillomavirus (HPV) may play a role. PVL behaves far more aggressively than other forms of leukoplakia with a high rate of recurrence after surgical excision, and relentless progression to verrucous hyperplasia and to verrucous or squamous cell carcinomas. The treatment of PVL is usually by surgery, but there is often early recurrence. This study was an open trial of surgery in 25 patients with oral HPV-positive PVL, compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in another group of 25 patients with oral PVL. Six months postoperatively there was a significant difference, with 18 recurrences in the patients treated by surgery alone compared to only two recurrences in the patients treated also with methisoprinol (isoprinosine or inosine pranobex), a synthetic agent with immunomodulatory properties and some antiviral activity against HPV. Eighteen months postoperatively there were no further recurrences in the patients treated by surgery alone but another two recurrences in the patients treated with methisoprinol. Overall, by 18 months follow-up, there were 18 recurrences in the group treated by surgery alone, compared with four in those also receiving methisoprinol. The use of this antiviral agent appeared to offer a significant enhancement to the surgical management of PVL. PMID:11518355

Femiano, F; Gombos, F; Scully, C



The Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin and Nigella sativa Oil Against Oxidative Stress in the Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy: A Comparison with Valproate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role in epileptogenesis and pilocarpine-induced seizures. The present study\\u000a aims to evaluate the antioxidant effects of curcumin, Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and valproate on the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and the activities of catalase,\\u000a Na+, K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats. The animal model of epilepsy

Heba S. Aboul Ezz; Yasser A. Khadrawy; Neveen A. Noor


Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice  

SciTech Connect

Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.



Comparing ONRAB® AND RABORAL V-RG® oral rabies vaccine field performance in raccoons and striped skunks, New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine, USA.  


Control of rabies in mesocarnivore reservoirs through oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires an effective vaccine bait. Oral rabies vaccine performance in the field may be affected by a variety of factors, including vaccine bait density and distribution pattern, habitat, target species population density, and the availability of competing foods. A field study in which these covariates were restricted as much as possible was conducted along the international border of the state of Maine (ME), USA, and the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada, to compare the performance of two oral rabies vaccines in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). RABORAL V-RG(®) (vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in fishmeal-coated sachet) or ONRAB(®) (adenovirus-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in Ultralite bait matrix) were distributed in ME and NB, respectively, by fixed-wing aircraft at a density of 75 baits/km(2) along parallel flight lines spaced 1.0 km apart. Sera were collected from live-trapped raccoons and skunks 5-7 wk post-ORV and assayed to determine antibody prevalence in each area. Duplicate serum samples were provided blind to two different laboratories for analyses by rabies virus serum neutralization assays (at both laboratories) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at one laboratory). There was no significant difference in the proportion of antibody-positive animals determined by the three serologic methods, nor was there a significant difference between ONRAB and RABORAL V-RG in the proportion of antibody-positive striped skunks observed post-ORV. In contrast, the proportion of antibody-positive raccoons was significantly higher in the ONRAB- versus the RABORAL V-RG-baited areas (74% vs. 30%; ?(2)=89.977, df=5, P<0.0001). These data support that ONRAB may serve as an effective tool for raccoon rabies control. PMID:22247384

Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Rudd, Robert; Donovan, Dennis; Slate, Dennis; Kempf, Libby; Badcock, Jacqueline



The neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Nigella sativa oil against oxidative stress in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy: a comparison with valproate.  


Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role in epileptogenesis and pilocarpine-induced seizures. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant effects of curcumin, Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and valproate on the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and the activities of catalase, Na?, K?-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats. The animal model of epilepsy was induced by pilocarpine and left for 22 days to establish the chronic phase of epilepsy. These animals were then treated with curcumin, NSO or valproate for 21 days. The data revealed evidence of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of pilocarpinized rats as indicated by the increased nitric oxide levels and the decreased glutathione levels and catalase activity. Moreover, a decrease in Na?, K?-ATPase activity and an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity occurred in the hippocampus after pilocarpine. Treatment with curcumin, NSO or valproate ameliorated most of the changes induced by pilocarpine and restored Na?, K?-ATPase activity in the hippocampus to control levels. This study reflects the promising anticonvulsant and potent antioxidant effects of curcumin and NSO in reducing oxidative stress, excitability and the induction of seizures in epileptic animals and improving some of the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:21751034

Ezz, Heba S Aboul; Khadrawy, Yasser A; Noor, Neveen A



Pilocarpine Ophthalmic  


... instilling the next drop. Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or ... someone else apply the gel. Remove the protective cap. Avoid touching the tip of the tube against ...


A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Results: Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments. Conclusion: Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. PMID:24347774

Thaker, Saket J.; Mehta, Dimple S.; Shah, Hiral A.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Kikani, Kunjan M.



A comparative study of the adjuvanticity of Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces cerevsiae and Yarrowia lipolytica in oral and nasal immunization with virus capsid antigens.  


The adjuvanticity of Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces cerevsiae and Yarrowia lipolytica were compared for oral and nasal immunization with virus capsid antigens. Mice were immunized orally with human papillomavirus type 16 L1 virus-like particles (HPV16 L1 VLPs), or intra-nasally with formalin-inactivated influenza A virus (FIV), in combination with one or other yeast. Mice receiving HPV16 L1 VLPs combined with H. polymorpha had a significantly higher titer for serum anti-HPV16 L1 IgG and neutralizing activity than those receiving HPV16 L1 VLPs combined with either of the other two yeasts. Also, mice receiving FIV combined with H. polymorpha had not only a markedly higher anti-influenza A virus IgG titer but also a higher survival rate after a potentially lethal influenza A virus challenge. We suggest that H. polymorpha thus will be useful for enhancing immune responses in mucosal immunizations. PMID:23801124

Lee, Jae Young; Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hong-Jin



Comparative analysis of human-derived feeder layers with 3T3 fibroblasts for the ex vivo expansion of human limbal and oral epithelium.  


Corneal transplantation with cultivated limbal or oral epithelium is a feasible treatment option for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Currently utilized co-culture of stem cells with murine 3T3 feeder layer renders the epithelial constructs as xenografts. To overcome the potential risks involved with xenotransplantation, we investigated the use of human-derived feeder layers for the ex vivo expansion of epithelial (stem) cells. Human limbal and oral epithelium was co-cultured with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, human dermal fibroblasts (DF), human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and with no feeder cells (NF). Cell morphology was monitored with phase-contrast microscopy, and stem cell characteristics were assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR for p63 and ABCG2, (stem cell markers), and by colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay. Immunohistochemical analysis detected positive staining for CK3 (cornea specific marker) and I?1 and p63 (putative stem cell markers) in all culture conditions. The level of I?1 and p63 was significantly higher in both limbal and oral cells cultured on the 3T3 feeder, as compared to the MSC or NF group (p<0.01). This level was comparable to the cells cultured on DF. Expression of p63 and ABCG2 in limbal and oral epithelial cells in the 3T3 and DF groups was significantly higher than that in the MSC or NF group (p<0.01). No statistical difference was detected between 3T3 and DF groups. The CFE of both limbal and oral cells co-cultured on 3T3 fibroblasts was comparable to cells grown on DF, and was significantly higher than that of cells co-cultured with MSC or NF (p<0.01). Epithelial cells grown on a DF feeder layer maintained a stem cell-like phenotype, comparable to cells grown on a 3T3 feeder layer. In conclusion, DF provides a promising substitute for 3T3 feeder cells during cultivation of xenobiotic-free corneal equivalents. PMID:21964568

Sharma, Sandhya M; Fuchsluger, Thomas; Ahmad, Sajjad; Katikireddy, Kishore R; Armant, Myriam; Dana, Reza; Jurkunas, Ula V



Acylated ghrelin protects hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats by inhibiting cell apoptosis.  


Ghrelin has two major molecular forms, acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG). Only AG to bind growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) has central endocrine activities. An antiapoptotic effect of AG in cortical neuronal cells has recently been reported. However, whether there is a neuroprotective effect of AG in hippocampal neurons of pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats, is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, the underlying mechanism of AG on lithium-pilocarpine-induced excitotoxicity was examined in the hippocampus of rat. The results showed that AG inhibited pilocarpine-induced apoptosis. Exposure of rats to the receptor-specific antagonist D-Lys-3-GHRH-6 abolished the protective effects of AG against epilepsy. Administration of AG resulted in increased expression of phosphor-Akt in status epilepticus model in rats, which was accompanied with the attenuation of hippocampal cell death. Furthermore, administration of AG resulted in decreased expression of phosphor-JNK in pyramidal neurons of hippocampus after status epilepsy, which was also accompanied with the attenuation of hippocampal cell death, too. In addition, AG increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibited caspase-3 activation. The data indicate that AG can function as a neuroprotective agent that inhibits apoptotic pathways. These effects may be mediated via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23129314

Zhang, Ruiyun; Yang, Guanglu; Wang, Qingyi; Guo, Feng; Wang, Hua



Eye drops preservative as the cause of corneal band keratopathy in long-term pilocarpine hydrochloride treatment.  


The aim is to present a patient with severe bilateral corneal complications after long-term antiglaucoma treatment with 1% pilocarpine hydrochloride (Pilokarpin, Pliva, Zagreb, Croatia) and its management. A patient with narrow-angle glaucoma treated with 1% topical pilocarpine hydrochloride eye drops for the last twenty years complained of impaired vision, intermittent visual haloes and eye redness. Ophthalmologic examination showed bilateral band keratopathy, peripheral laser iridotomy, medicamentous myosis, brown nuclear cataract, and synchysis scintillans of his right eye. Band keratopathy was thought to have resulted from the presence of the preservative phenylmercuric nitrate in the pilocarpine hydrochloride eye drops. Treatment of the patient consisted of two separate procedures for both eyes, i.e. phaco trabeculectomy and six months later corneal procedure including abrasion of corneal epithelium followed by removal of the superficial stromal calcium deposits by means of a 3.75% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) solution. After phaco trabeculectomy, visual acuity was 0.8 on both eyes. Bilateral visual improvement with visual acuity 1.0 was recorded after corneal treatment with EDTA. In conclusion, one must be aware of preservative complications in long-term topical use, such as band keratopathy that can be visually incapacitating. Surgical treatment using EDTA is safe and effective treatment for band keratopathy. PMID:22920012

Pavici?-Astalos, Jasna; Lacmanovi?-Loncar, Valentina; Petric-Vickovi?, Ivanka; Sari?, Dean; Mandi?, Zdravko; Csik, Tigrena; Susi?, Nikola



Phototoxicity to sulphonamide-derived oral antidiabetics and diuretics: comparative in-vitro and in-vivo investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven oral antidiabetics (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, glipizide, gliquidone, glymidine, tolazamide, and tolbutamide), and 14 diuretics (bemetizide, bendroflumethiazide, benzylhydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, butizide, chlortalidone, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, piretanide, polythiazide, trichlormethiazide, and xipamide) were investigated for potential phototoxicity in vitro using a cell culture model and in vivo in hairless mice. After exposure to broad band UVA, the majority of the substances tested in vitro yielded phototoxic action leading to loss of culture forming ability. In vivo, all tested substances induced edema or ulceration, and lead to a significant increase in skin fold thickness of the mouse skin. In all a number of substances not described to induce clinical photosensitivity nor phototoxicity in vitro or in vivo were detected in our testing. In determining potential photosensitizers, it seems important to utilize different test methods, as not all substances will exhibit action in a given assay.

Selvaag, Edgar; Anholt, Helle; Moan, Johan; Thune, Per



A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.  


The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi



Comparative evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles of rifampicin comprising Gantrez and poly(ethylene sebacate) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and lung uptake following oral administration.  


The present study reports the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation and biodistribution of rifampicin (RIF) following oral administration of nanoparticles of a bioadhesive polymer, Gantrez and a hydrophobic polymer poly(ethylene sebacate) (PES). A specific objective of the study was to evaluate lung uptake of the nanoparticles following oral administration. Nanoparticles were obtained in the size range 350-450 nm with rifampicin loading of 12-14% w/w. Zeta potential confirmed colloidal stability. PES nanoparticles revealed high macrophage uptake compared to Gantrez nanoparticles, and direct correlation was observed between hydrophobicity (contact angle) and macrophage uptake (r2 -0.940). Enhanced RIF uptake with folic acid anchoring suggested folate receptor mediated uptake. RIF nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher Cmax and AUC, delayed Tmax and sustained release compared to plain RIF. More importantly the plasma concentration of RIF with the nanoparticles was significantly greater than the MIC of RIF (0.25 microng/mL) over 24 h. While gamma scintigraphy revealed higher lung accumulation of nanoparticles, the concentration with Gantrez nanoparticles was significantly higher. HPLC evaluation of lung concentration correlated with scintigraphy data. The significantly higher bioavailability and lung accumulation with Gantrez nanoparticle over PES nanoparticles was attributed mucoadhesion and high affinity of Gantrez to the Peyer's patches. Our study suggests Gantrez nanoparticles as a promising carrier for enhancing lung accumulation of drugs. PMID:24734521

Patel, Mitesh D; Date, Praveen V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Malshe, Vinod C; Devarajan, Padma V



Gabapentin Administration Reduces Reactive Gliosis and Neurodegeneration after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces in rodents several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy, by inducing an acute status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. It has been proposed that the neuronal network reorganization that occurs during latency determines the subsequent appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuronal and glial responses during the latency period that follows SE. Given the potential role of astrocytes in the post-SE network reorganization, through the secretion of synaptogenic molecules such as thrombospondins, we also studied the effect of treatment with the ?2?1 thrombospondin receptor antagonist gabapentin. Adult male Wistar rats received 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine. Once SE was achieved, seizures were stopped with 20 mg/kg diazepam. Animals then received 400 mg/kg/day gabapentin or saline for either 4 or 14 days. In vitro experiments were performed in dissociated mixed hippocampal cell culture exposed to glutamate, and subsequently treated with gabapentin or vehicle. During the latency period, the hippocampus and pyriform cortex of SE-animals presented a profuse reactive astrogliosis, with increased GFAP and nestin expression. Gliosis intensity was dependent on the Racine stage attained by the animals and peaked 15 days after SE. Microglia was also reactive after SE, and followed the same pattern. Neuronal degeneration was present in SE-animals, and also depended on the Racine stage and the SE duration. Polysialic-acid NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression was increased in hippocampal CA-1 and dentate gyrus of SE-animals. Gabapentin treatment was able to reduce reactive gliosis, decrease neuronal loss and normalize PSA-NCAM staining in hippocampal CA-1. In vitro, gabapentin treatment partially prevented the dendritic loss and reactive gliosis caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. Our results show that gabapentin treatment during the latency period after SE protects neurons and normalizes PSA-NCAM probably by direct interaction with neurons and glia. PMID:24250797

Rossi, Alicia Raquel; Angelo, Maria Florencia; Villarreal, Alejandro; Lukin, Jeronimo; Ramos, Alberto Javier



Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2's catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity.

How, Kah Yan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan



Additional Antiepileptic Mechanisms of Levetiracetam in Lithium-Pilocarpine Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

Several studies have addressed the antiepileptic mechanisms of levetiracetam (LEV); however, its effect on catecholamines and the inflammatory mediators that play a role in epilepsy remain elusive. In the current work, lithium (Li) pretreated animals were administered LEV (500 mg/kg i.p) 30 min before the induction of convulsions by pilocarpine (PIL). Li-PIL-induced seizures were accompanied by increased levels of hippocampal prostaglandin (PG) E2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-10. Moreover, it markedly elevated hippocampal lipid peroxides and nitric oxide levels, while it inhibited the glutathione content. Li-PIL also reduced hippocampal noradrenaline, as well as dopamine contents. Pretreatment with LEV protected against Li-PIL-induced seizures, where it suppressed the severity and delayed the onset of seizures in Li-PIL treated rats. Moreover, LEV reduced PGE2 and MPO, yet it did not affect the level of both cytokines in the hippocampus. LEV also normalized hippocampal noradrenaline, dopamine, glutathione, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide contents. In conclusion, alongside its antioxidant property, LEV anticonvulsive effect involves catecholamines restoration, as well as inhibition of PGE2, MPO, and nitric oxide. PMID:24098559

Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y.; El Sayeh, Bahia M.; Abdallah, Dalaal M.



Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Material and Methods: Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Results: Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bis-phosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. Conclusions: In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ. Key words:Osteonecrosis, oral bisphosphonate, treatment, teriparatide, plasma rich in growth factors. PMID:24608203

Pelaz, Alejandro; Gallego, Lorena; Garcia-Consuegra, Luis; Junquera, Sonsoles; Gomez, Carlos



Comparative study on the efficacy of tiotropium bromide inhalation and oral doxofylline treatment of moderate to severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


This study compared the efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide inhalation powder (spiriva) and doxofylline oral tablet (doxofylline) in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-controlled study involved 127 eligible stable moderate to severe COPD patients treated with inhaled tiotropium dry powder (18 ?g/day) or oral doxofylline tablets (0.2 g/time, 2 times a day) for 12 and 24 weeks. Before and after treatment for 12 weeks and 24 weeks, respectively, pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance and dyspnea index were recorded. The results showed that in both tiotropium group and doxofylline groups, after 12-week treatment, FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC% and 6-min walk distance were significantly higher than those before the medication, while dyspnea index decreased as compared with that before treatment. After 24-week treatment, a slight improvement in the measures was observed as compared with that of 12-weeks treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. With both 12-week and 24-week treatment, the effect of tiotropium was slightly better than that of doxofylline tablets, with the difference being statistically insignificant. The major adverse events in the tiotropium group and doxofylline group were observed in 9 cases (9.9%) and 12 cases (12.9%), respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found between them. We are led to conclude that both tiotropium at 18 ?g a day and doxofylline tablets at 0.2 g/day (two times a day) are effective and safe for the treatment of COPD. PMID:22038349

Wang, Tao; Luo, Guangwei; Hu, Yi; Li, Fajiu; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jianmiao; Zuo, Peng; Xiong, Weining; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhao, Jianping; Xiong, Shengdao; Zhang, Zhenxiang; Li, Chenghong; Zhao, Su; Sun, Jiemin; Xu, Yongjian



Oral Medication  


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A comparative study between Gd-DTPA and oral magnetic particles (OMP) as gastrointestinal (GI) contrast agents for MRI of the abdomen.  


