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1

Oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomised 12 week controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: A 12 week, single centre, randomised controlled study was performed. Twenty nine patients were randomly assigned to receive oral pilocarpine (5 mg twice a day), 28 only artificial tears, and 28 inferior puncta occlusion. Patients receiving oral pilocarpine and those with inferior puncta occlusion also received artificial tears. Patients were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study for their subjective global assessment of dry eyes and for their objective assessment of dry eyes (Schirmer's-I test, rose bengal test, and imprint test). Results: Patients taking oral pilocarpine had significant improvement in subjective global assessment of dry eyes, as was evaluated by improvement of >55 mm on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for responses to the eye questionnaire, compared with patients treated with artificial tears (p<0.001) and those with inferior puncta occlusion (p<0.05). Furthermore, patients receiving oral pilocarpine also showed greater objective improvement, as measured by the rose bengal test (p<0.05), while Schirmer's-I test showed no differences between the treated groups. Commonly reported adverse events were headache, increased sweating, nausea, and vomiting in the pilocarpine group, while one patient in the inferior puncta occlusion group had blepharitis and was withdrawn from the study. Conclusion: 10 mg of pilocarpine daily given to patients with SS for 12 weeks had a beneficial effect on subjective eye symptoms, as evaluated by improvement >55 mm on a VAS. Additionally, an improvement of rose bengal staining was noted, but an increase in tear production, as measured by the Schirmer-I test, was not substantiated. PMID:14644860

Tsifetaki, N; Kitsos, G; Paschides, C; Alamanos, Y; Eftaxias, V; Voulgari, P; Psilas, K; Drosos, A

2003-01-01

2

Randomized controlled trial of pilocarpine hydrochloride for the moderation of oral mucositis during autologous blood stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilocarpine hydrochloride has been reported to increase salivation and decrease oral mucositis in patients receiving head and neck radiotherapy, but there is only one report of its use in a cancer chemotherapy patient population. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy of pilocarpine for the moderation of oral mucositis during autologous blood stem cell transplantation.

P B Lockhart; M T Brennan; M L Kent; C H Packman; H J Norton; P C Fox; G Frenette

2005-01-01

3

Pilocarpine Ophthalmic  

MedlinePLUS

... eye gel to apply to the eyes. The eye drops are usually instilled two to four times daily. ... any part you do not understand. Use pilocarpine eye drops and eye gel exactly as directed. Do not ...

4

sIgA and cytokine levels in whole saliva of Sjögren's syndrome patients before and after oral pilocarpine hydrochloride administration: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations have found elevated levels of s-IgA in the parotid saliva and normal levels in submandibular saliva\\u000a of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Fox et al. also found elevated levels of cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IL-6) in serum,\\u000a salivary epithelial cells and parotid saliva of patients with SS. The oral administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride stimulates\\u000a whole and parotid salivary

Nelson Rhodus; Lisa Dahmer; Karen Lindemann; Joel Rudney; Ambika Mathur; Janna Bereuter

1998-01-01

5

Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and in- clude sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and

R. Bernardi; C. Perin; F. L. Becker; G. Z. Ramos; G. Z. Gheno; L. R. Lopes; M. Pires; H. M. T. Barros

2002-01-01

6

Effect of Pilocarpine on impaired salivary secretion in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze resting whole saliva (RWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) flow rates before and after administration of Pilocarpine in secondary Sjögren's Syndrome patients. Fifty-one patients (49 women, 2 men, mean age 61 years, range 38-85), all with a resting saliva < or =0.1 ml/min, participated. Volumes of RWS and SWS collected over periods of 15 and 5 min, respectively, using standardized protocols were measured and the same procedure was repeated after oral administration of Pilocarpine (0.7 mg per 10 kg body weight). The sample was then divided into two groups, according to those in whom Pilocarpine stimulation had caused RWS flow to reach >0.1 ml/min (responders) and those who remained at values < or =0.1 ml/min (non-responders). All participants completed a questionnaire related to general and oral health status, as well as their subjective intraoral complaints before and after administration of Pilocarpine. Thirteen patients (25%) were classified as non-responders and the remaining 38 (75%) as responders. No statistically significant differences between the non-responders and responders were detected as regards general health parameters or intake of medicines with anticholinergic affect. As regards intraoral subjective complaints, no difference between the groups was found before Pilocarpine administration. After administration of Pilocarpine, complaints were significantly fewer among the responders (p<0.01). Both groups exhibited a significant decrease of intraoral symptoms after administration of Pilocarpine (responders P<0.001 and non-responders P<0.05) compared to baseline. For the whole group, more severe intraoral complaints were significantly associated with a lower SWS (P<0.05), but not a RWS, rate at baseline. It is concluded that a subgroup of Sjögren patients do not respond to Pilocarpine stimulation. The clinical implications of this finding need further investigation. PMID:18700333

Jorkjend, Lars; Bergenholtz, Axel; Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Johansson, Anders

2008-01-01

7

Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits  

E-print Network

,O'-dipropionyl-(1,4-xylylene) bispilocarpate, in albino rabbits were studied. Compared to the commercial pilocarpine eyedrop solution (163 mM, equivalent to 3.4% pilocarpine), 12 - 24 mM pilocarpine prodrug solutions (equivalent to 0.5 - 1.0% pilocarpine...

Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

1995-01-01

8

Design and evaluation of novel fast forming pilocarpine-loaded ocular hydrogels for sustained pharmacological response  

PubMed Central

Fast forming hydrogels prepared by crosslinking a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based copolymer containing multiple thiol (SH) groups were evaluated for the controlled ocular delivery of pilocarpine and subsequent pupillary constriction. Physical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometry, and swelling kinetics. Pilocarpine loading efficiency and release properties were measured in simulated tear fluid. The hydrogel formulations exhibited high drug loading efficiency (~74%). Pilocarpine release was found to be biphasic with release half times of ~2 and 94 h, respectively, and 85–100% of the drug was released over 8-days. Pilocarpine-loaded (2% w/v) hydrogels were evaluated in a rabbit model and compared to a similar dose of drug in aqueous solution. The hydrogels were retained in the eye for the entire period of the study with no observed irritation. Pilocarpine-loaded hydrogels sustained pupillary constriction for 24 h after administration as compared to 3 h for the solution, an 8-fold increase in duration of action. A strong correlation between pilocarpine release and pupillary response was observed. In conclusion, the current studies demonstrate that in situ forming PEG hydrogels possess the viscoelastic, retention, and sustained delivery properties required for an efficient ocular drug delivery system. PMID:19341773

Anumolu, SivaNaga S.; Singh, Yashveer; Gao, Dayuan; Stein, Stanley; Sinko, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

9

Pilocarpine  

MedlinePLUS

... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a ...

10

A comparative study between oral melatonin and oral midazolam on preoperative anxiety, cognitive, and psychomotor functions  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims: Melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone in the human body, has been reported to cause preoperative anxiolysis and sedation without impairing orientation. The aim of the following study was to evaluate and to compare the effects of oral melatonin and oral midazolam on preoperative anxiety, sedation, psychomotor, and cognitive function. Materials and Methods: A study conducted on 120 patients aged 16-55 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 and 2 posted for elective surgery, with each group of melatonin, midazolam, and placebo comprising 40 patients. Patients were given either 0.4 mg/kg oral melatonin or 0.2 mg/kg oral midazolam or a placebo 60-90 min before induction. Preoperative anxiety was studied before and 60-90 min after giving medications using visual analog scale (VAS) anxiety score, orientation score, and sedation score. Psychomotor and cognitive functions were studied using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and trail making test (TMT) tests. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test or Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance and the value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Changes in VAS anxiety scores were significant when melatonin was compared with placebo (P = 0.0124) and when midazolam was compared with placebo (P = 0.0003). When melatonin was compared with midazolam, no significant difference (P = 0.49) in VAS anxiety scores was observed. Intergroup comparison of sedation scores showed melatonin (P = 0.0258) and midazolam (P = 0.0000) to be statistically significant when compared with placebo. No changes in orientation scores occurred in melatonin and placebo group. Change in DSST scores and TMT scores were seen to be significant only in midazolam group. Conclusion: Oral melatonin 0.4 mg/kg provides adequate anxiolysis comparable to that of oral midazolam. Unlike midazolam, oral melatonin 0.4 mg/kg does not impair the general cognitive and psychomotor function especially cognitive aspects such as working memory, memory retrieval, sustained attention, and flexibility of thinking. PMID:25788771

Patel, Tushar; Kurdi, Madhuri S.

2015-01-01

11

Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and oral antidiabetic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated their role on renal outcomes by using a national Veterans Administration database to assemble a retrospective cohort of 93,577 diabetic patients who filled an incident oral antidiabetic drug prescription for metformin, sulfonylurea, or rosiglitazone, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60?ml/min or better. The primary composite outcome was a persistent decline in eGFR from baseline of 25% or more (eGFR event) or a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was an eGFR event, ESRD, or death. Sensitivity analyses included using a more stringent definition of the eGFR event requiring an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in addition to the 25% or more decline; controlling for baseline proteinuria thereby restricting data to 15,065 patients; and not requiring persistent treatment with the initial oral antidiabetic drug. Compared to patients using metformin, sulfonylurea users had an increased risk for both the primary and the secondary outcome, each with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.20. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. The risk associated with rosiglitazone was similar to metformin for both outcomes. Thus, compared to metformin, oral antidiabetic drug treatment with sulfonylureas increased the risk of a decline in eGFR, ESRD, or death. PMID:22258320

Hung, Adriana M; Roumie, Christianne L; Greevy, Robert A; Liu, Xulei; Grijalva, Carlos G; Murff, Harvey J; Ikizler, T Alp; Griffin, Marie R

2012-04-01

12

Comparative efficacy of oral sustained released bronchodilator in stable asthmatics.  

PubMed

Double blind randomized trial of oral conventional and sustained release bronchodilators was undertaken to observe comparative efficacy in 30 patients older than 15 years. All cases selected were stable asthmatics at least for last 2 years having FEV1 improvement > or = 20%. Basal Pulmonary functions like FEV1, FVC and PEFR were recorded before and after drug administration at 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Four drug regimens were given as a single dose in the morning on randomized crossover manner on 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th days, sustained release theophylline 300 mg+salbutamol 4 mg (Drug I), salbutamol 4 mg + theophylline 300 mg (Drug II), salbutamol sustained released (asthalin SA) 8 mg (Drug III), salbutamol sustained released (ventorlin CR) 8 mg (Drug IV). Mean FEV1 changes observed at 0, 6 and 12 hours for all the drugs were compared which showed no statistical significance (t = 2.3876). Therefore, we conclude that using single dose fixed combination of oral salbutamol and aminophylline either in a plain or slow released form have no additive bronchodilator effect as compared to salbutamol alone in stable asthmatics. PMID:8258465

Koyande, D N; Shah, S P; Hingorani, M; Ailani, R K; Haran, A; Kadge, K M

1993-01-01

13

Topical and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Many studies have used pilocarpine to stimulate accommodation in both humans and monkeys. However, the concentrations of pilocarpine used and the methods of administration vary. In this study, three different methods of pilocarpine administration are evaluated for their effectiveness in stimulating accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed in 17 iridectomized, anesthetized rhesus monkeys aged 4–16 years. Maximum accommodation was stimulated in all these monkeys with a 2% pilocarpine solution maintained on the cornea for at least 30 min in a specially designed perfusion lens. In subsequent topical pilocarpine experiments, baseline refraction was measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and then while the monkeys were upright and facing forward, commercially available pilocarpine (2, 4, or 6%) was applied topically to the cornea as 2 or 4 drops in two applications or 6 drops in three applications over a five minute period with the eyelids closed between applications. Alternatively, while supine, 10–12 drops of pilocarpine were maintained on the cornea in a scleral cup for 5 min. Refraction measurements were begun 5 min after the second application of pilocarpine and continued for at least 30 min after initial administration until no further change in refraction occurred. In intravenous experiments, pilocarpine was given either as boluses ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg or boluses followed by a constant infusion at rates between 3.06 mg/kg/h and 11.6 mg/kg/h. Constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye in the perfusion lens produced 10.88 ± 2.73 D (mean ± SD) of accommodation. Topically applied pilocarpine produced 3.81 D ± 2.41, 5.49 D ± 4.08, and 5.55 D ± 3.27 using 2%, 4%, and 6% solutions respectively. When expressed as a percentage of the accommodative response amplitude obtained in the same monkey with constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye, the responses were 34.7% for 2% pilocarpine, 48.4% for 4% pilocarpine, and 44.6% for 6% pilocarpine. Topical 4% and 6% pilocarpine achieved similar, variable accommodative responses, but neither achieved maximum accommodation. IV boluses of pilocarpine achieved near maximal levels of accommodation at least ten times faster than topical methods. Doses effective for producing maximum accommodation ranged from 0.25 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg. IV pilocarpine boluses caused an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface, a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface, and a slight net anterior movement of the entire lens. Considerable variability in response amplitude occurred and maximum accommodative amplitude was rarely achieved with topical application of a variety of concentrations of commercially available pilocarpine. Intravenous infusion of pilocarpine was a rapid and reliable method of producing a nearly maximal accommodative response and maintaining accommodation when desired. PMID:20159011

Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian

2010-01-01

14

Central mechanisms involved in pilocarpine-induced pressor response.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine (cholinergic muscarinic agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally to produce pressor responses; in the present study, using c-fos immunoreactive expression, we investigated the forebrain and brainstem areas activated by pressor doses of intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine. In addition, the importance of vasopressin secretion and/or sympathetic activation and the effects of lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region in awake rats were also investigated. In male Holtzman rats, pilocarpine (0.04 to 4?mol/kg b.w.) i.v. induced transitory hypotension followed by long lasting hypertension. Sympathetic blockade with prazosin (1mg/kg b.w.) i.v. or AV3V lesions (1 day) almost abolished the pressor response to i.v. pilocarpine (2?mol/kg b.w.), whereas the vasopressin antagonist (10?g/kg b.w.) i.v. reduced the response to pilocarpine. Pilocarpine (2 and 4?mol/kg b.w.) i.v. increased the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, organ vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla. These data suggest that i.v. pilocarpine activates specific forebrain and brainstem mechanisms increasing sympathetic activity and vasopressin secretion to induce pressor response. PMID:21689994

Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Borella, Thais L; Paulin, Renata F; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

2011-10-28

15

Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ–HA and CBZ–FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ–HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex.

Mirza, Mohd. Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M.; Iqbal, Z.

2011-01-01

16

Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia  

PubMed Central

Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ?0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

2011-01-01

17

Comparative bioavailability of various thiamine derivatives after oral administration.  

PubMed

In a multiple change-over study the bioequivalence of 3 thiamine preparations, used therapeutically as neurotropic agents for the treatment of polyneuropathies, was tested in a collective of 7 volunteers. After ingestion of a single dose of either 100 mg benfotiamin CS-benzoylthiamine-o-monophosphate), fursultiamin (thiamintetrahydrofurfuryldisulfide) or thiaminedisulfide, thiamine blood levels were analyzed for a 10-hour period. Thiamine was measured by HPLC after precolumn derivatization to thiochrome. The maximal thiamine concentration Cmax and its time (tmax) in plasma and hemolysate, the area under concentration time curve (AUC), and thiamine excretion in 24-hour urine were assessed as criteria of bioavailability. Additionally the erythrocytic transketolase activity (ETK) and alphaETK were determined as indicators of the cellular thiamine availability. After benfotiamin ingestion a more rapid and earlier increase of thiamine in plasma and hemolysate was observed in contrast to fursultiamin and the disulfide. All biokinetic data demonstrated a significantly improved thiamine bioavailability from benfotiamin compared with the other preparations. The lowest bioavailability was detected with thiamindisulfide. From our results it can be concluded that oral administration of benfotiamin is best suitable for therapeutical purposes owing to its excellent absorption characteristics. PMID:9587048

Greb, A; Bitsch, R

1998-04-01

18

Comparison of dorzolamide and pilocarpine as adjunctive therapy in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.  

PubMed

Many patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension initially receive beta-blocker monotherapy to control intraocular pressure (IOP), but some of these patients will require an additional IOP-lowering agent within 1 year. This active-controlled, double-masked, randomized, multicenter, 12-week study compared the effectiveness and tolerability of dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 2% TID with those of pilocarpine hydrochloride 2% QID as adjunctive therapy to timolol maleate ophthalmic gel-forming solution (TG) 0.5% QD as measured by changes in IOP and occurrence of adverse events. One hundred ninety-four patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension participated in this study. Their mean age was approximately 63 years. Slightly more than one half were white, and approximately one third were black. After a 3-week run-in period during which all patients received TG 0.5% QD, patients with an IOP of > or = 22 mm Hg at the morning trough measurement were randomly assigned to receive additional double-masked therapy with either dorzolamide or pilocarpine. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in IOP at the morning trough measurement from baseline to week 12. The secondary outcome measure was the mean change in IOP at the morning peak measurement from baseline to week 12. There was no significant difference in IOP-lowering effect between the 2 drugs at either morning trough or morning peak. The mean change in IOP at morning trough was -3.17 mm Hg (-12%) in patients receiving dorzolamide; it was -3.45 mm Hg (-13%) in patients receiving pilocarpine. The mean change in IOP at morning peak was -2.25 mm Hg (-10%) for patients who received dorzolamide and -2.51 mm Hg (-11%) for those who received pilocarpine. In the pilocarpine group, 62 (63%) patients experienced > or =1 adverse event compared with 35 (36%) patients in the dorzolamide group (P < 0.001). Twenty-one (21%) patients in the pilocarpine group discontinued treatment because of an adverse event compared with 2 (2%) patients in the dorzolamide group (P < 0.001). These results demonstrate that dorzolamide and pilocarpine were equally effective as adjunctive therapy in lowering IOP but that dorzolamide was better tolerated. PMID:10509848

Hartenbaum, D; Maloney, S; Vaccarelli, L; Liss, C; Wilson, H; Gormley, G J

1999-09-01

19

ORIGINAL ARTICLE SKIN AND EYE DISEASES Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE SKIN AND EYE DISEASES Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I, Athanasiadis GI, Behrendt H, Ring J, Darsow U, Napadow V. Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Allergy 2012; 67: 566­573. Keywords acupuncture; allergen

Napadow, Vitaly

20

Effect of ozone on oral cells compared with established antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has been proposed as an alternative antiseptic agent in dentistry based on reports of its antimicrobial effects in both gaseous and aqueous forms. This study investigated whether gaseous ozone (4 · 106 l gm )3) and aqueous ozone (1.25- 20 l gm l )1) exert any cytotoxic effects on human oral epithelial (BHY) cells and gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells

Karin C. Huth; Franz M. Jakob; Bernd Saugel; Christian Cappello; Ekaterini Paschos; Regina Hollweck; Reinhard Hickel; Korbinian Brand

2006-01-01

21

Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: a study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p?compared to 1% of dentists (p?oral health behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists. PMID:24655533

2014-01-01

22

Studies of pilocarpine:carbomer intermolecular interactions.  

PubMed

The interactions between pilocarpine (PIL) and the anionic polyelectrolyte carbomer (CBR) were investigated. The effects of the chemical interactions on the chemical stability of the drug also were evaluated. The binary system was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis. The experiments showed that the complex, prepared by freeze-drying, is a solid amorphous form different from its precursors, thereby offering an interesting alternative for the preparation of extended release matrices. The solution stability of PIL was studied at pH 7 and 8, at 70 °C. The PIL solution stability was evaluated alone and in the presence of CBR. Results indicated that the drug in the presence of the polymer is 3.3 and 3.5 times more stable, at pH 7 and pH 8, respectively, than the drug without CBR. The activation energy and the frequency factor, according to Arrhenius plot, were estimated to be 13.9 ± 0.4 and 14.8 ± 0.5 kcalmol(-1), and 6.1 ± 0.3 and 7.6 ± 0.3, with and without the polymer, respectively. PMID:22349054

Zoppi, Ariana; Linck, Yamila Garro; Monti, Gustavo A; Genovese, Diego B; Jimenez Kairuz, Alvaro F; Manzo, Rubén H; Longhi, Marcela R

2012-05-10

23

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

24

Pilocarpine-Induced Dilation of Schlemm's Canal and Prevention of Lumen Collapse at Elevated Intraocular Pressures in Living Mice Visualized by OCT  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The goal was to assess effects of IOP and pilocarpine-induced ciliary muscle contraction on conventional outflow pathway tissues in living anesthetized mice. Methods. Intraocular pressure was controlled by intracameral cannulation of mouse eyes while imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Time-lapse sagittal SD-OCT sections through Schlemm's canal (SC) were acquired while changing IOP stepwise between 10 and 45 mm Hg. After topical application of 1% pilocarpine, the series of IOP steps and imaging were repeated. Effects of pilocarpine on IOP and outflow facility in living mice were verified by rebound tonometry and flow measurements at three different IOPs, respectively. In vivo OCT images were compared with eyes analyzed by standard histology. Results. In living mice imaged by SD-OCT, the lumen of SC progressively collapsed with increasing IOP, reaching near complete closure at 20 mm Hg. Schlemm's canal collapse was reversible, with the lumen opening within minutes after returning IOP from 45 to 10 mm Hg. Pilocarpine-induced ciliary muscle contraction changed SC lumen area by 131.6% ± 21.0% compared with untreated controls at 10 mm Hg, opened the trabecular meshwork, and prevented complete collapse of the SC lumen at higher pressures. Similar results were observed by standard histology. Pilocarpine increased outflow facility 4-fold (P = 0.02) and lowered IOP (16.46 ± 2.23 vs. 11.08 ± 2.28 mm Hg, P = 0.03). Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT was effective at visualizing changes in SC lumen in living mice. Results with pilocarpine are consistent with the concept that a primary role for the ciliary muscle is to prevent collapse of SC. PMID:24595384

Li, Guorong; Farsiu, Sina; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Gonzalez, Pedro; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Overby, Darryl R.; Stamer, W. Daniel

2014-01-01

25

Comparative evaluation of oral flupirtine and oral diclofenac sodium for analgesia and adverse effects in elective abdominal surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Flupirtine is a centrally-acting, nonopioid analgesic that interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Aim: The present study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of orally administered flupirtine and diclofenac sodium for postoperative pain relief. Settings and Design: In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, 100 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist grade I and II in the age group of 18–65 years of either sex undergoing elective abdominal surgeries were included after taking informed consent. Materials and Methods: The present study started after 12 h of surgery and patients were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each. For postoperative analgesia, group A received flupirtine 100 mg orally and group B received diclofenac sodium 50 mg orally and study drugs were repeated every 6 hourly for 5 days postoperatively. Vital parameters and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain were recorded at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h, and adverse effects were noted for 48 h of the study period. Statistical Analysis: Data were compiled and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test and two-tailed Student's t-test. Results: Visual analogue scores decreased more rapidly in diclofenac group during 1st h, hence there was rapid onset of analgesia in this group as compared to flupirtine group but later on VAS was comparable in both groups at all measured intervals (P > 0.05). Patients in diclofenac group experienced significantly more heartburn (P = 0.00), impaired taste sensation (P < 0.001) and dizziness (P = 0.004) as compared to flupirtine group. Conclusion: Oral flupirtine and diclofenac sodium were equally effective for postoperative analgesia. There was faster onset of analgesia with diclofenac sodium, but flupirtine was better tolerated by the patients because of its minimal adverse effects.

Attri, Joginder Pal; Sandhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Khichy, Sudhir; Singh, Harsimrat; Singh, Kulwinder; Sharan, Radhe

2015-01-01

26

Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes  

PubMed Central

The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

2014-01-01

27

Effect of Argemone mexicana (L.) against lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Argemone mexicana (L.) has a role in the treatment of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. We studied its effect on induced status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress in rats. SE was induced in male albino rats by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, ip) 24 h after injection of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, ip). Different doses of the ethanol extract of A. mexicana were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of SE was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter at every 30 min for another 90 min, using the Racine scoring system. In vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured utilizing thiobarbiturate-reactive substances. Both in vitro free radical nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the extract were also determined. The SE severity was significantly reduced following oral administration of the extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. None of the animals from groups 3 to 5 (with A. mexicana extract) have exhibited forelimb clonus of stage 4 seizure. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:25675709

Asuntha, G; Raju, Y Prasanna; Sundaresan, C R; Rasheed, Arun; Chowdary, V Harini; Vandana, K R; Babu, K Satish; Prasad, K V S R G

2015-01-01

28

Comparative Study of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Induction of Labour, Maternal and Foetal Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally. PMID:24551660

Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya

2013-01-01

29

Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

2015-03-01

30

Proteome of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva induced by the secretagogues pilocarpine and dopamine  

PubMed Central

One dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins from the saliva of Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks fed on rabbits. Gel slices were subjected to tryptic digestion and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC followed by MS/MS analysis. The data were compared to a database of salivary proteins of the same tick and to the predicted proteins of the host. Saliva was obtained by either pilocarpine or dopamine stimulation of partially-fed ticks. Electrophoretic separations of both yielded products that were identified by mass spectrometry, although the pilocarpine-derived sample was of much better quality. The majority of identified proteins were of rabbit origin, indicating the recycling of the host proteins in the tick saliva, including hemoglobin, albumin, haptoglobin, transferring, and a plasma serpin. The few proteins found that were previously associated with parasitism and blood feeding include 2 glycine-rich, cement-like proteins, 2 lipocalins, and a thyropin protease inhibitor. Among other of the 19 tick proteins identified, albeit with undefined roles, were SPARC and cyclophilin A. This catalog provides a resource that can be mined for secreted molecules that play a role in tick-host interactions. PMID:24029695

Oliveira, C.J.; Anatriello, E.; de Miranda-Santos, I.K.; Francischetti, I.M.; Sá-Nunes, A.; Ferreira, B.R.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.

2013-01-01

31

Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women) completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the mid point of the scales. T-values ranged from -13.1 and -12.1 for the perceived risk of being divorced and loosing all teeth to -8.2 and -7.8 (p < 0.001) for having gum disease and toothdecay. Multivariate analyses using General Linear Models, GLM, revealed gender differences in comparative risk judgements for gum disease, whereas social position varied systematically with risk judgements for tooth decay, gum disease and air pollution. The odds ratios for being comparatively optimistic with respect to having gum disease were 2.9, 1.9, 1.8 and 1.5 if being satisfied with dentition, having a favourable view of health situation, and having high and low involvement with health enhancing and health detrimental behaviour, respectively. Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience. PMID:12186656

Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

2002-01-01

32

Characterisation of the membrane transport of pilocarpine in cell suspension cultures of Pilocarpus microphyllus.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Pilocarpus genus, with important pharmaceutical applications. Previous reports have investigated the production of pilocarpine by Pilocarpus microphyllus cell cultures and tried to establish the alkaloid biosynthetic route. However, the site of pilocarpine accumulation inside of the cell and its exchange to the medium culture is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the intracellular accumulation of pilocarpine and characterise its transport across membranes in cell suspension cultures of P. microphyllus. Histochemical analysis and toxicity assays indicated that pilocarpine is most likely stored in the vacuoles probably to avoid cell toxicity. Assays with exogenous pilocarpine supplementation to the culture medium showed that the alkaloid is promptly uptaken but it is rapidly metabolised. Treatment with specific ABC protein transporter inhibitors and substances that disturb the activity of secondary active transporters suppressed pilocarpine uptake and release suggesting that both proteins may participate in the traffic of pilocarpine to inside and outside of the cells. As bafilomicin A1, a specific V-type ATPase inhibitor, had little effect and NH4Cl (induces membrane proton gradient dissipation) had moderate effect, while cyclosporin A and nifedipine (ABC proteins inhibitors) strongly inhibited the transport of pilocarpine, it is believed that ABC proteins play a major role in the alkaloid transport across membranes but it is not the exclusive one. Kinetic studies supported these results. PMID:25474486

Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mazzafera, Paulo

2015-03-01

33

Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

2013-10-01

34

The Uses of Literacy in Studying Computer Games: Comparing Students' Oral and Visual Representations of Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares the oral and visual representations which 12 to 13-year-old students produced in studying computer games as part of an English and Media course. It presents the arguments for studying multimodal texts as part of a literacy curriculum and then provides an overview of the games course devised by teachers and researchers. The…

Pelletier, Caroline

2005-01-01

35

Indian Education: Causal Comparative Research of Oral Reading Fluency for Native American First Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the reading research over the past forty years, there is a dearth of research in early literacy skills for Native American students. More specifically, there is a shortage of quantitative research for this population. The purpose of this quantitative causal comparative study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the oral

Redgrave, Crystal J.