In the present study we compared two gastrointestinal contrast agents--Gd-DTPA, a positive signal, and oral magnetic particles (OMP), a negative signal contrast agent--in patients who were referred for MR imaging of the abdomen. Altogether 60 patients were examined with the former and 28 patients with the latter contrast before and after the administration of contrast media. Gd-DTPA was given either per os or per rectum. In comparing the results, it was shown that the diagnostic accuracy of postcontrast MRI in both groups was more or less similar to CT but much higher as compared with plain MRI. In the OMP series, first the contrast between the GI-filled lumen and the surrounding fat was much superior to that of the Gd-DTPA and, second, there was no evidence of any artifacts from bowel motion. However, the overall accuracy of the Gd-DTPA group was better compared with that of the OMP group. This was due to underfilling of the distal bowel because the OMP in those patients was administered only per os. Finally, Gd-DTPA had a more pleasant taste and fewer side effects. It is concluded that both contrast media are suitable for the upper abdomen because the results are comparable, whereas for the lower abdomen Gd-DTPA is superior because it can be used from both routes. PMID:7934658

Vlahos, L; Gouliamos, A; Athanasopoulou, A; Kotoulas, G; Claus, W; Hatziioannou, A; Kalovidouris, A; Papavasiliou, C



Compliance with the minimum dataset of the British Orthodontic Society/British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons for record keeping for orthognathic patients: retrospective comparative multicentre audit.  


Accurate and timely collection of clinical records is of utmost importance in planning, evaluating, and auditing orthognathic operations. The minimum dataset guidelines of the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) and the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS) were published in an attempt to standardise the collection of clinical records of patients having orthognathic operations. This multicentre retrospective audit aimed to assess and compare compliance with the guidelines in 3 maxillofacial units over a 1-year period. A total of 105 cases were reviewed. Compliance varied. Documentation of altered sensation was consistently poor and too many unnecessary radiographs were taken. There may be a need to circulate the guidelines again to increase awareness and reduce variability between centres. PMID:23561735

Dewi, F; Jones, S D; Ghaly, G A; Cronin, A J



Remodeling of hippocampal network in pilocarpine-treated mice expressing synaptopHluorin in the mossy fiber terminals.  


Pilocarpine-induced seizures induce an ectopic projection of hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs). Here, the sprouting was directly examined using TV-42 mice that express synaptopHluorin (SpH) selectively in the MF boutons. The SpH was ectopically expressed in the inner molecular layer (IML) of the dentate gyrus in typical mice after seizures, but were not always accompanied by the zinc fluorescence. The expression of SpH also has a tendency to be enhanced in layers of the CA3a region. It is suggested that the abnormal connection of neurons is more widespread than expected based on the previous zinc-detecting methods. PMID:22801461

Ito, Shin; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu



The comparative pharmacokinetics of two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, senecionine and adonifoline, and their main metabolites in rats after intravenous and oral administration by UPLC/ESIMS.  


Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are considered to be one of the most hepatotoxic groups of compounds of plant origin and are present in about 3% of the world's flowering plants. Most PAs represent a considerable health hazard to both livestock and humans through the consumption of plants and PA-contaminated products such as milk, honey, herbal teas, and medicines. This study determined the differences in the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of senecionine (SEN), adonifoline (ADO), and their main metabolites in rats after intravenous administration and oral administration by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Upon intravenous administration and oral administration of SEN and ADO, significant differences in pharmacokinetics were observed, with the SEN and ADO being absorbed fast with lower bioavailability and being quickly metabolized to PA N-oxides and hydroxylation products of PAs or their N-oxides. It could be seen that the plasma concentration ratio of senecionine N-oxide (SEN-NO) to SEN (C (SEN-NO)/C (SEN)) was significantly larger than that for adonifoline N-oxide (ADO-NO) and ADO (C (ADO-NO)/C (ADO)) (P?compared with ADO, in rats raised the question of whether or not the higher metabolic rate of SEN in rats in vivo was related to its potent toxicity. The toxicity of SEN-NO and ADO-NO needs to be evaluated further and compared in vitro/in vivo. This study was most helpful for interpreting the metabolism of metabolic bioactivation and detoxication, and toxicity differences among SEN, ADO and other PAs. PMID:21573843

Wang, Changhong; Li, Yan; Gao, Jiangguo; He, Yuqi; Xiong, Aizhen; Yang, Li; Cheng, Xuemei; Ma, Yueming; Wang, Zhengtao



Comparative pharmacokinetics of dehydroevodiamine and coptisine in rat plasma after oral administration of single herbs and Zuojinwan prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zuojinwan, which consists of Rhizoma coptidis–Evodia rutaecarpa powder (6:1,g\\/g), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, clinically used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of dehydroevodiamine and coptisine, the main active ingredients in Zuojinwan, in rats administrated with whole prescription or single herbs. Multiple blood concentration peaks were observed in the mean plasma–concentration curves. The

Rui Yan; Yin Wang; Wenjin Shen; Youping Liu; Xin Di


Comparative bioavailability of alpha-methyldopa normal and film tablet formulations after single oral administration in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a single dose, randomized, cross-over study, with one week of wash-out period, the relative bioavailability of Dopegyt®\\u000a tablets containing 250 mg alpha-methyldopa (AMD) and Presinol® film tablets with identical active ingredient content was examined\\u000a in 24 healthy volunteers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since technologically two completely different preparations (a film-tablet and a non-film-tablet) having significantly different\\u000a in vitro dissolution were to be compared,

K. Róna; K. Ary; G. Renczes; B. Gachályi; Gy. Grézal; S. Drabant; I. Klebovich



Comparative oral bioavailability of non-fixed and fixed combinations of artesunate and amodiaquine in healthy Indian male volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties, bioavailability and tolerability of artesunate\\u000a (AS) and amodiaquine (AQ) administered as a fixed-dose combination (Amonate FDC tablets; Dafra Pharma, Turnhout, Belgium)\\u000a or as a non-fixed dose combination of separate AS tablets (Arsuamoon; Guilin Pharmaceutical Co, Shanghai, China) and AQ tablets\\u000a (Flavoquine; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a randomized,

Anny Fortin; Roger K. Verbeeck; Frans H. Jansen



Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail. PMID:23674915

Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah



Comparative bioavailability of alpha-methyldopa normal and film tablet formulations after single oral administration in healthy volunteers.  


In a single dose, randomized, cross-over study, with one week of wash-out period, the relative bioavailability of Dopegyt tablets containing 250 mg alpha-methyldopa (AMD) and Presinol film tablets with identical active ingredient content was examined in 24 healthy volunteers. Since technologically two completely different preparations (a film-tablet and a non-film-tablet) having significantly different in vitro dissolution were to be compared, both preparations were compared to a third one, AMD solution (Dopegyt solution) with 250 mg/50 ml concentration. Plasma concentrations of the drug were measured for 24 hours post-dose, applying HPLC with fluorometric detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from individual data (AUC0-infinity, AUC0-t, Cmax, Cmax/AUC0-infinity, t(max)) were evaluated statistically. Wilcoxon's nonparametric test and the four-way variance analysis could not detect any significant difference at the usual a=95% probability level in these pharmacokinetic parameters of the two tablet preparations. For AUC0-infinity at the 90% probability level, the confidence interval was 0.883-1.237 (with an estimated geometric mean of 1.045), for the test/reference ratio of Dopegyt and Presinol tablets, thus the two preparations proved to be bioequivalent. The relative bioavailability of Dopegyt (test preparation) and Presinol (reference preparation) calculated from the AUC0-infinity values was 116.7+/-56.7% that also confirmed bioequivalence. The results of all the applied statistical tests suggest that Dopegyt and Presinol can be considered as bioequivalent preparations. PMID:11554430

Róna, K; Ary, K; Renczes, G; Gachályi, B; Grézal, G Y; Drabant, S; Klebovich, I



Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.  


The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong



A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.  


Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed. PMID:23086987

Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia



Activities of gemifloxacin (SB 265805, LB20304) compared to those of other oral antimicrobial agents against unusual anaerobes.  


The activities of gemifloxacin (SB 265805, LB20304) and comparator agents were determined by an agar dilution method against 419 clinical strains of less-commonly identified species of anaerobes. Gemifloxacin was generally more active than trovafloxacin against gram-positive strains by one to two dilutions. Peptostreptococci (Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Peptostreptococcus magnus, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Peptostreptococcus prevotii) and Porphyromonas spp. (Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Porphyromonas canoris, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Porphyromonas macacae) were all susceptible to /=4 microgram/ml). PMID:10543754

Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Vreni Merriam, C; Tyrrell, K; Warren, Y



Mossy cell axon synaptic contacts on ectopic granule cells that are born following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  


Granule cell neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newly born granule cells develop at abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic granule cells (EGCs) demonstrate regular bursts of action potentials that are synchronized with CA3 pyramidal cell burst discharges and the bursts of hilar neurons, including mossy cells. Such findings suggest that mossy cells may participate in circuits that activate EGCs. Electron microscopic immunolabeling was therefore used to determine if mossy cell axon terminals form synapses with hilar EGC dendrites, using animals that underwent pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Pilocarpine was administered to adult male rats, and those which developed status epilepticus were perfused 5-7 months later, after the period of EGC genesis. Hippocampal sections were processed for dual electron microscopic immunolabeling (using calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as a marker for mossy cells and calbindin (CaBP) as a marker for EGCs). Light microscopic analysis revealed large CGRP-immunoreactive cells in the hilus, with the appearance and distribution of mossy cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed numerous CaBP-immunoreactive dendrites in the hilus, some of which were innervated by CGRP-immunoreactive terminals. The results suggest that mossy cells participate in the excitatory circuits which activate EGCs, providing further insight into the network rearrangements that accompany seizure-induced neurogenesis in this animal model of epilepsy. PMID:17611032

Pierce, Joseph P; Punsoni, Michael; McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E



Puerarin protects hippocampal neurons against cell death in pilocarpine-induced seizures through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.  


Puerarin extracted from Radix puerariae has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects. However, it is still not known whether puerarin protects hippocampal neurons against cell death in pilocarpine-induced seizures. In this study, we found that pretreatment with puerarin significantly attenuated the neuronal death in the hippocampus of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. In addition, puerarin decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species in mitochondria isolated from the rat hippocampi. Terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining showed that puerarin exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on the neurons in the epileptic hippocampus. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, puerarin treatment restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the epileptic hippocampi. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that puerarin exerts a therapeutic effect on epilepsy-induced brain injury through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25151533

Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Cui; Lian, Yajun; Wu, Chuanjie; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Qian



Comparable efficacy of a topical 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray and oral ciclosporin in treating canine atopic dermatitis.  


This study compared the efficacy of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) spray (Cortavance(®); Virbac SA) and ciclosporin (Atopica(®); Novartis Animal Health) in canine atopic dermatitis in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Dogs received HCA (two sprays/100 cm(2); n=24) or ciclosporin (5 mg/kg; n=21). Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03, pruritus (visual analog scale with grade descriptors) and owner scores (5-point scales) were recorded every 28 days for 84 days. Intention-to-treat data were analysed. CADESI-03 and pruritus significantly decreased over time (P<0.0001), but there was no difference between the treatment groups (P=0.91 and P=0.52, respectively). Similar proportions of HCA- and ciclosporin-treated dogs achieved ?50% reductions in CADESI-03 and pruritus scores at 28 days (CADESI-03 58.3 and 57.1%, P=0.76; pruritus 33.3 and 38.1%, P=1.0), 56 days (CADESI-03 70.8 and 81.0%, P=1.0; pruritus 62.5 and 57.1%, P=1.0) and 84 days (CADESI-03 75 and 85.7%, P=0.72; pruritus 65.2 and 57.1%, P=0.76). The CADESI-03 and pruritus scores were close to equivalence (0.47 and 0.51, respectively). By 84 days, every-other-day or twice-weekly therapy was achieved in 13 of 24 HCA- and 12 of 21 ciclosporin-treated dogs (P=0.85). There were no significant differences in scores for efficacy (P=0.82), tolerance (P=0.62) and ease of administration (P=0.25). Scores for tolerance (0.49) and administration (0.46) were close to equivalence. The score for efficacy favoured HCA (0.68). Mild adverse events were noted in six of 21 ciclosporin and none of 24 HCA dogs (P=0.008). Five HCA-treated dogs and three ciclosporin-treated dogs were prematurely withdrawn (P=0.7). In conclusion, HCA and ciclosporin proved equally effective in treating canine atopic dermatitis for up to 84 days. PMID:21718368

Nuttall, Tim J; McEwan, Neil A; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Cornegliani, Luisa; Löwenstein, Christine; Rème, Christophe A



Mossy fibers are the primary source of afferent input to ectopic granule cells that are born after pilocarpine-induced seizures.  


Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newborn GCs develop in abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic GCs (EGCs) display robust spontaneous and evoked excitatory activity. However, the pattern of afferent input they receive has not been fully defined. This study used electron microscopic immunolabeling to quantitatively evaluate mossy fiber (MF) input to EGCs since MFs densely innervate the hilus normally and undergo sprouting in many animal models of epilepsy. EGC dendrites were examined in tissue from epileptic rats that had initially been treated with pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus and subsequently had spontaneous seizures. MF terminals were labeled with a zinc transporter-3 antibody, and calbindin immunoreactivity was used to label hilar EGCs and GC layer GCs. The pattern of input provided by sprouted MF terminals to EGC dendrites was then compared to the pattern of MF input to GC dendrites in the inner molecular layer (IML), where most sprouted fibers are thought to project. Analysis of EGC dendrites demonstrated that MF terminals represented their predominant source of afferent input: they comprised 63% of all terminals and, on average, occupied 40% and 29% of the dendritic surface in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus, respectively, forming frequent synapses. These measures of connectivity were significantly greater than comparable values for MF innervation of GC dendrites located in the IML of the same tissue sections. Thus, EGCs develop a pattern of synaptic connections that could help explain their previously identified predisposition to discharge in epileptiform bursts and suggest that they play an important role in the generation of seizure activity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:16342370

Pierce, Joseph P; Melton, Jay; Punsoni, Michael; McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E



[Oral ulcers].  


Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos



Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat  

PubMed Central

Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden. PMID:25419137

Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-jun



A prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the clinical safety, effectiveness, and cost of oral ofloxacin\\/clindamycin vs intravenous clindamycin\\/gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endomyometritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this prospective, randomized, clinical study was to compare the safety, clinical and microbiologic efficacy, and cost of oral ofloxacin in combination with clindamycin vs intravenous (IV) clindamycin\\/gentamicin in the early empiric treatment for hospitalized patients with mild to moderate postpartum endomyometritis. The secondary objective is to reduce total hospital and patient treatment cost. Postpartum endomyometritis

Marcello Pietrantoni; Sherree Goss; Stanley A. Gall



Induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation for organ preservation compared to surgery with selective chemoradiation in patients with advanced oral cavity carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an induction selection(IS) concurrent chemoradiation(CRT) protocol versus primary surgical extirpation in advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma(OCSCC). Design Retrospective matched cohort study Setting Tertiary care hospital Patients Nineteen patients with resectable stage III/IV OCSCC were into a phase II IS trial. Patients with >50% response underwent concurrent CRT and patients with <50% underwent surgical treatment and radiation therapy. A comparison cohort of patients treated with primary surgical extirpation was selected from the University of Michigan during a similar time period and frequency matched for inclusion criteria and patient characteristics to those patients included from the phase II IS trial. There was no difference in age, gender, pre-treatment AJCC-stage, T-classification, N-classification, smoking status, alcohol status, or tumor subsite between the two groups. Median follow-up was 9.4-years in the IS cohort and 7.1-years in the surgical cohort. Main Outcome Measures Overall Survival(OS), Disease-specific survival(DSS) and . Local-regional control(LRC) Results OS at 5-years was 32% in the IS group and 65% in the surgical cohort. DSS at 5-years was 46% in the IS group and 75% in the surgical cohort. LRC at 5-years was 26% in the IS cohort and 72% in the surgical cohort. Multivariable analysis demonstrated significantly better OS, DSS and LRC outcomes (p=0.03,p=0.001 and p=0.0005,respectively) in the surgical cohort. Conclusion Primary surgical treatment showed significantly better OS, DSS and LRC compared to IS in this matched patient cohort. Despite success of organ preservation IS protocols in the larynx, comparative survival analysis of an IS protocol versus primary surgical extirpation for OCSCC demonstrates significantly better outcomes in the surgical cohort. These findings support surgery as the principal treatment for OCSCC. PMID:24370563

Chinn, Steven B.; Spector, Matthew E.; Bellile, Emily L.; Rozek, Laura S.; Lin, Tasha; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Urba, Susan G.; Carey, Thomas E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory T.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.



Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo assess the effects of the oral intake of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on coronary circulation, we measured coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in healthy adult subjects.

Yumi Shiina; Nobusada Funabashi; Kwangho Lee; Taichi Murayama; Koki Nakamura; Yu Wakatsuki; Masao Daimon; Issei Komuro



Comparative study on effects of single and multiple oral administration of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) seed extract on the pharmacokinetics of aconitine by UHPLC-MS.  


The study was aimed to investigate the effects of single and multiple oral administration of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) seed extract (ME) on the pharmacokinetics of aconitine in rats. The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (six rats each group). In group 1, rats were orally administered 500?µg/kg aconitine after receiving a single oral dose of 1?g/kg ME. In group 2, rats were orally administered with 500?µg/kg aconitine at day 7 of treatment with 1?g/kg/day ME. In group 3, rats were orally administered with 500?µg/kg aconitine. Blood samples were collected at different time points (0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0?h). The concentration of aconitine in rats plasma was determined by a fully validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method. The results showed that single and multiple oral co-administration of ME significantly altered the pharmacokinetic parameters of aconitine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24590733

Gao, Enze; Yu, Xiaohan; Liu, Ting; Li, Hualing; Wang, Pei; Wei, Yingqing; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo



The PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone prevents cognitive impairment by inhibiting astrocyte activation and oxidative stress following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  


Epilepsy is commonly associated with cognitive impairment. Astrocyte activation and oxidative stress occur following seizures, and play a role in the pathological injury of epilepsy with cognitive impairment. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective and antioxidative effects in CNS diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that rosiglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, would prevent cognitive impairment by inhibiting astrocyte activation and regulating glutathione (GSH) homeostasis after status epilepticus (SE). Using a lithium pilocarpine-induced SE model, we found that rosiglitazone significantly prevented cognitive impairment induced by SE, and potently inhibited astrocyte activation with maintenance of GSH homeostasis in the hippocampus after SE. These protective effects were significantly reversed by co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907. These data suggest that rosiglitazone can improve cognitive impairment, and inhibit astrocyte activation and oxidative damage following SE. Rosiglitazone may be a promising agent for treatment of epilepsy involving SE-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:21915647

Hong, Sun; Xin, Yu; HaiQin, Wu; GuiLian, Zhang; Ru, Zhang; ShuQin, Zhan; HuQing, Wang; Li, Yao; Yun, Du



In Vitro Dissolution of Generic Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms Containing BCS Class I Drugs: Comparative Assessment of Metronidazole, Zidovudine, and Amoxicillin Versus Relevant Comparator Pharmaceutical Products in South Africa and India.  


Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore



Anticonvulsant effects of acute treatment with cyane-carvone at repeated oral doses in epilepsy models.  