2013-01-01

36

Emotional Expression in Oral History Narratives: Comparing Results of Automated Verbal and  

E-print Network

improve their physical and mental health by talking or writing about their experiences [6]. The linguisticEmotional Expression in Oral History Narratives: Comparing Results of Automated Verbal.p.truong,f.m.g.dejong}@utwente.nl 2 Department of Psychology, Health and Technology University of Twente Enschede, The Netherlands {g

Twente, Universiteit

37

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

38

A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

2010-12-01

39

A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

2011-08-01

40

InVivo and InVitro Effects of Pilocarpine: Relevance to Ictogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives A common experimental model of status epilepticus (SE) utilizes intraperitoneal administration of the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine preceded by methyl-scopolamine treatment. Currently, activation of cholinergic neurons is recognized as the only factor triggering pilocarpine SE. However, cholinergic receptors are also widely distributed systemically and pretreatment with methyl-scopolamine may not be sufficient to counteract the effects of systemically injected pilocarpine. The extent of such peripheral events and the contribution to SE are unknown and the possibility that pilocarpine also induces SE by peripheral actions is yet untested. Methods We measured in vivo at onset of SE: brain and blood pilocarpine levels, blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, T-lymphocyte activation and serum levels of IL-1? and TNF-?. The effects of pilocarpine on neuronal excitability was assessed in vitro on hippocampal slices or whole guinea pig brain preparations in presence of physiologic or elevated [K+]out. Results Pilocarpine blood and brain levels at SE were 1400 ± 200 ?M and 200 ± 80 ?M, respectively. In vivo, after pilocarpine injection, increased serum IL-1?, decreased CD4:CD8 T-lymphocyte ratios and focal BBB leakage were observed. In vitro, pilocarpine failed to exert significant synchronized epileptiform activity when applied at concentrations identical or higher to levels measured in vivo. Intense electrographic seizure-like events occurred only in the copresence of levels of K+ (6 mM) mimicking BBB leakage. Conclusions Early systemic events increasing BBB permeability may promote entry of cofactors (e. g. K+) into the brain leading to pilocarpine-induced SE. Disturbance of brain homeostasis represents an etiological factor contributing to pilocarpine seizures. PMID:17645533

Marchi, Nicola; Oby, Emily; Batra, Ayush; Uva, Laura; De Curtis, Marco; Hernandez, Nadia; Van Boxel-Dezaire, Anette; Najm, Imad; Janigro, Damir

2013-01-01

41

The traditional method of oral as-needed pain medication delivery compared to an oral patient-controlled analgesia device following total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

As-needed (PRN) oral pain medication is an essential part of multimodal pain therapy. Medication delivery is often delayed because of multiple demands upon nursing time in a busy postoperative nursing unit. Postoperative pain control was compared using either the manual delivery of PRN oral pain medication or a bedside oral patient-controlled analgesia device. Thirty patients in each group completed a survey on the day of discharge, and additional data were collected by chart reviews. Device patients had significantly better pain scores than the usual care group on postoperative Day 2 and within the last 24 hours prior to discharge. The device group reported statistically less pain interference overall with general activity, mood, physical therapy, sleep, and appetite. Use of an oral patient-controlled analgesia device may improve pain management and patient function following total knee arthroplasty compared to the traditional delivery of oral PRN pain medication. PMID:25058727

Lambert, Teresa L; Cata, Denise M

2014-01-01

42

Prospective comparative study of negative oral contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the image quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)\\u000a using manganese chloride tetrahydrate (Bothdel Oral Solution 10) (MCT), a new negative oral contrast agent; ferric ammonium\\u000a citrate (FerriSeltz powder 20%) (FAC); and no agent.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  MRCP images (TE 970 ms) of patients administered MCT (n = 19) or FAC (n =

Satoru Morita; Eiko Ueno; Ai Masukawa; Kazufumi Suzuki; Mikihiko Fujimura; Nozomi Hirabayashi; Shinya Kojima; Masami Hirata; Kazuhiro Kitajima; Yasushi Kaji

2010-01-01

43

NMDA receptor-mediated pilocarpine-induced seizures: characterization in freely moving rats by microdialysis  

PubMed Central

Pilocarpine administration has been used as an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy since it produces several morphological and synaptic features in common with human complex partial seizures. Little is known about changes in extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations during the seizures provoked by pilocarpine, a non-selective muscarinic agonist. Focally evoked pilocarpine-induced seizures in freely moving rats were provoked by intrahippocampal pilocarpine (10?mM for 40?min at a flow rate of 2??l min?1) administration via a microdialysis probe. Concomitant changes in extracellular hippocampal glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine levels were monitored and simultaneous electrocorticography was performed. The animal model was characterized by intrahippocampal perfusion with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (20?mM), the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1??M) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate, 100??M). The effectiveness of locally (600??M) or systemically (10?mg kg?1 day?1) applied lamotrigine against the pilocarpine-induced convulsions was evaluated. Pilocarpine initially decreased extracellular hippocampal glutamate and GABA levels. During the subsequent pilocarpine-induced limbic convulsions extracellular glutamate, GABA and dopamine concentrations in hippocampus were significantly increased. Atropine blocked all changes in extracellular transmitter levels during and after co-administration of pilocarpine. All pilocarpine-induced increases were completely prevented by simultaneous tetrodotoxin perfusion. Intrahippocampal administration of MK-801 and lamotrigine resulted in an elevation of hippocampal dopamine levels and protected the rats from the pilocarpine-induced seizures. Pilocarpine-induced convulsions developed in the rats which received lamotrigine perorally. Pilocarpine-induced seizures are initiated via muscarinic receptors and further mediated via NMDA receptors. Sustained increases in extracellular glutamate levels after pilocarpine perfusion are related to the limbic seizures. These are arguments in favour of earlier described NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. Hippocampal dopamine release may be functionally important in epileptogenesis and may participate in the anticonvulsant effects of MK-801 and lamotrigine. The pilocarpine-stimulated hippocampal GABA, glutamate and dopamine levels reflect neuronal vesicular release. PMID:9249254

Smolders, Ilse; Khan, Ghous M; Manil, Jacqueline; Ebinger, Guy; Michotte, Yvette

1997-01-01

44

Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

2015-01-01

45

Comparative effectiveness of oral diabetes drug combinations in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Aims To provide evidence on the comparative effectiveness of oral diabetes drug combinations. Methods We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study of glycosylated hemoglobin change in outpatients newly exposed to dual- or triple-drug oral diabetes treatment. Results Adjusted response to a second drug added to metformin ranged from 0.85 to 1.21% glycosylated hemoglobin decline. Response to a third drug was smaller (0.53–0.91%). Higher baseline glycosylated hemoglobin was associated with larger response; sulfonylurea effectiveness declined over time; and thiazolidinediones were more effective in obese patients and women. Conclusion Observational data provide results qualitatively consistent with the limited available randomized data on diabetes drug effectiveness, and extend these findings into common clinical scenarios where randomized data are unavailable. Sex and BMI influence the comparative effectiveness of diabetes drug combinations. PMID:24345255

Flory, James H; Small, Dylan S; Cassano, Patricia A; Brillon, David J; Mushlin, Alvin I; Hennessy, Sean

2014-01-01

46

Management of oral submucous fibrosis by two different drug regimens: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition of the oral mucosa. Existing treatments give only temporary symptomatic relief. Colchicine is an ancient drug with anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. We planned to study the effects of colchicine in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty OSF patients were divided randomly into two groups and treated for 12 weeks. Group 1-Patients were administered tablet colchicine orally, 0.5 mg twice daily and 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hyaluronidase 1,500 IU into each buccal mucosa once a week. Group 2-Patients were administered 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hyaluronidase 1,500 IU and 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hydrocortisone acetate 25 mg/ml in each buccal mucosa once a week alternatively. Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare pre and post treatment results. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Thirty-three percent in group 1 got relief from burning sensation in the second week. Inter group comparisons of increase in mouth opening and reduction in histological parameters indicated that group 1 patients responded better than group 2. Conclusion: These encouraging results should prompt further clinical trials with colchicine alone on a larger sample size to broaden the therapeutic usefulness of the drug in the management of OSF. PMID:24130591

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Khan, Mubeen

2013-01-01

47

Relative bioavailability and comparative clinical efficacy of different ivermectin oral formulations in lambs  

PubMed Central

Background Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy among oral formulations routinely used in sheep. The main goal of the work reported here was to perform a pharmaco-parasitological assessment of three different IVM oral formulations in lambs infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The comparative drug systemic exposure (IVM plasma concentrations) and nematodicidal efficacies (clinical efficacy) in lambs were determined for a reference (RF) and two different test (T1, T2) IVM oral formulations. One hundred and fifty six (n= 156) healthy Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into four experimental groups (n=39). Animals in each group received treatment (200 ?g/kg) with either the RF, one of the test IVM formulations or were kept as untreated control. Blood samples were collected over 15 days post-treatment (n=8). The IVM plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) (n=39) and evaluation of the clinical efficacy were performed at day 14 post-treatment (n=6), where a predominance of IVM highly resistant nematodes was observed. Results and conclusions Neither the overall kinetic behaviour nor the IVM systemic exposure differed among all the tested oral formulations. Equivalent efficacy results were obtained for the different preparations, with an evident therapeutic failure to control Haemonchus spp. and Teladorsagia circumcincta, which correlates with a high degree of nematode resistance to IVM. PMID:23398629

2013-01-01

48

Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.  

PubMed

Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides--triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features--have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7% lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8% lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Total weight gain, intake, energy intake, and feed efficiency coefficient, prior to induction of SE, differed between groups (P < 0.05), where the triheptanoin-based KD group showed less weight gain than all other groups, less energy intake than the Control group and intermediate values of feed efficiency coefficient between Control and other KDs groups. Triheptanoin-based KD may have a neuroprotective effect on the establishment of SE in Wistar rats. PMID:25005004

Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvão, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

2015-02-01

49

Is the burden of oral diseases higher in urban disadvantaged community compared to the national prevalence?  

PubMed Central

Background The urban low income has often been assumed to have the greatest dental treatment needs compared to the general population. However, no studies have been carried out to verify these assumptions. This study was conducted to assess whether there was any difference between the treatment needs of an urban poor population as compared to the general population in order to design an intervention programme for this community. Methods A random sampling of living quarters (households) in the selected areas was done. 586 adults over 19 years old living in these households were clinically examined using World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Survey criteria 4th edition (1997). Results The overall prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, denture wearers and temporomandibular joint problems were 70.5%, 97.1%, 16.7% and 26%, respectively. The majority (80.5%) needed some form of dental treatment. The highest treatment needs were found in the oldest age group while the lowest were in the youngest group (19-29 years) (p = 0.000). The most prevalent periodontal problem was calculus; regardless of gender, ethnicity and age. Significantly more females (20.5%) wore prosthesis than males (11.1%) (p = 0.003). Prosthetic status and need significantly increased with age (p = 0.000). About one in four adults had Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) problems. Overall, it was surprising to note that the oral disease burden related to caries, prosthetic status and treatment need were lower in this population as compared to the national average (NOHSA, 2010). However, their periodontal disease status and treatment needs were higher compared to the national average indicating a poor oral hygiene standard. Conclusions The evidence does not show that the overall oral disease burden and treatment needs in this urban disadvantaged adult population as higher than the national average, except for periodontal disease. The older age groups and elderly were identified as the most in need for oral health intervention and promotion. An integrated health intervention programme through a multisectoral common risk factor approach in collaboration with the Faculties of Medicine, Dentistry and other agencies is needed for the identified target group. PMID:25438162

2014-01-01

50

Comparative depletion of ivermectin and moxidectin milk residues in dairy sheep after oral and subcutaneous administration.  

PubMed

Ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MXD) are broad-spectrum endectocides belonging to the avermectin/milbemycin class of antiparasitic drugs not approved for use in dairy sheep. However, these compounds are widely used extra-label to control endo- and ecto-parasites in lactating dairy sheep. Effects of the route of administration on the pattern of IVM and MXD excretion in milk were comparatively characterized in lactating dairy sheep. The relationship between the milk and plasma disposition kinetics after subcutaneous (s.c.) and oral administration at 200 microg/kg body weight was also evaluated. IVM and MXD concentration profiles were measured in milk and plasma using a specific HPLC-based methodology. IVM and MXD were extensively distributed from the bloodstream to the mammary gland and large quantities, particularly for MXD, were excreted in milk. Residual concentrations of IVM were recovered in milk up to 11 d (oral treatment) or 25 d (s.c. treatment) post treatment. However, high MXD concentrations were detected in milk between 1 h and 35 d after its oral and subcutaneous administration. MXD concentrations as high as 3.77 ng/ml (oral) and 30.3 ng/ml (s.c.) were measured in milk at day 35 post administration. A higher MXD excretion in milk, compared with that of IVM, was obtained for both administration routes. An extensive plasma to milk distribution pattern was observed, being the area under the concentration-time curve of MXD obtained in milk up to 14-fold higher than that measured in the bloodstream. The total fraction of the administered dose excreted in milk for MXD was significantly higher than that for IVM, which agrees with the well known higher MXD lipophilicity. The long persistence of milk residual concentrations of MXD and IVM in lactating dairy sheep should be seriously considered before their extra-label use is recommended. PMID:15605709

Imperiale, Fernanda; Lifschitz, Adrian; Sallovitz, Juan; Virkel, Guillermo; Lanusse, Carlos

2004-11-01

51

Comparing the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone on behaviors by undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation.  

PubMed

Complex healthcare, less resources, high-level medical equipment, and fewer available clinical settings have led many health professionals to use simulation as a method to further augment educational experiences for nursing students. While debriefing is recommended in the literature as a key component of simulation, the optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. This pre- and posttest two-group randomized quasi-experimental design compared the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing (VAOD) and oral debriefing alone (ODA) on behaviors of 48 undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Further, this study examined whether roles (e.g., team leader, medication nurse), type of scenarios (i.e., pulmonary and cardiac scenarios), and student simulation team membership (i.e., VAOD and ODA groups) influenced these behaviors. Behaviors observed in this study related to patient safety, communication among team members, basic- and problem-focused assessment, prioritization of care, appropriate interventions, and delegation to healthcare team members. Both human patient simulator practice and guidance using video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone appeared to be comparable regarding behaviors, regardless of roles, type of scenarios, and student simulation team membership. These findings suggest that nurse educators may use either video-assisted oral debriefing or oral debriefing alone to debrief undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. PMID:24929548

Grant, Joan S; Dawkins, Denise; Molhook, Lori; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E

2014-09-01

52

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) dose of 10?mg?kg?1?bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(?)) and mean residence time (MRT) were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot) in renal damaged ducks (0.20?L?kg?1?h?1) was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41?L?kg?1?h?1). Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax) was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax) of 2.47 and 2.05?h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el)) at a significant slower rate (3.94?h) in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89?h). The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10?mg?kg?1?bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks. PMID:24707439

Soliman, Ahmed

2014-01-01

53

Tonic-clonic seizures induce division of neuronal progenitor cells with concomitant changes in expression of neurotrophic factors in the brain of pilocarpine-treated mice.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures cause severe and long-lasting events on the architecture of the brain, including neuronal cell death, accompanied neurogenesis, reactive gliosis, and mossy fiber sprouting. However, it remains uncertain whether these functional and anatomical alterations are associated with the development of hyperexcitability, or as inhibitory processes. Neurotrophic factors are probable mediators of these pathophysiological events. The present study was designed to clarify the role of various neurotrophic factors on the pilocarpine model of seizures. At 4 h following pilocarpine-induced seizures, expression of NGF, BDNF, HB-EGF, and FGF-2 increased only in the mice manifesting tonic-clonic convulsions and not in mice without seizures. NT-3 expression decreased in pilocarpine-treated mice experiencing seizures, tonic-clonic or not, compared to mice with no seizures. Neuronal cell damage, which was evident by Fluoro-Jade B staining, was observed within 24 h in the mice exhibiting tonic-clonic seizures, followed by an increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells and glial cells, which were evident after 2 days. None of these pathophysiological changes occurred in the mice which showed no seizures, although they were injected with pilocarpine, nor in the activated epilepsy-prone EL mice, which experienced repeated severe seizures. Together, these results suggest that neuronal damage occurring in the brain of the mice manifesting tonic-clonic seizures is accompanied by neurogenesis. This sequence of events may be regulated through changes in expression of neurotrophic factors such as NGF, BDNF, HB-FGF, and NT-3. PMID:16023256

Hagihara, Hideo; Hara, Mizumi; Tsunekawa, Kyouko; Nakagawa, Yukinori; Sawada, Makoto; Nakano, Kiwao

2005-10-01

54

Intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine activates neurons in the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus in rats.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that while the sialogogue pilocarpine elicits salivary secretion by acting directly on acinar cells of the salivary glands, it induces drinking behavior by acting on muscarinic receptors in the central nervous system. To study which brain regions are affected by the peripherally injected pilocarpine, we investigated changes in the numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. The injections increased the numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, median nucleus of preoptic area, organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus. Intracerebroventricular injection of pilocarpine produced similar changes in the expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity. The increases in immunoreactive expression induced by both the intraperitoneally and intracerebroventricularly injected pilocarpine were suppressed by previous intracerebroventricular injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. Electrophysiological experiments using slice preparations and whole cell recordings showed that pilocarpine depolarized the membrane of neurons in the subfornical organ and suppressed the inhibitory GABAergic synaptic currents by a presynaptic action. The results suggest that peripherally applied pilocarpine does not act only on the salivary glands as a sialogogue, but also evokes thirst sensation by acting on the center controlling body fluid balance in the central nervous system. PMID:18282557

Inenaga, Kiyotoshi; Wakasugi-Sato, Nao; Ono, Kentaro; Hirase, Masaki; Honda, Eiko

2008-03-20

55

Oral lichen planus: a retrospective comparative study between Thai and Croatian patients.  

PubMed

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common oral mucosal disease that affects middle age patients. However, there are few reports about the incidence of OLP in different ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of OLP in Thai and Croatian patients. Retrospective data were taken from medical records of 175 patients referred to the Oral Medicine Department of Chulalongkorn University and 175 patients referred to the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb during the 1997-2007 period. In all patients the diagnosis of OLP was clinically and histopathologically confirmed. In Thai and Croatian OLP patients, females were predominant (the female to male ratio was 3.5:1). Croatian OLP patients were older with a significant age difference between female Thai and Croatian OLP patients (p<0.05). Atrophic-erosive type of OLP was common in Thai patients, whereas reticular OLP was predominant in Croatians (p<0.001). Burning sensation was the most common chief complaint in both ethnic groups. Significant differences between the two ethnic groups were found in the sites of OLP lesions as well as in the occurrence of pain, roughness and white patches, systemic diseases and use of medication (p<0.05). Croatian patients had more systemic diseases and took more medications than Thai. Three cases showed dysplasia in either group, whereas only one Thai patient developed squamous cell carcinoma. Although Thai and Croatian patients differed significantly according to the clinical type of OLP, the rate of malignant transformation was very low. PMID:19386209

Thongprasom, Kobkan; Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Luckprom, Pimporn; Canjuga, Ivana; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores; Vidovi?-Juras, Danica; Sikora, Miroslav; Brailo, Vlaho; Jirawechwongsakul, Supachote

2009-01-01

56

Comparative Efficacy of Oil Pulling and Chlorhexidine on Oral Malodor: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral malodor affects a large section of population. Traditional Indian folk remedy, oil pulling not only reduces it but can also bring down the cost of treatment. Aims: To compare the efficacy of oil pulling and chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes. Materials and Methods: Three week randomized controlled trial was conducted among 60 students of three hostels of Maharani College of science and arts and commerce and Smt V.H.D.College of Home Science. The hostels were randomized into two intervention groups namely chlorhexidine group, sesame oil and one control (placebo) group. Twenty girls were selected from each hostel based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The parameters recorded at the baseline (day 0) and post intervention on day 22 were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), objective (ORG1) and subjective (ORG2) organoleptic scores and anaerobic bacterial colony (ABC) count. Intra and inter group comparisons were made using Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxan sign rank test, ANOVA and student t-test. Results: There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters within sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Among the groups significant difference was observed in objective and subjective organoleptic scores. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean organoleptic scores of sesame oil and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Conclusion: Oil pulling with sesame oil is equally efficacious as chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes causing it. It should be promoted as a preventive home care therapy. PMID:25584309

Devi M, Aruna; Narang, Ridhi; V, Swathi; Makkar, Diljot Kaur

2014-01-01

57

Behavioral and neurochemical studies in mice pretreated with garcinielliptone FC in pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from hexanic fraction seed extract of species Platonia insignis Mart. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat skin diseases in both humans and animals as well as the seed decoction has been used to treat diarrheas and inflammatory diseases. However, there is no research on GFC effects in the central nervous system of rodents. The present study aimed to evaluate the GFC effects at doses of 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg on seizure parameters to determine their anticonvulsant activity and its effects on amino acid (?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine, aspartate and glutathione) levels as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice hippocampus after seizures. GFC produced an increased latency to first seizure, at doses 25mg/kg (20.12 ± 2.20 min), 50mg/kg (20.95 ± 2.21 min) or 75 mg/kg (23.43 ± 1.99 min) when compared with seized mice. In addition, GABA content of mice hippocampus treated with GFC75 plus P400 showed an increase of 46.90% when compared with seized mice. In aspartate, glutamine and glutamate levels detected a decrease of 5.21%, 13.55% and 21.80%, respectively in mice hippocampus treated with GFC75 plus P400 when compared with seized mice. Hippocampus mice treated with GFC75 plus P400 showed an increase in AChE activity (63.30%) when compared with seized mice. The results indicate that GFC can exert anticonvulsant activity and reduce the frequency of installation of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, as demonstrated by increase in latency to first seizure and decrease in mortality rate of animals. In conclusion, our data suggest that GFC may influence in epileptogenesis and promote anticonvulsant actions in pilocarpine model by modulating the GABA and glutamate contents and of AChE activity in seized mice hippocampus. This compound may be useful to produce neuronal protection and it can be considered as an anticonvulsant agent. PMID:24911645

da Silva, Ana Paula dos S C L; Lopes, Joselma S L; Vieira, Priscila de S; Pinheiro, Emanuelly E A; da Silva, Mirna L de G; Silva Filho, José Carlos C L; da Costa, Joaquim S; David, Jorge M; de Freitas, Rivelilson M

2014-09-01

58

COMPARING EXAMINEE ATTITUDES TOWARD COMPUTER ASSISTED AND OTHER ORAL PROFICIENCY ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a study of examinee attitudinal reactions to taking different formats of oral proficiency assessments across three languages: Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese. All 55 students in the study were administered both the tape-mediated Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) and a new Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI). In addition, the 24 students participating in the Spanish

Dorry M. Kenyon; Valerie Malabonga

2001-01-01

59

Academic Oral English Development Among Spanish-speaking English Language Learners: Comparing Transitional Bilingual and Structured English Immersion Models  

E-print Network

Academic Oral English Development Among Spanish-speaking English Language Learners: Comparing Transitional Bilingual and Structured English Immersion Models Introduction ? Nation-wide: 11.3 million immigrants, among most recent arrivals (2000...). ? Approximately equal gain each year in terms of English oral proficiency among Spanish-speaking ELLs, regardless of program type, namely two-way immersion, ESL, or English- only. ELLs with lower level of oracy tended to develop faster (Saunders & O...

Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly; Mathes, Patricia; Kwok, Oi-man

2010-10-22

60

Comparative Study of Pineapple Juice as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using Pineapple Juice (PJ) or ranitidine as negative oral contrast agents and no agent. Materials and Methods: MRCP images of patients administered PJ (n = 117) or Ranitidine (n = 110) at random, and patients without an agent (n = 50) were evaluated. The subjective image quality of the overall, extra hepatic bile duct and pancreatic duct and the degree of elimination of gastrointestinal fluid were scored by two blinded radiologists. Results were compared using Mann-Whitney’s U-test. Results: The degrees of elimination of gastro duodenal fluid of PJ and ranitidine were significantly better than those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The subjective image quality of PJ of the overall and extra hepatic bile duct were significantly better, although no significant differences for ranitidine were observed compared with those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p =0.23, p = 0.025 and p = 0.18). There were no significant differences for the pancreatic duct (p = 0.13 and p = 0.20), nor were there any significant differences in the evaluations between PJ and ranitidine (p = 0.21 and p = 0.96). Conclusion: PJ showed better performance compared to that of conventional ranitidine in terms of pancreatic and biliary depiction and safety. PMID:25738055

2015-01-01

61

Capacity of dermatologists to diagnose oral and perioral lesions compared with orthodontists, primary care physicians, and pediatricians.  

PubMed

Oral pathology is an interdisciplinary field of unclear boundaries. Only a few studies have been previously published comparing the diagnostic capacity among different specialists taking care of the disorders involving oral mucosa and perioral skin. The goal of this study was to assess the capacity for diagnosing dermatologic conditions involving the oral mucosa and perioral skin in children and adults among orthodontists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians. Samples of orthodontists (n = 118), dermatologists (n = 100), pediatricians (n = 75), and family doctors (n = 68) were selected for the study. Two tests of 30 color clinical photographs each were prepared, one containing oral lesions in children and other one in adults. Statistical and comparative analyses of correct and incorrect answers were performed in each group and subgroup of participants. Dermatologists were clearly better trained than other specialists in oral and perioral pathology. This advantage over their counterparts in other specialties was seen in both residents and board-certified dermatologists. Though by small margin, orthodontists showed better performance than pediatricians and family doctors. Dermatologists showed higher capacity to achieve the right diagnosis in common oral and perioral disorders than orthodontists, pediatricians, and family doctors. PMID:25014104

García-Camba, Pablo; Varela, Margarita; Requena, Luis

2014-12-01

62

Effects of the substance P antagonist [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]SP on miosis caused by echothiophate iodide or pilocarpine hydrochloride.  

PubMed

The anticholinesterase agent echothiophate iodide (EI) and the cholinergic agent pilocarpine hydrochloride (pilocarpine), drugs commonly used in glaucoma therapy, cause miosis in rabbits as well as in man. In rabbits the miotic effect decreases after a few days of treatment, a phenomenon possibly due to a drug-induced decrease in the number of muscarinic receptors. However, the muscarinic pupillary contraction caused by stimulation of the retina with light is intact. In this investigation the miosis caused by the doses of EI was found to be very resistant to muscarinic or nerve blockade but inhibited by the substance P (SP) analog [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9, Leu11]SP, which seems to be a SP/SPLI blocker in the rabbit pupillary sphincter. Miosis caused by pilocarpine was partly inhibited by muscarinic blockade and partly by the SP blocker. In eyes treated with EI topically twice daily for three weeks, SP or the red pepper extract capsaicin, a releaser of SP-like immunoreactivity (SPLI), had less miotic effect than in control eyes. Capsaicin caused more pronounced miosis in eyes treated with topical pilocarpine for three weeks than in controls. The radioimmunoassay technique did not reveal a significant change in the amount of SPLI in the retinas or iris-ciliary bodies from EI-treated eyes as compared with the controls. It is concluded that, besides cholinergic miosis, EI causes non-muscarinic miosis, probably by release of SP or a related substance and that pilocarpine may have similar effects. PMID:2412852

Mandahl, A

1985-08-15

63

Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas  

E-print Network

% needing improvement, and only 1% meeting dietary guidelines 18 . This disparity is especially true among older adults with oral health problems 19 . Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Exposure Current research is increasingly showing a link... between infection with the human papilloma virus and oral and pharyngeal cancers. A significant association has been found between cases of oral and pharyngeal cancers and exposure to HPV-16 over the course of a person?s lifetime (OR=32.2) 20 . Among...

Womack, Catherine Marie

2008-01-01

64

Comparative efficacy and safety of long-acting risperidone and risperidone oral tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind study of long-acting injectable risperidone and oral risperidone tablets was conducted in 640 patients with schizophrenia. All patients received flexible doses of 1–6 mg of oral risperidone for 8 weeks. Doses were stable during weeks 5–8. At the end of week 8, symptomatically stable patients were randomly assigned to receive long-acting risperidone (active injections, dummy oral) or continued

Pierre Chue; Marielle Eerdekens; Ilse Augustyns; Bernard Lachaux; Peter Mol?an; Lars Eriksson; H. Pretorius; Anthony S. David

2005-01-01

65

The Inhibitory Effects of Npas4 on Seizures in Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Rats  

PubMed Central

To explore the effects of neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 4 (Npas4) on seizures in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats, Npas4 expression was detected by double-label immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting in the brains of pilocarpine-induced epileptic model rats at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d, and 60 d after status epilepticus. Npas4 was localized primarily in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of neurons. The Npas4 protein levels increased in the acute phase of seizures (between 6 h and 72 h) and decreased in the chronic phases (between 7 d and 60 d) in the rat model. Npas4 expression was knocked down by specific siRNA interference. Then, the animals were treated with pilocarpine, and the effects on seizures were evaluated on the 7th day. The onset latencies of pilocarpine-induced seizures were decreased, while the seizure frequency, duration and attack rate increased in these rats. Our study indicates that Npas4 inhibits seizure attacks in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. PMID:25536221

Guo, Jiamei; Yang, Guang; Long, Xianghua; Hu, Rong; Shen, Wenjing; Wang, Xuefeng; Zeng, Kebin

2014-01-01

66

Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF.

Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

2015-01-01

67

A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate.  

PubMed

Poor corneal penetration and short preocular retention of a clinical hydrophilic drug, pilocarpine nitrate (PN), for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, limit its ocular application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for ocular delivery of PN. LCNPs were developed by a top-down method using glyceryl monoolein (GMO) and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS). The size of LCNP is 202.28±19.32 nm and the encapsulation efficiency reached 61.03%. The in vitro release profiles indicated that PN could keep sustained release from PN-loaded LCNPs for 8h. An ex vivo corneal permeation study revealed that the apparent permeability coefficient of PN-loaded LCNPs was 2.05-fold higher than that of commercial eye drops. In addition, the topical administration test showed that PN-loaded LCNPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) of rabbits compared with commercial drug and physiological saline. In conclusion, LCNPs had been demonstrated to be potential for controlled-release ocular drug delivery. PMID:23916822

Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xin, Hongliang; Xu, Qunwei

2013-10-15

68

How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

2012-01-01

69

Designing Oral Participation in Second Life--A Comparative Study of Two Language Proficiency Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following paper presents two stages of an action research project involving two oral proficiency courses held in the virtual world Second Life. Course 1 was conducted during the Autumn of 2007. Based on the experiences of this course, we redesigned many aspects of it in order to improve student activity in terms of oral participation and gave…

Deutschmann, Mats; Panichi, Luisa; Molka-Danielsen, Judith

2009-01-01

70

Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies  

PubMed Central

Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 ?g/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (p<0.05, significant) but statistical difference between efficacy of topical Permethrin and oral Ivermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

2014-01-01

71

Pilocarpine-induced convulsive activity is limited by multidrug transporters at the rodent blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

As a result of the growing availability of genetically engineered mouse lines, the pilocarpine post-status epilepticus (SE) model of temporal lobe epilepsy is increasingly used in mice. A discrepancy in pilocarpine sensitivity in FVB/N wild-type versus P-glycoprotein (PGP)-deficient mice precipitated the investigation of the interaction between pilocarpine and two major multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Doses of pilocarpine necessary for SE induction were determined in male and female wild-type and PGP-deficient mice. Brain and plasma concentrations were measured following low (30-50 mg?kg(-1) i.p.) and/or high (200 mg?kg(-1) i.p.) doses of pilocarpine in wild-type mice, and mice lacking PGP, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), or both transporters, as well as in rats with or without pretreatment with lithium chloride or tariquidar. Concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETA) were performed using cells overexpressing murine PGP or BCRP. Lower pilocarpine doses were necessary for SE induction in PGP-deficient mice. Brain-plasma ratios were higher in mice lacking PGP or PGP and BCRP, which was also observed after pretreatment with tariquidar in mice and in rats. Lithium chloride did not change brain penetration of pilocarpine. CETA confirmed transport of pilocarpine by PGP and BCRP. Pilocarpine is a substrate of PGP and BCRP at the rodent blood-brain barrier, which restricts its convulsive action. Future studies to reveal whether strain differences in pilocarpine sensitivity derive from differences in multidrug transporter expression levels are warranted. PMID:25755207

Römermann, K; Bankstahl, J P; Löscher, W; Bankstahl, M

2015-05-01

72

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Grepafloxacin, Levofloxacin, Trovafloxacin, and Moxifloxacin after Single Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an open, randomized, six-period crossover study, the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were compared after a single oral dose in 12 healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The volunteers received 250 mg of ciprofloxacin, 400 mg of gatifloxacin, 600 mg of grepafloxacin, 500 mg of levofloxacin, 400 mg of moxifloxacin, and 200 mg of

ANNETTE LUBASCH; IVONNE KELLER; KLAUS BORNER; PETER KOEPPE; HARTMUT LODE

2000-01-01

73

A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

Wei, Ming

2011-01-01

74

Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC ®) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC®; Actiq®) is a drug delivery formulation used for management of breakthrough cancer pain. Previous studies with open-label comparisons indicated OTFC was more effective than patients’ usual opioid for breakthrough pain. The objective of this study was to compare OTFC and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR®) for management of breakthrough pain in patients receiving a fixed

Paul H Coluzzi; Lee Schwartzberg; John D Conroy; Steve Charapata; Mason Gay; Michael A Busch; Jana Chavez; Jeri Ashley; Dixie Lebo; Maureen McCracken; Russell K Portenoy

2001-01-01

75

Comparative study between the Hybrid Capture II test and PCR based assay for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Oral malignancy is a major global health problem. Besides the main risk factors of tobacco, smoking and alcohol, infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic alterations are likely to play an important role in these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of HC-II assay and PCR for the detection of specific HPV type (HPV 16 E6) in OSMF and OSCC cases as well as find out the prevalence of the high risk HPV (HR-HPV) in these lesions. Methods and materials Four hundred and thirty patients of the potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were taken from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India from Sept 2007-March 2010. Of which 208 cases were oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 222 cases were oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The HC-II assay and PCR were used for the detection of HR-HPV DNA. Result The overall prevalence of HR-HPV 16 E6 DNA positivity was nearly 26% by PCR and 27.4% by the HC-II assay in case of potentially malignant disorder of the oral lesions such as OSMF. However, in case of malignant oral lesions such as OSCC, 32.4% HPV 16 E6 positive by PCR and 31.4% by the HC-II assay. In case of OSMF, the two test gave concordant result for 42 positive samples and 154 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 85.4% (Cohen's kappa = 66.83%, 95% CI 0.553-0.783). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 73.7% and 92.05% (p < 0.00). In case of OSCC, the two test gave concordant result for 61 positive samples and 152 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 88.3% (Cohen's kappa = 79.29, 95% CI 0.769-0.939) and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 87.14% and 92.76% (p < 0.00). Conclusion This study concluded that slight difference was found between the positivity rate of HR-HPV infection detected by the HC-II and PCR assay in OSMF and OSCC cases and the HC II assay seemed to have better sensitivity in case of OSCC. PMID:20863370

2010-01-01

76

Fractional factorial design optimization of the separation of pilocarpine and its degradation products by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The separation of pilocarpine and its degradation products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) has been optimized by using fractional factorial design of the experiments. Critical parameters were identified in a screening design, and an optimization design was used to optimize the separation. The optimal separation method was based on a borate buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It is concluded that by using fractional factorial design it is possible to improve the separation of pilocarpine, its trans epimer, isopilocarpine and their hydrolysis products, pilocarpic acid and isopilocarpic acid. PMID:9342671

Persson, K; Aström, O

1997-09-12

77

Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

2011-07-01

78

Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in minipigs after oral dosing or transdermal administration via a newly developed patch.  

PubMed

1. A rasagiline transdermal patch was developed for the treatment of early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of rasagiline obtained after transdermal administration to minipigs were compared with those of rasagiline after oral administration. 2. A total of 18 minipigs were randomly divided into three groups (six animals for each group). A single dose of 1?mg rasagiline tablet was orally administrated to one group. Meanwhile, single dose of 1.25 and 2.5?mg (2 and 4?cm(2)) rasagiline patches were given (at the postauricular skin) to the other two groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life (t1/2), time to peak plasma-concentration (Tmax), mean residence time (MRT), area under the curve (AUC(0-t)) were significantly (p?oral administrations. 3. The plasma half-life (t1/2) of rasagiline (1.25?mg patch: 11.8?±?6.5?h, 2.5?mg patch: 12.5?±?4.7?h) in minipig following transdermal administration was significantly prolonged as compared with that following the oral administration (1?mg tablet: 4.7?±?2.5?h). The dose-normalized relative bioavailability of rasagiline patch in minipig were 178.5% and 156.4%, respectively, for 1.25 and 2.5?mg patches compared with 1?mg rasagiline tablet. The prolonged t1/2 and increased bioavailability of rasagiline patch suggested a possible longer dosing interval compared with oral tablet. PMID:23339547

Lin, Yu; Zou, Yanye; Lin, Jialiang; Zhang, Tao; Deng, Jie

2013-08-01

79

Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. Result To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Conclusion Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally-required for soluble versus insoluble forms of the protein antigens. If an antigen, such as EGFP, is soluble and expressed at high levels, a low-copy plasmid-cytoplasmic expression strategy is recommended; since it provokes the highest B cell responses and also induces good T cell responses. If a T cell response is preferred, a eukaryotic expression plasmid or a chromosome-based, cytoplasmic-expression strategy is more effective. For insoluble antigens such as HA, an outer membrane expression strategy is recommended. PMID:23013063

2012-01-01

80

Allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptor signaling: alcuronium-induced conversion of pilocarpine from an agonist into an antagonist.  

PubMed

Previous studies on allosteric interactions at muscarinic receptors have often focused on ligand-receptor binding interactions, because ligand binding seemed to reflect functional consequences. The prototypal allosteric agent alcuronium is known to bind with similar affinity to the M(2) subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors whether or not the receptors are occupied by the agonist pilocarpine. To determine allosteric modulation of receptor signaling by alcuronium, the effects of pilocarpine were measured in contracting guinea pig left atria and on G-protein coupling in M(2)-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes. Alcuronium dose-dependently suppressed pilocarpine-induced reduction of isometric contraction force in atria (pIC(50, Alc) = 5.63) without any effect on the EC(50) of pilocarpine, consistent with an allosteric mechanism. In contrast, alcuronium shifted the concentration-effect curve of the agonist oxotremorine M to the right without affecting the maximal effect, in a formally competitive manner (pK(A, Alc) = 5.54). If pilocarpine remained receptor bound in the presence of alcuronium, this indicates that pilocarpine can no longer act as an agonist. In support of this hypothesis, pilocarpine acted as a competitive antagonist against oxotremorine M in the presence of 10 microM alcuronium. Measuring guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding in CHO-M(2) membranes yielded similar results. Alcuronium suppressed pilocarpine-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (pIC(50, Alc) = 5.47) without shift in EC(50), whereas it competitively shifted the response to oxotremorine M (pK(A, Alc) = 5.97). [(3)H]Oxotremorine M binding data corresponded with the functional findings. In conclusion, alcuronium converted the agonist pilocarpine into an antagonist-a novel type of functional allosteric interaction. PMID:11961078

Zahn, Katrin; Eckstein, Niels; Tränkle, Christian; Sadée, Wolfgang; Mohr, Klaus

2002-05-01

81

Optimization of pilocarpine-mediated seizure induction in immunodeficient NodScid mice.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been modeled in mice using pilocarpine induction, with variable results depending on specific strains. To allow efficient xenotransplantation for the purpose of optimizing potential cell-based therapy of human TLE, we have determined the optimal dosing strategy to produce spontaneous recurring seizures in immunodeficient NodScid mice. Multiple 100mg/kg injections of pilocarpine have been shown to be more effective than single 300-400mg/kg injections for inducing spontaneous seizures in NodScid mice. Under our optimal conditions, 88.1 ± 2.9% of the mice experienced status epilepticus (SE) with a survival rate of 61.8 ± 5.9%. Surviving SE mice displayed spontaneous recurrent seizures at a frequency of 2.8 ± 0.9 seizures/day for a duration of 41.1 ± 3.5s. The widely used method of a single injection of pilocarpine was significantly less efficient in inducing seizures in NodScid mice. Therefore, we have determined that a multiple injection "ramping up" of 100mg/kg of pilocarpine is optimal for inducing TLE-like spontaneous seizures in NodScid mice. Using this method, mice with SE efficiently developed SRS and expressed mossy fiber sprouting, a signature histopathological feature of TLE. PMID:25524850

Leung, Amanda; Ahn, Sandra; Savvidis, George; Kim, Yeachan; Iskandar, Danielle; Luna, Maria Jose; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cunningham, Miles; Chung, Sangmi

2015-01-01

82

Intraocular pressure response to the replacement of pilocarpine or carbachol with echothiophate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 20 patients with open-angle glaucoma in aphakia or pseudophakia whose intraocular pressure had remained uncontrolled on their current medical therapy, the medication was changed from pilocarpine or carbachol to echothiophate iodide. In all, 12 patients (60%) showed a statistically significant improvement in pressure control, 7 (35%) showed no change, and 1 had higher pressure. One-third of the patients with

Richard W. Reichert; M. Bruce Shields

1991-01-01

83

Oral gemifloxacin once daily for 5 days compared with sequential therapy with i.v. ceftriaxone\\/oral cefuroxime (maximum of 10 days) in the treatment of hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre study, the clinical and bacteriological efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin (320 mg once daily, 5 days) was compared with sequential intravenous (i.v.) ceftriaxone (1 g once daily, maximum 3 days) followed by oral cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily, maximum 7 days) in adult hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis

R. WILSON; C. LANGAN; P. BALL; K. BATEMAN; R. PYPSTRA

2003-01-01

84

Randomized clinical trial comparing oral prednisone (50 mg) with placebo before laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Intravenous administration of dexamethasone 90 min before laparoscopic cholecystectomy improves surgical outcome but may be\\u000a impractical. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of oral self-administration of prednisone 2 h\\u000a before ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 200 patients were randomized to oral administration of prednisone (50 mg) or placebo\\u000a 2 h before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients received a

Thue Bisgaard; Svend Schulze; Niels Christian Hjortsø; Jacob Rosenberg; Viggo Bjerregaard Kristiansen

2008-01-01

85

Oral anticoagulants controlled by the British comparative thromboplastin versus low-dose heparin in prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis  

PubMed Central

The British comparative thromboplastin (BCT) was used to monitor the effectiveness of oral anticoagulants in preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery. All patients were screened for DVT with the use of the 125I-fibrinogen scan. One hundred and forty-five patients aged 40 years or more were randomised into three groups. Group 1 received oral anticoagulant (nicoumalone) treatment, stabilised over five days before surgery and continuing into the second postoperative week. The other patients served as two contrast groups and were managed on a double-blind basis. Group 2 received a subcutaneous low-dose regimen of heparin calcium. Group 3 received subcutaneous saline. Eleven of 48 patients in the saline group, three of 49 patients in the heparin group, and three of 48 patients in the oral anticoagulant group developed DVT as judged by 125I-fibrinogen scanning. The incidences in groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than in the saline group. The falls in haemoglobin concentration and incidence of haemorrhage were similar in all three groups. The study showed that oral anticoagulant prophylaxis stabilised preoperatively and low-dose heparin were equally effective in preventing deep vein thrombosis in a moderate-risk group. Immediate preoperative prothrombin ratios of 2·0-2·5 and postoperative ratios of 2·0-4·0 with the BCT gave adequate protection without increased haemorrhagic risk. PMID:340005

Taberner, D A; Poller, L; Burslem, R W; Jones, J B

1978-01-01

86

Comparative evaluation of oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery with or without oral conscious sedation in anxious patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Stress and anxiety during dental procedure can alter respiratory rate and thereby alter oxygen saturation in the blood, leading to emergencies like syncope. It can be prevented by preoperative intravenous sedation. However, it can lead to respiratory depression. Hence, this study was carried out to analyze the effect of oral conscious sedation on oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery in anxious patients. Aim: The aim was to compare the oxygen saturation levels during periodontal surgery with and without oral conscious sedation using diazepam in anxious patients. Settings and Design: Randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 20 generalized periodontitis patients, identified as anxious for dental treatment with dental anxiety scale. A randomized split-mouth design was used with one quadrant of surgery involving preoperative oral sedation (diazepam), and the second without it. Oxygen saturation was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were recorded at 5 time periods during the surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: No statistically significant difference between sedated and nonsedated patients in oxygen saturation with P = 0.683. Conclusions: Oral conscious sedation can be used for anxious patients during periodontal surgery for alleviation of anxiety and for better patient acceptance during surgical procedures without significant respiratory depression. PMID:25624627

Shivananda, Hiranya; Raghava, Kepu Vijay; Sudhakar, Sharath Karanth; Thomas, Biju; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath

2014-01-01

87

Clinical performance of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and oral contraceptives in young nulliparous women: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 1-year randomized study was carried out at family-planning clinics of two university hospitals to compare the safety and acceptability of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) and oral contraceptives (OCs) in young nulliparous women. The study population consisted of 200 women aged 18–25 years seeking contraception. Ninety-four women entered the LNG IUS group and 99 entered the OC group.

Satu Suhonen; Maija Haukkamaa; Tell Jakobsson; Ilkka Rauramo

2004-01-01

88

COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

89

Comparative Cholinergic Neurotoxicity of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposures in Preweanling and Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphorus (OP) pes- ticide. Previous studies have demonstrated that neonatal rats are more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of high dosages of CPF. The present study examined lethality and age-related dif- ferences in neurochemical indicators and functional signs of neu- rotoxicity following a broad range of acute and repeated oral CPF exposures. There

Quan Zheng; Kenneth Olivier; Yen K. Won; Carey N. Pope

2000-01-01

90

Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

2011-01-01

91

Comparability of Student Performance Between Regular and Oral Administrations for a High-Stakes Mathematics Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of oral administration accommodations on test structure and student performance on the mathematics portion of the South Carolina High School Exit Examination (HSEE). The examination was given at Grade 10 and was untimed. Three groups of students were studied. Two groups took the regular form. One group had recorded…

Huynh, Huynh; Meyer, J. Patrick; Gallant, Dorinda J.

2004-01-01

92

A randomized clinical trial comparing oral ondansetron with placebo in children with vomiting from acute gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Vomiting in children suffering from acute gastroenteritis interferes with the oral rehydration process and equally frustrates parents and health care providers. Adjuncts such as promethazine and metoclopramide are less than optimally effective and are associated with side effects. Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist marketed as Zofran, is a safe and effective antiemetic used extensively in oncology and postoperative

Chris Ramsook; Ivonne Sahagun-Carreon; Claudia A. Kozinetz; Donna Moro-Sutherland

2002-01-01

93

Non-linear stress-strain measurements of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) compared to normal oral mucosal and skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-strain curves of oral mucosal tissues were measured using direct mechanical testing. Measurements were conducted on both natural oral mucosal tissues and engineered devices, specifically a clinically developed ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME). As seeded cells proliferate on EVPOME devices, they produce a keratinized protective upper layer which fills in surface irregularities. These transformations can further alter stress-strain

Frank Winterroth; Scott J. Hollister; Stephen E. Feinberg; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Arindam Ganguly; Kyle W. Hollman

2011-01-01

94

Downregulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures. PMID:18295190

Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Hernandez, Eder F.; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; rancisco, Sebastian F; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

2008-01-01

95

Sjögren's syndrome of the oral cavity. Review and update.  

PubMed

Sjögren's syndrome is one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases. It is a chronic and systemic disorder predominantly found in women, and is characterized by the appearance of a lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate, with dryness of the oral cavity and eyes, secondary to involvement of the salivary and lacrimal glands. The underlying causal mechanism involves a number of factors and has not been clearly established, though an autoimmune response is known to be triggered, with the accumulation of immune complexes in the gland acini that interfere with gland function. In the oral cavity, xerostomia or hyposialia is the most disabling manifestation for patients, and is accompanied by rapidly progressing caries, candidiasis and an important worsening of buccodental health. The most important complication is a 44-fold increase in the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma, compared with the general population. The treatment of Sjögren's syndrome is limited to symptomatic management, and involves the use of solutions to replace salivary secretion and afford a measure of hydration, cholinergic agents such as pilocarpine to stimulate the unaffected gland tissue and, recently, the administration of substances that act against surface antigens of the B lymphocytes, such as anti-CD20 and anti-CD22 antibodies. The present study provides an update on this disease, placing special emphasis on its odontologic implications. PMID:19300364

Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Poveda, Rafael; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, Gracia

2009-07-01

96

Long-term increases in BK potassium channel underlie increased action potential firing in dentate granule neurons following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of acquired epilepsy in adult. Since dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) play a critical role in hippocampal seizure generation, it is, therefore, important to understand changes in intrinsic properties of GCs in TLE. In this study, the electrophysiological properties of GCs obtained from epileptic rates were compared with the control group using whole cell patch-clamp recording. Results indicated a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) in depolarizing currents of 150 pA, 200 pA, and 250 pA. In addition, there was a significant decrease in AP half-width of GCs. The amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) in epileptic group significantly decreased compared to control group. Blockade of large conductance calcium activated potassium channel (BK), channels with paxilline and iberiotoxin reversed pilocarpine-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs in epileptic group. These results suggest that the BK channel blockers by reversing the firing properties of GCs might have beneficial preventative effects on pilocarpine-induced electrophysiological changes. PMID:25434869

Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima

2015-01-12

97

The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg

1999-01-01

98

Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine  

SciTech Connect

Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E. (Kansas) [Kansas; (HWMRI)

2013-11-20

99

Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Randomized Trial Comparing Oral Uracil and Tegafur and Oral Leucovorin Vs. Intravenous 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare, in a randomized trial, 5-fluorouracil (FU) plus leucovorin (LV) (FU+LV) vs. oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus LV (UFT+LV) given concomitantly with preoperative irradiation in patients with cT3-4 or N+ rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients were entered onto the trial. Patients received pelvic radiotherapy (4500-5,040 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks) and chemotherapy consisting of two 5-day courses of 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d LV and 350 mg/m{sup 2}/d FU in the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy (77 patients) or one course of 25 mg/d oral LV and 300 mg/m{sup 2}/d UFT for 4 weeks beginning in the second week of radiotherapy (78 patients). The primary endpoints were pathologic complete response (pCR) and resectability rate. Secondary endpoints included downstaging rate, toxicity, and survival. Results: Grade 3-5 acute hematologic toxicity occurred only with FU+LV (leukopenia 9%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in resectability rates (92.1% vs. 93.4%; p = 0.82). The pCR rate was 13.2% in both arms. Tumor downstaging was more frequent with UFT+LV (59.2% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.04). Three-year overall survival was 87% with FU+LV and 74% with UFT+LV (p = 0.37). The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence were 7.5% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.619; relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval 0.32-6.55). Conclusion: Although this study lacked statistical power to exclude clinically significant differences between both groups, the outcome of patients treated with UFT+LV did not differ significantly from that of patients treated with FU+LV, and hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in the experimental arm.

Torre, Alejandro de la [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: oncrtcph@saludalia.com; Garcia-Berrocal, Maria Isabel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Arias, Fernando [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Marino, Alfonso [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro Oncologico de Galicia, A Coruna (Spain); Valcarcel, Francisco; Magallon, Rosa; Regueiro, Carlos A.; Romero, Jesus; Zapata, Irma; Fuente, Cristina de la; Fernandez-Lizarbe, Eva; Vergara, Gloria; Belinchon, Belen; Veiras, Maria; Moleron, Rafael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Millan, Isabel [Department of Biostatistics, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

2008-01-01

100

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.  

PubMed

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ), elimination half-life (t1/2? ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 ?g/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·?g/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 ?g/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·?g/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. PMID:25427758

Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

2014-11-27

101

Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.  

PubMed Central

Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

1986-01-01

102

An analytical chemical study of pilocarpine hydrochloride and its hydrolysis products  

E-print Network

. . cept ? . hc optical rotation is appli- cable when the drug is handled and stored in aqueous solution. Pre- sent pharmaceutical practice calls f' or handling and storing pilocar- pine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. It is used as an opthalmic... Present commercial pharmaceutical practice in the preparation of pilocarpine hydrochloride solutions vary somewhat with different phar~m~ceutical companies. In general the solutions are prepared in commercial laboratories, sealed in sterile containers...

Ibert, Edward R

1956-01-01

103

Dynamics of hippocampal acetylcholine release during lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.  

PubMed

The lithium-pilocarpine model is a rat model of epilepsy that mimics status epilepticus in humans. Here, we report changes of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus before, during and after status epilepticus as monitored by microdialysis in unanesthetized rats. Administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg s.c.) to rats pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg i.p.) caused a massive, six-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release, paralleling the development of tonic seizures. When seizures were stopped by administration of diazepam (10 mg/kg i.p.) or ketamine (75 mg/kg i.p.), ACh levels returned to normal. Extracellular concentrations of glutamate remained unchanged during this procedure. Administration of atropine (1 mg/kg i.p.) 2 h after pilocarpine caused a further increase of ACh but did not affect seizures, whereas injection of mecamylamine (5 mg/kg i.p.) reduced ACh levels and seizures in a delayed fashion. Local infusion of tetrodotoxin, 1 ?M locally) or hemicholinium (10 ?M locally) strongly reduced ACh release and had delayed effects on seizures. Administration of glucose or inositol (250 mg/kg each i.p.) had no visible consequences. In parallel experiments, lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus also enhanced striatal ACh release, and hippocampal ACh levels equally increased when status epilepticus was induced by kainate (30 mg/kg i.p.). Taken together, our results demonstrate that seizure development in status epilepticus models is accompanied by massive increases of extracellular ACh, but not glutamate, levels. Treatments that reduce seizure activity also reliably reduce extracellular ACh levels. PMID:24909269

Hillert, Markus H; Imran, Imran; Zimmermann, Martina; Lau, Helene; Weinfurter, Stefanie; Klein, Jochen

2014-10-01

104

Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.  

PubMed

Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 k? versus 160 ± 19 k?, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 ?l cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. PMID:23701521

Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

2013-11-01

105

A comparative analysis of training models versus consulting\\/training models for implementing oral communication across the curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of oral communication across?the?curriculum programs requires that non?speech students receive oral communication instruction to facilitate the oral communication activities used to enhance learning in their classes. Many non?speech faculty lack adequate instruction in oral communication theory and practice, thus creating a major obstacle to developing programs of oral communication across the curriculum (OCXC). This article examines the advantages,

Michael W. Cronin; George L. Grice

1993-01-01

106

The anticonvulsant actions of carisbamate associate with alterations in astrocyte glutamine metabolism in the lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy model.  