Epilepsy affects about 40 million people worldwide. Many drugs block seizures, but have little effect in preventing or curing this disease. So the search for new drugs for epilepsy treatment using animal models prior to testing in humans is important. Increasingly pharmaceutical industries invest in the Re?search & Drug Development area to seek safe and effective new therapeutic alternatives to the currently available epilepsy treatment. In this perspective, natural compounds have been investigated in epilepsy models, particularly the monoterpenes obtained from medicinal plants. In our study we investigated the effects of cyane-carvone (CC), a synthetic substance prepared from natural a monoterpene, carvone, against pilocarpine- (PILO), pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ) and picrotoxine (PTX)-induced seizures in mice after acute treatment with repeated oral doses (CC 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) for 14 days. CC in all doses tested showed increase in latency to first seizure, decrease in percentages of seizuring animals as well as reduction percentages of dead animals (p<0.05) in PILO, PTZ and PTX groups when compared with vehicle. However, these effects were not reversed by flumazenil, benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist used to investigate the CC action mechanism. Our results suggest that acute treatment with CC at the doses tested can exert anticonvulsant effects in PILO, PTZ and PTX epilepsy models. In addition, our data suggest that CC could act in an allosteric site of GABAA, which would be different from the site in which BDZ acts, since flumazenil was not able to reverse any of CC effects on the modulation of seizure parameters related with epilepsy models investigated. New studies should be conducted to investigate CC effects in other neurotransmitter systems. Nevertheless, our study reinforces the hypothesis that CC could be used, after further research, as a new pharmaceutical formulation and a promising alternative for epilepsy treatment, since it showed anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24967871

Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Marques, Maria Leonildes Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes



Perceived Oral Health in a Diverse Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of perceived oral health represent subjective, individual perspectives of one's health. One measure commonly used is the single-item perceived oral health rating: How would you rate your overall oral health? These analyses examine the associations among age, ethnicity, and perceived oral health within the context of a comprehensive battery of 21 predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The study compares

K. A. Atchison; H. C. Gift



Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

Songhui, Zheng



Comparative bioavailability study of triflusal oral solution vs. triflusal capsules in healthy subjects. A single, randomized, two-way cross-over, open-label phase I study.  


Triflusal (CAS 322-79-2) is an antiplatelet agent that irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase isoform 1 (COX-1) and therefore inhibits thromboxane biosynthesis. The main metabolite of triflusal, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid (HTB), possesses also antiaggregant activity. Recently a new oral 600 mg (10 ml) solution form of triflusal has been developed. The purpose of this clinical trial was to study the relative bioavailability of the new oral solution of triflusal versus the capsules formulation, both administered as a single dose. This was a randomized, two-way, cross-over, open-label, single-site phase I clinical trial, in 24 healthy volunteers who received triflusal as 600 mg oral solution and as two 300 mg capsules in a single administration separated by a washout period of at least 17 days. Blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of HTB were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters used for bioequivalence assessment included AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax were within the predetermined equivalence range (80% to 125%). Tolerability was based on the recording of adverse events (AEs), physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory tests. The parameters for bioequivalence, mean [SD] values were as follows: AUC(0-t) (microg x h/ml): 3574.08 [628.17] for triflusal oral solution and 3901.78 [698.43] for triflusal capsules; AUC(0-infinity) (microg x h/ml): 4089.21 [842.54] for triflusal oral solution and 4471.33 [905.93] for triflusal capsules; Cmax, (microg/ml): 91.24 [12.88] for triflusal oral solution and 88.61 [13.46] for triflusal capsules; Cmax/AUC(0-infinity) (h(-1)): 0.03 (0.00) for triflusal oral solution and 0.02 (0.00) for triflusal capsules. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio experimental/control by analysis of variance after log transformed AUC(0-infinity), AUC(0-t), and Cmax were within 80% to 125%. Similar results were found for the data without log transformation. All adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity and all subjects recovered. Nine and 12 subjects reported at least one adverse event during treatment with triflusal oral solution and with triflusal capsules, respectively. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and dizziness. It was concluded that the 600-mg solution of triflusal appeared to be bioequivalent to the reference formulation capsules. Both formulations were well tolerated. PMID:20184225

Izquierdo, Iñaki; Borja, Javier; Rovira, Sandra; Pelagio, Pilar; Torres, Ferran; Cebrecos, Jesus; García-Rafanell, Julián



Lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in immature rats result in long-term deficits in spatial learning and hippocampal cell loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat pups age of 14 postnatal day (P14) were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PC) model of status epilepticus (SE). Control rats (n=6) were given an equivalent volume of saline intraperitoneally. Behavioral testing began on P60 including the Morris water maze, the radial arm maze, and the rotarod test. Brain were then analyzed with cresyl violet stain for histological lesions and evaluated

Chia-Lu Wu; Li-Tung Huang; Chia-Wei Liou; Tzu-Jou Wang; Yu-Ren Tung; Hsin-Yueh Hsu; Ming-Chi Lai



An observational study comparing 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance with fasting plasma glucose in pregnant women: both poorly predictive of birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The definition and treatment of glucose intolerance during pregnancy are matters of intense controversy. Our goal was to examine the value of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in terms of its ability to predict birth weight per- centile in a group of women with singleton pregnancies who received minimal treatment for their glucose intolerance. Methods: We reviewed

Christian Ouzilleau; Marie-Andrée Roy; Louiselle Leblanc; André Carpentier; Pierre Maheux



A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner



Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus causes acute interneuron loss and hyper-excitatory propagation in rat insular cortex.  


Recent clinical studies have shown that the insular cortex (IC) is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy and suggested that the IC mediates spreading of epileptic activity from the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and amygdala, to the frontal cortex. However, little is known about anatomical and physiological features of the IC in models of temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study evaluated the distribution pattern of GABAergic interneurons, especially parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SS)-immunopositive neurons, and excitatory propagation pattern in the IC of rats 4-7 days and 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (4-7 d and 2 m post-SE rats, respectively). The number of PV-immunopositive neuron profiles in the agranular IC (AI) significantly decreased by 24.6% and 41.5% in 7 d and 2 m post-SE rats, respectively. The dysgranular and granular IC (DI+GI) exhibited only 5.2% loss of PV-immunopositive neurons in 7 d post-SE rats, while 2 m post-SE rats showed 30.4% loss of PV-immunopositive neurons. There was no significant change of the SS-immunopositive neuron profile numbers in the AI and DI+GI of 7 d and 2 m post-SE rats. The regions with decreased numbers of PV-immunopositive neuron profiles overlapped with those where many degenerating cells were detected by Fluoro-Jade B staining. The area of excitatory propagation responding to electrical stimulation of the caudal AI was expanded in 4-7 d post-SE rats, and excitation frequently propagated to the frontal cortex including the motor cortex. Optical signals in the AI of 4-7 d post-SE rats were larger in amplitude than those of controls. In contrast to the AI, the DI of 4-7 d post-SE rats showed similar excitatory propagation pattern and amplitude to that of controls. These results suggest that the region-specific loss of PV-immunopositive neurons occurred in the AI 4-7 d after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, which may play an important role in facilitating excitatory propagation in the IC. PMID:20018232

Chen, S; Fujita, S; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M



Update of the activity of cefditoren and comparator oral beta-lactam agents tested against community-acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (USA, 2004-2006).  


Cefditoren and other orally administered cephalosporins are infrequently included in resistance surveillance studies. Here we evaluated 359 contemporary (2004-2006) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-intermediate (12.0%) and -resistant (22.8%) subsets from United States patients by reference broth microdilution methods. Cefditoren was the most potent cephalosporin tested (MIC(50), 0.015 mg/L), including against penicillin-intermediate strains (MIC(50), 0.12 mg/L), and was two-, four- and eight-fold more active than cefuroxime, cefdinir and cefprozil, respectively. Penicillin-resistant strains were largely resistant to all tested ss-lactams. We confirm the continued spectrum and potency for cefditoren against S. pneumoniae that surpasses that of other orally administered cephalosporins. PMID:18467241

Fritsche, T R; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N



Comparing the Visual Analogue Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Oral Clefts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), in measuring overall health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with oral clefts relative to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQLTM) Generic Core Scales, one of the most validated and commonly used methods to measure pediatric HRQoL. Methods: The study included a population-based sample of 307 children aged 5 to 10 years who were born in Iowa, New York, and Arkansas with non-syndromic oral clefts. Data on HRQoL were obtained using a VAS and PedsQLTM via self-administered interviews with the parents. We evaluated the correlations between the VAS and PedsQLTM total scores, and the correlations of each of these two scales with a series of child health and wellbeing indicators. Results: The VAS and PedsQLTM scores were well-correlated (r = 0.67). There were no prominent differences between the correlations of VAS and PedsQLTM with the selected indicators of child health and wellbeing; differences in correlations were less than 0.1. Differences in HRQoL by cleft type were more pronounced on the PedsQLTM. Conclusions: Our study finds the VAS to perform relatively well in measuring overall HRQoL among children with oral clefts. The VAS may be useful as a screening tool to identify children with oral clefts at risk of low HRQoL for referral into more comprehensive evaluations and for measuring average HRQoL across a sample of children. PMID:24743844

Wehby, George L.; Naderi, Hodad; Robbins, James M.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Damiano, Peter C.



RMP-02/MTN-006: A Phase 1 Rectal Safety, Acceptability, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Study of Tenofovir 1% Gel Compared with Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was designed to assess the safety, acceptability, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic (PD) responses to rectal administration of tenofovir (TFV) 1% vaginally formulated gel and oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). This study was designed as a phase 1, randomized, two-site (United States), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sexually abstinent men and women. Eighteen participants received a single 300-mg exposure of oral TDF and were then randomized 2:1 to receive a single and then seven daily exposures of rectal TFV or hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) placebo gel. Safety endpoints included clinical adverse events (AEs) and mucosal safety parameters. Blood and colonic biopsies were collected for PK analyses and ex vivo HIV-1 challenge. No serious AEs were reported. However, AEs were significantly increased with 7-day TFV gel use, most prominently with gastrointestinal AEs (p=0.002). Only 25% of participants liked the TFV gel. Likelihood of use “if somewhat protective” was ?75% in both groups. Indices of mucosal damage showed minimal changes. Tissue TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP) Cmax 30?min after single rectal exposure was 6–10 times greater than single oral exposure; tissue TFV-DP was 5.7 times greater following 7-day versus single rectal exposure. In vivo exposure correlated with significant ex vivo tissue infectibility suppression [single-rectal: p=0.12, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) p=0.006; 7-day rectal: p=0.02, ANCOVA p=0.005]. Tissue PK–PD was significantly correlated (p=0.002). We conclude that rectal dosing with TFV 1% gel resulted in greater TFV-DP tissue detection than oral dosing with reduced ex vivo biopsy infectibility, enabling PK–PD correlations. On the basis of increased gastrointestinal AEs, rectally applied, vaginally formulated TFV was not entirely safe or acceptable, suggesting the need for alternative rectal-specific formulations. PMID:22943559

Cranston, Ross D.; Kashuba, Angela; Hendrix, Craig W.; Bumpus, Namandje N.; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Elliott, Julie; Janocko, Laura; Khanukhova, Elena; Dennis, Robert; Cumberland, William G.; Ju, Chuan; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Mauck, Christine; McGowan, Ian



Diagnostic value of fasting capillary glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin in detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities compared to oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

New diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus recommend lowering of the fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol\\/l. In contrast\\u000a to recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (AA). WHO recommends using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)\\u000a in clinical practice. In this study, based on OGTT results and WHO 1998 criteria, we determined if measuring fasting capillary\\u000a glycaemia (FCG) along with fructosamine

E. Herdzik; K. Safranow; K. Ciechanowski



Comparative evaluation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan with Eudragit ® L100 and Eudragit ® L100-55 as potential carriers for oral controlled drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to the application in oral controlled drug delivery systems, the formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between chitosan (CS) and Eudragit® L100 (L100) or Eudragit® L100-55 (L100-55) was investigated at pH 6.0, using elementary analysis. The interaction or binding ratio of a unit molecule of CS with Eudragit® L copolymers depends on the molecular weight of CS, and

Rouslan I. Moustafine; Evgeniya B. Margulis; Liliya F. Sibgatullina; Vera A. Kemenova; Guy Van den Mooter



Contemporary evaluation of the in vitro activity and spectrum of cefdinir compared with other orally administered antimicrobials tested against common respiratory tract pathogens (2000-2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cefdinir is an oral cephalosporin approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997 for the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pharyngitis-tonsillitis, community-acquired pneumonia, acute maxillary sinusitis, and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in adults and adolescents, and acute otitis media, pharyngitis-tonsillitis, and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in children. Although cefdinir showed similar activity to

Helio S Sader; Thomas R Fritsche; Alan H Mutnick; Ronald N Jones



In a high-dose melphalan setting, palifermin compared with placebo had no effect on oral mucositis or related patient's burden.  


This randomized-controlled trial studied the efficacy of palifermin in a chemotherapy-only, high-dose Melphalan (HDM) transplant setting, to reduce oral mucositis (OM) and its sequelae measured by patient-reported outcomes (PRO) and medical resource use. Palifermin, relative to placebo was given either pre-/post-HDM or pre-HDM in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing auto-SCT at 39 European centers. Oral cavity assessment (WHO) and PRO questionnaires (oral mucositis daily questionnaire (OMDQ) and EQ 5D) were used in 281 patients (mean age 56, ± s.d.=8 years). 57 patients received placebo. One hundred and fifteen subjects were randomized to pre-/post-HDM receiving palifermin on 3 consecutive days before HDM and after auto-SCT and 109 patients were randomized to pre-HDM, receiving palifermin (60 ?g/kg/day) i.v. for 3 consecutive days before HDM. There was no statistically significant difference in maximum OM severity. Severe OM occurred in 37% (placebo), 38% (pre-/post-HDM) and 24% (pre-HDM) of patients. No significant difference was observed with respect to PRO assessments or medical resource use, but more infections and fever during neutropenia were reported in pre-/post-HDM vs placebo (for example, 51 and 26%). To conclude, palifermin was unable to reduce OM or OM-related patient's burden in MM transplant patients. PMID:23241739

Blijlevens, N; de Château, M; Krivan, G; Rabitsch, W; Szomor, A; Pytlik, R; Lissmats, A; Johnsen, H E; de Witte, T; Einsele, H; Ruutu, T; Niederwieser, D



Oral Cancer  


... the frequency of speech/swallowing treatment, and the motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, ...


Oral Cancer  


... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...


Protective effects of curcumin against lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus, cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in young rats  

PubMed Central

Status epilepticus (SE), one of the most severe forms of epilepsy is regarded a medical emergency with considerable morbidity and mortality. Due to the limited efficacy and enormous side effects of currently available drugs, a search for new safe and effective therapeutic agents is critical using experimentally induced SE in animals. The lithium–pilocarpine (Li–Pc) model of SE is most suitable and frequently used for pathophysiological and management strategies of SE. Recent studies have shown significant potential of pharmacological, prophylactic or therapeutic use of curcumin (Cur) in many beneficial activities in the body including neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases and antioxidant properties. The present study describes anticonvulsive effects of Cur in Li–Pc induced SE in young rats. The effect of Cur was examined on the intensity and frequency of SE, cognitive behavior in water maze as well as on oxidative stress related enzymes in the brain. Besides its anticonvulsant effect, Cur significantly ameliorates SE-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damages in the hippocampus and striatum areas of the brain. Possible therapeutic application of Cur as an anticonvulsant and as an antioxidant for the treatment of SE has a great potential and warrants further studies. PMID:23961231

Ahmad, Mohammad



Aberrant neuronal synaptic connectivity in CA1 area of the hippocampus from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats observed by fluorogold  

PubMed Central

In this study, we observed synaptic connectivity among neurons in CA1 region of pilocarpine-induced chronic seizures in rats. Twenty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into an epilepsy group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). Approximately 60 days after status epilepticus (SE) , Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the CA1 area of the hippocampus in vivo. Somatostatin (SS) expression was observed using immunofluorescence. The distribution of FG-positive and FG/SS double-labeled neurons was observed using a confocal microscope. FG-labeled pyramidal cells could be seen remotely from the FG-injected site in the CA1 area and in the subiculum in the experimental group. FG/SS double-labeled interneurons were distributed remotely from the FG-injected site in the CA1 area in the epileptic rats. These changes suggest aberrant neuronal connectivity in CA1 region, which may lead to the formation of aberrant excitatory and inhibitory circuitry, and may play an important role in the generation or compensation for temporal lobe epilepsy.

Long, Li-Li; Song, Yan-Min; Xu, Lin; Yi, Fang; Long, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Luo; Qin, Xue-Hui; Feng, Li; Xiao, Bo



Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.  


Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions. PMID:22842360

Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana



Learning Strategies for Oral Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the study of learning strategies employed by successful (defined in terms of oral communicative abilities) Chinese learners of English. These strategies are compared to those of less successful learners and those of other population types from other studies. The test of oral communicative abilities is described. A strategies…

Huang, Xiao-Hua; van Naerssen, Margaret



A ketogenic diet did not prevent effects on the ectonucleotidases pathway promoted by lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat hippocampus.  


A Ketogenic Diet (KD) mimics the anticonvulsant effects of fasting, which are known to suppress seizures. The purinergic system has been investigated in the matter of epilepsy development, especially the nucleoside adenosine, which has been considered a natural brain anticonvulsant. During epileptic seizures, extracellular adenosine concentration rises rapidly to micromolar levels. Adenosine can exert its anticonvulsant functions, after its release by nucleoside bidirectional transport, or by production through the sequential catabolism of ATP by ectonucleotidases, such as E-NTPDases (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Here, we have investigated the effect of a ketogenic diet on the nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDases expression in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy. For the induction of Status Epileticus (SE), 21-day-old female Wistar rats received an i.p. injection of lithium chloride (127 mg/kg) and 18-19 h later an i.p. injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg). The control groups received an injection of saline. After induction of SE, the control and Li-Pilo groups received standard or ketogenic diets for 6 weeks. The lithium-pilocarpine exposure affected the ATP (a decrease of between 8 % and 16 %) and ADP (an increase of between 18 % and 22 %) hydrolysis in both groups whereas the diet did not impact the nucleotide hydrolysis. NTPDase2 and 3 mRNA expressions decreased in the Li-Pilo group (41 % and 42 %). This data highlights the participation of the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of this model of epilepsy, since nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase expressions were altered by Li-Pilo exposure, with no significant effects of the ketogenic diet. However, the interaction between purinergic signaling and a ketogenic diet on epilepsy still needs to be better elucidated. PMID:22945235

da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; da Silva, Rosane Souza; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Figueiró, Fabrício; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos Luis Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira



Differential Injury Responses in Oral Mucosal and Cutaneous Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosa heals faster than does skin, yet few studies have compared the repair at oral mucosal and cutaneous sites. To determine whether the privileged healing of oral injuries involves a differential inflammatory phase, we compared the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine production in wounds of equivalent size in oral mucosa and skin. Significantly lower levels of macrophage, neutrophil, and

A. M. Szpaderska; J. D. Zuckerman; L. A. DiPietro



Facilitation of granule cell epileptiform activity by mossy fiber-released zinc in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  


Recurrent mossy fiber synapses in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain facilitate the synchronous firing of granule cells and may promote seizure propagation. Mossy fiber terminals contain and release zinc. Released zinc inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and may therefore oppose the development of granule cell epileptiform activity. Hippocampal slices from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and developed a recurrent mossy fiber pathway were used to investigate this possibility. Actions of released zinc were inferred from the effects of chelation with 1 mM calcium disodium EDTA (CaEDTA). When granule cell population bursts were evoked by mossy fiber stimulation in the presence of 6 mM K(+) and 30 microM bicuculline, CaEDTA slowed the rate at which evoked bursting developed, but did not change the magnitude of the bursts once they had developed fully. The effects of CaEDTA were then studied on the pharmacologically isolated NMDA receptor- and AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated components of the fully developed bursts. CaEDTA increased the magnitude of NMDA receptor-mediated bursts and reduced the magnitude of AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated bursts. CaEDTA did not affect the granule cell bursts evoked in slices from untreated rats by stimulating the perforant path in the presence of bicuculline and 6 mM K(+). These results suggest that zinc released from the recurrent mossy fibers serves mainly to facilitate the recruitment of dentate granule cells into population bursts. PMID:16490181

Timofeeva, Olga; Nadler, J Victor



Impaired expression and function of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Group II metabotropic (mGlu II) receptor subtypes mGlu2 and mGlu3 are important modulators of synaptic plasticity and glutamate release in the brain. Accordingly, several pharmacological ligands have been designed to target these receptors for the treatment of neurological disorders characterized by anomalous glutamate regulation including epilepsy. In this study, we examine whether the expression level and function of mGlu2 and mGlu3 are altered in experimental epilepsy by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR and extracellular recordings. A down-regulation of mGlu2/3 protein expression at the mossy fiber pathway was associated with a significant reduction in mGlu2/3 protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats. Moreover, a reduction in mGlu2 and mGlu3 transcripts levels was noticed as early as 24h after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and persisted during subsequent “latent” and chronic periods. In addition, a significant impairment of mGlu II-mediated depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses was detected in chronically epileptic rats. Application of mGlu II agonists (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) induced a significant reduction of the fEPSP amplitude in control rats, but not in chronic epileptic rats. These data indicate a long-lasting impairment of mGlu2/3 expression that may contribute to abnormal presynaptic plasticity, exaggerate glutamate release and hyperexcitability in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:18804094

Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.; Otalora, Luis F. Pacheco; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Herrera, Berenice; Francisco, Sebastian; Ermolinsky, Boris



A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy.  


Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL(-1) at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL(-1) vs. 2.4 g dL(-1) ) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. PMID:24639149

Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F



Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat



Comparative evaluation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan with Eudragit L100 and Eudragit L100-55 as potential carriers for oral controlled drug delivery.  


With a view to the application in oral controlled drug delivery systems, the formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between chitosan (CS) and Eudragit L100 (L100) or Eudragit L100-55 (L100-55) was investigated at pH 6.0, using elementary analysis. The interaction or binding ratio of a unit molecule of CS with Eudragit L copolymers depends on the molecular weight of CS, and changes from 1:0.85 to 1:1.22 (1.17

Moustafine, Rouslan I; Margulis, Evgeniya B; Sibgatullina, Liliya F; Kemenova, Vera A; Van den Mooter, Guy



A multicenter, randomized study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin versus ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

Five hundred ninety patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of 7 to 14 days of levofloxacin treatment with that of ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Patients received either intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin (500 mg once daily) or the comparative agents, parenteral ceftriaxone (1 to 2 g once to twice daily) and/or oral cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily). Erythromycin or doxycycline could be added to the comparator arm at the investigator's discretion. The decision to use an intravenous or oral antimicrobial agent for initial therapy was made by the investigator. Clinical and microbiological evaluations were completed at the baseline, during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Four hundred fifty-six patients (226 given levofloxacin and 230 administered ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil) were evaluable for clinical efficacy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated in 15 and 12%, respectively, of clinically evaluable patients. One hundred fifty atypical pathogens were identified: 101 were Chlamydia pneumoniae, 41 were Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and 8 were Legionella pneumophila. Clinical success at 5 to 7 days posttherapy was superior for the levofloxacin group (96%) compared with the ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil group (90%) (95% confidence interval [CI] of -10.7 to -1.3). Among patients with typical respiratory pathogens who were evaluable for microbiological efficacy, the overall bacteriologic eradication rates were superior for levofloxacin (98%) compared with the ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil group (85%) (95% CI of -21.6 to -4.8). Levofloxacin eradicated 100% of the most frequently reported respiratory pathogens (i.e., H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae) and provided a >98% clinical success rate in patients with atypical pathogens. Both levofloxacin and ceftriaxone-cefuroxime axetil eradicated 100% of the S. pneumoniae cells detected in blood culture. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 5.8% of patients receiving levofloxacin and in 8.5% of patients administered ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil. Gastrointestinal and central and peripheral nervous system adverse events were the most common events reported in each treatment group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that treatment with levofloxacin is superior to ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil therapy in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. PMID:9303395

File, T M; Segreti, J; Dunbar, L; Player, R; Kohler, R; Williams, R R; Kojak, C; Rubin, A



Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N



Decreased expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism in the hippocampal granular layer of rats submitted to the pilocarpine epilepsy model.  


Long-term structural and functional changes in the hippocampus have been identified as the primary physiopathological basis for temporal lobe epilepsy. These changes include reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus. The intimate mechanisms of these changes are beginning to be revealed. Here, we show the possibility of using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate the dentate granular cell layer of Wistar rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and mass spectrometry for laser-captured cells, we identified molecular events that could be altered as part of the epileptic pathogenic process. According to our results, eight proteins related to energy metabolism were differentially expressed between both the control and pilocarpine-treated animals. These results provide, for the first time, new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and can contribute to a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the genesis and maintenance of the epileptic state. PMID:24373985

Araujo, Bruno; Torres, Laila; Stein, Mariana; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Herai, Roberto; Okamoto, Oswaldo; Cavalheiro, Esper



Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R



Oral tuberculosis.  


Tuberculous lesions of the oral cavity have become so infrequent that it is virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. Fifteen patients with conditions that were histologically diagnosed as oral tuberculosis were reviewed. All were men ranging in age from 29 to 78 years. The most common clinical presentation was odynophagia with a duration from less than 1 week to several years. The most frequently affected sites were the tongue base and gingiva. The oral lesions took the form of an irregular ulceration or a discrete granular mass. Mandibular bone destruction was evident in two patients. Two patients had a fever, and four had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eight cases were clinically suspicious for malignancy before biopsy. Only four patients had a history of tuberculosis, but 14 of the 15 patients were later found to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all patients. Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with an inflamed ulcer lesion. A biopsy specimen for histologic study, acid-fast stains, and cultures should be obtained for confirmation and differential diagnosis with other conditions. If a tuberculous lesion is suspected, a chest radiograph is indicated to investigate the possibility of pulmonary involvement. PMID:8705586

Eng, H L; Lu, S Y; Yang, C H; Chen, W J



A comparative study of the effects of an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring combined with an oral gestagen versus transdermal estrogen combined with a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD: clinical findings and endometrial response.  


At the outpatient obstetric-gynecologic clinic of Areteion Hospital in Athens, Greece, 56 postmenopausal women, 48-76 years old and with signs and symptoms of estrogen deficiency-induced atrophic vaginitis, were randomly assigned to either the group using a silicon vaginal ring containing 2 mg micronized 17-beta- estradiol and oral medroxyprogesterone acetate for 7 days at the beginning of each month (group A) or the group using a combination of 50 mcg estradiol via a transdermal patch and a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD (group B). The women were using these regimens for 12 months. The purpose of the study was to compare the clinical and endometrial effects of the new vaginal ring with an oral progestin with those of the established hormone replacement regimen of transdermal estrogen and a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. Vaginal ultrasound and pathologic examination of uterine curettage samples were used to determine endometrial effects. The urogenital complaints of all 56 women disappeared. The mean endometrial thickness before treatment was similar for both groups (2.9 mm for group A and 3 mm for group B) and was not significantly different than endometrial thickness after treatment (2.6 and 2.8 mm, respectively). Endometrial proliferation was not observed. The mean endometrial thickness at baseline predicted normal endometrium. After 3 months of treatment, vaginal bleeding patterns were similar in both groups. These findings confirm that both regimens effectively treat estrogen deficiency-induced urogenital disorders and do not increase the risk of endometrial proliferation. PMID:9010746

Kalogirou, D; Antoniou, G; Karakitsos, P; Kalogirou, O; Antoniou, D; Giannikos, L



A Comparison of Oral Structure and Oral-Motor Function in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the oral structure and oral-motor skills of 59 boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), 34 boys with Down syndrome (DS), and 36 developmentally similar typically developing (TD) boys. An adaptation of the J. Robbins and T. Klee (1987) Oral Speech Motor Protocol was administered to participants and their scores on measures of oral

Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Roberts, Joanne; Mirrett, Penny; Sideris, John; Misenheimer, Jan



Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh



Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.  


Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-?-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-?-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. PMID:24076576

Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao



Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered safe, their long-term efficacy for osteoarthritis has been suspect. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of topical diclofenac (TDiclo) in a vehicle solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in 775 subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee. This 5-arm study compared TDiclo with a placebo solution, the DMSO

Lee S. Simon; Lisa M. Grierson; Zahid Naseer; Arthur A. M. Bookman; J. Zev Shainhouse



Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two oral formulations of flurbiprofen: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study in Pakistani subjects.  


Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:24191330

Qayyum, Aisha; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Abbas, Mateen



Muscarinic inhibition of [3H]-noradrenaline release on rabbit iris in vitro: effects of stimulation conditions on intrinsic activity of methacholine and pilocarpine.  

PubMed Central

1. Rabbit isolated irides were loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline and superfused with Tyrode solution. The inhibition by the muscarinic agonists (+/-)-methacholine and pilocarpine of the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow into the superfusate evoked by field stimulation (pulses of 1 ms duration, 75 mA) was measured as an index of activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors. 2. The fractional rate of release per pulse during the first stimulation period (S1) was low with 360 pulses at 3 Hz, intermediate with 360 pulses at 10 Hz and high with 1200 pulses at 10 Hz. Upon repetitive stimulation (7 periods at 20 min intervals), the fractional rates of release per pulse during S7 no longer differed, suggesting a 'long-term' regulation of [3H]-noradrenaline release depending on the stimulation conditions. 3. The evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow was depressed by (+/-)-methacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 ranged from 0.29 to 0.42 microM. Methacholine nearly abolished the transmitter release evoked at 3 Hz but reduced that induced at 10 Hz by only 50%. Under the latter condition the methacholine concentration-inhibition curve was bell-shaped and no muscarinic inhibition was observed in the presence of methacholine 30 microM. After washout of methacholine the evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release was temporarily enhanced. 4. Atropine 0.1 microM enhanced the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow (evoked by stimulation with 360 or 1200 pulses at 10 Hz), probably antagonizing a presynaptic inhibition by endogenous acetylcholine. The inhibition by methacholine was competitively antagonized by atropine 0.1 microM (apparent -log KB = 8.5-9.0). 5. Depending on the concentration, pilocarpine reduced the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow evoked by 360 pulses at 3 Hz up to 63%. However, at 10 Hz stimulation frequency the compound was inactive as an agonist but competitively antagonized the presynaptic inhibition induced by methacholine. The KB under the latter condition (0.95 microM) was very close to the EC50 value determined at 3 Hz (0.85 microM). 6. The results demonstrate a muscarinic inhibition of noradrenaline release from the rabbit isolated iris. The activation by pilocarpine of the presynaptic receptors provides an alternative explanation for the miosis induced in the rabbit in vivo, which might be the result of a decreased sympathetic tone in the iris dilator muscle. PMID:3052680

Bognar, I. T.; Pallas, S.; Fuder, H.; Muscholl, E.



Comparative genomics of oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico genome subtraction does not reveal accessory DNA associated with severe early childhood caries.  


Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5% to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W



Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Growth Parameters and Nutrient Adequacy in Children with Picky Eating Behaviors Who Received Nutritional Counseling With or Without an Oral Nutritional Supplement  

PubMed Central

In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30–60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ?25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120. PMID:25342910

Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang



Oral dirofilariasis.  


Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic. PMID:24992859

Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya



Newly generated granule cells show rapid neuroplastic changes in the adult rat dentate gyrus during the first five days following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  


Long-term neuroplastic changes to dentate granule cells have been reported after seizures and were shown to contribute to recurrent excitatory circuitry. These changes include increased numbers of newborn granule cells, sprouted mossy fibers, granule cell layer dispersion, increased hilar ectopic granule cells and formation of hilar basal dendrites on granule cells. The goal of the current study was to determine the acute progression of neuroplastic changes involving newly generated granule cells after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Doublecortin (DCX) immunocytochemical preparations were used to examine the newly generated granule cells 1-5 days after seizures were induced. The results showed that there are rapid neuroplastic changes to the DCX-labeled cells. At 1 day after seizures were induced, there were significant increases in the percentage of DCX-labeled cells with hilar basal dendrites and in the progenitor cell population. At 2 days after seizures were induced, an increase in the thickness of the layer of DCX-labeled cells occurred. At 3 days after seizures were induced, the number of DCX-labeled cells was significantly increased. At 4 days after seizures were induced, developing synapses were observed on DCX-labeled hilar basal dendrites. Thus, newly generated granule cells in the adult dentate gyrus display neuroplastic changes by 1 day after pilocarpine-induced seizures and further changes occur to this population of cells in the subsequent 4 days. The presence of synapses, albeit developing ones, on hilar basal dendrites during this period indicates that newly generated granule cells become rapidly incorporated into dentate gyrus circuitry following seizures. PMID:17686039

Shapiro, Lee A; Figueroa-Aragon, Sergio; Ribak, Charles E



Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.  


Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland



In vitro activity of gemifloxacin compared to seven other oral antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from antral sinus puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis.  


Using a microbroth method for aerobes and agar dilution for anaerobes, we studied the comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, three fluoroquinolones, two macrolides and two beta-lactams, against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates. Gemifloxacin was active at < or = 0.25 ug/mL against 198/207 [96%] aerobes and 127/162 [78%] anaerobes or 325/369 [88%] of all isolates and was the most active quinolone on a weight basis against Gram-positive organisms. All Haemophilus and Moraxella species were susceptible to < or =0.06 ug/mL of gemifloxacin. Thirty-five anaerobic isolates [35/162, 22%] required > or =0.5 ug/mL of gemifloxacin for inhibition, including all Prevotella species [all except one strain of P. bivia were susceptible to < or = 2 ug/mL] and occasional strains of Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bilophila wadsworthia, Peptostreptococcus magnus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Propionibacterium acnes, and Veillonella species. All fusobacteria were susceptible to < or =0.25 ug/mL of gemifloxacin. Based on our in vitro study results, we conclude that gemifloxacin may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections. PMID:11858906

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin



Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice  

SciTech Connect

RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H/He mice was 80 mg/kg (0.38 mmol/kg) ip but 320 mg/kg (1.5 mmol/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg/kg (0.94 mmol/kg) ip and 1 g/kg (2.67 mmol/kg) po. Toxicity of RSU 1069 toward bone marrow stem cells was also less after po administration than after ip administration; 0.1 mmol/kg ip RSU 1069 and 0.38 mmol/kg po RSU 1069 both reduced the surviving fraction of clonogenic CFU-A cells by 50%. Oral administration of RSU 1069 resulted in lower spermatogenic toxicity. No loss of intestinal crypts was detected after ip or po administration of RSU 1069. Some nephrotoxicity was observed in half of the mice given the highest po dose of 1.5 mmol/kg of RSU 1069; this was not observed following the highest ip dose of drug. For RSU 1069 and RB 6145, administered by either route, the maximum hypoxic cell radiosensitization in murine KHT sarcomas, occurred when the drugs were given 45-60 min before 10 Gy of X rays. The degree of radiosensitization produced by a particular dose of either compound was largely independent of the route of administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, using 3H-RSU 1069, suggested that anti-tumor efficacy correlated with peak blood level of label and concentration in the tumor at the time of irradiation, which were not reduced by po compared with ip administration. Normal tissue toxicity tended to correlate with total exposure over time, which was reduced approximately two-fold by po administration. Oral administration of RSU 1069 or RB 6145, as well as being convenient, may give therapeutic benefit since dose-limiting toxicity in mice was reduced compared with parenteral administration, whereas radiosensitizing activity was less affected.

Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Bowler, J.; Nolan, J.; Wright, E.G.; Lorimore, S.A.; Adams, G.E. (Medical Research Council, Radiobiology Unit, Didcot, Oxon (England))



Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip


Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte



Section three: oral cancers.  


Oral cancers are uncommon in the United States. Risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and high-risk oral human papillomavirus infection. Precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia, may lead to oral cancers, but the majority of precancerous lesions never undergo malignant transformation. Management and prognosis for oral cancers vary widely depending on the site of the cancer. Lip cancers typically are detected early and have the greatest likelihood for cure and long-term patient survival. Cancers of the pharynx and tonsil have poor survival rates even when diagnosed in early stages. The best approach to preventing oral cancers is to control risk factors. PMID:24328950

Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet



Headache and oral parafunctional behaviors.  


This study tested the hypotheses that individuals with headaches would show significantly more oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls, be diagnosed with one or more temporomandibular disorders (TMD) significantly more frequently than controls, and would report significantly less pain and other symptoms of headache after participating in a habit reversal treatment to reduce oral parafunctional behaviors, compared to a wait list control. In Phase I, individuals with and without self-reported headaches were examined by a blinded examiner and participated in a week-long experience sampling protocol (ESM) to assess oral parafunctional behaviors, pain, and emotional states. In Phase II, those with headaches were randomly assigned to either a habit reversal treatment or to a wait list control group. In the last, sixth week of the program, participants again completed an ESM protocol. Results showed that headache patients were significantly more likely to report oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls and to receive a Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD diagnosis. Results from Phase II showed general improvement in both groups on pain and parafunctions. Individuals with headaches engage in significantly higher rates and intensities of oral parafunctional behaviors. Treatment of these behaviors using habit reversal techniques appears to have the same effect on pain as waiting. PMID:24519847

Glaros, Alan G; Hanson, Anne H; Ryen, Chris C



Oral phosphate binders: history and prospects.  