PubMed

As reported previously, in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), carisbamate (CRS) produces strong neuroprotection, leads to milder absence-like seizures, and prevents behavioral impairments in a subpopulation of rats. To understand the metabolic basis of these effects, here we injected 90 mg/kg CRS or vehicle twice daily for 7 days starting 1 h after status epilepticus (SE) induction in rats. Two months later, we injected [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate followed by head microwave fixation after 15 min. (13) C incorporation into metabolites was analyzed using (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that SE reduced neuronal mitochondrial metabolism in the absence but not in the presence of CRS. Reduction in glutamate level was prevented by CRS and aspartate levels were similar to controls only in rats displaying absence-like seizures after treatment [CRS-absence-like epilepsy (ALE)]. Glutamine levels in CRS-ALE rats were higher compared to controls in hippocampal formation and limbic structures while unchanged in rats displaying motor spontaneous recurrent seizures after treatment (CRS-TLE). Astrocytic mitochondrial metabolism was reduced in CRS-TLE, and either enhanced or unaffected in CRS-ALE rats, which did not affect the transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons. In conclusion, CRS prevents reduction in neuronal mitochondrial metabolism but its effect on astrocytes is likely key in determining outcome of treatment in this model. To understand the metabolic basis of the strong neuroprotection and reduction in seizure severity caused by carisbamate (CRS) in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we injected CRS for 7 days starting 1 h after status epilepticus and 2 months later [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate. (13) C Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis was performed on brain extracts and we found that CRS prevented reduction in neuronal mitochondrial metabolism but its effect on astrocytes was likely key in determining outcome of treatment in this model. ALE = absence like epilepsy; acetyl CoA = acetyl coenzyme A; GS = glutamine synthetase; PAG = phosphate activated glutaminase; PC = pyruvate carboxylase; OAA = oxaloacetate; TCA cycle = tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:25345404

Hadera, Mussie Ghezu; Faure, Jean-Baptiste; Berggaard, Nina; Tefera, Tesfaye Wolde; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

2014-10-26

107

EFFECTS OF LATRUNCULIN B ON OUTFLOW FACILITY, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, CORNEAL THICKNESS, AND MIOTIC AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES TO PILOCARPINE IN MONKEYS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if low doses of topical latrunculin B (LAT-B) will increase outflow facility and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) without adversely affecting the cornea, and inhibit miotic and accommodative responses to pilocarpine, in ocular normotensive monkeys. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann tonometry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.005% and 0.01% topical LAT-B/vehicle given twice daily on successive weeks. Outflow facility was then measured by perfusion following 15 doses. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B/vehicle. Pupillary diameter (calipers) and accommodation (refractometry) before and after one dose of 0.005% and 0.02% LAT-B were determined. Results LAT-B dose-dependently decreased IOP, multiple doses more than a single dose. Maximal hypotension after one dose was 2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 2.7 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .005); maximal hypotension after nine doses was 3.2 ± 0.5 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 4.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001). Outflow facility was increased by 75 ± 13% (n = 7; P < .005). Central corneal thickness was not changed after one or nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B. The miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular pilocarpine were dose-dependently inhibited. At 0.02% LAT-B, the inhibition of miosis was essentially complete when compared with the pre-LAT-B value, whereas the inhibition of accommodation was only about 25%. At 0.005% LAT-B, the effects were trivial. Conclusions In ocular normotensive monkeys, 0.005/0.01% LAT-B administered topically increases outflow facility and/or decreases IOP, but does not affect the cornea. Multiple doses reduce IOP more than a single dose. LAT-B dose-dependently relaxes the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle, with some separation of the miotic and accommodative effects. PMID:15747763

Okka, Mehmet; Tian, Baohe; Kaufman, Paul L

2004-01-01

108

Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Oral vs. Podcasting Reviewing Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the use of podcasts to traditional delivery of information in classrooms. Four podcasts were created on the topics of asthma, diabetes, seizure disorders, and acute infections to aid students in reviewing for quizzes. Knowledge retained of students using podcasts was compared to the knowledge retained of…

Rhoads, Misty L.

2010-01-01

109

Comparative Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Oral Cholera Vaccination in Bangladesh: A Modeling Study  

PubMed Central

Background Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. Methods & Findings We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1–14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. Conclusions We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions. PMID:25473851

Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Chao, Dennis L.

2014-01-01

110

Comparative study of the effects of combined oral contraceptives in hemostatic variables: an observational preliminary study.  

PubMed

Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30??g) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30??g) in hemostatic parameters.This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30?kg/m, not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1?+?2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively.We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F; Franceschini, Silvio A; Martinez, Edson Z; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Toloi, Maria Regina T

2015-01-01

111

Decreased expression of Gab2 in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and pilocarpine-induced rat model.  

PubMed

Growth factor receptor bound protein-2 associated binding protein-2 (Gab2) is widely expressed in the central nervous system, and participates in multiple signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that Gab2 was involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Gab2 reduces tau phosphorylation levels and is associated with cellular apoptosis and differentiation. However, whether Gab2 was also involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of Gab2 protein in brains with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in pilocarpine-induced rat model of TLE. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to assess the location and the expression level of Gab2 in the neocortex of the temporal lobe in patients with TLE and in rat model of epilepsy. Results showed that Gab2 protein was expressed mainly in the membranes and cytoplasm of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Gab2 protein expression was remarkably reduced in temporal neocortex of TLE patients. In hippocampus and adjacent cortex in rat epilepsy model, Gab2 expression was decreased at different time points after kindling compared with the controls, and the lowest level of Gab2 expression occurred at 1 week. Thus, significant reductions of Gab2 protein in both TLE patients and epilepsy rats suggest that Gab2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TLE. PMID:24327320

Zhan, Ao; Xu, Xin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xuefeng; Yanfeng, Xie; Dan, Wei; Zhan, Yan; Shi, Quanhong

2014-04-01

112

The effect of paxilline on early alterations of electrophysiological properties of dentate gyrus granule cells in pilocarpine-treated rats.  

PubMed

The dentate gyrus of hippocampus has long been considered as a focal point for studies on mechanisms responsible for the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Change in intrinsic properties of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) has been considered as an important factor responsible in temporal lobe seizures. In this study, we evaluated the intrinsic properties of GCs, during acute phase of seizure (24 h after i.p. injection of pilocarpine) compared to sham group using whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Our results showed a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) after applying depolarizing currents of 200 pA (p < 0.01) and 250pA (p < 0.05) compared to sham group. The evaluation of AP properties revealed a decrease in half-width of AP in GCs of seizure group (1.27 ± 0.03 ms) compared to sham group (1.60 ± 0.11). Moreover, addition of BAPTA to pipette solution prevented changes in AP half-width in seizure group (1.71 ± 0.11 ms) compared to sham group (1.91 ± 0.08 ms). In contrast, an increase in the amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization was observed in GCs of seizure group (-11.68 ± 0.72 mV) compared to sham group (-8.28 ± 0.59 mV). Also, GCs of seizure group showed a significant increase in both firing rate and instantaneous firing frequency at depolarizing currents of 200 pA (P < 0.01) and 250 pA (P < 0.05) compared to sham group. The changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs were attenuated after bath application of paxilline suggesting possible involvement of large conductance Ca(2+)- activated K(+) channel (BK channel). Our results suggested the possible involvement of certain potassium channels in early changes of intrinsic properties of GCs which eventually facilitate TLE development. PMID:24711838

Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima

2014-01-01

113

The Effect of Paxilline on Early Alterations of Electrophysiological Properties of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells in Pilocarpine-Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

The dentate gyrus of hippocampus has long been considered as a focal point for studies on mechanisms responsible for the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Change in intrinsic properties of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) has been considered as an important factor responsible in temporal lobe seizures. In this study, we evaluated the intrinsic properties of GCs, during acute phase of seizure (24 h after i.p. injection of pilocarpine) compared to sham group using whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Our results showed a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) after applying depolarizing currents of 200 pA (p < 0.01) and 250pA (p < 0.05) compared to sham group. The evaluation of AP properties revealed a decrease in half-width of AP in GCs of seizure group (1.27 ± 0.03 ms) compared to sham group (1.60 ± 0.11). Moreover, addition of BAPTA to pipette solution prevented changes in AP half-width in seizure group (1.71 ± 0.11 ms) compared to sham group (1.91 ± 0.08 ms). In contrast, an increase in the amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization was observed in GCs of seizure group (-11.68 ± 0.72 mV) compared to sham group (-8.28 ± 0.59 mV). Also, GCs of seizure group showed a significant increase in both firing rate and instantaneous firing frequency at depolarizing currents of 200 pA (P < 0.01) and 250 pA (P < 0.05) compared to sham group. The changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs were attenuated after bath application of paxilline suggesting possible involvement of large conductance Ca2+- activated K+ channel (BK channel). Our results suggested the possible involvement of certain potassium channels in early changes of intrinsic properties of GCs which eventually facilitate TLE development. PMID:24711838

Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima

2014-01-01

114

Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

115

Comparative clinical trials and the changing marketplace for oral care: innovation, evidence and implications.  

PubMed

The development of a trayless bleaching system (Crest Whitestrips) and a novel battery-powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) has fueled growth in the bleaching and power toothbrush markets. Beyond offering convenient, low-cost options for patients, the effectiveness of each product is supported by a robust clinical program. New comparative research involving these products expands evidence on the clinical meaningfulness of the benefits of this whitening system and powered toothbrush for patient care. PMID:12512984

Gerlach, Robert W; Biesbrock, Aaron R

2002-09-01

116

Increased dissolution and oral absorption of itraconazole/Soluplus extrudate compared with itraconazole nanosuspension.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to compare the in vitro and in vivo profiles of itraconazole (ITZ) extrudates and nanosuspension separately prepared by two different methods. And it was proved truly to form nanocrystalline and amorphous ITZ characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The release of ITZ/Soluplus solid dispersions with amorphous ITZ was almost complete while only 40% release was obtained with ITZ nanocrystals. The amorphous state need not to cross over the crystal lattice energy upon dissolution while the crystalline need to overcome it. In the in vivo assay, the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of ITZ/Soluplus were 6.9- and 11.6-time higher than those of pure ITZ. The formulation of the extrudate had an AUC(0-t) and C(max) similar to those of ITZ and also OH-ITZ compared with the commercial capsule (Sporanox®). The relative bioavailability values with their 95% confidence limit were calculated to be 98.3% (92.5-104.1%) and 101.3% (97.9-104.1%), respectively. The results of this study showed increased dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of Soluplus-based carrier loading ITZ prepared by HME compared with the ITZ nanosuspension prepared by wet milling. PMID:23562534

Zhang, Keru; Yu, Hongxia; Luo, Qing; Yang, Shenshen; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Bin; Tang, Xing

2013-11-01

117

Oral iron therapy in human subjects, comparative absorption between ferrous salts and iron polymaltose.  

PubMed

Iron absorption was directly compared between equivalent doses of ferrous salts and a polymaltose complex using a twin-isotope technique in which each individual acts as his own control. In the first study, bioavailability of iron from ferrous sulfate and the complex was defined at physiologic doses of 5 mg (Group 1: n = 14) and therapeutic doses of 50 mg (Group 2: n = 13). In Group 1, mean absorption from salt was 47.77% (SD 14.58%) and from polymaltose, 46.56% SD 17.07%). In Group 2, mean absorption from salt was 32.92% (SD 13.42%) and from polymaltose, 27.07% (SD 6.50%). In a second study, 100 mg of iron in a chewable formulation was used to compare absorption between equal doses of ferrous fumarate and the polymaltose complex. Mean absorption from salt was 10.25% (SD 6.89%) and from polymaltose 10.68% (SD 4.68%). At all three dosage levels, iron is equally available from salt or polymaltose for hemoglobin synthesis (p greater than 0.20), and absorption negatively correlated with plasma ferritin (p less than 0.01). These two materials may be used interchangeably in the treatment of patients with absolute iron deficiency. PMID:6599114

Jacobs, P; Johnson, G; Wood, L

1984-01-01

118

Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

2014-01-01

119

Comparative study of the efficacy of herbal antioxdants oxitard and aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent due to areca nut, tobacco and their products. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of oxitard and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and Methods: 120 subjects with OSMF were included in the study. The patients were clinico-pathologically diagnosed and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (oxitard group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 2 oxitard capsules twice daily and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Different clinical parameters were evaluated at regular intervals. Data was analyzed using the Student’s paired t test and Chi-square test. P-value <0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening and tongue protrusion was significant in the oxitard group (p=0.0005). Subjective symptoms of pain associated with the lesion (p=0.0003), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000) and speech (p=0.0001) also significantly improved in the Group A. The improvement in burning sensation was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p=0.002). There was a mild to moderate decrease in the size of the lesion. Conclusions: Though there is no definitive treatment for the condition however, overall assessment of symptoms like mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in swallowing and speech and pain associated with the lesion showed that oxitard capsules can bring about significant clinical improvements than aloe vera gel in the treatment of OSMF. Key words:Oral submucous fibrosis, oxitard capsules, aloe vera, burning sensation, mouth opening. PMID:25136428

Halgatti, Vishal; Maheshwari, Sneha; Santosh, B S.

2014-01-01

120

Comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is found worldwide among people of all groups and ages. It is curable with scabicide medications. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. In total, 148 patients with scabies were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 sg/kg body weight, and the second was treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between applications. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 60.8% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.1% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications oflindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 47.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 72.9% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow-up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against the parasite at all stages in the life cycle. PMID:25632646

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

2014-01-01

121

Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

122

Assessment of the prophylactic activity and pharmacokinetic profile of oral tafenoquine compared to primaquine for inhibition of liver stage malaria infections  

PubMed Central

Background As anti-malarial drug resistance escalates, new safe and effective medications are necessary to prevent and treat malaria infections. The US Army is developing tafenoquine (TQ), an analogue of primaquine (PQ), which is expected to be more effective in preventing malaria in deployed military personnel. Methods To compare the prophylactic efficacy of TQ and PQ, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing the bioluminescent reporter protein luciferase was utilized to visualize and quantify parasite development in C57BL/6 albino mice treated with PQ and TQ in single or multiple regimens using a real-time in vivo imaging system (IVIS). As an additional endpoint, blood stage parasitaemia was monitored by flow cytometry. Comparative pharmacokinetic (PK) and liver distribution studies of oral and intravenous PQ and TQ were also performed. Results Mice treated orally with three doses of TQ at 5 mg/kg three doses of PQ at 25 mg/kg demonstrated no bioluminescence liver signal and no blood stage parasitaemia was observed suggesting both drugs showed 100% causal activity at the doses tested. Single dose oral treatment with 5 mg TQ or 25 mg of PQ, however, yielded different results as only TQ treatment resulted in causal prophylaxis in P. berghei sporozoite-infected mice. TQ is highly effective for causal prophylaxis in mice at a minimal curative single oral dose of 5 mg/kg, which is a five-fold improvement in potency versus PQ. PK studies of the two drugs administered orally to mice showed that the absolute bioavailability of oral TQ was 3.5-fold higher than PQ, and the AUC of oral TQ was 94-fold higher than oral PQ. The elimination half-life of oral TQ in mice was 28 times longer than PQ, and the liver tissue distribution of TQ revealed an AUC that was 188-fold higher than PQ. Conclusions The increased drug exposure levels and longer exposure time of oral TQ in the plasma and livers of mice highlight the lead quality attributes that explain the much improved efficacy of TQ when compared to PQ. PMID:24731238

2014-01-01

123

Effective termination of status epilepticus by rational polypharmacy in the lithium-pilocarpine model in rats: Window of opportunity to prevent epilepsy and prediction of epilepsy by biomarkers.  

PubMed

The pilocarpine rat model, in which status epilepticus (SE) leads to epilepsy with spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), is widely used to study the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and develop strategies for epilepsy prevention. SE is commonly interrupted after 30-90min by high-dose diazepam or other anticonvulsants to reduce mortality. It is widely believed that SE duration of 30-60min is sufficient to induce hippocampal damage and epilepsy. However, resistance to diazepam develops during SE, so that an SE that is longer than 30min is difficult to terminate, and SE typically recurs several hours after diazepam, thus forming a bias for studies on epileptogenesis or antiepileptogenesis. We developed a drug cocktail, consisting of diazepam, phenobarbital, and scopolamine that allows complete and persistent SE termination in the lithium-pilocarpine model. A number of novel findings were obtained with this cocktail. (a) In contrast to previous reports with incomplete SE suppression, a SE of 60min duration did not induce epilepsy, whereas epilepsy with SRS developed after 90 or 120min SE; (b) by comparing groups of rats with 60 and 90min of SE, development of epilepsy could be predicted by behavioral hyperexcitability and decrease in seizure threshold, indicating that these read-outs are suited as biomarkers of epileptogenesis; (c) CA1 damage was prevented by the cocktail, but rats exhibited cell loss in the dentate hilus, which was related to development of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that the duration of SE needed for induction of epileptogenesis in this model is longer than previously thought. PMID:25549873

Brandt, Claudia; Töllner, Kathrin; Klee, Rebecca; Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

2015-03-01

124

Competitive inhibition of coumarin 7-hydroxylation by pilocarpine and its interaction with mouse CYP 2A5 and human CYP 2A6.  

PubMed Central

1. We have shown earlier that pilocarpine strongly inhibits mouse and human liver coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity of CYP 2A and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity of CYP 2B in vitro. Since pilocarpine, like coumarin, contains a lactone structure we have studied in more detail its inhibitory potency on mouse and human liver coumarin 7-hydroxylation. 2. Pilocarpine was a competitive inhibitor of coumarin 7-hydroxylase in vitro both in mouse and human liver microsomes although it was not a substrate for CYP 2A5. Ki values were similar, 0.52 +/- 0.22 microM in mice and 1.21 +/- 0.51 microM in human liver microsomes. 3. Pilocarpine induced a type II difference spectrum in mouse, human and recombinant CYP 2A5 yeast cell microsomes, with Ka values of 3.7 +/- 1.6, 1.6 +/- 1.1 and 1.5 +/- 0.1 microM, respectively. 4. Increase in pH of the incubation medium from pH 6 to 7.5 increased the potency of inhibition of coumarin 7-hydroxylation by pilocarpine. 5. Superimposition of pilocarpine and coumarin in such a way that their carbonyls, ring oxygens and the H-7' of coumarin and N-3 of pilocarpine overlap yielded a common molecular volume of 82%. 6. The results indicate that pilocarpine is a competitive inhibitor and has a high affinity for mouse CYP 2A5 and human CYP 2A6. In addition the immunotype nitrogen of pilocarpine is coordinated towards the haem iron in these P450s. PMID:8590980

Kinonen, T.; Pasanen, M.; Gynther, J.; Poso, A.; Järvinen, T.; Alhava, E.; Juvonen, R. O.

1995-01-01

125

Reduced expression of Phospholipase C beta in hippocampal interneuron during pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in mice.  

PubMed

We investigated localization of Phospholipase C beta (PLC?1 and PLC?4) in laminaes of dorsal hippocampus and different subtypes of hippocampal interneurons in normal Kunming mouse, and their progressive changes during pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) by quantitative immunohistochemistry and real time PCR. PLC?1 was observed in the pyramidal layer of CA1-3 area, hilus of the dentate gyrus, whereas PLC?4 was mainly expressed in calcium binding protein positive interneurons, i.e. calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin positive interneurons in the strata oriens, radiatum of the CA area and hilus of the dentate gyrus. During pilocarpine induced SE, a temporary down-regulation of PLC?4 in the interneurons of CA area at SE 30min, and a progressive reduction of PLC?1/PLC?4 in dentate hilar cells were demonstrated. These findings confirm and extend the regional specific distribution of PLC?1 and PLC?4 immunoreactivity in mouse hippocampus, and suggest that PLC?1 and PLC?4 may play an important role in maintenance of the status epilepticus. PMID:24480781

Liu, Jian Xin; Hu, Ming; Chen, Xin Lin; Xu, Jie Hua; Yang, Peng Bo; Zhang, Jian Shui; Liu, Yong

2014-03-01

126

Minocycline inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence suggests that brain inflammation mediated by glial cells may contribute to epileptogenesis. Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline and has potent antiinflammatory effects independent of its antimicrobial action. The present study aimed to investigate whether minocycline could exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal patterns of microglial and astrocytic activation were examined in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings displayed that SE caused acute and persistent activation of microglia and astrocytes. Based on these findings, Minocycline was administered once daily at 45 mg/kg for 14 days following SE. Six weeks after termination of minocycline treatment, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were recorded by continuous video monitoring. Minocycline inhibited the SE-induced microglial activation and the increased production of interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex, without affecting astrocytic activation. In addition, Minocycline prevented the SE-induced neuronal loss in the brain regions examined. Moreover, minocycline significantly reduced the frequency, duration, and severity of SRS during the two weeks monitoring period. These results demonstrated that minocycline could mitigate SE-induced brain inflammation and might exert disease-modifying effects in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. These findings offer new insights into deciphering the molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis and exploring a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention of epilepsy. PMID:25541249

Wang, N; Mi, X; Gao, B; Gu, J; Wang, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, X

2015-02-26

127

The Comparative Effectiveness of Long-Acting Injectable vs. Oral Antipsychotic Medications in the Prevention of Relapse: A Case Study in CER in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Objective As psychopathology and social functioning can worsen with repeated psychotic episodes in schizophrenia, relapse prevention is critical. Because high non-adherence rates limit the efficacy of pharmacotherapy, the use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) is considered an important treatment option. To date, many studies comparing LAIs and oral antipsychotics have been conducted; however, the results are mixed, and careful interpretation of the data is required. Study Design Selective review of existing literature regarding LAIs. We especially focused the discussion on the impact of the design of studies with different approaches comparing LAIs and oral antipsychotics in preventing relapse. Result The results were diverse and were influenced by the design utilized, i.e., randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed LAIs and oral antipsychotics to have similar effects, whereas mirror-image and some large cohort studies showed LAIs to be superior to oral antipsychotics. Conclusion Divergent results from studies using different methodologies creates a dilemma for comparative effectiveness research, and LAI studies may serve as an example of a situation where a conventional RCT is not the gold standard. Traditional RCTs generally increase adherence compared to clinical practice and, therefore, might not be well suited to detect differences between LAIs and oral medications, because any increase in adherence effects patients on oral medications more than those on LAIs and thus leads to an underestimation of any potential difference in effectiveness. A possible solution would be the implementation of a true effectiveness trial,. in which post-randomization involvement would be kept to a minimum to better reflect routine practice. PMID:23849151

Kane, John M.; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Correll, Christoph U.

2013-01-01

128

Blockade of pilocarpine- or kainate-induced mossy fiber sprouting by cycloheximide does not prevent subsequent epileptogenesis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-injury sprouting of hippocampal mossy fibers has been suggested to be a causal mechanism underlying the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, this hypothesis rests entirely on indirect correlational evidence. Here we demonstrate that cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, blocked pilocarpine- and kainate-induced mossy fiber sprouting in rats, but did not prevent the subsequent development of spontaneous seizures or affect

Beatriz M Longo; Luiz E. A. M Mello

1997-01-01

129

Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Mangiferin After Oral Administration of Pure Mangiferin and US Patented Polyherbal Formulation to Rats.  

PubMed

The US patented polyherbal formulation for the prevention and management of type II diabetes and its vascular complications was used for the present study. The xanthone glycoside mangiferin is one of the major effector constituents in the Salacia species with potential anti-diabetic activity. The pharmacokinetic differences of mangiferin following oral administration of pure mangiferin and polyherbal formulation containing Salacia species were studied with approximately the same dose 30 mg/kg mangiferin and its distribution among the major tissue in Wistar rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,440, 2,160, and 2880 min) and subsequently analyzed using a validated simple and rapid LC-MS method. Plasma concentration versus time profiles were explored by non-compartmental analysis. Mangiferin plasma exposure was significantly increased when administered from formulation compared to the standard mangiferin. Mangiferin resided significantly longer in the body (last mean residence time (MRTlast)) when given in the form of the formulation (3.65 h). Cmax values of formulation (44.16 ?g/mL) administration were elevated when compared to equivalent dose of the pure mangiferin (15.23 ?g/mL). Tissue distribution study of mangiferin from polyherbal formulation was also studied. In conclusion, the exposure of mangiferin is enhanced after formulation and administration and could result in superior efficacy of polyherbal formulation when compared to an equivalent dose of mangiferin. The results indicate that the reason which delays the elimination of mangiferin and enhances its bioavailability might the interactions of the some other constituents present in the polyherbal formulation. Distribution study results indicate that mangiferin was extensively bound to the various tissues like the small intestine, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver except brain tissue. PMID:25273025

Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Inampudi, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

2015-04-01

130

MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124 PMID:23383037

Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

2013-01-01

131

A double-blind clinical trial comparing World Health Organization oral rehydration solution with a reduced osmolarity solution containing equal amounts of sodium and glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing 75 mmol\\/L of sodium and glucose each with the standard World Health Organization (WHO) ORS among Egyptian children with acute diarrhea. METHODS: One hundred ninety boys, ages 1 to 24 months, who were admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea and signs of dehydration were randomly

Mathuram Santosham; Ibrahim Fayad; Maha Abu Zikri; Abeer Hussein; Akwasi Amponsah; Christopher Duggan; Mohamed Hashem; Nermine El Sady; Mona Abu Zikri; Olivier Fontaine

1996-01-01

132

COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

133

Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria.  

PubMed

In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

Rivera-Leyva, J C; García-Flores, M; Valladares-Méndez, A; Orozco-Castellanos, L M; Martínez-Alfaro, M

2012-07-01

134

Oral tactile sensibility recorded in overdenture wearers with implants or natural roots: a comparative study. Part 2.  

PubMed

The capacity of dentate subjects to discriminate the thickness of objects placed between the teeth seems to depend on receptors in the periodontal ligament and muscles. The compensatory mechanism of ankylotic implants for the function of missing periodontal ligaments is not yet known. To investigate this question in overdenture wearers, 26 patients with ITI implants and 20 patients with natural roots were selected. According to the experimental protocol, the discriminatory ability was recorded with 10 steel foils (thickness ranging from 10 to 100 microns) placed between the premolars. Each thickness was tested 10 times and the test subjects were required to distinguish whether foil was positioned between the teeth. A maximum of 100 correct or 100 incorrect answers was possible. The average number of incorrect answers was significantly higher in test subjects with implants. The 50% limit (ie, the tested thickness recorded with at least 5 wrong answers) was established, but no statistically significant difference was found. In both groups, the critical tactile threshold of perceived thickness was 30 to 40 microns, with 2 being the average number of incorrect assessments. When comparing the minimal thickness, which was recorded without incorrect assessment, a significantly lower threshold was observed on patients with natural roots. Thus, active tactile sensibility appears to depend on the receptors in the periodontal ligament. However, wearing of removable prostheses is a modifying factor and may influence the oral tactile sensibility for both groups. PMID:8150514

Mericske-Stern, R

1994-01-01

135

Oral vaccination against classical swine fever with a chimeric Pestivirus : comparative investigations of liquid and lyophilized virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the chimeric marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf in different formulations\\u000a for oral immunization against classical swine fever (CSF). In the first experiment, three wild boars were vaccinated orally\\u000a with the liquid chimeric virus CP7_E2alf, whereas in the second experiment, four wild boars and four domestic pigs were immunized\\u000a with the

V. Kaden; E. Lange; A. Faust

2008-01-01

136

Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.  

PubMed

A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for Bravecto™. PMID:25564276

Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

2015-01-30

137

Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the hippocampus of the mouse pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.  

PubMed

We investigated the cellular localization and progressive changes of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the mouse hippocampus, during and after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (PISE) and subsequent epileptogenesis. We found that CRF gene expression was up-regulated significantly at 2h during and 1d after PISE in comparison to control mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of CRF and Fos immunoreactive cells was increased significantly in the strata oriens and pyramidale of CA1 area and in the stratum pyramidale of CA3 area at 2h during and 1d after PISE. CRF was induced in calbindin (CB) or calretinin (CR) immunoreactive interneurons in stratum oriens at 2h during PISE. It suggests that induced CRF may be related to the over excitation of hippocampal neurons and occurrence of status epilepticus. It may also cause excitoneurotoxicity and delayed loss of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to the onset of epilepsy. PMID:22326386

Wu, Jing; Ma, Dong Liang; Ling, Eng Ang; Tang, Feng Ru

2012-03-23

138

Intraocular pressure response to the replacement of pilocarpine or carbachol with echothiophate.  

PubMed

In 20 patients with open-angle glaucoma in aphakia or pseudophakia whose intraocular pressure had remained uncontrolled on their current medical therapy, the medication was changed from pilocarpine or carbachol to echothiophate iodide. In all, 12 patients (60%) showed a statistically significant improvement in pressure control, 7 (35%) showed no change, and 1 had higher pressure. One-third of the patients with improved intraocular-pressure control eventually required laser or incisional surgery after a mean of 23 months, whereas the remaining subjects were controlled for the duration of the follow-up, which averaged 26 months. Side effects encountered during echothiophate iodide treatment included ocular irritation, decreased vision, and one retinal detachment. PMID:1869061

Reichert, R W; Shields, M B

1991-01-01

139

Scorpion ethanol extract and valproic acid effects on hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of chronic-kindling epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine?  