The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract, or 3) if partially absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, it must be eliminated from circulation through a pathway other than urinary excretion, and 4) even if it accumulates in the body, it should not cause organ dysfunctions. Metal salt type oral phosphate binder is the most classical type of oral phosphate binders that includes aluminum hydroxide gel and lanthanum carbonate. These oral phosphate binders effectively adsorb phosphate ions, however, have a potential risk for accumulation and intoxication. Calcium salt type oral phosphate binder was the most widely prescribed oral phosphate binder in the last decade but is now believed to exert potential harm, favoring progression of vascular calcification through excessive intestinal calcium load. However, recent studies failed to detect an inferiority of calcium salt type oral phosphate binders as compared to non-calcium salt type oral phosphate binders in terms of mortality and/or morbidity of hemodialysis patients. Polymerized resin type is a safe and relatively effective oral phosphate binder, which is supported by many clinical evidences. However, it sometimes causes severe constipation, especially in Japanese patients. Among metal compound type oral phosphate binder, other promising compounds include boehmite-type aluminum and hydrotalcite-like compounds but they are not yet available in the clinical setting. PMID:19442621

Kazama, Junichiro James



Nicotine Oral Inhalation  


Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with ... you understand why you were not able to stop smoking and make plans to try again.


Rich Crank Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Rich Crank Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin December 7, 2008 http..., Transgender, Intersex and Queer People and Kansas Copyright and permissions All oral histories in the Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright...

Crank, Rich; Albin, Tami



Potential Role of Drebrin A, an F-Actin Binding Protein, in Reactive Synaptic Plasticity after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures: Functional Implications in Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Several neurological disorders characterized by cognitive deficits, including Alzheimer's disease, down syndrome, and epilepsy exhibit abnormal spine density and/or morphology. Actin-based cytoskeleton network dynamics is critical for the regulation of spine morphology and synaptic function. In this paper, I consider the functions of drebrin A in cell shaping, spine plasticity, and synaptic function. Developmentally regulated brain protein (drebrin A) is one of the most abundant neuron-specific binding proteins of F-actin and its expression is increased in parallel with synapse formation. Drebrin A is particularly concentrated in dendritic spines receiving excitatory inputs. Our recent findings point to a critical role of DA in dendritic spine structural integrity and stabilization, likely via regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and glutamatergic synaptic function that underlies the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures in pilocarpine-treated animals. Further research into this area may provide useful insights into the pathology of status epilepticus and epileptogenic mechanisms and ultimately may provide the basis for future treatment options. PMID:22611398

Ferhat, Lotfi



Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

Lai, Jui-Yang



[An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].  


Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

Hideo, Sakaguchi



Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.  


Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F



Improving oral health and oral health care delivery for children.  


National and state-level evidence has documented ongoing disparities in children's health and utilization of oral health care services, prompting a re-examination of factors associated with poor oral health and low use of oral health services. These efforts have yielded a wide array of proposals for improving children's oral health and oral health care delivery. This paper offers a perspective on the current context of efforts to improve children's oral health and oral health care delivery. PMID:21485933

Crall, James J



Health-oriented electronic oral health record: development and evaluation.  


This study aims to develop and evaluate a new Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record that implements the health-oriented status and intervention index. The index takes the principles of holistic oral healthcare and applies them to the design and implementation of the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. We designed an experiment using focus groups and a consensus (Delphi process) method to develop a new health-oriented status and intervention index and graphical user interface. A comparative intervention study with qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compare an existing Electronic Oral Health Record to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record, focusing on dentist satisfaction, accuracy, and completeness of oral health status recording. The study was conducted by the dental staff of the Inter-country Center for Oral Health collaborative hospitals in Thailand. Overall, the user satisfaction questionnaire had a positive response to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. The dentists found it easy to use and were generally satisfied with the impact on their work, oral health services, and surveillance. The dentists were significantly satisfied with the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record compared to the existing Electronic Oral Health Record (p < 0.001). The accuracy and completeness values of the oral health information recorded using the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record were 97.15 and 93.74 percent, respectively. This research concludes that the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record satisfied many dentists, provided benefits to holistic oral healthcare, and facilitated the planning, managing, and evaluation of the healthcare delivery system. PMID:24810725

Wongsapai, Mansuang; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Beach, Daryl; Kawaguchi, Sachiko



Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

de Araujo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araujo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paco-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitai, Daniel Leite Goes



Oral cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and it continues to represent a serious public health problem. Oral\\u000a cancer is a preventable disease, related to behavioral and lifestyle factors, including tobacco and alcohol. Prevention and\\u000a early detection of oral cancer remain the goals of national efforts to reduce the impact of this disease on the

Terry A. Day; Betsy K. Davis; M. Boyd Gillespie; John K. Joe; Megan Kibbey; Bonnie Martin-Harris; Brad Neville; Susan G. Reed; Mary S. Richardson; Steven Rosenzweig; Anand K. Sharma; Michelle M. Smith; Stacy Stewart; Robert K. Stuart



Pat Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Pat Miller Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin March 21, 2008 http...:// This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

Miller, Pat; Albin, Tami



Kelly Barth Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Kelly Barth Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 5, 2008 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer...

Barth, Kelly; Albin, Tami



Gilbert Baker Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Gilbert Baker Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin June 19, 2008 http... law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond “fair use” from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin ( or ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ...

Baker, Gilbert; Albin, Tami



Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study comparing the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) indexes and indexes derived from the oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the results of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 731 drug-naïve Japanese men with type 2 diabetes mellitus\\u000a (T2DM) with fasting plasma glucose values ranging between 126 and 199 mg\\/dl. We then determined the index of insulin sensitivity\\u000a and insulin secretion across the entire range of glucose loading. Next, we examined the correlation between these indexes\\u000a and the

Ritsuko Yamamoto-HondaKeiichiro; Keiichiro Osame; Hiroji Kitazato; Michiko Shinkai-Goromaru; Akihiro Isogawa; Yoko Yoshida; Shoji Kawazu; Yasuo Akanuma; Mitsuhiko Noda



Comparing pain control and ability to eat and drink with standard therapy vs Gelclair: a preliminary, double centre, randomised controlled trial on patients with radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of the work  Oral mucositis (OM) is a functionally destructive complication of aggressive head and neck cancer therapy, often resulting\\u000a in intense pain, an inability to eat and drink and secondary malnutrition and dehydration. The barrier-forming properties\\u000a of Gelclair have shown promise in relieving such symptoms. The aim of this randomised-controlled trial was to evaluate the\\u000a efficacy of Gelclair, as

Claire Barber; Roy Powell; Annie Ellis; Julie Hewett



Switching between oral anticoagulants.  


Until about 4 years ago, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant approved in the United States, and switching between oral anticoagulants has become an option since the emergence of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. What are the reasons one may switch between the agents and how is this done? Discussed in this article are the 4 agents approved in the United States, their characteristics, reasons one may switch, and methods for conversion. After a thorough search of original trial data and recent expert review articles, we have summarized the most recent recommendations below and briefly discuss upcoming oral anticoagulants that show promise. PMID:25255408

Strasser, Kristen M; Qasem, Abdulraheem; Madhusudhana, Sheshadri



David Ollington Oral History  

E-print Network

's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All oral histories... this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin ( or ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must...

Ollington, David; Albin, Tami



Oral Rivaroxaban for Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide a simple, fixed-dose regimen for treating acute deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and for continued treatment, without the need for laboratory monitoring. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, event-driven, noninferiority study that compared oral rivaroxaban alone (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily) with subcutaneous enoxaparin followed

R. Bauersachs; S. D. Berkowitz; B. Brenner; H. R. Büller; H. Decousus; A. S. Gallus; A. W. Lensing; F. Misselwitz; M. H. Prins; G. E. Raskob; A. Segers; P. Verhamme; P. Wells; G. Agnelli; H. Bounameaux; A. Cohen; B. L. Davidson; F. Piovella; S. Schellong



Steven Brown Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown Oral History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...

Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami



American Academy of Oral Medicine  


... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...


Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave


Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior among Adults with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine levels of oral health knowledge and factors associated with adequate oral health knowledge in adults with diabetes. A convenience sample of 253 adult US residents with diabetes completed an oral health survey to assess their knowledge. Results showed that only 47% of the participants answered five or more (out of a maximum of seven) oral health knowledge items related to diabetes correctly. Participants who received oral health information related to diabetes have 2.9 times the odds of possessing adequate oral health knowledge (i.e., answered five or more items correctly) compared to participants who did not received that information controlling for education and race (OR = 2.86, 95% CI 1.26–6.24, P = 0.008). Given that oral health information provided by health professionals (dental and/or medical) contributes to improve oral health knowledge among adults with diabetes, health professionals should take the opportunity to educate patients with diabetes about the oral manifestations (e.g., dry mouth) and complications (e.g., periodontitis and oral candidiasis) of diabetes and to promote proper oral health behaviors. PMID:19800143

Yuen, Hon K.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.



ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.



Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Return to Ryan Campbell's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All... beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin ( or ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami



The permeability of oral leukoplakia.  


The significant increase in oral cancer mortality necessitates further research on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. It was the aim of this study to compare the permeability, lipid composition and histopathological characteristics of oral leukoplakia with non-lesional specimens of the same region in 30 cases as well as 11 specimens originating from healthy control buccal mucosa. The permeability (Kp) of tissue biopsies to tritiated nitrosonornicotine was determined in a continuous through-flow perfusion system, lipids were extracted and identified by thin-layer chromatography, and thickness of epithelium and keratin layer assessed by histopathological methods. Results of the measurements showed that the permeability to the tobacco carcinogen, nitrosonornicotine for leukoplakic tissue was higher than for normal control buccal specimens. Non-lesional areas of buccal mucosa, adjacent to leukoplakias, showed hyperplasia and significantly higher permeability values than both leukoplakic and normal buccal control mucosa. The lipid content of the non-lesional sites was intermediate between the increased values of the leukoplakic lesion and of normal control mucosa. The data strongly suggest that the presence of tobacco in the oral cavity may bring about generalized changes even in regions that do not show leukoplakia. PMID:12887396

Bánóczy, Jolán; Squier, Christopher A; Kremer, Mary; Wertz, Philip W; Kövesi, György; Szende, Béla; Dombi, Csaba



What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  


... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...


Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know  


Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? There are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). Oral ...


Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.



Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, ...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy



Edith Bogart Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy



Kansas Lawsonians Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with John and Paula Mook and George Hunergaaurd conducted by Jamie Reeve in Wichita, Kansas, on December 8, 2009. In this interview, John and Paul Mook and George Hunergaaurd discuss the biography ...

Mook, John; Mook, Paula; Hunergaaurd, George; Reeve, Jamie



Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, ...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean



Barnabas Senecal Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Abbot Barnabas Senecal of St. Benedict’s Abbey in Atchison, Kansas, conducted by Ben Nelson on December 9, 2009. In this interview, Abbot Barnabas discusses his childhood ties with the Catholic Church, the history...

Senecal, Barnabas; Nelson, Ben



Communication (Oral & Written) Leadership  

E-print Network

Team Work Communication (Oral & Written) Leadership Decision Making Creativity Ethics Computer Organization REQUIRED SKILLS Sport Teams Public Recreation Facilities Health/Fitness Centers and Event Management POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES What Can I Do With a Major in... Sport

Jiang, Huiqiang


Oral compound nevus.  


The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo



Leni Salkind Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...

Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy



Phil Friedl Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel



Justin Jenkins Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational ...

Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily



Virgil Dean Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Virgil Dean conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas on November 9, 2010. In this interview, Virgil Dean, director for publications for the Kansas State Historical Society and editor of ...

Dean, Virgil; Miller, Timothy



Oral Cancer Prevention  


... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It ...


Eleanor Symons Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Eleanor Symons conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 14, 2009. In this interview, Eleanor Symons, a retired University of Kansas librarian, discusses the history of the ...

Symons, Eleanor; Miller, Timothy



Naomi Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, ...

Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel



Oral Cancer Exam  


... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...


A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover bioequivalence study comparing a fixed-dose pediatric combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension with individual liquid formulations in healthy adult male volunteers.  


Lamivudine (CAS 134678-17-4) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. Stavudine (CAS 3056-17-5) is a synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue, active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lamivudine and stavudine in combination with other antiretroviral (ARV) agents are indicated for the treatment of HIV infection. As there are no suitable pediatric ARVs, adult fixed-dose ARVs are commonly used in children. This practice poses concerns about dose inaccuracy, which may lead to resistance or toxicity. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet for oral suspension, containing lamivudine 40 mg and stavudine 10 mg has been developed. An open-label, balanced, randomised, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted following administration of a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension (test formulation) and innovator products (reference formulations) in healthy, adult, male human subjects under fasting condition. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 36 h post dose. Plasma concentrations of lamivudine and stavudine were assayed using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence was assessed using a mixed effect ANOVA model. The ratio of the least-square means (FDC to individual products) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) for lamivudine and stavudine were all within 80.00-125.00%, suggesting a similar rate and extent of ARVs exposure in the bloodstream. The FDC and individual products were equally safe and well tolerated. The current FDC of lamivudine and stavudine is expected to provide a similar efficacy/safety profile as co-administration of the individual products, a better adherence to treatment, and considerable cost savings in the treatment of HIV in children. PMID:19338141

Monif, Tausif; Reyar, Simrit; Tiwari, Hari Krishan; Tippabhotla, Sudhakar Koundinya; Khuroo, Arshad; Thudi, Nageshwar Rao; Ahmed, Sarfaraz; Raghuvanshi, Rajeev



Task-Related Factors in Oral Motor Control: Speech and Oral Diadochokinesis in Dysarthria and Apraxia of Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was focused on the potential influence of task-related factors on oral motor performance in patients with speech disorders. Sentence production was compared with a nonspeech oral motor task, i.e., oral diadochokinesis. Perceptual and acoustic measures of speech impairment were used as dependent variables. Between-task comparisons were made for subsamples of a population of 140 patients with different motor

Wolfram Ziegler



Oral Crohn's disease.  


'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv



Hypertension and oral contraceptives.  


Large prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives containing estrogen induce an increase in blood pressure and sharply increase the risk of hypertension. Susceptibility to the hypertensive effects of oral contraceptives is heightened where risk factors such as age, family history of hypertension, preexisting or occult renal disease, parity and obesity exist. Hypertension among pill users usually develops within the first 6 months of usage and occasionally is delayed for as long as 6 years. Anitihypertensive therapy is seldom needed as the hypertension that developes is generally mild and uncomplicated, and rapidly reverses when the pills are discontinued. However, a small percentage of patients develop severe, even life-threatening hypertension and the hypertensive effects are felt long after the pills are discontinued. Cases of malignant hypertension and irreversible renal failure requiring maintenance hemodialysis, bilateral nephrectomy, and renal transplantation have occurred following administration of oral contraceptive pills. The mechanism by which oral pills induce hypertension in susceptible women is not known and needs further research. Before oral contraceptives are prescribed, physicians should take a careful history and perform a detailed physicial examination with special attention to the cardiovascular system. Multiple blood pressure measurements should be made and routine laboratory studies including urinalysis, blood urea and nitrogen and serum creatinine should be performed. It is preferable to start with a relatively low (50 mcg) estrogenic content preparation. Patients who develop hypertension (diastolic pressure, 90 mm Hg) on oral contraceptives should stop taking the pills immediately, and should be considered to have estrogen-induced hypertension. They should never again receive estrogen-containing oral pills, although they can try pills containing only progestogen. There is no contraindication to pregnancy in these patients, as most women who become hypertensive on oral pills go on to have normotensive pregnancies. Pregnancy in women who are susceptible to essential hypertension however should be treated as high risk. PMID:12263383

Oparil, S



Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV



George Paris Oral History  

E-print Network

management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to George Paris's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People... are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin ( or ) Director of Under the Rainbow...

Paris, George; Albin, Tami




Microsoft Academic Search

The oral hygiene of institutionalized elders is poor. This population exhibits an increased risk of oral infections such as periodontal disease, caries, inflammatory mucosal disorders, and denture-related problems. Poor oral health has been associated with systemic infections, such as respiratory infections, and nutritional inadequa- cies. Thus the maintenance of oral health among institu- tionalized elders is of significant value as




Menopause and oral health.  


Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun



Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun



Oral and systemic photoprotection.  


Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M



Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  


Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor



HPV-associated oral warts.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts. PMID:21608502

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J



Diabetic patients: their knowledge and perception of oral health  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients of their risk for systemic and oral diseases as complications associated with diabetes, (2) to assess their attitudes toward sustaining good oral health through proper oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups, and (3) to the extent that they are aware, to determine how they became aware. Methods Two hundred self-administered questionnaires were distributed to assess the main objectives of the study. Only completed questionnaires were used in the current study data analysis. Results A majority of the participants had Type 2 diabetes (58%). The awareness of diabetic patients of their increased risk for oral diseases is low compared to their awareness of systemic diseases. Their attitude toward maintaining good oral health was also not to desired standard. Of the participants, 50% brushed their teeth once daily and 66% never used dental floss. Regarding participants’ sources of awareness, 37% learned from dentists and 45% through other media sources. Conclusions Diabetic patients are found to have little knowledge of their increased risk for oral diseases. In order to promote proper oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases, health professionals in both the dental and medical fields need to take the responsibility to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations of diabetes and its complications on oral health. PMID:21562635

Eldarrat, Aziza H.



Ultrastructural changes in malignant transformation of oral mucosa.  


Transmission electron microscopy (EM) has been used to identify the ultrastructural details of normal and cancerous human oral mucosa. However, inconsistent reports of structural descriptions have rendered transmission EM valueless in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or as a prognostic indicator. To identify features of dysplasia for diagnostic purposes, normal mucosa, severe dysplasia, oral SCC and normal margin adjacent to oral SCC were used to compare the ultrastructural features of normal and premalignant oral mucosa and oral SCC. The preparatory stages of dehydration, embedding, cutting and positive staining for transmission EM were modified and tested to improve ultrastructural definition. Thin and discontinuous basal laminas were found in mucosa with severe dysplasia and normal margin adjacent to oral SCC. No basal lamina was identified in oral SCC. This study has shown that there are some ultrastructural changes during malignant transformation of oral mucosa. Together with other laboratory investigative techniques, transmission EM may be helpful in detecting malignant changes in oral mucosa. PMID:12054710

Cheng, L H-H; Hudson, J



The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging – a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires\\u000a relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital\\u000a (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to

Taylor Chung; Fredric A. Hoffer; Linda Connor; David Zurakowski; P. E. Burrows



Dexamethasone Concentration in Vitreous and Serum After Oral Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the dexamethasone concentration in vitreous and serum of patients after oral administration of dexamethasone and to compare the results with the concentrations in vitreous and serum found in a previous study with peribulbar injection of 5 mg dexamethasone disodiumphosphate.Methods: In a prospective study, 54 patients who were scheduled for vitrectomy received 7.5 mg dexamethasone orally at varied

Olga Weijtens; Rik C Schoemaker; Adam F Cohen; Fred P. H. T. M Romijn; Eef G. W. M Lentjes; Jeroen van Rooij; Jan C van Meurs



Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

Steele, Sara C.



[Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].  


Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay. PMID:22810570

Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R



The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.



Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.  


Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L



Oral contraceptives and death from myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated 219 deaths from myocardial infarction in women under the age of 50. Their histories were compared with those of living age-matched controls selected from the same general practices. The frequency of use of oral contraceptives during the month before death was significantly greater in the group with infarction than during the corresponding month in the control group and

J I Mann; W H Inman



Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

Matz, Karl A.


Orthographic Learning During Oral and Silent Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks requiring orthographic choice, spelling, and naming. It was predicted that orthographic learning would

Peter F. de Jong; David L. Share



Cefdinir: An oral alternative to parenteral cephems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost savings are possible if oral cephems of equivalent efficacy can be substituted for parenteral cephems. An in vitro study was performed to compare the activity of cefdinir, cefoxitin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime against 243 clinical isolates of human pathogens. Activities were determined by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth dilution methodology using an inoculum of approximately 5

Archana Chatterjee; Ellen S. Moland; Kenneth S. Thomson



Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.



The impact of home-prepared diets and home oral hygiene on oral health in cats and dogs.  


Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health. An oral health index (OHI) ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for each animal by combining examination scores, where 0 indicates good oral health and 8 indicates poorest oral health. Information was collected on age, diet and home oral hygiene regimens. There was a significant effect of diet on the OHI (P < 0.001) whereby feeding the HP diet increased the probability of an oral health problem in both cats and dogs. There was a significant beneficial effect of feeding only commercial pet food compared with the HP diet when at least part of the diet was composed of dry pet food. Daily tooth brushing or the offering of daily dental treats were both effective in significantly reducing the OHI in both cats and dogs compared with those receiving sporadic or no home oral hygiene. Feeding only a dry diet was beneficial for oral health in cats and dogs. Tooth brushing and the offering of dental treats were very effective in maintaining oral health, provided they were practised daily. PMID:22005407

Buckley, Catherine; Colyer, Alison; Skrzywanek, Michal; Jodkowska, Katarzyna; Kurski, Grzegorz; Gawor, Jerzy; Ceregrzyn, Michal



Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

Brincker, H



Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15.  


This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:10163954

Kosunen, E; Laippala, P



Christopher Draven Oral History  

E-print Network

is and they should just accept me for who and what I am. But when I was growing up if someone would come to me after I came out—if they would come to me and say, Are you gay, then I wouldn't deny it, I would tell them the truth. But I never brought it up in class... Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...

Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami



Immunology of oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.



Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami



College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY. (2) Thiscoursepresentsthebasicprinciplesoforalandmaxillofacialradiology. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith


Computer-assisted oral reading helps third graders learn vocabulary better than a  

E-print Network

Computer-assisted oral reading helps third graders learn vocabulary better than a classroom control children learn vocabulary during computer-assisted oral reading. This paper focuses on one aspect ­ vocabulary learning ­ of a larger study comparing computerized oral reading tutoring to classroom instruction

Mostow, Jack


Adverse effects of oral corticosteroids in relation to dose in patients with lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe adverse effects of oral corticosteroids are widely recognised but there are few quantitative data on which to base advice to patients. In a two part cross sectional study we compared adverse effects in patients with lung disease taking oral corticosteroids and control subjects and related the adverse effects to corticosteroid dose in the patient group.METHODSData on oral corticosteroid use,

L J Walsh; C A Wong; J Oborne; S Cooper; S A Lewis; M Pringle; R Hubbard; A E Tattersfield



Oral Reading Fluency Assessment: Issues of Construct, Criterion, and Consequential Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine…

Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather



Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987



A Multicenter, Randomized Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous and\\/or Oral Levofloxacin versus Ceftriaxone and\\/or Cefuroxime Axetil in Treatment of Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

posttherapy was superior for the levofloxacin group (96%) compared with the ceftriaxone and\\/or cefuroxime axetil group (90%) (95% confidence interval (CI) of 210.7 to 21.3). Among patients with typical respira- tory pathogens who were evaluable for microbiological efficacy, the overall bacteriologic eradication rates were superior for levofloxacin (98%) compared with the ceftriaxone and\\/or cefuroxime axetil group (85%) (95% CI of




Reduction of oral malodor by oxidizing lozenges.  


The main purpose of the study was to examine the anti-malodor properties of oxidizing lozenges, as compared to breath mints and chewing gum. Healthy, young adult volunteers (N = 123; mean age 24.5 years) were measured for oral malodor-related parameters (whole mouth odor measured by 2 judges; tongue dorsum posterior odor using the spoon test; volatile sulphide levels; salivary levels of cadaverine and putrescine; and 2 versions of an oral rinse test) on the first afternoon of the study. They were then assigned randomly to one of 6 groups (2 brands of breath mints, chewing gum with no active ingredients, regular and full-strength oxidizing lozenges, and a no-treatment control), and instructed to employ the treatment before bedtime, the next morning, and in the early afternoon 3 hours prior to measurements, which were carried out 24 hours following baseline measurements. Volunteers also estimated the level of their own whole mouth and tongue odors at baseline and post-treatment. The data showed that, among treatments, only the full-strength oxidizing lozenge significantly reduced tongue dorsum malodor, as determined by the spoon test. The full-strength lozenge also yielded a significant increase in the modified oral rinse test, presumably due, at least in part, to residual oxidizing activity retained in the oral cavity. Self-estimations of whole mouth and tongue malodor by volunteers were significantly correlated with corresponding-judge assessments, suggesting some degree of objectivity in assessing one's own oral malodor. PMID:9444592

Greenstein, R B; Goldberg, S; Marku-Cohen, S; Sterer, N; Rosenberg, M



In vitro activity of Bay 12-8039, a new 8-methoxyquinolone, compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents against 390 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from human and animal bite wound skin and soft tissue infections in humans.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of Bay 12-8039, a new oral 8-methoxyquinolone, was compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin clavulanate, penicillin, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, and doxycycline) against 250 aerobic and 140 anaerobic bacteria recently isolated from animal and human bite wound infections. Bay 12-8039 was active against all aerobic isolates, both gram-positive and gram-negative isolates, at < or = 1.0 microg/ml (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90s < or = 0.25 microg/ml) and was active against most anaerobes at < or = 0.5 microg/ml; the exceptions were Fusobacterium nucleatum and other Fusobacterium species (MIC90s, > or = 4.0 microg/ml) and one strain of Prevotella loeschii (MICs, 2.0 microg/ml). In comparison, the other quinolones tested had similar in vitro activities against the aerobic strains but were less active against the anaerobes, including peptostreptococci, Porphyromonas species, and Prevotella species. The fusobacteria were relatively resistant to all the antimicrobial agents tested except penicillin G (one penicillinase-producing strain of F. nucleatum was found) and amoxicillin clavulanate. PMID:9210683

Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Hudspeth, M; Hunt Gerardo, S; Merriam, C V



A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition, the serum naproxen pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds, administered at the highest equimolar doses, were obtained during the first 6 h after dosing. Results At the two highest tested doses, both naproxen and ATB-346 reduced edema and pain score (measured 3 and 5 h after CGN; P?



signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

communication Introduction 4 Dysarthria #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Automatic speech processing and oral communication Dysarthria Neuro-motor articulatory difficulties resulting Dysarthria and ASR word accuracy Non-dysarthric Dysarthric Background 7 #12;SPOClab signal processing

Penn, Gerald


Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  


Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have ... body cannot absorb calcium properly. Therefore, people with kidney disease are at risk for losing bone from their ...


Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero



Ann Cobb Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Ann Cobb conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Smith Hall on the University of Kansas campus on November 18, 2009. In this interview, Ann Cobb discusses growing up as a Catholic in Seneca, Kansas, and her later conversion...

Cobb, Ann; Miller, Timothy



Oral Health Presentation Objectives  

E-print Network

and mouth care we can develop dental caries or tooth decay. This is caused by bacteria in our mouths and direction, amount of tooth paste, and timing (2 times per day and after sugary snack). 2. Flossing Teeth, increase calcium intake, tobacco prevention (chew r/t oral cancer and dental decay). 4. Dental Decay

Maxwell, Bruce D.


Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation. PMID:11359549

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A



Oral Health Attitudes and Practices Among a German Mexican Mennonite Farmworker Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral health needs of migrant farm laborers are greater and more immediate than those of comparable populations. However,\\u000a little is known about the conditions of oral health care among German-speaking Mexican Mennonites, a distinctive cultural\\u000a subgroup of migrant farm laborers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oral health practices, perceived oral health\\u000a status, and barriers to

Paula M. Rowden; Angelia M. Paschal; Suzanne R. Hawley; Tracy Hsiao


Laboratory Analysis of Remotely Collected Oral Fluid Specimens for Benzodiazepines by Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The performance characteristics of an immunoassay method for detecting benzodiazepines in oral fluid specimens were examined and compared with urine specimens. Oral fluid was obtained using a simple device that collects approximately 0.4 mL of oral fluid and dilutes it with 0.8 mL of diluent. When specimen or standard is added to an EIA well containing an oral

Dean F. Fritch; Greg Newland; Stephanie Kardos; Keith Kardos; Tiffany Miller; R. Sam Niedbala


Probiotics and oral health.  


Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya



A History of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.


Minor Oral Injuries in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injuries involving the oral cavity in children often result from falls or collisions with stationary objects. Repair of lacerations involving the soft tissue structures within the oral cavity is described. These injuries often can be managed by emergency department personnel, with referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for follow-up care. Initial management of more extensive injuries such as



Interpretation of Benefit-Risk of Enoxaparin as Comparator in the RECORD Program: Rivaroxaban Oral Tablets (10 milligrams) for Use in Prophylaxis in Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regulation of Coagulation in Major Orthopedic surgery reducing the Risk of DVT and PE (RECORD) clinical program of rivaroxaban consists of 4 phase III clinical trials comparing rivaroxaban with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing either total hip or total knee replacement surgery. Despite the comprehensive and extensive nature of this program, it had

David Van Thiel; Evi Kalodiki; Rakesh Wahi; Evan Litinas; Wasimul Haque; Gundu Rao



Oral health policies in Brazil.  


Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply. PMID:19838553

Pucca, Gilberto Alfredo; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Chagas, Luciana de Deus; Sivestre, Rosa Maria



Current developments for the oral delivery of heparin.  


Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to oral therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an oral heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new oral anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), Apixaban (Eliquis(®)) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa(®)) have reached the market, but their use is limited to certain indications. Therefore, the development of oral formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using oral formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. PMID:25219865

Schluter, Anna; Lamprecht, Alf



Immunopharmacology of oral betalactams.  


Among the oral beta-lactam antibiotics only cefaclor has demonstrated a consistent in vitro and in vivo immunopharmacological effect which favors phagocytic chemotaxis and antimicrobial potential by inducing a T-helper 1 or pro-inflammatory response. Together with cefpimizole, cefaclor significantly reduces the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against some bacterial species when cultured together with a suspension of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, as opposed to some other oral beta-lactams, co-amoxiclav and cefixime, which do not show this effect. The pro-inflammatory component of cefaclor's activity explains the clinical success of this antibiotic in a high percentage of cases, even when laboratory tests indicate in vitro resistance by the pathogen. PMID:9603632

Periti, P



Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords “oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion”. The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use. PMID:24778989

Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A. G.



Kristi Parker Oral History  

E-print Network

before she goes into the system. So that's kind of how that all happened. And so they snagged me before I went into the adoption process. And it was all done through a private attorney with contracts and whatnot. And I asked my mom just recently... level of 1 Added and edited by narrator during the review process. 2 Added and edited by narrator during the review process. 2 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Kristi...

Parker, Kristi; Albin, Tami



Oral Cavity Surgery Codes

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,


Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, in the year 2000, there were approx 450,000 new cases of and 240,000 deaths attributable to cancer of the lip,\\u000a oral cavity, pharynx, and salivary glands (ICD-9 140–149) (1). A diagnosis of cancer at these sites is important because it can result in facial disfigurement, speech impairment, chewing\\u000a and\\/or swallowing difficulties, mental anguish, a decreased quality of life, and

Douglas E. Morse


Kristie Stremel Oral History  

E-print Network

Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to Kristie Stremel Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow..., Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin ( or tami.albin...

Stremel, Kristie; Albin, Tami



Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.



Oral care of hospitalised older patients in the acute medical setting.  


Oral health care is an essential aspect of nursing care. There are many variances in the quality and frequency of the oral care that is delivered to patients by nursing staff, such as oral care being given a low priority when compared to other nursing care elements, oral care being neglected, and oral care delivery being dependent on the nurse's knowledge of oral hygiene. Additionally, there are some particular patient groups known to be at risk of oral health problems or who have existing oral diseases and conditions. As people age their susceptibility increases to chronic and life-threatening diseases, and they can be at increased risk of acute infections increases compromised by ageing immune systems. The aim of this literature review was to ignite the discussion related to the oral care practices of nurses for older acute medical hospitalised patients. The review revealed that nursing staff know that good nursing includes oral health care, but this knowledge does not always mean that oral health care is administered. Oral health care seems to be separated from other nursing activities and is not discussed when nursing care plans are written, only when oral problems are obvious. PMID:23819046

Salamone, Kathryn; Yacoub, Elaine; Mahoney, Anne-Marie; Edward, Karen-Leigh



Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice  

PubMed Central

In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.



Oral burn contractures in children.  


Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra



Oral tuberculosis following successful treatment of oral malignancy.  


Coexistence of tuberculosis and neoplastic lesion in the oral cavity is a rare phenomenon. Till date, only three such cases have been reported in the English literature. A case of oral tuberculosis manifesting 3 months following the successful treatment of cancer of the oral tongue with chemoradiotherapy is presented. The diagnostic dilemma it posed, and its eventual successful control by anti-tubercular treatment, is discussed. PMID:23361293

Bagga, Preeti; Dewan, Abhinav; Agarwal, Pankaj; Garg, Charu; Datta, Niloy R



The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark



Interpretation of benefit-risk of enoxaparin as comparator in the RECORD program: rivaroxaban oral tablets (10 milligrams) for use in prophylaxis in deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery.  


The Regulation of Coagulation in Major Orthopedic surgery reducing the Risk of DVT and PE (RECORD) clinical program of rivaroxaban consists of 4 phase III clinical trials comparing rivaroxaban with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing either total hip or total knee replacement surgery. Despite the comprehensive and extensive nature of this program, it had some logistic issues that included the dosing of the enoxaparin which was not only inconsistent with the recommendations but the dosages used were not optimal. The duration of treatment while consistent with rivaroxaban did vary with enoxaparin and was somewhat short. The bleeding definitions and safety evaluations were not consistent in accordance with the current recommendations. Moreover, the RECORD program has no power to show differences in major bleeding. The cardiovascular rebound phenomenon should have been adequately addressed and may require additional clinical validation to establish the safety of rivaroxaban. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory committee has recommended approval of rivaroxaban, the reported analysis strongly suggests additional clinical validation on the claimed benefit/risk ratio of this monotherapeutic anticoagulant. PMID:19608550

Van Thiel, David; Kalodiki, Evi; Wahi, Rakesh; Litinas, Evan; Haque, Wasimul; Rao, Gundu



Alternative Method of Oral Dosing for Rats  

PubMed Central

Oral administration of drugs to laboratory rodents typically is achieved by using the gavage technique. Although highly effective, this method occasionally can cause esophageal injury as well as restraint-associated distress, particularly with repeated use. The aim of this study was to assess an alternative oral dosing method that could reduce the distress and morbidity associated with standard gavage techniques. The palatability and pharmacokinetic profile of 2 medicines approved for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, donepezil and galantamine, were investigated in male Lister hooded rats by using a syringe-feeding method and compared with results from traditional gavage administration. In addition, the stimulant nicotine was tested by using the syringe-feeding method in a separate series of experiments. Animals reliably learned to drink voluntarily from the syringe, and latency to drink decreased rapidly. The addition of donepezil, galantamine, or nicotine to sucrose had no apparent effect on the palatability of the solution, although nicotine produced aversive effects that inhibited subsequent voluntary intake. Oral bioavailability was improved by using syringe feeding with donepezil but not galantamine. Both drugs improved cognitive performance in the novel object recognition test, with similar behavioral profiles between the 2 methods of administration. Our results suggest that the syringe-feeding technique is an effective alternative oral dosing method in rats. PMID:20587166

Atcha, Zeenat; Rourke, Claire; Neo, Aveline HP; Goh, Catherine WH; Lim, Jean SK; Aw, Chiu-Cheong; Browne, Edward R; Pemberton, Darrel J



Oral Clonidine Pretreatment Prior to Venous Cannulation  

PubMed Central

Clonidine is a preferential alpha-2 agonist drug that has been used for over 35 years to treat hypertension. Recently, it has also been used as a preoperative medication and as a sedative/anxiolytic drug. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial characterized the effects of oral clonidine pretreatment on intravenous catheter placement in 13 patients. Parameters measured included the bispectral index (BIS), Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S), frontal temporal electromyogram (EMG), 30-Second Blink Count (Blink), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), fingertip versus forearm skin temperatures, and multiple questionnaires. Oral clonidine significantly decreased SAI scores, OAA/S, EMG, and Blink, but did not cause statistically significant BIS or DSST reductions. Subjects preferred oral clonidine pretreatment prior to venipuncture compared to placebo. Questionnaires also indicated that clonidine provided minimal sedation, considerable anxiolysis, and some analgesia. Fingertip versus forearm skin temperature differentials were decreased. Reduced fingertip versus forearm temperature differentials suggest increased peripheral cutaneous blood flow prior to venous cannulation. Oral clonidine pretreatment not only helped control patient anxiety and pain but also provided cardiovascular stability. PMID:16863391

Hall, David L; Rezvan, Ehsan; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Walters, John D



Novel oral agents for multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, interferon ?-1b, the first clinically proven disease-modifying agent for multiple sclerosis, was approved, with several\\u000a comparable agents following close behind. These agents have been beneficial in reducing relapse events and MRI lesions, but\\u000a all require parenteral administration, leading some otherwise eligible patients to decline such therapies. Oral agents have\\u000a been studied for decades with mixed results, but a

Jodie M. Burton; Paul O’Connor



Hormone withdrawal symptoms in oral contraceptive users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure the timing, frequency, and severity of hormone-related symptoms in oral contraceptive (OC) users, specifically to compare active-pill with hormone-free intervals.Methods: Using daily diaries, women recorded pelvic pain, bleeding, headaches, analgesic use, nausea or vomiting, bloating or swelling, and breast tenderness during active-pill intervals and hormone-free intervals. Participants either had no prior OC use, had taken OCs and

Patricia J Sulak; Roger D Scow; Cheryl Preece; Mark W Riggs; Thomas J Kuehl



Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.



Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F



Oral iodine supplementation does not reduce neutralizing antibody responses to oral poliovirus vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency is a major cause of impaired mental development, goitre, and cretinism in many parts of the world. Because existing immunization programmes can be used to deliver oral iodized oil (OIO) to infants at risk, it was important to know whether OIO could adversely affect the antibody response to vaccines, such as trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, in which 617 eight-week-old infants received either OIO or a placebo (poppy-seed oil) during a routine visit for their first dose of OPV as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The infants received two boosters of OPV at 4-week intervals after the first dose, and were followed up when 6 months old. Neutralizing antibody titres to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were compared in serum samples that were taken from 478 of these infants just before the first dose of OPV and at 6 months. It was found that oral iodized oil did not reduce the antibody responses to any of the three serotypes of OPV. These results indicate that oral iodine may safely be delivered to infants at the same time as oral poliovirus vaccine according to current EPI immunization schedules. PMID:10427933

Taffs, R. E.; Enterline, J. C.; Rusmil, K.; Muhilal; Suwardi, S. S.; Rustama, D.; Djatnika; Cobra, C.; Semba, R. D.; Cohen, N.; Asher, D. M.