PubMed Central

The present study analyzed the effects of ethanol extracts of scorpion on epilepsy prevention and hippocampal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in a lithium chloride-pilocarpine epileptic rat model. Results were subsequently compared with valproic acid. Results showed gradually-increased hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression following model establishment; glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression was significantly increased at 3 days, reached a peak at 7 days, and then gradually decreased thereafter. Ethanol extracts of scorpion doses of 580 and 1 160 mg/kg, as well as 120 mg/kg valproic acid, led to a decreased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression, as well as decreased seizure grades and frequency of spontaneously recurrent seizures. The effects of 1 160 mg/kg ethanol extracts of scorpion were equal to those of 120 mg/kg valproic acid. These results suggested that the anti-epileptic effect of ethanol extracts of scorpion were associated with decreased hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced epilepsy.

Liang, Yi; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Liang; He, Baoming; Xie, Yan

2012-01-01

140

First-line oral capecitabine therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: a favorable safety profile compared with intravenous 5-fluorouracil\\/leucovorin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the safety profile of capecitabine using data from a large, well-characterized population of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated in two phase III studies. In these trials, capecitabine achieved significantly superior response rates, equivalent time to disease progression and equivalent survival compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)\\/leucovorin. Patients and methods: Patients (n = 1207) were randomized to either oral

J. Cassidy; C. Twelves; E. Van Cutsem; P. Hoff; E. Bajetta; M. Boyer; R. Bugat; U. Burger; A. Garin; U. Graeven; J. McKendrick; J. Maroun; J. Marshall; B. Osterwalder

2002-01-01

141

Comparative effects of oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis and insulin injection on serum biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrullus colocynthis seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. An experiment was designed to evaluate\\u000a the comparative effects of oral administration of C. colocynthis and insulin injection on the serum biochemical parameters of diabetic dogs. Twelve apparently healthy mixed breed dogs were\\u000a selected and randomly allocated into three groups, two diabetic groups and one control group (n?=?4).

Ameneh Khoshvaghti; Ahmad Reza Hamidi

142

Comparable Evaluation of Orally Active Beta-Lactam Compounds in Ampicillin-Resistant Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Rods: Role of Beta-Lactamases on Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of the recently developed cephems cefixime and cefetamet-pivoxyl was evaluated in 408 gram-positive and gram-negative rods, all isolated recently from clinical specimens, and compared to that of other orally active agents such as ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefuroxime-axetil and to ceftriaxone. With regard to ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae ceftriaxone proved to be the most active agent, followed

Wolfgang Cullmann; Wolfgang Dick; Michaela Stieglitz; Wolfgang Opferkuch

1988-01-01

143

A randomized comparative study to determine the effect of omeprazole on the peak serum concentration of itraconazole oral solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of omeprazole on peak serum concentrations (Cmax) of itraconazole oral solution (IOS), we carried out a randomized, open-label, prospective, crossover study. Fifteen healthy, non-pregnant adults received a single dose of IOS 400 mg on two occasions, at least 7 days apart, with omeprazole 40 mg nightly for 7 days before either IOS dose 1 or 2.

Melissa D. Johnson; Carol D. Hamilton; Richard H. Drew; Linda L. Sanders; Gennethel J. Pennick; John R. Perfect

144

Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL); open trial of surgery compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in papillomavirus-related PVL.  

PubMed

Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a unique oral white lesion in which human papillomavirus (HPV) may play a role. PVL behaves far more aggressively than other forms of leukoplakia with a high rate of recurrence after surgical excision, and relentless progression to verrucous hyperplasia and to verrucous or squamous cell carcinomas. The treatment of PVL is usually by surgery, but there is often early recurrence. This study was an open trial of surgery in 25 patients with oral HPV-positive PVL, compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in another group of 25 patients with oral PVL. Six months postoperatively there was a significant difference, with 18 recurrences in the patients treated by surgery alone compared to only two recurrences in the patients treated also with methisoprinol (isoprinosine or inosine pranobex), a synthetic agent with immunomodulatory properties and some antiviral activity against HPV. Eighteen months postoperatively there were no further recurrences in the patients treated by surgery alone but another two recurrences in the patients treated with methisoprinol. Overall, by 18 months follow-up, there were 18 recurrences in the group treated by surgery alone, compared with four in those also receiving methisoprinol. The use of this antiviral agent appeared to offer a significant enhancement to the surgical management of PVL. PMID:11518355

Femiano, F; Gombos, F; Scully, C

2001-08-01

145

Comparing ONRAB® AND RABORAL V-RG® oral rabies vaccine field performance in raccoons and striped skunks, New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine, USA.  

PubMed

Control of rabies in mesocarnivore reservoirs through oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires an effective vaccine bait. Oral rabies vaccine performance in the field may be affected by a variety of factors, including vaccine bait density and distribution pattern, habitat, target species population density, and the availability of competing foods. A field study in which these covariates were restricted as much as possible was conducted along the international border of the state of Maine (ME), USA, and the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada, to compare the performance of two oral rabies vaccines in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). RABORAL V-RG(®) (vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in fishmeal-coated sachet) or ONRAB(®) (adenovirus-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in Ultralite bait matrix) were distributed in ME and NB, respectively, by fixed-wing aircraft at a density of 75 baits/km(2) along parallel flight lines spaced 1.0 km apart. Sera were collected from live-trapped raccoons and skunks 5-7 wk post-ORV and assayed to determine antibody prevalence in each area. Duplicate serum samples were provided blind to two different laboratories for analyses by rabies virus serum neutralization assays (at both laboratories) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at one laboratory). There was no significant difference in the proportion of antibody-positive animals determined by the three serologic methods, nor was there a significant difference between ONRAB and RABORAL V-RG in the proportion of antibody-positive striped skunks observed post-ORV. In contrast, the proportion of antibody-positive raccoons was significantly higher in the ONRAB- versus the RABORAL V-RG-baited areas (74% vs. 30%; ?(2)=89.977, df=5, P<0.0001). These data support that ONRAB may serve as an effective tool for raccoon rabies control. PMID:22247384

Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Rudd, Robert; Donovan, Dennis; Slate, Dennis; Kempf, Libby; Badcock, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

146

Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application  

PubMed Central

Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P.; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K.

2015-01-01

147

Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application.  

PubMed

Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K

2015-01-01

148

A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label, non-inferiority study was conducted at 36 sites in Europe and India. Patients with known intolerance to oral iron were excluded. A total of 338 IBD patients in clinical remission or with mild disease, a hemoglobin (Hb) <12?g/dl, and a transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20% were randomized 2:1 to receive either IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 according to the Ganzoni formula (225 patients) or oral iron sulfate 200?mg daily (equivalent to 200?mg elemental iron; 113 patients). An interactive web response system method was used to randomize the eligible patient to the treatment groups. The primary end point was change in Hb from baseline to week 8. Iron isomaltoside 1,000 and iron sulfate was compared by a non-inferiority assessment with a margin of ?0.5?g/dl. The secondary end points, which tested for superiority, included change in Hb from baseline to weeks 2 and 4, change in s-ferritin, and TSAT to week 8, number of patients who discontinued study because of lack of response or intolerance of investigational drugs, change in total quality of life (QoL) score to weeks 4 and 8, and safety. Exploratory analyses included a responder analysis (proportion of patients with an increase in Hb ?2?g/dl after 8 weeks), the effect of regional differences and total iron dose level, and other potential predictors of the treatment response. RESULTS: Non-inferiority in change of Hb to week 8 could not be demonstrated. There was a trend for oral iron sulfate being more effective in increasing Hb than iron isomaltoside 1,000. The estimated treatment effect was ?0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.80, 0.06) with P=0.09 in the full analysis set (N=327) and ?0.45 (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.03) with P=0.04 in the per protocol analysis set (N=299). In patients treated with IV iron isomaltoside 1,000, the mean change in s-ferritin concentration was higher with an estimated treatment effect of 48.7 (95% CI: 18.6, 78.8) with P=0.002, whereas the mean change in TSAT was lower with an estimated treatment effect of ?4.4 (95% CI: ?7.4, ?1.4) with P=0.005, compared with patients treated with oral iron. No differences in changes of QoL were observed. The safety profile was similar between the groups. The proportion of responders with Hb ?2?g/dl (IV group: 67% oral group: 61%) were comparable between the groups (P=0.32). Iron isomaltoside 1,000 was more efficacious with higher cumulative doses of >1,000?mg IV. Significant predictors of Hb response to IV iron treatment were baseline Hb and C-reactive protein (CRP). CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate non-inferiority of IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 compared with oral iron in this study. Based on the dose–response relationship observed with the IV iron compound, we suggest that the true iron demand of IV iron was underestimated by the Ganzoni formula in our study. Alternative calculations including Hb and CRP should be explored to gauge iron stores in patients with IBD. PMID:24145678

Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K; Altorjay, Istvan; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Gratzer, Cornelia; Nijhawan, Sandeep; Thomsen, Lars L

2013-01-01

149

Comparison between the Effectiveness of Oral Phloroglucin and Cimetropium Bromide as Premedication for Diagnostic Esophagogastroduodenoscopy: An Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Suppression of gastrointestinal (GI) peristalsis during GI endoscopy commonly requires antispasmodic agents such as hyoscine butylbromide, atropine, glucagon, and cimetropium bromide. This study examined the efficacy of oral phloroglucin for the suppression of peristalsis, its impact on patient compliance, and any associated complications, and compared it with intravenous or intramuscular cimetropium bromide administration. Methods This was a randomized, investigator-blind, prospective comparative study. A total of 172 patients were randomized into two groups according to the following medications administered prior to upper endoscopy: oral phloroglucin (group A, n=86), and cimetropium bromide (group B, n=86). The numbers and the degrees of peristalsis events at the antrum and second duodenal portion were assessed for 30 seconds. Results A significantly higher number of gastric peristalsis events was observed in group A (0.49 vs. 0.08, p<0.001), but the difference was not clinically significant. No significant difference between both groups was found in the occurrence of duodenal peristalsis events (1.79 vs. 1.63, p=0.569). The incidence of dry mouth was significantly higher with cimetropium bromide than with phloroglucin (50% vs. 15.1%, p<0.001). Conclusions Oral phloroglucin can be used as an antispasmodic agent during upper endoscopy, and shows antispasmodic efficacy and adverse effects similar to those of cimetropium bromide. PMID:25674526

Yun, Hye-Won; Na, Sun-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-In; Lee, Min-Jin; Song, Eun-Mi; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Hye-Kyoung; Jung, Sung-Ae

2015-01-01

150

Comparative chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile by drinking water and oral intubation to Spartan® Sprague–Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 100 male and 100 female Spartan® Sprague–Dawley rats were administered lifetime oral doses of Acrylonitrile (AN) by one of two routes of dosing, either at 0.1 or 10 mg\\/kg per day, 7 day per week by intubation or continually at 1 or 100 ppm AN in their drinking water. The doses selected were designed to approximate the same

Frederick R. Johannsen; George J. Levinskas

2002-01-01

151

Status of oral health awareness in Indian children as compared to Western children: a thought provoking situation (a pilot study).  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the level of oral health awareness in a selected sample of Indian children and a selected sample of western children residing in Amritsar city of Punjab. Children were evaluated on the basis of a standardized questionnaire developed by WHO, for health awareness in children. Final results revealed the level of awareness in both the groups and the practical application of their knowledge about dental health in day to day life. PMID:17456961

Grewal, Navneet; Kaur, Manpreet

2007-03-01

152

Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.  

PubMed

N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25?mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25069786

Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

2014-07-28

153

Gabapentin Administration Reduces Reactive Gliosis and Neurodegeneration after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces in rodents several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy, by inducing an acute status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. It has been proposed that the neuronal network reorganization that occurs during latency determines the subsequent appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuronal and glial responses during the latency period that follows SE. Given the potential role of astrocytes in the post-SE network reorganization, through the secretion of synaptogenic molecules such as thrombospondins, we also studied the effect of treatment with the ?2?1 thrombospondin receptor antagonist gabapentin. Adult male Wistar rats received 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine. Once SE was achieved, seizures were stopped with 20 mg/kg diazepam. Animals then received 400 mg/kg/day gabapentin or saline for either 4 or 14 days. In vitro experiments were performed in dissociated mixed hippocampal cell culture exposed to glutamate, and subsequently treated with gabapentin or vehicle. During the latency period, the hippocampus and pyriform cortex of SE-animals presented a profuse reactive astrogliosis, with increased GFAP and nestin expression. Gliosis intensity was dependent on the Racine stage attained by the animals and peaked 15 days after SE. Microglia was also reactive after SE, and followed the same pattern. Neuronal degeneration was present in SE-animals, and also depended on the Racine stage and the SE duration. Polysialic-acid NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression was increased in hippocampal CA-1 and dentate gyrus of SE-animals. Gabapentin treatment was able to reduce reactive gliosis, decrease neuronal loss and normalize PSA-NCAM staining in hippocampal CA-1. In vitro, gabapentin treatment partially prevented the dendritic loss and reactive gliosis caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. Our results show that gabapentin treatment during the latency period after SE protects neurons and normalizes PSA-NCAM probably by direct interaction with neurons and glia. PMID:24250797

Rossi, Alicia Raquel; Angelo, Maria Florencia; Villarreal, Alejandro; Lukin, Jerónimo; Ramos, Alberto Javier

2013-01-01

154

Gabapentin administration reduces reactive gliosis and neurodegeneration after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces in rodents several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy, by inducing an acute status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. It has been proposed that the neuronal network reorganization that occurs during latency determines the subsequent appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuronal and glial responses during the latency period that follows SE. Given the potential role of astrocytes in the post-SE network reorganization, through the secretion of synaptogenic molecules such as thrombospondins, we also studied the effect of treatment with the ?2?1 thrombospondin receptor antagonist gabapentin. Adult male Wistar rats received 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine. Once SE was achieved, seizures were stopped with 20 mg/kg diazepam. Animals then received 400 mg/kg/day gabapentin or saline for either 4 or 14 days. In vitro experiments were performed in dissociated mixed hippocampal cell culture exposed to glutamate, and subsequently treated with gabapentin or vehicle. During the latency period, the hippocampus and pyriform cortex of SE-animals presented a profuse reactive astrogliosis, with increased GFAP and nestin expression. Gliosis intensity was dependent on the Racine stage attained by the animals and peaked 15 days after SE. Microglia was also reactive after SE, and followed the same pattern. Neuronal degeneration was present in SE-animals, and also depended on the Racine stage and the SE duration. Polysialic-acid NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression was increased in hippocampal CA-1 and dentate gyrus of SE-animals. Gabapentin treatment was able to reduce reactive gliosis, decrease neuronal loss and normalize PSA-NCAM staining in hippocampal CA-1. In vitro, gabapentin treatment partially prevented the dendritic loss and reactive gliosis caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. Our results show that gabapentin treatment during the latency period after SE protects neurons and normalizes PSA-NCAM probably by direct interaction with neurons and glia. PMID:24250797

Rossi, Alicia Raquel; Angelo, Maria Florencia; Villarreal, Alejandro; Lukin, Jerónimo; Ramos, Alberto Javier

2013-01-01

155

Comparison of status epilepticus models induced by pilocarpine and nerve agents - a systematic review of the underlying aetiology and adopted therapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

Among potential radiological, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, cholinergic nerve agents from chemical weapons remain a realistic terrorist threat due to its combination of high lethality, demonstrated use and relative abundance of un-destroyed stockpiles in various militaries around the world. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute poisoning, effective neuroprotection in the field remains a challenge amongst subjects with established status epilepticus following nerve agent intoxication. Due to ethical, safety and surety issues, extensive preclinical and clinical research on cholinergic nerve agents is not possible. This may have been a contributory factor for the slow progress in uncovering new neuroprotectants for nerve agent casualties with established status epilepticus. To overcome this challenge, comparative research with surrogate chemicals that produce similar hypercholinergic toxicity but with less security concerns would be a useful approach forward. In this paper, we will systemically compare the mechanism of seizure generation, propagation and the subsequent clinical, hematologic, and metabolic, biochemical, neuroinflammatory changes and current therapeutic approaches reported in pilocarpine, soman, and sarin models of seizures. This review will be an important first step in closing this knowledge gap among different closely related models of seizures and neurotoxicity. Hopefully, it will spur further efforts in using surrogate cholinergic models by the wider scientific community to expedite the development of a new generation of antidotes that are better able to protect against delayed neurological effects inflicted by nerve agents. PMID:21182477

Tang, F R; Loke, W K; Ling, E A

2011-01-01

156

Comparative evaluation of the diagnostic performance of autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance in oral cancer detection: a clinical study.  

PubMed

Autofluorescence (AF) and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopic techniques have shown good diagnostic accuracies for noninvasive detection of oral cavity cancer. In the present study, AF and DR spectra recorded in vivo from the same set of sites in 65 patients were analyzed using Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The effectiveness of these two techniques was assessed by comparison with gold standard and their discrimination efficiency was determined from the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve. Analysis using a DR technique shows a higher AUC-ROC of 0.991 as against 0.987 for AF spectral data. PMID:21905236

Jayanthi, Jayaraj L; Subhash, Narayanan; Stephen, Manju; Philip, Emmanuel K; Beena, Valappil T

2011-10-01

157

[Comparative analyses of colonization degree of oral cavity by microbial flora during application of teeth prosthetic devices].  

PubMed

The degree of adhesion and colonization was studied among 27 patients with generalized paradontitis of moderate severity and in remission stage. All these patients had different material teeth prostheses. 12 patients had acrylic plastic "Ftorax" material prostheses and 15 of them polypropylenes prostheses. Prostheses prepared from acryl plastic were intensively colonized by stable microflora of oral cavity, as well as by paradontopathogens, whereas usage of polypropylenes prostheses is rather effective for patients with paradontitis, because it is followed by partial recovery of stable microflora and lack of secretion of parodontopathogenic types, such as actynomycetes, prevotellae, fusobacteria. PMID:16905807

Dzhervalidze, M A; Margvelashvili, V V; Chikviladze, D P; Mikeladze, M L; Gachechiladze, Kh E

2006-06-01

158

Comparative evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles of rifampicin comprising Gantrez and poly(ethylene sebacate) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and lung uptake following oral administration.  

PubMed

The present study reports the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation and biodistribution of rifampicin (RIF) following oral administration of nanoparticles of a bioadhesive polymer, Gantrez and a hydrophobic polymer poly(ethylene sebacate) (PES). A specific objective of the study was to evaluate lung uptake of the nanoparticles following oral administration. Nanoparticles were obtained in the size range 350-450 nm with rifampicin loading of 12-14% w/w. Zeta potential confirmed colloidal stability. PES nanoparticles revealed high macrophage uptake compared to Gantrez nanoparticles, and direct correlation was observed between hydrophobicity (contact angle) and macrophage uptake (r2 -0.940). Enhanced RIF uptake with folic acid anchoring suggested folate receptor mediated uptake. RIF nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher Cmax and AUC, delayed Tmax and sustained release compared to plain RIF. More importantly the plasma concentration of RIF with the nanoparticles was significantly greater than the MIC of RIF (0.25 microng/mL) over 24 h. While gamma scintigraphy revealed higher lung accumulation of nanoparticles, the concentration with Gantrez nanoparticles was significantly higher. HPLC evaluation of lung concentration correlated with scintigraphy data. The significantly higher bioavailability and lung accumulation with Gantrez nanoparticle over PES nanoparticles was attributed mucoadhesion and high affinity of Gantrez to the Peyer's patches. Our study suggests Gantrez nanoparticles as a promising carrier for enhancing lung accumulation of drugs. PMID:24734521

Patel, Mitesh D; Date, Praveen V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Malshe, Vinod C; Devarajan, Padma V

2014-04-01

159

Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reverts muscarinic receptor down-regulation induced by pilocarpine- and kainic acid-evoked seizures in rat fronto-parietal cortex.  

PubMed

We investigated how nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor modulates muscarinic receptor expression in epileptic rats. We found that subchronic treatment (4 days) with N?-nitro-l-arginine reduced the down-regulation of muscarinic receptors induced by pilocarpine and kainic acid in rat fronto-parietal cortex, notwithstanding the dramatic potentiation of seizures induced by both convulsants. Furthermore, functional experiments in fronto-parietal cortex slices, showed that N?-nitro-l-arginine reduces the down-regulating effect of pilocarpine on carbachol-induced phosphoinositol hydrolysis. Finally, N?-nitro-l-arginine greatly potentiated the induction of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) by pilocarpine. These data suggest a potential role of NO in a regulatory feedback loop to control muscarinic receptor signal during seizures. The dramatic potentiation of convulsions by NO synthase inhibitors in some animal models of seizures could derive from preventing this feedback loop. PMID:24246145

Capannolo, Marta; Ciccarelli, Carmela; Molteni, Raffaella; Fumagalli, Fabio; Rocchi, Cristina; Romeo, Stefania; Fasciani, Irene; Aloisi, Gabriella; Zani, Bianca M; Riva, Marco A; Maggio, Roberto

2014-01-01

160

Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 ?g levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 ?g ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 ?g EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 ?g LNG/30 ?g EE [Treatment 2] or 150 ?g desogestrel [DSG]/30 ?g EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [? 18.3 pmol/L] > ? 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

2014-01-01

161

Effect of perampanel, a novel AMPA antagonist, on benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model.  

PubMed

This study assessed the efficacy of diazepam, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists perampanel and GYKI52466 in a lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) model. SE was induced in rats using lithium chloride, scopolamine methyl bromide, and pilocarpine. Diazepam 10, 20, or 40 mg kg(-1), or perampanel 1, 2.5, 5, or 8 mg kg(-1) were administered intravenously at 10 or 30 min after seizure onset, and GYKI52466 50 mg kg(-1), or combinations of diazepam 2.5-5 mg kg(-1) and perampanel 0.5-1 mg kg(-1), were administered intravenously at 30 min after seizure onset. Diazepam 20 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures (based on electroencephalography and assessment of behavioral seizures) in 2/6 rats at 10 min and 0/6 rats at 30 min (ED50: 10 min, 30 mg kg(-1); 30 min, not determined). Perampanel 8 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures in 6/6 rats at both 10 and 30 min (ED50: 10 min 1.7 mg kg(-1); 30 min, 5.1 mg kg(-1)). GYKI52466 50 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures in 2/4 rats at 30 min. Co-administration of diazepam 5 mg kg(-1) and perampanel 1 mg kg(-1) terminated seizures in 9/9 rats at 30 min. In conclusion, perampanel and GYKI52466 provided efficacy in a lithium-pilocarpine SE model at 30 min after seizure onset, when SE was refractory to diazepam, supporting the therapeutic potential of AMPA receptor antagonists for refractory SE. The perampanel dose required to terminate seizures was reduced by combination with diazepam, suggesting synergy. PMID:25505607

Hanada, Takahisa; Ido, Katsutoshi; Kosasa, Takashi

2014-10-01

162

Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2's catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity. PMID:25436236

How, Kah Yan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

163

Differential Patterns of Synaptotagmin7 mRNA Expression in Rats with Kainate- and Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in rat models of neurodegenerative disorders have shown disregulation of striatal synaptotagmin7 mRNA. Here we explored the expression of synaptotagmin7 mRNA in the brains of rats with seizures triggered by the glutamatergic agonist kainate (10 mg/kg) or by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) in LiCl (3 mEq/kg) pre-treated (24 h) rats, in a time-course experiment (30 min - 1 day). After kainate-induced seizures, synaptotagmin7 mRNA levels were transiently and uniformly increased throughout the dorsal and ventral striatum (accumbens) at 8 and 12 h, but not at 24 h, followed at 24 h by somewhat variable upregulation within different parts of the cerebral cortex, amigdala and thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus and the lateral septum. By contrast, after LiCl/pilocarpine-induced seizures, there was a more prolonged increase of striatal Synaptotagmin7 mRNA levels (at 8, 12 and 24 h), but only in the ventromedial striatum, while in some other of the aforementioned brain regions there was a decline to below the basal levels. After systemic post-treatment with muscarinic antagonist scopolamine in a dose of 2 mg/kg the seizures were either extinguished or attenuated. In scopolamine post-treated animals with extinguished seizures the striatal synaptotagmin7 mRNA levels (at 12 h after the onset of seizures) were not different from the levels in control animals without seizures, while in rats with attenuated seizures, the upregulation closely resembled kainate seizures-like pattern of striatal upregulation. In the dose of 1 mg/kg, scopolamine did not significantly affect the progression of pilocarpine-induced seizures or pilocarpine seizures-like pattern of striatal upregulation of synaptotagmin7 mRNA. In control experiments, equivalent doses of scopolamine per se did not affect the expression of synaptotagmin7 mRNA. We conclude that here described differential time course and pattern of synaptotagmin7 mRNA expression imply regional differences of pathophysiological brain activation and plasticity in these two models of seizures. PMID:22567130

Glavan, Gordana; See, Ronald Eugene; Živin, Marko

2012-01-01

164

Scintigraphic studies on the corneal residence of a New Ophthalmic Delivery System (NODS): rate of clearance of a soluble marker in relation to duration of pharmacological action of pilocarpine.  

PubMed Central

1. A gamma scintigraphic study has been carried out on the precorneal residence and pharmacodynamic action of a radiolabelled New Ophthalmic Delivery System (NODS) containing pilocarpine nitrate in 12 healthy volunteers. 2. The NODS was radiolabelled with the soluble marker technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, to mark the release characteristics of soluble drugs contained within the matrix. 3. The relationship between the precorneal residence time of the marker and the duration of drug effect on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter was monitored. Results obtained following administration of the NODS were compared with those obtained after administration of a 25 microliters drop of a 2% w/v pilocarpine nitrate solution. Each formulation was administered to one eye only, the other eye acting as a control. 4. Dissolution of the radiolabel from the NODS in vivo showed considerable intersubject variation with half-times of dissolution ranging from 46 s to 833 s (mean +/- s.d. -280 +/- 217 s), the mean (+/- s.d.) half-time of clearance of the radiolabel from the NODS and corneal region of interest was 406 +/- 214 s whereas the radiolabelled solution had a mean (+/- s.d.) ocular surface residence time of 2.9 +/- 1.5 s. 5. Pupil diameter and intraocular pressure were measured for 5 h post-administration of the NODS and the solution. After both treatments pupil diameter was significantly constricted in the test eye when compared with the control eye (P less than 0.001; Student's paired t-test). Pupil diameter was constricted by 52% after administration of the NODS and by 35% after administration of the solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:1389932

Greaves, J L; Wilson, C G; Birmingham, A T; Richardson, M C; Bentley, P H

1992-01-01

165

Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0.18). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral mucoperiosteal flap could be an option in the choice of interpositional materials in surgery of TMJ ankylosis.

Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

2015-01-01

166

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment  

SciTech Connect

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

2013-01-01

167

Diverse effects of variant doses of dexamethasone in lithium-pilocarpine induced seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids are used in the management of several epileptic aliments; however, their effectiveness in combating seizures remains controversial, with pro- and anti-convulsive effects ascribed. The current study aimed to address the modulatory effect of dexamethasone (DEX) utilizing 3 dose levels (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body mass of male Wistar rat) in the rat lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PIL) epilepsy model. Li-PIL induced seizures that were associated with neuronal cell loss in the CA3 region, and increased prostaglandin (PG)E(2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-10, nitric oxide, and neutrophil infiltration in the hippocampus. However, Li-PIL compromised the oxidant-antioxidant balance of the hippocampus. Effective anticonvulsant activity was only observed with 10 mg DEX/kg body mass, which reduced seizure production and incidence, as well as neuronal cell loss in the CA3 region. At this anticonvulsant dose, enhancements in the antioxidant system and IL-10, as well as suppression of altered inflammatory markers were observed. Conversely, doubling the dose showed a tendency to shorten seizure latency, and neither affected seizure incidence nor CA3 neuronal cell loss. These effects were associated with an increase in levels of PGE(2) and TNF-?. The present study found a lack of protection at 5 mg DEX/kg body mass, an anticonvulsant effect at 10 mg/kg, and a loss of protection at 20 mg/kg in the Li-PIL epilepsy model, which indicates that there is an optimal dose of DEX for preventing the induction of seizures. PMID:22171792

Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; El Sayeh, Bahia M; Abdallah, Dalaal M

2012-01-01

168

Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Material and Methods: Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Results: Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bis-phosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. Conclusions: In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ. Key words:Osteonecrosis, oral bisphosphonate, treatment, teriparatide, plasma rich in growth factors. PMID:24608203

Pelaz, Alejandro; Gallego, Lorena; García-Consuegra, Luis; Junquera, Sonsoles; Gómez, Carlos

2014-01-01

169

Comparing gene expression during cadmium uptake and distribution: untreated versus oral Cd-treated wild-type and ZIP14 knockout mice.  