Katherine Oral History  

E-print Network

about whether or not I was gay or not would have been during summer camp. I went to summer camp for ten summers—nine summers and then there was a big break and then the tenth summer I went back as a counselor. ALBIN: So what year at summer camp... system, or they were then. And it was at that point that I had come to the realization that I was gay— ALBIN: And do you think— 6 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Kathrine May 31, 2008 KATHERINE: And again...

Albin, Tami



Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.


The World Oral Literature Project  

E-print Network

. Consider the option of submitting an opinion piece – between 750 and 1 250 words. Show respect to all by not using language that is discriminatory, obscene or abusive, or that could be construed as hate speech or as a personal attack. If you feel that any... language is not just about words, syntax and grammar. Languages convey unique forms of cultural knowledge; speech forms encode oral traditions and provide form for oral literatures. The broad term ‘oral literature’ includes ritual texts, curative chants...




[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  


The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel



Metabolism of digoxin after oral and intrajejunal administration.  

PubMed Central

To study the influence of administration site on metabolism of digoxin in the gut, urinary excretion of digoxin and its metabolites was compared after oral and intrajejunal administration of [3H]-digoxin solution to eight healthy volunteers, using liquid chromatography for the drug analysis. Dihydrodigoxin was not excreted in higher amounts after the more distal administration. The excretions of hydrolytic and non-extractable metabolites were significantly greater after the oral administration. PMID:6661363

Magnusson, J O



Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535



Archives, Oral History and Oral Tradition: A RAMP Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) report provides information on the nature of oral tradition/history; the role of recorded oral history as documentation in the absence of written records, or as a supplement where written records exist; problems in recording and administering such materials; and basic considerations involved in…

Moss, William W.; Mazikana, Peter C.


Le Discours Oral (Oral Discourse). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…

Boulanger, C.; And Others


Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the number of animals used, their diet, the differences in Candida strains, and the duration of the studies. These variables notwithstanding, the following could be concluded. (i) The primate model is ideal for investigating Candida-associated denture stomatitis since both erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions have been produced in monkeys with prosthetic plates; they are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain and maintain. (ii) The rat model (both Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) is well proven for observing chronic oral candidal colonization and infection, due to the ease of breeding and handling and their ready availability. (iii) Mice are similar, but in addition there are well characterized variants simulating immunologic and genetic abnormalities (e.g., athymic, euthymic, murine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficient models) and hence are used for short-term studies relating the host immune response and oral candidiasis. Nonetheless, an ideal, relatively inexpensive model representative of the human oral environment in ecological and microbiological terms is yet to be described. Until such a model is developed, researchers should pay attention to standardization of the experimental protocols described here to obtain broadly comparable and meaningful data. PMID:11292645

Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.



Oral health awareness in Croatian and Italian urban adolescents.  


Purpose of this study was to investigate and compare differences in oral health awareness between Croatian and Italian urban adolescents. The sample consisted of primary school last grade students aged between 13 and 15 years, 300 children from Zagreb (Croatia) and 298 children from Bari (Italy). Oral health awareness was evaluated using a self-administered standardized questionnaire. Self-perception of oral health proved to be different between the two groups (p < 0.001). The Croatians reported that their oral health was "excellent" or "very-good" more often than the Italians (68.6% vs. 50.2%). The reasons given for visiting a dentist were different (p < 0.001). The Italians cleaned their teeth more often than the Croatians ("two or more times a day", 83.1% vs. 72.2%, p < 0.003). Wooden toothpicks were preferred by the Croatians (p < 0.001), while floss was preferred by the Italians (p = 0.03). The awareness regarding the use of fluoridated toothpaste was higher in the Italian group (95.6% vs. 72.5%, p < 0.001). The Croatians were consuming sweetened foods more often than the Italians (p < 0.001). Croatian adolescents reported more indicators of a lower level of oral health awareness than the Italians, while on the contrary Croatians had higher esteem of their oral health. Defining national preventive strategies is essential for improving adolescents' attitudes toward oral health in both countries, particularly in Croatia. PMID:22816224

Cukovi?-Bagi?, Ivana; Dumanci?, Jelena; Nuzzolese, Emilio; Marusi?, Miljenko; Lepore, Maria Maddalena



Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove



Pan-Hispanic Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned here with the oral traditions of Hispanic or Iberian peoples: speakers of Spanish (Castilian), Portuguese, Catalan, and Judeo- Spanish, and also various Spanish and Portuguese creoles in South America, Africa, and Asia. Basque, as an indigenous language of the Iberian Peninsula, should also definitely be counted as part of the Hispanic world. Oral tradition involves any manifestation

Samuel G. Armistead



Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  


... If you have had a miscarriage or an abortion, you can start taking progestin-only oral contraceptives the next day.Progestin-only oral contraceptives are safe for use by breast-feeding mothers. If you are fully breastfeeding (not giving your ...


Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)  


... as scheduled and use a backup method of birth control until your questions are answered. ... about which oral contraceptive or other method of birth control may be the best choice for you.Oral contraceptives may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...


Relationship between Prevalent Oral and Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive and Negative Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiologic agent for both oropharyngeal and cervical cancers, yet little is known about the interrelationship between oral and cervical HPV infections. Therefore, we compared the prevalences and type distributions of oral and cervical HPV infections and evaluated infection concordance in a cross-sectional study within the Women's Interagency HIV Study cohort. Oral rinse and cervical-vaginal lavage

Carole Fakhry; Elizabeth Sugar; Kathleen Weber; Eleni Goshu; Howard Minkoff; Rodney Wright; Eric Seaberg; Maura Gillison; H. Stroger Jr



New Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the U.S. Anticoagulation is recommended for stroke prevention in AF patients with intermediate-to-high stroke risk (i.e., patients with a CHADS2 score of 1 or greater). Warfarin was previously the only option for oral anticoagulation in these patients, but three new oral anticoagulants have become available as alternatives for warfarin in patients with nonvalvular AF. The advantages of the newer agents include a rapid onset, predictable pharmacokinetics, and no need for routine anticoagulation monitoring. Dabigatran (Pradaxa) and apixaban (Eliquis) have demonstrated improved efficacy compared with warfarin. Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) was non-inferior to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF. Apixaban demonstrated a reduced incidence of major bleeding compared with warfarin and a reduction in all-cause mortality. Limitations to the use of the new oral anticoagulants include the lack of a reversal agent; an inability to use the therapies in specific patient populations (such as those with severe renal or hepatic impairment); limited experience with drug–drug and drug–disease interactions; and a lack of available coagulation tests to quantify their effects. Although the newer agents have higher acquisition costs, the benefits of cost savings may be derived from the potential for decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke and intracranial bleeding and reducing the need for anticoagulation monitoring. Benefits and risks should be carefully weighed before these agents are prescribed for patients presenting with new-onset AF. PMID:24672216

Shafeeq, Hira; Tran, Tran H.



Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?  


... desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral Health Important for ... changing. Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged ...


Women’s Oral Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because oral health is an integral part of general health, oral problems specific to the female population have to be addressed.\\u000a Women have special oral health needs and considerations that men do not have.

Barbara J. Steinberg; Joan I. Gluch; Susanne K. Giorgio


42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2124 Oral... An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it...



42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2124 Oral... An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it...



42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2124 Oral... An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it...



Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?  


... desktop! more... Why is Oral Health Important for Men? Article Chapters Why is Oral Health Important for ... then the other. Updated: February 2007 Related Articles: Men's Oral Health Is Kissing Dangerous to Your Health? ...


American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons  


The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Oral and maxillofacial surgeons: The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery Visit our ...


Risperidone: effects of formulations on oral bioavailability.  


The bioavailability of risperidone was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study comparing a 1-mg tablet with a 1-mg/ml oral solution. Both formulations were administered as a single 1-mg dose with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Of 26 healthy men who entered the study, 23 completed both treatment periods. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and the active moiety (risperidone plus its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were determined by radioimmunoassays. For key pharmacokinetic values (Cmax, AUC), the 90% CIs on the relative bioequivalence of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and the active moiety were contained within the equivalence range of 80-120% (80-125% for log-transformed data). The results demonstrate that the 1-mg/ml oral solution and the 1-mg tablet are bioequivalent. PMID:9165565

Gutierrez, R; Lee, P I; Huang, M L; Woestenborghs, R



Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman



Oral carbohydrate rinse: placebo or beneficial?  


Carbohydrates during exercise can improve exercise performance even when the exercise intensity is high (>75% V?O2max) and the duration relatively short (approximately 1 h), but the underlying mechanisms for the ergogenic effects are different from those during more prolonged exercise. Studies have even shown effects of oral carbohydrate mouth rinses compared to placebo with improvements typically between 2% and 3% during exercise lasting approximately 1 h. The effects appear more profound after an overnight fast, but effects are still present even after ingestion of a meal. Brain imaging studies have identified brain areas involved, and it is likely that the oral carbohydrate mouth rinse results in afferent signals capable of modifying motor output. These effects appear to be specific to carbohydrate and are independent of taste. Further research is warranted to fully understand the separate taste transduction pathways for various carbohydrates as well as the practical implications. PMID:23851408

Jeukendrup, Asker E



Oral transmucosal drug delivery--current status and future prospects.  


Oral transmucosal drug delivery (OTDD) dosage forms have been available since the 1980s. In contrast to the number of actives currently delivered locally to the oral cavity, the number delivered as buccal or sublingual formulations remains relatively low. This is surprising in view of the advantages associated with OTDD, compared with conventional oral drug delivery. This review examines a number of aspects related to OTDD including the anatomy of the oral cavity, models currently used to study OTDD, as well as commercially available formulations and emerging technologies. The limitations of current methodologies to study OTDD are considered as well as recent publications and new approaches which have advanced our understanding of this route of drug delivery. PMID:24879936

Sattar, Mohammed; Sayed, Ossama M; Lane, Majella E



To what extent do oral contraceptives influence mood and affect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on mood, affect, and affect variability are reviewed. Methods: MEDLINE and PsycLIT data bases were examined to identify studies that compared OC users with nonusers using daily ratings of mood, affect, or affect variability. Results: Compared to non-users, OC users experience less variability in affect across the entire menstrual cycle, and

Kirsten A Oinonen; Dwight Mazmanian



The effect of low level laser therapy in different wavelengths in the treatment of oral mucositis---proposal for extra-oral implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral mucositis is the most frequent acute oral complication resulting from antineoplastic treatment and may worsen the clinical condition of the patient and interfere with his\\/her quality of life. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate, from a clinical point of view, the effect of Laser Therapy lambda660 nm (wavelength of the red Laser) and lambda830 nm (wavelength of the

J. J. C. Moraes; A. S. Queiroga; R. C. C. G. de Biase; E. P. Leite; C. R. Cabral Júnior; F. A. Limeira Júnior



Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception  

PubMed Central

Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

Burke, Anne



Fluoride in the oral environment.  


A predominant part of the cariostatic activity of fluoride is a function of its concentration in the fluid environment of the teeth. The fluoride exposure results in a slightly elevated steady-state level of fluoride in the oral fluids, primarily in saliva and plaque fluid. So far, however, little is known about the intra-oral fluoride concentration necessary to achieve a cariostatic effect at the site of action. Following fluoride intake, the fluoride remaining in the oral cavity is diluted by the saliva pool. The remaining fluoride may be found in several compartments in the oral cavity. It may be ionized in saliva, ionized in plaque (plaque fluid), bound in plaque, bound as calcium fluoride, bound to enamel, and bound to soft tissues. Fluoride is also distributed to the oral tissues and into the dental plaque by diffusion. It is well established that plaque, after fluoride exposure, becomes a fluoride reservoir which stores for some time and releases fluoride. The present review gives an insight into the important parameters that determine the disposition and fate of fluoride in the oral environment. To achieve in-depth understanding, and hence formulation of the optimal fluoride therapy, more information is needed to consolidate our understanding of the distribution, retention, and elimination of fluoride in the oral cavity. Such knowledge will form a better basis for providing our patients with more effective dental fluoride products and regimens. PMID:10777136

Ekstrand, J; Oliveby, A



Oral contraception and breast pathology.  


After a rapid examination of the international literature concerning human, animal, histological and epidemiological experimental data, the Authors state that the use of oral contraceptives considerably reduces the risk of benign disease of the breast. This risk reduction seems to be connected to the presence of progestin in this type of contraception. The Authors then expound the data regarding a group of patients (3527), who came to the center for the diagosis and prevention of cancer of the breast at the S. Martino hospital of Genoa during the years 1977-1980. The results of the study are comparable to those found in international literature, in that they confirm the protective effect of hormonal contraception on benign pathology of the breast. Finally we have shown the data of the retrospective and prospective studies conducted up till now on the effects of hormonal contraception on malignant breast pathology. In conclusion we have shown which lines of study should be taken in order to clarify once and for all the links existing between estroprogestins and cancer of the breast. PMID:6794288

Ragni, N; Boccardo, E; Viglino, S; Larosa, E



Oral health: something to smile about!  


Oral health is integrally linked to overall well-being. This article describes a research program focused on the contribution of poor oral health to systemic illness. Initial investigations examined factors related to streptococcal virulence that were important in dental caries and endocarditis and led to development of immunization strategies in animal models to reduce risk of endocarditis. Clinical investigations related to critically ill adults began with descriptive and observational studies that established the importance of dental plaque in development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and examined existing nursing practices in oral care. Subsequent intervention studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to test oral care protocols in critically ill adults have built on that foundation. The group's first NIH-funded randomized clinical trial tested the effects of toothbrushing and use of chlorhexidine in reducing risk of VAP in critically ill adults and showed that VAP was reduced by topical application of chlorhexidine initiated after intubation, although toothbrushing did not reduce VAP. The study had a rapid and dramatic effect on clinical practice. Results of the study were published in September 2009 in the American Journal of Critical Care, and in May 2010, the Institute for Health-care Improvement updated the recommendations for the care of patients receiving mechanical ventilation (the ventilator bundle) to include daily oral care with chlorhexidine, referencing the results of that study as evidence for the change. Chlorhexidine is now the standard of care for adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Because the effects of chlorhexidine after intubation were so beneficial, a second recently completed NIH-funded randomized clinical trial investigated the impact of chlorhexidine applied before intubation compared with after intubation. Currently a large randomized clinical trial is being launched to determine the optimal frequency of toothbrushing for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in an effort to maximize oral health benefits while minimizing systemic risks. The importance of collaboration and mentoring in building nursing science is discussed. Future directions for research also are explored. PMID:24986168

Munro, Cindy L



Severe manifestation of oral pemphigus.  


This article describes a case of pemphigus vulgaris in a relatively young patient with exacerbated characteristics, widespread lesions, and rapid evolution. A 40-year-old woman sought treatment, complaining about severe oral pain and dysphagia. Intraoral inspection revealed ulcerated lesions on the lips, buccal mucosa, and floor of the mouth. The number of lesions quickly increased and resembled erythema multiforme. She also presented blistering lesions on the back, abdomen, neck, and eyes. Incisional oral biopsy revealed pemphigus vulgaris. This report emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis of an oral biopsy in systemic diseases and the management of the lesions. PMID:20434809

Munhoz, Etiene de Andrade; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Barreto, Jaison Antônio; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Damante, José Humberto



Sarcoidosis: oral and perioral manifestations  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old white woman with lesions on the lower lip, perioral area and in the soft tissues of the oral cavity (gingivae and palate) was examined. The clinical signs were recorded, and incisional biopsies from the oral lesions were taken. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established by the histopathological evidence of typical non-caseating granulomas from tissue biopsy, supported by serum ACE- 57.9 U/L, blood calcium 16.83 mEq/L and 24-hrs urine calcium 600 mg). Oral lesions may be the first or the only sign of sarcoidosis in an otherwise healthy patient. PMID:19561785

Kolokotronis, A E; Belazi, M A; Haidemenos, G; Zaraboukas, T K; Antoniades, D Z



Oral Health Status and Oral Health Behaviors in Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to describe the oral health status and treatment needs of the 5- to 6-year-old and 12-year-old children in Southern China; to describe the patterns of oral health behaviors, knowledge, and attitudes among the 12-year-olds; and to assess the effects of socio-behavioral factors on the 12-year-old children's dental caries experiences. The study sample was comprised

M. C. M. Wong; E. C. M. Lo; E. Schwarz; H. G. Zhang



Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui



Dimensions of oral health related quality of life measured by EQ-5D+ and OHIP-14  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to compare the dimensions of oral-health-related quality-of-life measured by a generic health state measure, the EuroQol, and a specific oral health measure, the Oral Health Impact Profile. METHODS: Data were collected in 2001–02 from a random sample of South Australian dentists using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Dentists recorded the diagnosis of dental problems and

David S Brennan; A John Spencer



New oral anticoagulants in thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome.  


A main goal in clinical management of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is to prevent thrombotic recurrences and/or miscarriages. For many decades, the only available oral anticoagulant drugs have been vitamin K antagonists (VKA), which are still the cornerstone of long-term treatment of thromboembolism. However, the limits of VKA treatment are well known: narrow therapeutic window and high patient-to-patient variability of response. Moreover, in some patients with APS a higher international normalized ratio (INR) therapeutic target was suggested, and INR inaccuracy due to antiphospholipid antibodies was reported. Therefore, VKA management in APS patients is frequently cumbersome, requires close INR monitoring and may affect patient's quality of life. A new class of oral anticoagulant agents has been developed, the Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOA), which directly inhibit a single enzyme of the coagulation cascade. Compared with VKA, they have more stable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, little interaction with food or drugs with a predictable anticoagulation effect, they can thus be prescribed in a fixed dose, without requiring frequent laboratory monitoring. The efficacy and safety of DOA has been shown in large phase III clinical trials. Unfortunately, translating these good results to APS patients is not straightforward: currently, at least three randomized controlled clinical trials are ongoing. PMID:25228726

Chighizola, Cb; Moia, M; Meroni, Pl



Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation  

PubMed Central

The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309



History (of oral contraceptives).  


This article summarizes the interest and research in oral contraceptives, with particular attention given to recent discoveries in the field. Development of the present day pill was impossible until scientific discoveries of female ovarian hormones during pregnancy. Scientific work in the 1920s identified the 2 hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and scientists showed that use of the 2 together influenced ovulation and eased dysmenorrhea. It was not until 1944 that a scientist produced progesterone from a plant steroid; today synthetic steroids are available. Margaret Sanger, a pioneer in the American Family Planning Movement, financed and encouraged early human volunteer trials and later clinical trials with contraceptive pills. By 1957, the pills were approved by the FDA for use in treating menstrual disorders. In January 1962, they were released on the market as contraceptives. By 1976-77, the pill was used by 80-100 million women around the world. A dated table summarizes the information in the article in a timetable fashion. PMID:12308937



Basil G. Bibby Library Eastman Institute for Oral Health  

E-print Network

Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants · The lowest subscription rate to Clinical Oral Implants to Journal of Oral Implantology American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology · Subscription to Oral

Goldman, Steven A.