PubMed

The nonessential metal cadmium (Cd) is toxic only after entering the cell. Proteins possibly relevant to intracellular Cd accumulation include the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and all 14 zinc-like iron-like protein (ZIP) importers, 10 zinc transporter (ZnT) exporters, and metallothionein chaperones MT1 and MT2. Comparing oral Cd-treated ZIP14 knockout (KO) with wild-type (WT) mice, we predicted Cd uptake and distribution would be diminished in the KO-because ZIP14 is very highly expressed in GI tract and liver; this was indeed observed for Cd content in liver. However, the reverse was found in kidney and lung from 6 or 12?h through 10 days of Cd exposure; at these times, Cd accumulation was unexpectedly greater in KO than WT mice; mRNA levels of the 27 above-mentioned genes were thus examined in proximal small intestine (PSI) versus kidney to see if these paradoxical effects could be explained by substantial alterations in any of the other 26 genes. PSI genes highly expressed in untreated WT animals included seven ZIP and five ZnT transporters, DMT1, MT1, and MT2; kidney genes included 11 ZIP and 7 ZnT transporters, DMT1, MT1, and MT2. Over 10 days of oral Cd, a bimodal response was seen for Cd content in PSI and for various mRNAs; initially, acute effects caused by the toxic metal; subsequently, the up- or down-regulation of important genes presumably to combat the sustained adversity. These data underscore the complex interplay between the gastrointestinal tract and renal proteins that might be relevant to Cd uptake and distribution in animals exposed to oral Cd. PMID:25294218

Jorge-Nebert, Lucia F; Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Landero Figueroa, Julio; Somarathna, Maheshika; Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Nebert, Daniel W

2015-01-01

170

Oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

171

Oral Myiasis  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

172

Infant acceptance of a bitter-tasting liquid medication: a randomized controlled trial comparing the Rx Medibottle with an oral syringe.  

PubMed

The calibrated oral syringe is considered the standard system for administering liquid formulations of medications to infants. Medication acceptance using the syringe may not always be favorable, particularly with unpleasant-tasting liquids. The Rx Medibottle (The Medicine Bottle Co, Hinsdale, Illinois), an alternate drug-delivery device, is an infant-feeding bottle that contains a central sleeve within its body into which a syringe is inserted. Depressing the syringe's plunger in quick, short squirts synchronized with an infant's sucking allows drug ingestion, preventing dilution of the drug in the formula within the bottle's nipple. The Rx Medibottle costs $14.95 retail. Kraus et al demonstrated that it was more efficacious, with a higher level of infant acceptance compared with the syringe, when used to administer a 1-time dose of a pleasant-tasting liquid (acetaminophen, Tempra Syrup; Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Evansville, Indiana). Our study tests the efficacy of this bottle in administering a single dose of generic prednisolone liquid, a bitter-tasting drug, with an oral syringe serving as the control method of delivery. PMID:19188654

Purswani, Murli U; Radhakrishnan, Jolly; Irfan, Khudsia R; Walter-Glickman, Cynthia; Hagmann, Stefan; Neugebauer, Richard

2009-02-01

173

Cost-minimization study comparing annual infusion of zoledronic acid or weekly oral alendronate in women with low bone mineral density.  

PubMed

Cost-minimization study to assess the annual direct costs of 2 antiresorptive strategies in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral densities (BMDs). Patients were randomly assigned to receive 70 mg of oral weekly alendronate or a 1-time 5mg of intravenous zoledronic acid. All medical and nonmedical direct costs were recorded for 1 yr. Student's t-test or the Chi-squared test was used. A total of 101 postmenopausal women were enrolled with a mean age of 58.3 ± 7.6 yr and a postmenopausal period of 13.5 ± 8.3 yr. A total of 50 patients completed 1 yr of alendronate and 51 patients received zoledronic acid. At baseline, no differences were seen between the 2 groups in anthropometric measures, comorbidities, and bone mineral density. The costs for medical attention for low bone mass were $81,532 (US Dollars) for the alendronate group and $69,251 for the zoledronic acid group; the cost per patient was $1631 in the alendronate group vs $1358 in the zoledronic acid group (p<0.0001). Therefore, zoledronic acid treatment provided an annual savings of 15% of the direct costs compared with oral alendronate treatment. Moreover, there was a significant increase in lumbar spine T-scores in the zoledronic acid group when compared with the alendronate group. Annual zoledronic acid infusion as an antiresorptive treatment in women with low BMD provides significant monetary savings when compared with weekly alendronate therapy for 1 yr. Zoledronic acid infusion is also linked to higher increase in BMD and compliance. PMID:24613450

Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro; Espinosa-Ortega, Fabricio

2014-01-01

174

Long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate versus oral paliperidone extended release: a comparative analysis from two placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. Methods This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46–4.35; p < 0.001]. Similarly, risk of relapse after withdrawal of paliperidone ER treatment (placebo group of the paliperidone ER study) was higher than after withdrawal of PP (paliperidone ER placebo/PP placebo HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.59–3.18; p < 0.001). Stabilised schizophrenic subjects treated with PP maintained functioning demonstrated by the same proportions of subjects with mild to no difficulties in functioning at DB baseline and end point [Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale total score >70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar. Conclusions This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23845018

2013-01-01

175

Activation of Group 2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Reduces Behavioral and Electrographic Correlates of Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Novel treatments for epilepsy are necessary because many epilepsy patients are resistant to medication. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), specifically mGluR 2 and 3, may serve as antiepileptic targets because of their role in controlling synaptic release. In this study, we administered a Group 2 mGluR agonist, LY379268, one of two mGluR2-specific positive allosteric modulators, BINA or CBiPES, or a cocktail of both BINA and LY379268 in a series of experiments using the pilocarpine model of SE. In one study, groups received treatments 15 minutes prior to pilocarpine, while in a second study groups received treatments after SE had been initiated to determine whether the drugs could reduce development and progression of SE. We measured bouts of stage 5 seizures, latency to the first seizure, and the maximum Racine score to characterize the seizure severity. We analyzed mouse EEG with implanted electrodes using a power analysis. We found that pretreatment and posttreatment with LY379268 was effective at reducing both behavioral correlates and power in EEG bandwidths associated with seizure, while CBiPES was less effective and BINA was ineffective. These data generally support continued development of mGluR2 pharmacology for novel antiepileptic drugs, though further study with additional drugs and concentrations will be necessary. PMID:24305700

Caulder, Erin H.; Riegle, Melissa A.; Godwin, Dwayne W.

2015-01-01

176

Comparative chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile by drinking water and oral intubation to Spartan Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Groups of 100 male and 100 female Spartan Sprague-Dawley rats were administered lifetime oral doses of Acrylonitrile (AN) by one of two routes of dosing, either at 0.1 or 10 mg/kg per day, 7 day per week by intubation or continually at 1 or 100 ppm AN in their drinking water. The doses selected were designed to approximate the same daily intake of AN in each of two separate studies, whether by a single bolus dose (intubation) or a more continuous dosing regimen in drinking water. Each study had its own untreated control group of 100 rats per sex. In the drinking water study, the equivalent mean dosage of AN administered to males and females were 0, 0.09, and 0.15 mg/kg per day, respectively, at the 1 ppm level, and 0, 8.0 and 10.7 mg/kg per day, respectively, for 100 ppm dose groups. In both studies, groups of ten rats per sex were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 18 months and at study term. Ophthalmoscopic, hematological, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis and full histopathological exams were performed on control and high dose groups of rats in each study. Similar tests were done in lower dose groups, as required, to define dose-responses of observed effects. All animals were necropsied and underwent microscopic examination of target tissues, including brain, ear canal, stomach, spinal cord and any observable tissue masses. High dose male and female rats in both studies exhibited statistically decreased body weights. Food consumption and water intake were reduced only in the drinking water study. Due to increased deaths in groups of high dose rats of both studies receiving AN, all intubation test groups were terminated after 20 months of treatment. Surviving males and females in the drinking water study were terminated after 22 and 19 months, respectively. Small, sometimes statistically significant, reductions in hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte count were observed in male and female rats in both high dose (10 mg/kg per day intubation and 100 ppm drinking water) groups from both studies. There were increases in absolute or relative organ weight ratios for liver and adrenal in the high dose intubation study groups, but could not be correlated with AN toxicity in the absence of adverse clinical biochemistry or microscopic findings. Similar organ weight findings were not observed in the drinking water study. Again, there were no changes in clinical biochemistry or microscopic findings in these tissues. Absolute kidney weights were increased in high dose male and female rats in the intubation study and high dose female rats only in the drinking water study. Male and female rats from high dose groups in each study had a higher incidence of palpable masses of the head and the nonglandular stomach and, in females only, the mammary region. In both sexes, treatment-related tumors of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord), ear canal, and gastrointestinal tract, and in females only, the mammary gland (intubation only) were observed in rats administered either 10 mg/kg per day by intubation or 100 ppm in drinking water. Animals from the intubation study had a substantially higher incidence of AN-related site-specific tumors than did their drinking water study counterparts. While a similar spectrum of tumors was produced by both oral dosing regimens, there were some notable differences in organ-specific incidence of tumors. Astrocytomas of the brain and spinal cord were found at a higher incidence in those rats exposed continuously to AN administered in the drinking water versus bolus dosing by intubation. Conversely, a higher incidence of squamous cell carcinomas/papillomas of the forestomach and adenocarcinomas of the intestine and, in females only, carcinomas of the mammary gland were observed in high dose rats receiving AN by intubation. An increase in the degree of severity of forestomach hyperplasia was observed in all high dose groups of animals, irrespective of mode of administration. These effects were more pronounced, were correlated with a much higher incidence of forestomach tumors, and were identified earlier (12

Johannsen, Frederick R; Levinskas, George J

2002-06-24

177

Mossy fibers are the primary source of afferent input to ectopic granule cells that are born after pilocarpine-induced seizures  

PubMed Central

Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newborn GCs develop in abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic GCs (EGCs) display robust spontaneous and evoked excitatory activity. However, the pattern of afferent input they receive has not been fully defined. This study used electron microscopic immunolabeling to quantitatively evaluate mossy fiber (MF) input to EGCs since MFs densely innervate the hilus normally and undergo sprouting in many animal models of epilepsy. EGC dendrites were examined in tissue from epileptic rats that had initially been treated with pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus and subsequently had spontaneous seizures. MF terminals were labeled with a zinc transporter-3 antibody, and calbindin immunoreactivity was used to label hilar EGCs and GC layer GCs. The pattern of input provided by sprouted MF terminals to EGC dendrites was then compared to the pattern of MF input to GC dendrites in the inner molecular layer (IML), where most sprouted fibers are thought to project. Analysis of EGC dendrites demonstrated that MF terminals represented their predominant source of afferent input: they comprised 63% of all terminals and, on average, occupied 40% and 29% of the dendritic surface in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus, respectively, forming frequent synapses. These measures of connectivity were significantly greater than comparable values for MF innervation of GC dendrites located in the IML of the same tissue sections. Thus, EGCs develop a pattern of synaptic connections that could help explain their previously identified predisposition to discharge in epileptiform bursts and suggest that they play an important role in the generation of seizure activity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:16342370

Pierce, Joseph P.; Melton, Jay; Punsoni, Michael; McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

2006-01-01

178

Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively. Group mean levels of the bile duct-associated enzyme gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the parenchymal associated enzymes, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) increased above the normal range 8 and 11 weeks after infection in the untreated control animals and the group treated 2 weeks after infection with Genesis Pour-On. The groups treated with Fasimec at 2 or 4 weeks after infection, also had elevated enzyme levels. The use of liver-associated enzyme assay is supported as supplementary indicators of fluke-induced pathology. PMID:19375232

Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

2009-06-10

179

Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia  

SciTech Connect

Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (?g Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ? 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ? 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ? Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ? Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ? Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ? Species-specific and divergent changes are consistent with species-specific tumors.

Kopec, Anna K. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX 77494 (United States)] [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2012-07-15

180

Treatment of experimentally induced Pasteurella multocida infections in broilers and turkeys: comparative studies of different oral treatment regimens.  

PubMed

Experimental fowl cholera was induced in 60 healthy 10-week-old broiler chickens and 8-week-old turkeys by intramuscular inoculation with approximately 80 colony-forming units (cfu) of Pasteurella multocida X-73 strain and with approximately 70 cfu of P. multocida P-1059 strain, respectively. This method of infection proved to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of anti-microbial medication, by measuring mortality, weight gain, pathological responses and frequency of re-isolation of P. multocida. The efficacies of two different dosing methods, continuous and pulse dosing, were compared. Using the continuous-dosing method, norfloxacin was administered to drinking water at 100 mg/l for 5 days in chickens. Efficacies were slightly improved compared with pulse dosing at 15 mg/kg bodyweight for the same length of time. The opposite was observed in turkeys, to the degree of control of mortality and maintenance of weight gain. PMID:12019943

Sarközy, G; Semjén, G; Laczay, P; Horváth, E

2002-04-01

181

The determination of presynaptic KA values of methacholine and pilocarpine and of a presynaptic receptor reserve in the rat perfused heart.  

PubMed Central

Rat isolated perfused hearts with the right sympathetic nerves attached were loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline. The nerves were stimulated with up to 11 trains of 10 pulses at 0.1 Hz. The evoked increases of [3H]-noradrenaline overflow into the perfusate were measured in the presence of cocaine, corticosterone and propranolol. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors by methacholine or pilocarpine inhibited the evoked transmitter release in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. Preperfusion with phenoxybenzamine (5 microM) for 15 min (followed by a washout of 35 min) changed neither resting nor evoked overflow of [3H]-noradrenaline. The concentration-response curve of methacholine was shifted to the right after exposure of the hearts to phenoxybenzamine (1 microM) without depression of the maximum effect. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine (5 microM) reduced the maximum inhibition of release by about 50%. Analysis of the data gave a dissociation constant for the agonist-receptor complex (KA) of 4.0 microM and a receptor reserve of roughly 70%. Half-maximal inhibition of [3H]-noradrenaline release occurred when about 2% of the total receptor population was occupied. Comparison of the concentration-response data for methacholine and pilocarpine revealed a relative efficacy (methacholine/pilocarpine) of 16, a KA of 10 microM for pilocarpine and no receptor reserve for this agonist. The results show that KA values for methacholine and pilocarpine obtained at presynaptic receptors are similar to those obtained at postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. This is in agreement with the idea that muscarinic receptors located on postganglionic adrenergic nerves are not different from those located on effector sites of non-neuronal tissue. PMID:2983804

Fuchs, P.; Fuder, H.

1985-01-01

182

Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

2014-09-01

183

Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat  

PubMed Central

Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden. PMID:25419137

Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-jun

2014-01-01

184

Comparative Study of Esterase and Hemolytic Activities in Clinically Important Candida Species, Isolated From Oral Cavity of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus as a chronic metabolic disease occurs in patients with partial or complete deficiency of insulin secretion or disorder in action of insulin on tissue. The disease is known to provide conditions for overgrowth of Candida species. Candida spp. cause candidiasis by many virulence factors such as esterase, hemolysin and phospholipase. Objectives: This study aimed to compare esterase and hemolytic activity in various Candida species isolated from oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Patients and Methods: Swab samples were taken from 95 patients with diabetes (35 men and 60 women) and 95 normal persons (42 men and 53 women) and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Identification of isolated yeasts was performed by germ tube test, morphology on CHROMagar Candida medium, corn meal agar and ability to grow at 45°C. Hemolysin activity was evaluated using blood plate assay and esterase activity was determined using the Tween 80 opacity test. Results: Different Candida species were isolated from 57 (60%) diabetic and 24 (25%) non-diabetic individuals. Esterase activity was detected in all Candida isolates. Only 21.6% of C. albicans from patients with diabetes had esterase activity as + 3, while it ranged from + 1 to + 2 in others. Hemolytic activity was determined in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. krusei as 0.79, 0.58, 0.66 and 0.74, respectively. Hemolytic activity was significantly different in the two groups of diabetics and non-diabetics. Conclusions: Oral carriage of C. albicans in the diabetic group (n = 42; 66.7%) was significantly greater than the control group (n = 16; 57.1%). Esterase activity of C. albicans in diabetic group was higher than non-diabetic group. Although C. albicans remains the most frequently pathogenic yeast for human, but other species are increasing.

Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Poormohamadi, Farzad; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

2015-01-01

185

Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail. PMID:23674915

Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

2011-01-01

186

Children's Written and Oral Spelling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether written spelling is superior to oral spelling for children in kindergarten through Grade 2, this study compared children's ability to spell real words and nonsense words orally and in writing. By first and second grade, written spellings were superior to oral spellings in both overall quality and representation of phonological…

Treiman, Rebecca; Bourassa, Derrick

2000-01-01

187

Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.  

PubMed

The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. PMID:25716658

Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

2015-04-15

188

Short-term effect of a new mouthrinse formulation on oral malodour after single use in vivo: a comparative, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare a new chlorhexidine (CHX)-free mouthrinse containing amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (ASF) against a benchmark containing CHX with respect to their effect on oral malodour after single use. A total of 42 male and female subjects with an intraoral cause of bad breath, each with an organoleptic rating (OR) of at least 2 and a total volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentration higher than 130 ppb, participated in the study. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment groups (i.e. CHX-free ASF mouthrinse, CHX benchmark mouthrinse or water) according to a randomization list. Participants received written instructions on precautions to be taken for optimal breath analysis. Eight trained and qualified odour judges assessed the subjects' malodour by OR at baseline and 30 min and 4 h after single use of the mouthrinses. Additionally, VSC levels were measured at baseline and 4 h after using the mouthrinse. Treatment with water alone led already to some reduction in OR with mean differences to baseline of -1.13 at 30 min and -0.64, 4 h after treatment. Both CHX-free ASF product (-1.51) and CHX (-1.48) provided a significantly stronger OR reduction than water at 30 min (p < 0.05). Only CHX-free ASF treatment showed a sustained benefit in terms of significantly better OR reduction after 4 h (-1.17, p < 0.05), whereas CHX (-0.81) was not significantly different from water (-0.64, p = 0.517). Both ASF (-90.9%) and CHX (-81.6%) reduced VSC levels significantly stronger than water (-53.5%; p < 0.001). OR and VSC readings in the group using the CHX mouthrinse did not differ significantly from those in the group using the CHX-free ASF formulation. The newly developed CHX-free ASF mouthrinse significantly reduced oral malodour after single use, both in terms of OR and VSC levels. Efficacy was comparable to that of the CHX benchmark product. PMID:21383479

Wilhelm, D; Gysen, K; Himmelmann, A; Krause, C; Wilhelm, K-P

2010-09-01

189

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor before starting anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and dosage of medicine for your needs. In this section Treatment and ...

190

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Cancer Are You at Risk? What Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ... Health Early Detection It is important to find oral cancer as early as possible when it can be ...

191

Anticonvulsant effects of acute treatment with cyane-carvone at repeated oral doses in epilepsy models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy affects about 40 million people worldwide. Many drugs block seizures, but have little effect in preventing or curing this disease. So the search for new drugs for epilepsy treatment using animal models prior to testing in humans is important. Increasingly pharmaceutical industries invest in the Re?search & Drug Development area to seek safe and effective new therapeutic alternatives to the currently available epilepsy treatment. In this perspective, natural compounds have been investigated in epilepsy models, particularly the monoterpenes obtained from medicinal plants. In our study we investigated the effects of cyane-carvone (CC), a synthetic substance prepared from natural a monoterpene, carvone, against pilocarpine- (PILO), pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ) and picrotoxine (PTX)-induced seizures in mice after acute treatment with repeated oral doses (CC 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) for 14 days. CC in all doses tested showed increase in latency to first seizure, decrease in percentages of seizuring animals as well as reduction percentages of dead animals (p<0.05) in PILO, PTZ and PTX groups when compared with vehicle. However, these effects were not reversed by flumazenil, benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist used to investigate the CC action mechanism. Our results suggest that acute treatment with CC at the doses tested can exert anticonvulsant effects in PILO, PTZ and PTX epilepsy models. In addition, our data suggest that CC could act in an allosteric site of GABAA, which would be different from the site in which BDZ acts, since flumazenil was not able to reverse any of CC effects on the modulation of seizure parameters related with epilepsy models investigated. New studies should be conducted to investigate CC effects in other neurotransmitter systems. Nevertheless, our study reinforces the hypothesis that CC could be used, after further research, as a new pharmaceutical formulation and a promising alternative for epilepsy treatment, since it showed anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24967871

Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Marques, Maria Leonildes Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

2014-09-01

192

Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

Songhui, Zheng

2008-01-01

193

Effect of ketogenic diet on nucleotide hydrolysis and hepatic enzymes in blood serum of rats in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, used for treating refractory epilepsy in children. We have previously shown alterations in nucleotidase activities from the central nervous system and blood serum of rats submitted to different models of epilepsy. In this study we investigated the effect of KD on nucleotidase activities in the blood serum, as well if KD has any influence in the activity of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities in Wistar rats submitted to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. At 21 days of age, rats received an injection of lithium chloride and, 18-19 h later, they received an injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride for status epilepticus induction. The results reported herein show that seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine elicit a significant increase in ATP hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as a decrease in ADP hydrolysis and aspartate aminotransferase activity. The KD is a rigorous regimen that can be associated with hepatic damage, as shown herein by the elevated activities of liver enzymes and 5'-nucleotidase in blood serum. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of lithium on nucleotidases in blood serum. PMID:20443057

da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Müller, Alexandre Pastoris; Figueiró, Fabrício; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos L Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

2010-06-01

194

Characterization, Localization and Patterning of Lymphatics and Blood Vessels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Using D2-40 and CD-34 IHC Marker  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Lymphatic metastasis has always been regarded as a major prognostic indicator for disease progression and as a guide for therapeutic strategies to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Differentiating lymphatic vessels from blood vessels is difficult, partly due to lack of specific method for identifying lymphatics. A new lymphatic vessel reactive antibody D2-40 has been introduced recently. Here we examined immunohistochemical localization of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels using D2-40 and CD-34 respectively in different histological grades of OSCC. Their expression in intra-tumoural and peri-tumoural region was also compared. Materials and Methods: Forty two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of excised specimens of OSCC were immunohistochemically evaluated using D2-40 and CD-34 antibodies. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) (D2-40 positivity) and micro vessel density (MVD) (CD34 positivity) in both intratumoural and peritumoural areas were assessed by hot spot method. Results: Regardless of histopathological differentiation, LVD–– and MVD in peritumoural areas were found greater than intratumoural areas (p>0.05). Interestingly, other than lymphatic vessels, D2-40 positivity was also detected in tumour cells as well as in basal layer of epithelium adjacent to OSCC. Two patterns of distribution of CD34 positive vessel - circumscribing type and penetrating type were also observed in the cancer nest area. Conclusion: D2-40 can be used as a marker to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. Lymphatic and blood vessel proliferation might be much more extensive in the peritumoural area. D2-40 expression in epithelium adjacent to tumour indicates its role in the process of differentiation. Further, its expression in potential malignant disorder may provide better insight in predicting prognosis and pathogenesis of these lesions. PMID:25478456

Agarwal, Deshant; Bajpai, Manas; Gupta, Shailendra; Mathur, Nikunj; Vanaki, S S; Puranik, R S; Mittal, Manoj

2014-01-01

195

Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

While topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered safe, their long-term efficacy for osteoarthritis has been suspect. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of topical diclofenac (TDiclo) in a vehicle solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in 775 subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee. This 5-arm study compared TDiclo with a placebo solution, the DMSO vehicle, oral diclofenac (ODiclo) and the combination of TDiclo+ODiclo for relieving the signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Subjects applied study solution, 40 drops four times daily, and took one study tablet daily for 12 weeks. Co-primary efficacy variables were WOMAC pain and physical function and a patient overall health assessment. Secondary variables were WOMAC stiffness and patient global assessment (PGA) of the knee osteoarthritis. TDiclo was superior to placebo for pain (-6.0 vs. -4.7, P=0.015), physical function (-15.8 vs. -12.3, P=0.034), overall health (-0.95 vs. -0.37, P<0.0001), and PGA (-1.36 vs. -1.01, P=0.016), and was superior to DMSO vehicle for all efficacy variables. No significant difference was observed between DMSO vehicle and placebo or between TDiclo and ODiclo. The commonest adverse event associated with TDiclo was dry skin (18.2%). Fewer digestive system and laboratory abnormalities were observed with TDiclo than with ODiclo. Addition of TDiclo to ODiclo did not increase the incidence of systemic adverse events. TDiclo in DMSO vehicle is an effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis with efficacy similar to, but tolerability better than ODiclo. DMSO vehicle was no more efficacious than placebo. PMID:19380203

Simon, Lee S; Grierson, Lisa M; Naseer, Zahid; Bookman, Arthur A M; Zev Shainhouse, J

2009-06-01

196

In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.  

PubMed

Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

2014-10-01

197

Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.?METHODS—Twenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17-43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g piracetam, given in two divided doses, were compared with placebo. The crossover design was such that patients received placebo and two of the three dosage regimens of piracetam, each for two weeks, for a total treatment period of six weeks and thus without wash out between each treatment phase. The primary outcome measure was a sum score representing the adjusted total of the ratings of six components of a myoclonus rating scale in which stimulus sensitivity, motor impairment, functional disability, handwriting, and global assessments by investigators and patients were scored. Sequential clinical assessments were made by the same neurologist in the same environment at the same time of day.?RESULTS—Treatment with 24 g/day piracetam produced significant and clinically relevant improvement in the primary outcome measure of mean sum score (p=0.005) and in the means of its subtests of motor impairment (p=0.02), functional disability (p=0.003), and in global assessments by both investigator (p=0.002) and patient (p=0.01). Significant improvement in functional disability was also found with daily doses of 9.6 g and 16.8 g. The dose-effect relation was linear and significant. More patients showed clinically relevant improvement with the highest dosage and, in individual patients, increasing the dose improved response. Piracetam was well tolerated and adverse effects were few, mild, and transient.?CONCLUSIONS—This study provides further evidence that piracetam is an effective and safe medication in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease. In addition, it shows that a dose of 24 g is highly beneficial, more effective than lower doses and that a dose-effect relation exists. There is considerable variation in optimal individual dosage.?? PMID:9527146

Koskiniemi, M.; Van Vleymen, B.; Hakamies, L.; Lamusuo, S.; Taalas, J.

1998-01-01

198

Comparative bioavailability study of triflusal oral solution vs. triflusal capsules in healthy subjects. A single, randomized, two-way cross-over, open-label phase I study.  

PubMed

Triflusal (CAS 322-79-2) is an antiplatelet agent that irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase isoform 1 (COX-1) and therefore inhibits thromboxane biosynthesis. The main metabolite of triflusal, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid (HTB), possesses also antiaggregant activity. Recently a new oral 600 mg (10 ml) solution form of triflusal has been developed. The purpose of this clinical trial was to study the relative bioavailability of the new oral solution of triflusal versus the capsules formulation, both administered as a single dose. This was a randomized, two-way, cross-over, open-label, single-site phase I clinical trial, in 24 healthy volunteers who received triflusal as 600 mg oral solution and as two 300 mg capsules in a single administration separated by a washout period of at least 17 days. Blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of HTB were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters used for bioequivalence assessment included AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax were within the predetermined equivalence range (80% to 125%). Tolerability was based on the recording of adverse events (AEs), physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory tests. The parameters for bioequivalence, mean [SD] values were as follows: AUC(0-t) (microg x h/ml): 3574.08 [628.17] for triflusal oral solution and 3901.78 [698.43] for triflusal capsules; AUC(0-infinity) (microg x h/ml): 4089.21 [842.54] for triflusal oral solution and 4471.33 [905.93] for triflusal capsules; Cmax, (microg/ml): 91.24 [12.88] for triflusal oral solution and 88.61 [13.46] for triflusal capsules; Cmax/AUC(0-infinity) (h(-1)): 0.03 (0.00) for triflusal oral solution and 0.02 (0.00) for triflusal capsules. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio experimental/control by analysis of variance after log transformed AUC(0-infinity), AUC(0-t), and Cmax were within 80% to 125%. Similar results were found for the data without log transformation. All adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity and all subjects recovered. Nine and 12 subjects reported at least one adverse event during treatment with triflusal oral solution and with triflusal capsules, respectively. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and dizziness. It was concluded that the 600-mg solution of triflusal appeared to be bioequivalent to the reference formulation capsules. Both formulations were well tolerated. PMID:20184225

Izquierdo, Iñaki; Borja, Javier; Rovira, Sandra; Pelagio, Pilar; Torres, Ferran; Cebrecos, Jesus; García-Rafanell, Julián

2010-01-01

199

Oral implants.  

PubMed

Today, more and more evidence suggests that even small changes in hardware for oral implants may jeopardize its biocompatibility. Even the manner in which the hardware is sterilized can influence cellular adhesion. This review discusses the surface characteristics, configuration, and success rates of various oral implants, as well as the complications that can result following implantation. PMID:1777657

van Steenberghe, D

1991-04-01

200

Multicenter, comparative study of cycle control, efficacy and tolerability of two low-dose oral contraceptives containing 20 ?g ethinylestradiol\\/100 ?g levonorgestrel and 20 ?g ethinylestradiol\\/500 ?g norethisterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of cycle control, efficacy and tolerability of two oral contraceptive preparations containing 20 ?g ethinylestradiol combined with either 100 ?g levonorgestrel (EE\\/LNG 20\\/100) or 500 ?g norethisterone (EE\\/NET 20\\/500) was conducted. These results were compared to a standard reference preparation, containing 30 ?g ethinylestradiol combined with 150 ?g levonorgestrel (EE\\/LNG 30\\/150). Efficacy data from 8,544 treatment cycles were

J. Endrikat; R. Hite; R. Bannemerschult; C. Gerlinger; W. Schmidt

2001-01-01

201

A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner

2004-01-01

202

Effectiveness and safety of inhaled corticosteroids in controlling acute asthma attacks in children who were treated in the emergency department: A controlled comparative study with oral prednisolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhaled corticosteroids have a greater antiinflammatory potency and fewer systemic effects than intravenous, intramuscular, or oral corticosteroids. However, their role in acute asthma has not been established. We prospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids in controlling moderately severe acute asthma attacks in children who were treated in the emergency department. Methods: Children who were treated in

Benjamin Volovitz; Lea Bentur; Yaron Finkelstein; Yasser Mansour; Shlomit Shalitin; Moshe Nussinovitch; Itzhak Varsano

1998-01-01

203

Astrocytic Cx 43 and Cx 40 in the mouse hippocampus during and after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Astrocytes have now been well accepted to play important roles in epileptogenesis by controlling gliotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, contributing to blood-brain barrier dysfunction and involving in brain inflammation. Recent studies indicate that abnormal expression of gap junction protein connexin (Cx) may also be a contributing factor for seizure generation. To further address this issue, we investigated the progressive changes of Cx 43 and Cx 40 in the mouse hippocampus at 4 h, 1 day, 1 week and 2 months during and after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). The co-localization of Cx 43 and Cx 40 with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was also examined. We observed that Cx 43 and Cx 40 protein expression remained unaltered at 4 h during and at 1 day (acute stage) after PISE. However, their expression was significantly increased in CA1 and CA3 areas and in the dentate gyrus at 1 week (latent stage) and 2 months (chronic stage) after PISE. Double immunofluorescence labeling indicated the localization of Cx 43 and Cx 40 in astrocytes. Combined with progressive neuronal loss in the mouse hippocampus, our results suggest that the increase in gap junctions in the neuronoglial syncytium of reactive astrocytes may be implicated in synchronization of hippocampal hyperactivity leading to neuronal loss and epileptogenesis. PMID:25690864

Wu, X L; Tang, Y C; Lu, Q Y; Xiao, X L; Song, T B; Tang, F R

2015-05-01

204

Melatonin protects testes against lithium-pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in rats: a time course study.  

PubMed

Male dysfunction is common in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated whether melatonin, as a supplement, can play a positive role in reducing the epileptogenesis imposing abnormalities of spermatozoa and testes in epileptic rats. Status epilepticus was induced based on the TLE lithium-pilocarpine model. Two patterns of melatonin were administered to the epileptic animals along the mean durations of latent (14 days) and chronic (60 days) phases. Sperm parameters, different antioxidant enzyme levels, germ cell apoptosis, body and relative sex organ weights were evaluated in all groups 60 days following SE induction. Chronic TLE caused a significant reduction in sperm parameters. In the testis, the reduced level of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration. The presence of oxidant condition in the testes of epileptic animals caused expanded apoptosis in the germ cell layer. Moreover, the amount of weight gain in epileptic animals was more prominent. Melatonin administration was able to improve sperm motility by increasing the total antioxidant level. There was also a significant reduction in the spermatogenic cell line apoptosis and the extra weight gain of melatonin-treated animals. Melatonin supplementation might be considered as an acceptable cotreatment in epileptic patients. PMID:24684185

Shokri, S; Kazemi, M; Firouzjaei, M A; Hemadi, M; Moayeri, A; Ganjkhani, M; Nejatbakhsh, R

2015-04-01

205

Aberrant neuronal synaptic connectivity in CA1 area of the hippocampus from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats observed by fluorogold  

PubMed Central

In this study, we observed synaptic connectivity among neurons in CA1 region of pilocarpine-induced chronic seizures in rats. Twenty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into an epilepsy group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). Approximately 60 days after status epilepticus (SE) , Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the CA1 area of the hippocampus in vivo. Somatostatin (SS) expression was observed using immunofluorescence. The distribution of FG-positive and FG/SS double-labeled neurons was observed using a confocal microscope. FG-labeled pyramidal cells could be seen remotely from the FG-injected site in the CA1 area and in the subiculum in the experimental group. FG/SS double-labeled interneurons were distributed remotely from the FG-injected site in the CA1 area in the epileptic rats. These changes suggest aberrant neuronal connectivity in CA1 region, which may lead to the formation of aberrant excitatory and inhibitory circuitry, and may play an important role in the generation or compensation for temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25356126

Long, Li-Li; Song, Yan-Min; Xu, Lin; Yi, Fang; Long, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Luo; Qin, Xue-Hui; Feng, Li; Xiao, Bo

2014-01-01

206

Comparative study on the excretion of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside in mice after oral and intravenous administration by using HPLC.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize the excretion of pure vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VOG) in mice following oral and intravenous administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A sensitive and specific HPLC method with hespridin as internal standard, a Diamonsil C18 column protected with a KR C18 guard column and a mixture consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.1% glacial acetic acid (6:2:18:74, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was developed and validated for quantitative analysis in biological samples. VOG could be excreted as prototype in excreta including urine and feces after both routes of administration, and the cumulative excretion of VOG was 24.31?±?11.10% (17.97?±?5.59% in urinary excretion; 6.34?±?5.51% in fecal excretion) following oral dosing and 5.66?±?3.94% (4.78?±?3.13% in urinary excretion; 0.88?±?0.81% in fecal excretion) following intravenous dosing. The results showed that the elimination of VOG after the two routes was fairly low, which meant that VOG was metabolized as other forms and the elimination after oral dosing was almost 4.3-fold that after intravenous dosing. For both routes of administration, VOG excreted as prototype in urine was much more than that in feces, nearly 2.83-fold for oral administration and 5.43-fold for intravenous administration, which should be attributed to enterohepatic circulation. Taken together, renal excretion was the dominant path of elimination of VOG for oral and intravenous administration in mice and biliary excretion contributed less. PMID:23760836

Cai, Shuang; Chen, Yinghui; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang

2013-11-01

207

Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method  

PubMed Central

Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–? (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

2014-01-01

208

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... two categories. The diverse variety is simply a variation of a few major themes. Oral appliances can be classified by mode of action or design variation. Tongue Retaining Appliances Tongue retaining appliances hold the ...

209

Diagnostic value of fasting capillary glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin in detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities compared to oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

New diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus recommend lowering of the fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol\\/l. In contrast\\u000a to recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (AA). WHO recommends using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)\\u000a in clinical practice. In this study, based on OGTT results and WHO 1998 criteria, we determined if measuring fasting capillary\\u000a glycaemia (FCG) along with fructosamine

E. Herdzik; K. Safranow; K. Ciechanowski

2002-01-01

210

Comparative study of Pluronic(®) F127-modified liposomes and chitosan-modified liposomes for mucus penetration and oral absorption of cyclosporine A in rats.  

PubMed

Liposomes modified using cationic and hydrophilic nonionic polymers are 2 popular carriers for improving oral drug absorption. Cationic polymer-modified liposomes can adhere to the intestinal wall mucus (mucoadhesive type), while liposomes modified using hydrophilic nonionic polymers can penetrate across the mucus barrier (mucus-penetrating type). Chitosan-modified liposomes (CS-Lip, mucoadhesive type) and Pluronic(®) F127-modified liposomes (PF127-Lip, mucus-penetrating type) were engineered to investigate the differences between these mucoadhesive and mucus-penetrating systems in oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug, cyclosporine A (CyA). Stability of CS-Lip and PF127-Lip was studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The intestinal mucus adhesion or penetration of liposomes was studied by confocal laser scanning microcopy and fluorophotometry using coumarin 6 as the fluorescent probe. The oral absorption of CyA-loaded liposomes was also studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that CS-Lip tended to aggregate in SIF, to be trapped by mucus, to remain mainly in the upper portion of the intestinal tract, and to show limited penetration ability. In contrast, PF127-Lip were more stable in the SIF and SGF, were found throughout the intestinal tract, and were able to penetrate the mucus layers to reach the epithelial surface. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed that the Cmax and AUC0-t of PF127-Lip were 1.73- and 1.84-fold higher than those of CS-Lip, respectively (P<0.05). In conclusion, the stability and mucus-penetrating ability of PF127-Lip in the gastrointestinal tract rendered it more suitable than the mucoadhesive CS-Lip for oral delivery CyA. PMID:23583840

Chen, Dan; Xia, Dengning; Li, Xiuying; Zhu, Quanlei; Yu, Hongzhen; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong

2013-06-01

211

A randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous ferric carboxymaltose with oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency anaemia of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Iron deficiency is a common cause of anaemia and hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. Current intravenous iron agents cannot be administered in a single high dose because of adverse effects. Ferric carboxymaltose, a non-dextran parenteral iron preparation, can be rapidly administered in high doses. Methods. This open-label trial randomized 255 subjects with glomerular filtration rates ??45 mL/min/1.73 m2, haemoglobin ??11 g/dL, transferrin saturation ??25%, ferritin ??300 ng/mL, and stable ESA dose to either intravenous ferric carboxymaltose 1000 mg over 15 min (with up to two additional doses of 500 mg at 2-week intervals) or oral ferrous sulphate 325 mg thrice daily for a total of 195 mg elemental iron daily for 56 days. Results. In the modified intent-to-treat population, the proportion of subjects achieving a haemoglobin increase ??1 g/dL at any time was 60.4% with ferric carboxymaltose and 34.7% with oral iron (P < 0.001). At Day 42, mean increase in haemoglobin was 0.95 ± 1.12 vs 0.50 ± 1.23 g/dL (P = 0.005), mean increase in ferritin was 432 ± 189 ng/mL vs 18 ± 45 ng/mL (P < 0.001) and mean increase in transferrin saturation was 13.6 ± 11.9% vs 6.1 ± 8.1% (P < 0.001). Treatment-related adverse events were significantly fewer with ferric carboxymaltose than with oral iron (2.7% and 26.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions. We conclude that 1000 mg ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered, is more effective and is better tolerated than oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency in ND-CKD patients. PMID:20929915

Qunibi, Wajeh Y.; Martinez, Carlos; Smith, Mark; Benjamin, Joseph; Mangione, Antoinette; Roger, Simon D.

2011-01-01

212

Neuronal degeneration is observed in multiple regions outside the hippocampus after lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat  

PubMed Central

Although hippocampal sclerosis is frequently identified as a possible epileptic focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, neuronal loss has also been observed in additional structures, including areas outside the temporal lobe. The claim from several researchers using animal models of acquired epilepsy that the immature brain can develop epilepsy without evidence of hippocampal neuronal death raises the possibility that neuronal death in some of these other regions may also be important for epileptogenesis. The present study used the lithium pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy in immature animals to assess which structures outside the hippocampus are injured acutely after status epilepticus. Sprague Dawley rat pups were implanted with surface EEG electrodes, and status epilepticus was induced at 20 days of age with lithium pilocarpine. After 72 h, brain tissue from 12 animals was examined with Fluoro-Jade B, a histochemical marker for degenerating neurons. All animals that had confirmed status epilepticus demonstrated Fluoro-Jade B staining in areas outside the hippocampus. The most prominent staining was seen in thalamus (mediodorsal, paratenial, reuniens, and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei), amygdala (ventral lateral, posteromedial, and basomedial nuclei), ventral premammillary nuclei of hypothalamus, and paralimbic cortices (perirhinal, entorhinal, and piriform) as well as parasubiculum and dorsal endopiriform nuclei. These results demonstrate that lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat brain consistently results in neuronal injury in several distinct areas outside of the hippocampus. Many of these regions are similar to areas damaged in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, thus suggesting a possible role in epileptogenesis. PMID:23896573

Scholl, Erika A.; Dudek, F. Edward; Ekstrand, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

213

The Structure of the Trabecular Meshwork, Its Connections to the Ciliary Muscle, and the Effect of Pilocarpine on Outflow Facility in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the connections between the ciliary muscle (CM), trabecular meshwork (TM), and Schlemm's canal (SC) and their innervations that allows CM contraction (by pilocarpine) to influence conventional outflow in mice. Methods. Sequential sections and whole mounts of murine corneoscleral angles were stained for elastin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Elastic (EL) fibers between the CM, TM, and SC were examined in ultrathin, sequential sections from different planes. The effect of pilocarpine (100 ?M) on conventional outflow facility was measured by perfusion of enucleated mouse eyes. Results. The mouse TM contains a three-dimensional (3D) net of EL fibers connecting the inner wall of SC to the cornea anteriorly, the ciliary body (CB) internally and the choroid and CM posteriorly. The CM bifurcates near the posterior TM, extending outer tendons to the juxtacanalicular tissue and inner wall of SC and internal connections to the lamellated TM and CB. Ciliary muscle and lamellated TM cells stain with ?SMA and are innervated by VAChT-containing nerve fibers, without TH, VIP, or nNOS. Pilocarpine doubled outflow facility. Conclusions. Mouse eyes resemble primate eyes not only by their well developed SC and TM, but also by their 3D EL net tethering together the TM and SC inner wall and by the tendinous insertion of the CM into this net. The increase in outflow facility following cholinergic stimulation in mice, as in primates, supports using mice for studies of aqueous humor dynamics and glaucoma. PMID:24833737

Overby, Darryl R.; Bertrand, Jacques; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Stamer, W. Daniel; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke

2014-01-01

214

Differential Injury Responses in Oral Mucosal and Cutaneous Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosa heals faster than does skin, yet few studies have compared the repair at oral mucosal and cutaneous sites. To determine whether the privileged healing of oral injuries involves a differential inflammatory phase, we compared the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine production in wounds of equivalent size in oral mucosa and skin. Significantly lower levels of macrophage, neutrophil, and

A. M. Szpaderska; J. D. Zuckerman; L. A. DiPietro

2003-01-01

215

High Ratio of Synaptic Excitation to Synaptic Inhibition in Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells of Pilocarpine-Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

After experimental status epilepticus, many dentate granule cells born into the postseizure environment migrate aberrantly into the dentate hilus. Hilar ectopic granule cells (HEGCs) have also been found in persons with epilepsy. These cells exhibit a high rate of spontaneous activity, which may enhance seizure propagation. Electron microscopic studies indicated that HEGCs receive more recurrent mossy fiber innervation than normotopic granule cells in the same animals but receive much less inhibitory innervation. This study used hippocampal slices prepared from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus to test the hypothesis that an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition contributes to the hyperexcitability of HEGCs. Mossy fiber stimulation evoked a much smaller GABAA receptor–mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSC) in HEGCs than in normotopic granule cells from either control rats or rats that had experienced status epilepticus. However, recurrent mossy fiber-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of similar size were recorded from HEGCs and normotopic granule cells in status epilepticus–experienced rats. HEGCs exhibited the highest frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and the lowest frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) of any granule cell group. On average, both mEPSCs and mIPSCs were of higher amplitude, transferred more charge per event, and exhibited slower kinetics in HEGCs than in granule cells from control rats. Charge transfer per unit time in HEGCs was greater for mEPSCs and much less for mIPSCs than in the normotopic granule cell groups. A high ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synaptic function probably accounts, in part, for the hyperexcitability of HEGCs. PMID:20881195

Zhan, Ren-Zhi; Timofeeva, Olga

2010-01-01

216

Impaired expression and function of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Group II metabotropic (mGlu II) receptor subtypes mGlu2 and mGlu3 are important modulators of synaptic plasticity and glutamate release in the brain. Accordingly, several pharmacological ligands have been designed to target these receptors for the treatment of neurological disorders characterized by anomalous glutamate regulation including epilepsy. In this study, we examine whether the expression level and function of mGlu2 and mGlu3 are altered in experimental epilepsy by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR and extracellular recordings. A down-regulation of mGlu2/3 protein expression at the mossy fiber pathway was associated with a significant reduction in mGlu2/3 protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats. Moreover, a reduction in mGlu2 and mGlu3 transcripts levels was noticed as early as 24h after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and persisted during subsequent “latent” and chronic periods. In addition, a significant impairment of mGlu II-mediated depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses was detected in chronically epileptic rats. Application of mGlu II agonists (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) induced a significant reduction of the fEPSP amplitude in control rats, but not in chronic epileptic rats. These data indicate a long-lasting impairment of mGlu2/3 expression that may contribute to abnormal presynaptic plasticity, exaggerate glutamate release and hyperexcitability in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:18804094

Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.; Otalora, Luis F. Pacheco; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Herrera, Berenice; Francisco, Sebastian; Ermolinsky, Boris

2008-01-01

217

The effect of STAT3 Inhibition on status epilepticus and subsequent spontaneous seizures in the Pilocarpine Model of Acquired Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), which results in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, activates the JAK/STAT pathway. In the current study, we evaluate whether brief exposure to a selective inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway (WP1066) early after the onset of SE effects the severity of SE or reduces later spontaneous seizure frequency via inhibition of STAT3-regulated gene transcription. Rats that received systemic WP1066 or vehicle at the onset of SE were continuously video-EEG monitored during SE and for one month to assess seizure frequency over time. Protein and/or mRNA levels for pSTAT3, and STAT3-regulated genes including: ICER, Gabra1, c-myc, mcl-1, cyclin D1, and bcl-xl were evaluated in WP1066 and vehicle-treated rats during stages of epileptogenesis to determine the acute effects of WP1066 administration on SE and chronic epilepsy. WP1066 (two 50 mg/kg doses) administered within the first hour after onset of SE results in transient inhibition of pSTAT3 and long-term reduction in spontaneous seizure frequency WP1066 alters the severity of chronic epilepsy without affecting SE or cell death. Early WP1066 administration reduces known downstream targets of STAT3 transcription 24 hours after SE including cyclin D1 and mcl-1 levels, known for their roles in cell-cycle progression and cell survival, respectively. These findings uncover a potential effect of the JAK/STAT pathway after brain injury that is physiologically important and may provide a new therapeutic target that can be harnessed for the prevention of epilepsy development and/or progression. PMID:24051278

Grabenstatter, H. L.; Angel, Y. Cruz Del; Carlsen, J.; Wempe, M. F.; White, A. M.; Cogswell, M.; Russek, S. J.; Brooks-Kayal, A. R.

2013-01-01

218

A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis. PMID:21191530

Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.

2010-01-01

219

An Exploratory Open-Label Randomized Trial Comparing Risperidone Long Acting Injectable (RLAI) with Oral Antipsychotic Medication in the Treatment of Early Psychosis.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone long acting injections (RLAI) in the early phase of a schizophrenia spectrum (SS) disorder using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. Eighty five patients in early phase of a SS disorder were randomized to receive either oral second generation antipsychotics (SGAs; n =41) or RLAI (n =44) over 2 years. Analyses were conducted on eligible participants (N=77) for the stabilization (maximum 18 weeks) and maintenance phases (up to week 104) on primary outcome measures of time to stabilization and relapse, change in symptoms and safety and comparisons made across the two groups. Both groups showed improvement on Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) scores and Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) scores. There were no time X group interactions on any of the primary outcome measures. Post-hoc examination revelated tat the RLAI group showed greater change on CGI-S and PANSS negative symptom scores during the stabilization phase while the oral group reached the same level of improvement during the maintenance phase. The current exploratory study suggests that within a RCT design RLAI and oral SGAs are equally effective and have similar safety profiles in patients in early phase of SS disorders. Thus, RLAI offers no advantage to patients in early phase of SS disorders but is likely to be effective and safe for those who may have problems with adherence and may either choose to take it or be prescribed under conditions of external control such as community treatment orders. PMID:23773886

Malla, Ashok; Chue, Pierre; Jordan, Gerald; Stip, Emmanuel; Koczerginski, David; Milliken, Heather; Joseph, Anil; Williams, Richard; Adams, Beverly; Manchanda, Rahul; Oyewumi, Kola; Roy, Marc-André

2013-06-17

220

Oral delivery of plant-derived HIV-1 p24 antigen in low doses shows a superior priming effect in mice compared to high doses.  

PubMed

During early infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), there is a rapid depletion of CD4(+) T-cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, immediate protection at these surfaces is of high priority for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Thus, transgenic plants expressing HIV-1 antigens, which are exposed to immune competent cells in the GALT during oral administration, can be interesting as potential vaccine candidates. In the present study, we used two HIV-1 p24 antigen-expressing transgenic plant systems, Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota, in oral immunization experiments. Both transgenic plant systems showed a priming effect in mice and induced humoral immune responses, which could be detected as anti-p24-specific IgG in sera after an intramuscular p24 protein boost. Dose-dependent antigen analyses using transgenic A. thaliana indicated that low p24 antigen doses were superior to high p24 antigen doses. PMID:24631072

Lindh, Ingrid; Bråve, Andreas; Hallengärd, David; Hadad, Ronza; Kalbina, Irina; Strid, Åke; Andersson, Sören

2014-04-25

221

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment by an SLP are important to restore speech intelligibility and swallowing skills. Treatment often includes helping people get used to the differences in the size, shape, and feel of their mouth. The SLP will ... how to produce speech sounds more clearly. Oral exercises help the client ...

222

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

223

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

224

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-01-01

225

A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL(-1) at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL(-1) vs. 2.4 g dL(-1) ) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. PMID:24639149

Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

2014-06-01

226

A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL?1 at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL?1 vs. 2.4 g dL?1) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. Am. J. Hematol. 89:646–650, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639149

Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

2014-01-01

227

Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-01-01

228

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

229

A Comparison of Oral Structure and Oral-Motor Function in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the oral structure and oral-motor skills of 59 boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), 34 boys with Down syndrome (DS), and 36 developmentally similar typically developing (TD) boys. An adaptation of the J. Robbins and T. Klee (1987) Oral Speech Motor Protocol was administered to participants and their scores on measures of oral

Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Roberts, Joanne; Mirrett, Penny; Sideris, John; Misenheimer, Jan

2006-01-01

230

Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

2015-05-01

231

Changes in vesicular transporters for gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate reveal vulnerability and reorganization of hippocampal neurons following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

The reorganizations of the overall intrinsic glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic hippocampal networks as well as the time course of these reorganizations during development of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy were studied with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). These transporters are particularly interesting as specific markers for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, respectively, whose expression levels could reflect the demand for synaptic transmission and their average activity. We report that 1) concomitantly with the loss of some subpopulations of VGAT-containing neurons, there was an up-regulation of VGAT synthesis in all remaining GABA neurons as early as 1 week after pilocarpine injection. This enhanced synthesis is characterized by marked increases in the relative amount of VGAT mRNAs in interneurons associated with increased intensity of axon terminal labeling for VGAT in all hippocampal layers. 2) There was a striking loss of mossy cells during the latent period, demonstrated by a long-term decrease of VGLUT1 mRNA-containing hilar neurons and associated loss of VGLUT1-containing terminals in the dentate gyrus inner molecular layer. 3) There were aberrant VGLUT1-containing terminals at the chronic stage resulting from axonal sprouting of granule and pyramidal cells. This is illustrated by a recovery of VGLUT1 immunoreactivity in the inner molecular layer and an increased VGLUT1 immunolabeling in the CA1-CA3 dendritic layers. These data indicate that an increased activity of remaining GABAergic interneurons occurs during the latent period, in parallel with the loss of vulnerable glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons preceding the reorganization of glutamatergic networks. PMID:17503488

Boulland, Jean-Luc; Ferhat, Lotfi; Tallak Solbu, Tom; Ferrand, Nadine; Chaudhry, Farrukh Abbas; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Esclapez, Monique

2007-07-20

232

Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

2014-01-01

233

Étude comparant le céfixime à l'association amoxicilline-acide clavulanique dans le traitement par voie orale des infections urinaires de l'enfant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. - Acute febrile infections suggestive of pyelonephritis require treatment by broad-spectrum antibiotics capable of reaching significant tissue levels. This study compares efficacy and safety of cefixime with amoxycillin + clavulanic acid in urinary tract infections.Population and methods. - Fifty seven children aged 5 months to 14 years treated for urinary tract infection in ten pediatric centres for a period

P François; J Croizé; C Bost; K Wollschlager

1995-01-01

234

Comparative bioavailability of two oral formulations of clopidogrel: determination of clopidogrel and its carboxylic acid metabolite (SR26334) under fasting and fed conditions in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Two randomized, single dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative bioavailability of two clopidogrel formulations under fasting and fed conditions. Assessment of bioequivalence was based upon measurement of plasma concentrations of the parent drug, clopidogrel, and its major (inactive) metabolite, clopidogrel carboxylic acid, using improved methanol-free extraction. Bioequivalence of Krka's formulation to the innovator's formulation was demonstrated under both fasting and fed conditions on 205 volunteers. Confidence intervals for AUC0-t, AUC0-inf and Cmax of clopidogrel and its main metabolite were well within the acceptance range of 80.00 to 125.00 %. Food substantially increased the bioavailability of clopidogrel from both formulations, while no effect of food on the extent and rate of exposure to the metabolite was observed. The effect of food was comparable between the two formulations, as indicated by the same direction and rank of food impact on the bioavailability of both formulations. PMID:24670351

Brvar, Nina; Lachance, Sylvain; Lévesque, Ann; Breznik, Marjanca; Cvitkovi? Mar?i?, Lea; Merslavi?, Mateja; Grabnar, Iztok; Mateovi?-Rojnik, Tatjana

2014-03-01

235

In vitro activity of gemifloxacin compared to seven other oral antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from antral sinus puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a microbroth method for aerobes and agar dilution for anaerobes, we studied the comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, three fluoroquinolones, two macrolides and two ?-lactams, against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates. Gemifloxacin was active at ?0.25 ug\\/mL against 198\\/207 [96%] aerobes and 127\\/162 [78%] anaerobes or 325\\/369 [88%] of all isolates and was the

Ellie J. C Goldstein; Georg Conrads; Diane M Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi Warren; Kerin Tyrrell

2002-01-01

236

Comparative pharmacokinetics of three triterpene acids in rat plasma after oral administration of Poria extract and its formulated herbal preparation: GuiZhi-FuLing capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique coupled with liquid–liquid extraction method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of dehydro-tumulosic acid, tumulosic acid and polyporic acid C in rat plasma. The analytes were separated on a Kromasil C18 column with a total running time of 12.5min. Author had compared the pharmacokinetics of dehydro-tumulosic acid, tumulosic acid and polyporic acid C

Feng Xiao; Qing Li; Ke Liang; Longshan Zhao; Bosai He; Wei Ji; Xiaohui Chen; Zhengzhong Wang; Kaishun Bi; Ying Jia

237

Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two oral formulations of flurbiprofen: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study in Pakistani subjects.  