Oral Health and Bone Disease  


... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Rest and Immobilization Exercise Exercise (??) Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral ...


Oral contraceptives and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 26 white women aged under 50 who developed hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver were studied for the possible role of oral contraceptives. Eighteen of the women had used the \\

J Neuberger; D Forman; R Doll; R Williams



Multicultural Issues in Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle



The Greenhouse Culture Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse ...

Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily



Kent A. Wagner Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Kent A. Wagner conducted by Emily Stratton in Wichita, Kansas, on June 20, 2013. Kent A. Wagner is the founder and lead pastor of Epic Church, a recent church-plant in the Wichita, Kansas, area. ...

Wagner, Kent A; Stratton, Emily



Oral Tradition in Historical Research  

E-print Network

This article will chronicle how those professionals called archivist, charged with collecting, preserving, and making primary source materials including oral history resources available to the public, view their role in this endeavor. This article...

Hankins, Rebecca


Recent advances in Oral Oncology.  


This paper reviews the main papers related to oral squamous cell carcinoma published in 2006 in oral oncology - an international interdisciplinary journal which publishes high quality original research, clinical trials and review articles, and all other scientific articles relating to the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with neoplasms in the head and neck, and orofacial disease in patients with malignant disease. PMID:17275742

Scully, Crispian; Bagan, Jose V



Diseases of the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

Bradley, G.



Why Must Physicians Know About Oral Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Poor oral health reflects social inequalities, hence the prevention of oral diseases should be a priority in developed and underdeveloped countries around the world. Medical practitioners must play an active role in oral health promotion. Summary: Proper knowledge of oral diseases is crucial in medical practice due to the following reasons: (a) Periodontal disease is associated with multiple systemic

Jorge Hernán Ramirez; Roger Arce; Adolfo Contreras



19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally...States may make an oral declaration under the conditions...However, written declarations may be required...permitted. Oral declarations may be permitted under...resident may make an oral declaration if: (i)...



Trends in oral cancer mortality in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality from oral cancer has been rising appreciably in most European countries up to the late 1980s, essentially for men. To update trends in oral cancer, death certification data from oral and pharyngeal cancer for 27 European countries were abstracted and analysed from the WHO mortality database over the period 1980–99. Oral cancer mortality in men has started to decline

Carlo La Vecchia; Franca Lucchini; Eva Negri; Fabio Levi



Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore



Saliva viscosity as a potential risk factor for oral malodor.  


Abstract Objectives. The objective of this study was to assess whether saliva viscosity, measured by a viscometer, was a predictor of oral malodor. Materials and methods. The subjects were 617 patients who visited an oral malodor clinic. The organoleptic test (OT) was used for diagnosis of oral malodor. An oral examination assessed the numbers of teeth present and decayed teeth as well as the presence or absence of dentures. Further, periodontal pocket depths (PD), gingival bleeding, dental plaque and tongue coating were investigated. Unstimulated saliva were collected for 5 min. Saliva viscosity was measured with a viscometer. Logistic regression analysis with oral malodor status by OT as a dependent variable was performed. Possible confounders including age, gender, number of teeth present, number of decayed teeth, number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm, number of teeth with bleeding on probing, presence or absence of dentures, plaque index, area of tongue coating, saliva flow rate, saliva pH and saliva viscosity were used as independent variables. Results. Saliva viscosity (p = 0.047) along with the number of teeth with PD ?4 mm (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.037) and area of tongue coating (p < 0.001) were significant variables for oral malodor. Subjects with a higher number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm (OR = 1.32), plaque index (OR = 2.13), area of tongue coating (OR = 3.17) and saliva viscosity (OR = 1.10) were more likely to have oral malodor compared to those with lower values. Conclusions. The results suggested that high saliva viscosity could be a potential risk factor for oral malodor. PMID:25115949

Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Takehara, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Yoko



Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23778491

Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas



The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye



Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Oral Brush Biopsies Identifies Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor as a Promising, Mechanism-Based Oral Cancer Biomarker  

PubMed Central

A decrease in the almost fifty percent mortality rate from oral cancer is needed urgently. Improvements in early diagnosis and more effective preventive treatments could affect such a decrease. Towards this end, we undertook for the first time an in-depth mass spectrometry-based quantitative shotgun proteomics study of non-invasively collected oral brush biopsies. Proteins isolated from brush biopsies from healthy normal tissue, oral premalignant lesion tissue (OPMLs), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and matched control tissue were compared. In replicated proteomic datasets, the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) protein stood out based on its decrease in abundance in both OPML and OSCC lesion tissues compared to healthy normal tissue. Western blotting in additional brushed biopsy samples confirmed a trend of gradual decreasing SLPI abundance between healthy normal and OPML tissue, with a larger decrease in OSCC lesion tissue. A similar SLPI decrease was observed in-vitro comparing model OPML and OSCC cell lines. In addition, exfoliated oral cells in patients’ whole saliva showed a loss of SLPI correlated with oral cancer progression. These results, combined with proteomics data indicating a decrease in SLPI in matched healthy control tissue from OSCC patients compared to tissue from healthy normal tissue, suggested a systemic decrease of SLPI in oral cells correlated with oral cancer development. Finally, in-vitro experiments showed that treatment with SLPI significantly decreased NF-kB activity in an OPML cell line. The findings indicate anti-inflammatory activity in OPML, supporting a mechanistic role of SLPI in OSCC progression and suggesting its potential for preventative treatment of at-risk oral lesions. Collectively, our results show for the first time the potential for SLPI as a mechanism-based, non-invasive biomarker of oral cancer progression with potential in preventive treatment. PMID:24748380

Yang, Ya; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Ondrey, Frank G.; Wuertz, Beverly R. K.; Chen, Xiaobing; Zhu, Yaqin; Griffin, Timothy J.



p53 aberrations in oral sub mucous fibrosis and oral cancer detected by immunohistochemistry.  


Study of expression of p53 oncoprotein in several precancerous and cancer have been done, but only one literature is available regarding p53 expression in Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis (OMSF), hence this study was taken up (i) to determine the expression of aberrant p53 in Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis (OSMF) and Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. (ii)To study correlation if any between p53 expression and degree of dysplasia in OSMF and SCC patients and (iii)To study correlation if any between p53 expression and habits in OSMF and SCC patients. Study Design consists of biopsy specimens of 38 cases of OSMF and 37 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma were subjected for staining by immunohistochemistry for p53 protein using LSAB visualization system kit. Clinical details along with habits were recorded and the data analyzed with t- test and chi- square test. Results of the study reveals 18 cases of OSMF and 26 cases of SCC were positive for p53 protein. Only 4 cases of SCC showed (++)grade and the rest all had (+)grade. Out of 75 patients, 65 had the habit of smoking and chewing, 4 patients history of habit was not known. Among patients with habits (65), 40 specimens were +ve for p53 stain and 2 out of 6 without history of habit, 2 out of 4 unknown history of habit took up p53 stain. To conclude study showed higher percentage of p53 positive cells in oral cancer cases when compared to oral sub mucous fibrosis cases. It suggests p53 expression may correlate with increase in dysplasia or malignant transformation. Both smoking and chewing habits had a significant role in p53 positive expression. PMID:15328987

Bathi, Renuka J; Prabhat



Antifungal drug resistance of oral fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi comprise a minor component of the oral microbiota but give rise to oral disease in a significant proportion of the population.\\u000a The most common form of oral fungal disease is oral candidiasis, which has a number of presentations. The mainstay for the\\u000a treatment of oral candidiasis is the use of polyenes, such as nystatin and amphotericin B, and azoles

Masakazu Niimi; Norman A. Firth; Richard D. Cannon



Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.  


Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = -0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC. PMID:24415717

Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; Abdulmajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S



Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = ?0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC. PMID:24415717

Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S



Miconazole Oral Gel Increases Exposure to Oral Oxycodone by Inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4?  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to assess the effect of miconazole oral gel on the pharmacokinetics of oral oxycodone. In an open crossover study with two phases, 12 healthy volunteers took a single oral dose of 10 mg of immediate-release oxycodone with or without thrice-daily 85-mg miconazole oral gel treatment. The plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its oxidative metabolites were measured for 48 h. Pharmacological effects of oxycodone were recorded for 12 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared by use of the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and their 90% confidence interval (CIs). Pretreatment with miconazole oral gel caused a strong inhibition of the CYP2D6-dependent metabolism and moderate inhibition of the CYP3A4-dependent metabolism of oxycodone. The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity (AUC0-?; GMR, 1.63; 90% CI, 1.48 to 1.79) and the peak concentration of oxycodone (GMR, 1.31; 90% CI, 1.19 to 1.44) were increased. The AUC of the CYP2D6-dependent metabolite oxymorphone was greatly decreased (GMR, 0.17; 90% CI, 0.09 to 0.31) by miconazole gel, whereas that of the CYP3A4-dependent metabolite noroxycodone was increased (GMR, 1.30; 90% CI, 1.15 to 1.47) by miconazole gel. Differences in the pharmacological response to oxycodone between phases were insignificant. Miconazole oral gel increases the exposure to oral oxycodone, but the clinical relevance of the interaction is moderate. Miconazole oral gel produces a rather strong inhibitory effect on CYP2D6, which deserves further study. PMID:21173180

Grönlund, Juha; Saari, Teijo I.; Hagelberg, Nora; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Laine, Kari



DTP Compare

DTP Compare Home Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Books/Publications Site Search Data Search What's New PUBLIC COMPARE for public access to all public data. PRIVATE COMPARE for supplier access to screening data.


Oral mucolytic drugs for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effects of oral mucolytics in adults with stable chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials that compared at least two months of regular oral mucolytic drugs with placebo. Studies Twenty three randomised controlled trials in outpatients in Europe and United States. Main outcome measures Exacerbations, days of illness, lung

Phillippa J Poole; Peter N Black



Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

Oredugba, Folakemi A.



Original article Oral rabies vaccination of foxes with one or two  

E-print Network

Original article Oral rabies vaccination of foxes with one or two delayed distributions of SAG2 of rabies vaccine bait (SAG2) distribution for foxes were compared: in the first test zone, a first or June rather than in April. rabies / oral vaccination / fox cub / delayed double bait distribution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Comparison of cycle control with a combined contraceptive vaginal ring and oral levonorgestrel\\/ethinyl estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare cycle control and tolerability of the NuvaRing (NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands), a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring, with a standard combined oral contraceptive pill. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy women aged 18 to 40 years who requested contraception received either NuvaRing or a combined oral contraceptive containing 30 ?g ethinyl estradiol and

Ragnheidur I. Bjarnadóttir; Marjo Tuppurainen; Stephen R. Killick



Oral versus Written Assessments: A Test of Student Performance and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into "oral" and "written" groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were…

Huxham, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Westwood, Jenny



Lipoma of the oral and maxillofacial region: Site and subclassification of 125 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLipomas and lipoma variants are common soft tissue tumors, but occur infrequently in the oral and maxillofacial region. In this study, we reviewed 125 lipomas in specific oral and maxillofacial locations. We wanted to examine and compare the clinicopathologic features of these tumors.

Mary A. Furlong; Julie C. Fanburg-Smith; Esther L. B. Childers



Oral Discussion, Group-to-Individual Transfer, and Achievement in Cooperative Learning Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cooperative learning in which oral discussion was structured, cooperative learning in which oral discussion was unstructured, and individualistic learning were compared on daily achievement, postinstructional achievement, and retention. Seventy-five second-grade students were randomly assigned to the three conditions stratified for sex and ability level. The results indicate that students in cooperative groups performed significantly higher on the

Stuart Yager; David W. Johnson; Roger T. Johnson



Oral and Non-Oral Combination Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

An estimated 30 million men in the United States suffer from varying degrees of erectile dysfunction. Increasing age and comorbidities are likely to increase the number of men who are initially refractory or become refractory to phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, the most popular oral therapy. Combination therapy, a concept well proved in other areas of medicine, is therefore of increasing importance. Combination oral and non-oral (intracavernosal injection and intraurethral application) therapies have been shown to salvage monotherapy. The early introduction of combination therapy has been shown to expedite both the return of natural function and PDE-5 inhibitor responsiveness in post-prostatectomy patients with no reports of serious adverse events. Larger controlled studies are needed to corroborate those encouraging findings. PMID:17934566

Nehra, Ajay



Association between oral health status and retrovirus test results in cats.  


Objective-To determine associations between oral health status and seropositivity for FIV or FeLV in cats. Design-Cross-sectional survey. Animals-5,179 cats. Procedures-Veterinarians at veterinary clinics and animal shelters completed online training on oral conditions in cats and then scored oral health status of cats with no known history of vaccination against FIV. Age, sex, and results of an ELISA for retroviruses were recorded. Results were analyzed by means of standard logistic regression with binary outcome. Results-Of 5,179 cats, 237 (4.6%) and 186 (3.6%) were seropositive for FIV and FeLV, respectively, and of these, 12 (0.2%) were seropositive for FIV and FeLV. Of all 5,179 cats, 1,073 (20.7%) had gingivitis, 576 (11.1%) had periodontitis, 203 (3.9%) had stomatitis, and 252 (4.9%) had other oral conditions (overall oral disease prevalence, 2,104/5,179 [40.6%]). Across all age categories, inflammatory oral disease was associated with a significantly higher risk of a positive test result for FIV, compared with the seropositivity risk associated with other oral diseases or no oral disease. Stomatitis was most highly associated with risk of FIV seropositivity. Cats with any oral inflammatory disease were more likely than orally healthy cats to have a positive test result for FeLV. Increasing age was associated with a higher prevalence of oral disease in retrovirus-seronegative cats. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Inflammatory oral disease was associated with an increased risk of seropositivity for retroviruses in naturally infected cats. Therefore, retroviral status of cats with oral inflammatory disease should be determined and appropriate management initiated. PMID:25285933

Kornya, Mathew R; Little, Susan E; Scherk, Margie A; Sears, William C; Bienzle, Dorothee



Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.  


: Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:25289722

Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki



Original article Rabies oral vaccination of foxes during the summer  

E-print Network

Original article Rabies oral vaccination of foxes during the summer with the VRG vaccine bait Eric was eval- uated by the relative decrease in rabies incidcnce and the rate of bait uptake by foxcs compared, the decrease in rabies incidence, measured during the 6-month period following the cam- paigns was less

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Oral and Written Dialogue Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hypothesis-generating study of advanced university English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners' incidental vocabulary acquisition from oral and written dialogue journals over a semester. Teacher and student entries were analyzed and transcribed using WordCruncher (1993). Analyses compare characteristics of the input to the learners in the…

Brown, Cheryl; Sagers, Sherri L.; LaPorte, Carrie



[APC (activated protein C) resistance and oral contraceptives].  


Resistance to activated protein C [1,2,3,4,5,6] is the most frequent hereditary cause of thromboses and is widespread through-out the population. Women with APC resistance have an enhanced risk of thrombosis compared to the total population. The risk increase, with the intake of oral contraceptives. PMID:8768059

Kreis, I; Weiss, T; Rabe, T N; Ziegler, R; Nawroth, P P



Oral health-related quality of life in diabetic patients: comparison of the Persian version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and Oral Health Impact Profile: A descriptive-analytic study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the systemic disease which is show important oral manifestation and influence oral health. This study describes how diabetes mellitus affects oral health and oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health and oral health-related quality of life of diabetic patients and compare the discriminative capability of Persian versions of two GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires in these patients. Methods A total of 350 patients with Type II diabetes mellitus, referring to the Diabetes Clinic, were selected and data were collected by GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires completed by patients and clinical examinations. Oral health parameters (CAL,BI,GI,PLI,DMFT and xerostomia) were measured, also concurrent validity and conformity of two questionnaires were assessed. In order to test Discriminant analysis capabilities of two questionnaires, ADD and SC scores of questionnaires were divided into two parts and a logistic regression model was designed, which included subjective and objective variables. Results Mean patients age was 55 years (with 75.4% female patients). The results showed that some oral conditions such as xerostomia, clinical attachment loss, number of missing teeth and plaque index were correlated to diabetes control level (HbA1c) and type of anti-diabetic medication. ADD and SC scores of two questionnaires were at high level. However, the effect of oral problems on decreasing OHRQoL was evident. Both questionnaires had acceptable concurrent validity and conformity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between GOHAI and OHIP-14. OHIP-14 questionnaire had a higher discriminant analysis capability compared to GOHAI and better diagnosed patients who needed dental treatments: patients with higher GI, xerostomia and those wearing partial dentures. Conclusion Diabetic patients did not show acceptable oral health status and in some extent, oral problems affected oral health-related quality of life. Psychotherapy courses and solving oral problems of the patients can improve OHRQoL. OHIP-14 had higher discriminant analysis capability and was more effective in diagnosing oral problems. PMID:24495383



Determinants of oral contraceptive use in northern Italy.  


Socio-demographic characteristics, general lifestyle habits, reproductive and medical histories were compared of 328 women who had ever used oral contraceptives and 2306 never users from a case-control surveillance conducted in Northern Italy. Oral contraceptive use was positively and strongly related with the level of education and indicators of social class. The rate ratio of ever use (adjusted for age and diagnostic category) was 3.3 for women with 12 years of education or more compared with less than 7 years, and 3.0 for women of highest compared with lowest social class. The frequency of pill use was lower among never married women, and significantly elevated among smokers (rate ratio = 2.4 for heavy smokers). In contrast, no relation was evident between alcohol or coffee consumption and pill use. Likewise, ever users of oral contraceptives were not significantly different from women who had never used the pill with regard to major reproductive factors (parity and age at first pregnancy) or several medical variables of potential interest (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia), with the only possible exclusion of obesity which was less frequent among pill users. Thus, this study indicates that the major determinants of the persistently low frequency of oral contraceptive use in this Northern Italian population are social rather than reproductive or medical factors. These findings have important implications for epidemiological research on oral contraceptive and disease in this population, and underline the importance of selection and screening of oral contraceptive users on the basis of knowledge of medical factors and lifestyle habits. PMID:3780230

La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Parazzini, F; Gentile, A; Negri, E; Franceschi, S



Oral manifestations of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

In a systematic study of 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 100 with ulcerative colitis, and of 100 normal subjects matched for age, sex, and denture status, nine patients with Crohn's disease, two with ulcerative colitis, and one normal control were found to have oral lesions. In Crohn's disease, the macroscopic and histological appearances resembled those encountered elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract and their incidence was related to the activity of the disorder. The lesions in the other two groups were different macroscopically and histologically. Production of salivary IgA was found to be reduced in Crohn's patients with active bowel disease. It is suggested that the occurrence of