PubMed

Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:24191330

Qayyum, Aisha; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Abbas, Mateen

2013-11-01

238

Comparative Effectiveness of Oral Drug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in elder men and a number of drugs alone or combined are clinically used for this disorder. But available studies investigating the comparative effects of different drug therapies are limited. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH with network meta-analysis. Materials and Methods An electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH within 24 weeks. Comparative effects were calculated using Aggregate Data Drug Information System. Consistency models of network meta-analysis were created and cumulative probability was used to rank different therapies. Results A total 66 RCTs covering seven different therapies with 29384 participants were included. We found that ?-blockers (ABs) plus phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) ranked highest in the test of IPSS total score, storage subscore and voiding subscore. The combination therapy of ABs plus 5?-reductase inhibitors was the best for increasing maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) with a mean difference (MD) of 1.98 (95% CI, 1.12 to 2.86) as compared to placebo. ABs plus muscarinic receptor antagonists (MRAs) ranked secondly on the reduction of IPSS storage subscore, although monotherapies including MRAs showed no effect on this aspect. Additionally, PDE5-Is alone showed great effectiveness for LUTS/BPH except Qmax. Conclusions Based on our novel findings, combination therapy, especially ABs plus PDE5-Is, is recommended for short-term treatment for LUTS/BPH. There was also evidence that PDE5-Is used alone was efficacious except on Qmax. Additionally, it should be cautious when using MRAs. However, further clinical studies are required for longer duration which considers more treatment outcomes such as disease progression, as well as basic research investigating mechanisms involving PDE5-Is and other pharmacologic agents alleviate the symptoms of LUTS/BPH. PMID:25216271

Li, Sheng; Meng, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xinhua

2014-01-01

239

Comparative genomics of oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico genome subtraction does not reveal accessory DNA associated with severe early childhood caries.  

PubMed

Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5% to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W

2014-01-01

240

Comparative Genomics of Oral Isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico Genome Subtraction Does Not Reveal Accessory DNA Associated with Severe Early Childhood Caries  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5 to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 bp to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W.

2014-01-01

241

Randomized controlled trial to compare growth parameters and nutrient adequacy in children with picky eating behaviors who received nutritional counseling with or without an oral nutritional supplement.  

PubMed

In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30-60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ?25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120. PMID:25342910

Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang

2014-01-01

242

Comparing a motivational and a self-regulatory intervention to adopt an oral self-care regimen: A two-sequential randomized crossover trial.  

PubMed

A sequential intervention to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of dental flossing was conducted among 205 students in India, aged 18-26 years. Two experimental groups received different treatment sequences and were observed at three assessment points, 34 days apart. One group received first a motivational intervention (intention, outcome expectancies, and risk perception, followed by a self-regulatory intervention (planning, self-efficacy, and action control). The second group received the same intervention in the opposite order. Both intervention sequences yielded gains in terms of flossing, planning, self-efficacy, and action control. However, at Time 2, those who had received the self-regulatory intervention first, were superior to their counterparts who had received the motivational intervention first. At Time 3, differences vanished as everyone had then received both interventions. Thus, findings highlight the benefits of a self-regulatory compared to a mere motivational intervention. PMID:25145870

Lhakhang, Pempa; Gholami, Maryam; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

2015-06-01

243

NWP06, an Extended-Release Oral Suspension of Methylphenidate, Improved Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Compared with Placebo in a Laboratory Classroom Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NWP06, a novel extended-release (ER) liquid formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), compared with placebo in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a laboratory school. Methods A total of 45 subjects ages 6–12 years were enrolled in this dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study. Following open-label dose optimization, subjects received 2 weeks of double-blind treatment (1 week of NWP06 and 1 week of placebo). The treatment sequence (NWP06/placebo or placebo/NWP06) was randomly assigned with the last day of each week-long treatment occurring on the laboratory school test day. Efficacy measures included Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) mathematics tests measured at pre-dose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dose on each laboratory classroom day. Safety assessments included physical examination, screening electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event measures, and assessment of suicidality with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results NWP06 resulted in significant (p<0.0001) improvements in the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dose (mean=7.12) as compared with placebo (mean=19.58) in the completers (n=39). Significant separation from placebo occurred at each time point tested (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours), with onset of action of NWP06 at 45 minutes post-dose and duration of efficacy extending to 12 hours post-dose. Adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs following NWP06 treatment were generally mild and consistent with the known safety profile of MPH. The most common AEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (55.6%), upper abdominal pain (42.2%), affect lability (26.7%), initial insomnia (22.2%), insomnia (17.8%), and headache (17.8%). Conclusions NWP06 treatment effectively reduced symptoms of ADHD in children beginning at 45 minutes and continuing for 12 hours post-dose. NWP06 was well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00904670. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00904670. PMID:23289899

Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Belden, Heidi W.

2013-01-01

244

Plasticizer effect and comparative evaluation of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes for oral osmotic pumps of naproxen sodium.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the performance of cellulose acetate (CA) and ethylcellulose (EC)-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes (SPMs) for osmotic pump tablets (OPTs) of naproxen sodium (NPS) so as to deliver a constant, predetermined amount of drug in solution form over a fixed span of time, independent of external environmental conditions. Osmotic pump tablets were designed with different coating variables and optimized in terms of nature of plasticizer, membrane thickness, and orifice diameter. The effect of insertion of an inner microporous film around the NPS core to minimize deformation of the SPM due to peristaltic movement of the gut was also studied. Osmotic pump tablets composed of membranes with water-soluble plasticizer, propyleneglycol (PG), released drug mainly through diffusion, whereas those designed with CA and EC-HPMC (4:1) coats containing water-insoluble plasticizer, castor oil, released their contents by perfect zero-order kinetics over a prolonged period of time, though the average release rate that could be achieved with the EC-HPMC (4:1) membrane was only about half the rate achieved with the CA membrane for the same membrane thickness. Release rates for both the membranes decreased with increasing membrane thickness and were found to be independent of orifice diameter, agitation intensity, and pH of the dissolution medium. PMID:12056533

Ramakrishna, N; Mishra, B

2002-04-01

245

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

246

Initiation with once-daily BIAsp 30 results in superior outcome compared to insulin glargine in Asians with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by oral anti-diabetic drugs.  

PubMed

We compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (BIAsp 30) and insulin glargine in Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs). In a 26-week, open-labelled, randomised, parallel-group, multinational, multicentre, treat-to-target trial, 155 insulin-naïve Asian subjects were treated with either BIAsp 30 or insulin glargine, both in combination with metformin and glimepiride. Change in HbA(1c) at end of treatment with BIAsp 30 was superior to insulin glargine (BIAsp 30-glargine=-0.36%, 95% CI [-0.64; -0.07], p=0.015). Mean self-measured plasma glucose (SMPG) at bedtime was significantly lower with BIAsp 30 than insulin glargine (7.98+/-0.34 mmol/L vs. 9.16+/-0.33 mmol/L, p=0.0078). Incidences of minor and daytime hypoglycaemia were higher with BIAsp 30 than those with glargine, but the difference did not reach the statistical significance. No difference was seen in nocturnal hypoglycaemia. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between treatments, with low incidence of serious adverse events and major hypoglycaemia. Mean body weight increased slightly in both groups. In insulin-naïve Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled with OADs, once-daily BIAsp 30 is superior to insulin glargine. PMID:20363044

Kalra, Sanjay; Plata-Que, Teresa; Kumar, Dileep; Mumtaz, Malik; Søndergaard, Flemming; Kozlovski, Plamen; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan

2010-06-01

247

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

248

Oral History in the Social Studies Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the importance of oral history in the social studies classroom. Concludes that oral history makes history more human and meaningful in everyday life and that it helps students gain insights into their heritage. Tips are offered on comparing life styles among generations; using songs, legends, and myths in the classroom; and analyzing…

Kachaturoff, Grace; Greenebaum, Frances

1981-01-01

249

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

250

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

251

The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels  

PubMed Central

Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

2013-01-01

252

Identification of PRDX4 and P4HA2 as metastasis-associated proteins in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma by comparative tissue proteomics of microdissected specimens using iTRAQ technology.  

PubMed

Cervical lymph node metastasis represents the major prognosticator for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed between microdissected primary and metastatic OSCC tumors. The selected candidates were examined in tissue sections via immunohistochemistry, and their roles in OSCC cell function investigated using RNA interference. Seventy-four differentially expressed proteins in nodal metastases, including PRDX4 and P4HA2, were identified. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher levels of PRDX4 and P4HA2 in tumor cells than adjacent non-tumor epithelia (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), and even higher expression in the 31 metastatic tumors of lymph nodes, compared to the corresponding primary tumors (P = 0.060 and P = 0.002, respectively). Overexpression of PRDX4 and P4HA2 was significantly associated with positive pN status (P = 0.048 and P = 0.021, respectively). PRDX4 overexpression was a significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.034 and P = 0.032, respectively). Additionally, cell migration and invasiveness were attenuated in OEC-M1 cells upon in vitro knockdown of PRDX4 and P4HA2 with specific interfering RNA. Novel metastasis-related prognostic markers for OSCC could be identified by our approach. PMID:21859152

Chang, Kai-Ping; Yu, Jau-Song; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lee, Chien-Wei; Liang, Ying; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Ling-Ling; Liu, Shiau-Chin; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chi, Lang-Ming

2011-11-01

253

Simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III and four ginsenosides by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat and beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A fast, selective, and quantitative ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rg1 in the plasma of rat and beagle dog after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. After addition of the internal standard, salidroside, the plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with methanol/0.01% acetic acid water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in a switching ionization mode. The method was examined, and found to be precise and accurate with the linearity range of the compounds. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of the analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard were all >75.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat and beagle dog plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of ginsenoside Rg1, while the others had significant differences, which may due to the different mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. PMID:24610822

Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiaowen; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

2014-05-01

254

Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.  

PubMed

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

2014-01-01

255

Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

2014-01-01

256

The Effects of Quinacrine, Proglumide, and Pentoxifylline on Seizure Activity, Cognitive Deficit, and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lithium-Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

The present data indicate that status epilepticus (SE) induced in adult rats is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and cerebral oxidative stress (OS). This has been demonstrated using lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of SE. OS occurring in hippocampus and striatum of mature brain following SE is apparently due to both the increased free radicals production and the limited antioxidant defense. Pronounced alterations were noticed in the enzymatic, glutathione-S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as in the nonenzymatic; thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GST), indices of OS in the hippocampus and striatum of SE induced animals. Quinacrine (Qcn), proglumide (Pgm), and pentoxifylline (Ptx) administered to animals before inducing SE, were significantly effective in ameliorating the seizure activities, cognitive dysfunctions, and cerebral OS. The findings suggest that all the drugs were effective in the order of Ptx < Pgm < Qcn indicating that these drugs are potentially antiepileptic as well as antioxidant; however, further studies are needed to establish this fact. It can be assumed that these antiepileptic substances with antioxidant properties combined with conventional therapies might provide a beneficial effect in treatment of epilepsy through ameliorating the cerebral OS. PMID:25478062

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M.; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E.; Ajarem, Jamaan S.

2014-01-01

257

FDG-PET and NeuN-GFAP Immunohistochemistry of Hippocampus at Different Phases of the Pilocarpine Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Hippocampal glucose hypometabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying pathophysiological basis for this hypometabolism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hippocampal hypometabolism and the histological changes seen in rats after systemic pilocarpine treatment. Methods: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) was performed on day zero (untreated), day seven (latent) and day sixty (chronic phase) after the initial status epilepticus. The microPET imaging data were correlated with the immunoreactivity of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus at each time point. Results: 18F-FDG-microPET images showed the hippocampus presented with persistent hypometabolism during epileptogenesis and partly recovered in the chronic phase. Hippocampal glucose uptake defects correlate with NeuN immunoreactivity in the latent phase and GFAP immunoreactivity in the chronic phase. Conclusions: Severe glucose hypometabolism in the hippocampus during the latent phase correlates with neuronal cell loss. The partial recovery of hippocampal glucose uptake in the chronic phase may be due to astrogliosis.

Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yi; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Zhirong; Gao, Feng

2015-01-01

258

Long-term decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is associated with nitration of its alpha subunit.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy with about one third of TLE patients being refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity is fundamental to the discovery of new drug targets. Brain Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity is associated with changes in the alpha subunit phosphorylation and/or redox state. Activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase decreased in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice 60 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In addition, the Michaelis-Menten constant for ATP of ?2/3 isoforms increased at the same time point. Nitration of the ? subunit may underlie decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, however no changes in expression or phosphorylation state at Ser(943) were found. Further studies are necessary define the potential of nitrated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a new therapeutic target for seizure disorders. PMID:25311690

Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Pereira, Letícia Meier; de Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

2014-12-01

259

Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

Lai, Jui-Yang

2013-01-01

260

Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin and comparison of its efficacy with that of oral artesunate in falciparum malaria patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of oral artemisinin and oral artesunate as well as artemisinin pharmacokinetics during and after resolution of falciparum malaria. Forty adults with symptomatic falciparum malaria were allocated at random to treatment with either oral artemisinin (500 mg single dose on day 1 followed by 250 mg twice daily for 4 d and then

M. Hassan Alin; M. Ashton; C. M. Kihamia; G. J. B. Mtey; A. Björkman

1996-01-01

261

Oral phosphate binders: history and prospects.  

PubMed

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract, or 3) if partially absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, it must be eliminated from circulation through a pathway other than urinary excretion, and 4) even if it accumulates in the body, it should not cause organ dysfunctions. Metal salt type oral phosphate binder is the most classical type of oral phosphate binders that includes aluminum hydroxide gel and lanthanum carbonate. These oral phosphate binders effectively adsorb phosphate ions, however, have a potential risk for accumulation and intoxication. Calcium salt type oral phosphate binder was the most widely prescribed oral phosphate binder in the last decade but is now believed to exert potential harm, favoring progression of vascular calcification through excessive intestinal calcium load. However, recent studies failed to detect an inferiority of calcium salt type oral phosphate binders as compared to non-calcium salt type oral phosphate binders in terms of mortality and/or morbidity of hemodialysis patients. Polymerized resin type is a safe and relatively effective oral phosphate binder, which is supported by many clinical evidences. However, it sometimes causes severe constipation, especially in Japanese patients. Among metal compound type oral phosphate binder, other promising compounds include boehmite-type aluminum and hydrotalcite-like compounds but they are not yet available in the clinical setting. PMID:19442621

Kazama, Junichiro James

2009-07-01

262

Mandibular conservation in oral cancer.  

PubMed

Surgery is one of the established modes of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. Invasion of bony or cartilaginous structures by advanced upper aero-digestive tract cancer has been considered an indication for primary surgery on the basis of historic experience of poor responsiveness to radiation therapy [1]. The mandible is a key structure both in the pathology of intra-oral tumours and their surgical management. It bars easy surgical access to the oral cavity, yet maintaining its integrity is vital for function and cosmesis. Management of tumours that involve or abut the mandible requires specific understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of tumour invasion into the mandible. This facilitates the employment of mandibular sparing approaches like marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy, as opposed to segmental or hemimandibulectomy which causes severe functional problems, as the mandibular continuity is lost. Accurate preoperative assessment that combines clinical examination and imaging along with the understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of invasion is essential in deciding the appropriate level and extent of mandibular resection in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have shown that local control rates achieved with marginal mandibulectomy are comparable with that of segmental mandibulectomy. In carefully selected patients, marginal mandibulectomy is an oncologically safe procedure to achieve good local control and provides a better quality of life. This article aims to review the mechanism of spread, evaluation and prognosis of mandibular invasion, various techniques and role of mandibular conservation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21856149

Rao, Latha P; Shukla, Mridula; Sharma, Vinay; Pandey, Manoj

2012-06-01

263

Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study.  

PubMed

Neutropenic sepsis remains a potentially life-threatening complication of anticancer chemotherapy. However, it is possible to identify patients who are at low risk for serious complications and for whom less-intensive, more-convenient treatment may be appropriate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral antibiotics in conjunction with early hospital discharge in comparison with standard in-patient intravenous antibiotics in patients with low-risk neutropenic fever. In all, 126 episodes of low-risk neutropenic fever occurred in 102 patients. Patients were randomised to receive either: an oral regimen of ciprofloxacin (750 mg 12 hourly) plus amoxicillin-clavulanate (675 mg 8 hourly) for a total of 5 days, or a standard intravenous regimen of gentamicin and tazocin (piperacillin/tazobactam) until hospital discharge. Patients randomised to oral antibiotics were eligible for discharge following 24 h of hospitalisation, if clinically stable and symptomatically improved. The efficacy of the two arms was similar: initial treatment was successful without antibiotic modification in 90% of episodes in the intravenous arm and 84.8% of episodes in the oral arm, P=0.55, absolute difference between the groups 5.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference -7 to 17.3%. Only one episode in the oral arm was associated with significant clinical deterioration: this occurred within the initial in-patient assessment period. The median in-patient stay was 4 days in the intravenous arm (range 2-8) and 2 days in the oral arm (range 1-16 days), P&<0.0005. The reduction in hospital stay led to significant cost-savings in the oral arm. In conclusion, this study suggests that oral antibiotics in conjunction with early hospital discharge for patients who remain stable after a 24 h period of in-patient monitoring offers a feasible and cost-effective alternative to conventional management of low-risk neutropenic fever. PMID:12838298

Innes, H E; Smith, D B; O'Reilly, S M; Clark, P I; Kelly, V; Marshall, E

2003-07-01

264

HAD Oral History Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

Holbrook, Jarita

2014-01-01

265

Drug testing in oral fluid.  

PubMed

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-08-01

266

Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation  

PubMed Central

Although the use of dabigatran and rivaroxaban are increasing, data on reversal of their effects are limited. The lack of reliable monitoring methods and specific reversal agents renders treatment strategies empirical and as a result, , treatment consists mainly of supportive measures. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database to find studies and reviews pertaining to oral anticoagulation reversal strategies. This review discusses current anticoagulation reversal recommendations for the oral anticoagulants warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for patients at a heightened risk of bleeding, actively bleeding or those in need for pre-procedural anticoagulation reversal. We highlight the literature that shaped these recommendations and provide directions for future research to address knowledge gaps. While reliable recommendations are available for anticoagulation reversal in patients treated with warfarin, guidance on reversal of dabigatran and rivaroxaban is varied and equivocal. Given the increasing use of the newer agents, focused research is needed to identify effective reversal strategies and develop and implement an accurate method (assay) to guide reversal of the newer agents. Determining patient-specific factors that influence the effectiveness of reversal treatments and comparing the effectiveness of various treatment strategies are pertinent areas for future anticoagulation reversal research. PMID:23606318

Limdi, Nita A.

2013-01-01

267

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

268

On Computational Transcription and Analysis of Oral and Semi-Oral Chant Traditions  

E-print Network

1 On Computational Transcription and Analysis of Oral and Semi-Oral Chant Traditions Dániel of computational transcription presents new means for cross-cultural music analysis, thereby extending the practice for transcription, we have quantized and compared cadences found in Torah trope, strophic melodies from the Dutch

Veltkamp, Remco

269

Comparative pharmacokinetics of puerarin, daidzin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, berberine, palmatine and jateorhizine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and active components alignment (ACA) to rats.  

PubMed

An LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous analysis of puerarin, daidzin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, berberine, palmatine and jateorhizine of Gegenqinlian Decoction (GQD) and active components alignment (ACA) in rat plasma using hesperidin as the internal standard (I.S.). Chromatography was performed using a C18 column, with gradient elution with 1% acetic acid-0.001mol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile at 0.2ml/min. All analytes including I.S. were monitored under positive ionization conditions by selected reaction monitoring with an electrospray ionization source. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 471/297 for puerarin, 471/255 for daidzin, 447/271 for baicalin, 823/453 for glycyrrhizic acid, 419/257 for liquiritin, 336/320 for berberine, 352/336 for palmatine, 338/322 for jateorhizine and 611/303 for hesperidin. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.15-63.0 to 6.3-6340.0ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were within 15.0%, and accuracy (RE%) ranged from -7.4 to 13.2%. The extraction recoveries were ranged from 60.4 to 93.3%. The proposed method was further applied to compare the pharmacokinetics of all analytes following a single oral administration of GQD and ACA. In conclusion, the eight analytes of GQD and ACA had partly similar pharmacokinetics, which were different from single composition (such as puerarin). PMID:25746576

Xu, Beilei; Li, Pengyue; Zhang, Guijun

2015-04-15

270

The effect of an oral hygiene program on oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC).  

PubMed

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by bacteria in niches of the oral cavity play a major role in the etiology of bad breath, and can be easily detected by a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter). To investigate the effect of an oral hygiene program on VSC levels, Halimeter readings were taken from 55 healthy dental students during a course in oral hygiene training, including instruction on brushing, flossing and professional tooth cleaning. Ten students who received no oral hygiene training served as a negative control. The oral hygiene status was measured using the papillary bleeding index (PBI). PBI and VSC values did not show significant changes during the study period of 10 weeks in the control group. In the test group, PBI values significantly decreased compared to baseline and the control, indicating that the oral hygiene program had a benefit on the oral hygiene status. The VSC values also decreased significantly during the study period compared to baseline and the control. It was concluded that in a group of dental students, a thorough oral hygiene training program was capable of reducing the oral level of VSC Halimeter readings. PMID:11507918

Seemann, R; Passek, G; Zimmer, S; Roulet, J F

2001-01-01

271

[An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].  

PubMed

Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

Hideo, Sakaguchi

2014-06-01

272

Microbial basis of oral malodor development in humans.  

PubMed

To better understand the microbial basis of oral malodor development in humans, we used a cross-sectional and longitudinal study design and the pyrosequencing approach to track and compare the tongue microbiota associated with oral malodor in 29 Chinese adults who underwent a consecutive three-day evaluation for the amount of H2S excreted orally. Three levels of the oral malodor state (healthy, oral malodor, and severe oral malodor) were defined based on the H2S level. Community structure of the tongue plaques was more sensitive to changes of malodor state than to interpersonal variations or differences in sampling times. Within each individual, the structure of microbiota was relatively stable, while their variations were correlated with the change in the H2S level. Severe oral malodor microbiota were the most conserved in community structure, whereas the healthy ones were relatively varied. Oral-malodor-associated bacteria were identified. The relative abundance of Leptotrichia and Prevotella was positively correlated with oral malodor severity, whereas Hemophilus and Gemella exhibited a negative relationship with oral malodor severity. Our study provides one of the first landscapes of oral microbiota changes associated with oral malodor development and reveals microbes potentially useful to the evaluation and control of oral malodor. PMID:24101743

Yang, F; Huang, S; He, T; Catrenich, C; Teng, F; Bo, C; Chen, J; Liu, J; Li, J; Song, Y; Li, R; Xu, J

2013-12-01

273

A comparison of oral structure and oral-motor function in young males with fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome.  

PubMed

This study compared the oral structure and oral-motor skills of 59 boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), 34 boys with Down syndrome (DS), and 36 developmentally similar typically developing (TD) boys. An adaptation of the J. Robbins and T. Klee (1987) Oral Speech Motor Protocol was administered to participants and their scores on measures of oral structure and accuracy on speech motor and oral-motor tasks were analyzed. Boys with FXS scored lower than TD boys on oral structure, most oral function tasks, and all speech function tasks. Boys with DS scored lower than boys with FXS and TD boys on oral structure, and lower than TD boys on 1 oral function task and all speech function tasks. Boys with FXS and TD boys scored higher on speech function than oral function tasks, while boys with DS scored higher on oral function than speech function tasks. Boys with FXS and boys with DS repeated single syllable words with greater accuracy than multiple syllable words, while the TD boys produced both types of words with equal accuracy. These results suggest that boys with FXS and boys with DS exhibit atypical oral structure and motor function, yet differ in specific oral-motor patterns. PMID:16908884

Barnes, Elizabeth F; Roberts, Joanne; Mirrett, Penny; Sideris, John; Misenheimer, Jan

2006-08-01

274

Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion: A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students. PMID:24678201

Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

2014-01-01

275

Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

2014-01-01

276

Pollen grains for oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

2014-11-28

277

Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves  

PubMed Central

The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

2014-01-01

278

Tamsulosin Oral Controlled Absorption System (OCAS) in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (LUTS\\/BPH): Efficacy and Tolerability in a Placebo and Active Comparator Controlled Phase 3a Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This phase 3a study assessed the efficacy and safety of two different doses of a new formulation of tamsulosin (the oral controlled absorption system: OCAS) in comparison with placebo and the old modified release (MR) formulation of tamsulosin.

Christopher R. Chapple; Salman H. Al-Shukri; Bernard Gattegno; Simon Holmes; José M. Martínez-Sagarra; Roberto M. Scarpa; Oncko B. van Vierssen Trip; Viktor Vik; Ingrid van der Putten-Slob

2005-01-01

279

Radiation induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

PATIENTS RECEIVING RADIOTHERAPY OR CHEMOTHERAPY WILL RECEIVE SOME DEGREE OF ORAL MUCOSITIS THE INCIDENCE OF ORAL MUCOSITIS WAS ESPECIALLY HIGH IN PATIENTS: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene. PMID:20668585

Ps, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-07-01

280

Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation alone and associated with a sub-effective dose of diazepam on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and subsequent neuronal damage in rats.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) applied via tripolar concentric ring electrodes, alone and associated with a sub-effective dose of diazepam (DZP) on the expression of status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine (LP) and subsequent neuronal damage in the hippocampus. Immediately before pilocarpine injection, male Wistar rats received TFS (300Hz, 200-?s biphasic square charge-balanced 50-mA constant current pulses for 2min) alone or combined with a sub-effective dose of DZP (0.41mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast with DZP or TFS alone, DZP plus TFS reduced the incidence of, and enhanced the latency to, mild and severe generalized seizures and SE induced by LP. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the number of degenerated neurons in the hippocampus. The present study supports the notion that TFS combined with sub-effective doses of DZP may represent a therapeutic tool to induce anticonvulsant effects and reduce the SE-induced neuronal damage. PMID:23886585

Besio, Walter; Cuellar-Herrera, Manola; Luna-Munguia, Hiram; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Rocha, Luisa

2013-09-01

281

Christopher Draven Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...://hdl.handle.net/1808/5684 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

2010-01-12

282

Global Oral Health Inequalities  

PubMed Central

Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

2011-01-01

283

Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

2011-10-01

284

Oral-Systemic Health During Pregnancy: Exploring Prenatal and Oral Health Providers' Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse. PMID:25366104

Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

2014-11-01

285

The effects of oral droperidol versus oral metoclopramide versus both oral droperidol and metoclopramide on postoperative vomiting when used as a premedicant for strabismus surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To compare the efficacy of oral droperidol versus oral metoclopramide, or both oral droperidol and metoclopramide, on postoperative vomiting when used as a premedicant for strabismus surgery.Design: Double-blind, randomized, prospective study.Setting: Academic children's hospital.Patients: 154 ASA physical status I and II ambulatory patients, ages 1 to 15 years, scheduled for strabismus surgery.Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive

Patti J. Kymer; Raeford E. Brown; C. David Lawhorn; Elizabeth Jones; Linda Pearce

1995-01-01

286

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

287

Oral infections and septicemia in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

To estimate the role of oral infections during septicemic episodes in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies, 78 febrile episodes in 46 patients were monitored with daily clinical and microbiological investigations. The 19 septicemic episodes did not differ from the 59 other febrile episodes in the qualitative composition of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic oral microflora or in the presence of teeth or acute oral infections on day 1. The oral prevalence rates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were higher on days 10, 11, and 12 in the febrile episodes with septicemia when compared with those of febrile episodes without septicemia. The prevalence of a probable oral focus in septicemia was 10.5%, and the prevalence of a probable or possible oral origin in septicemia was 31.6%. The results suggest that prevention and elimination of oral infections may reduce the morbidity and perhaps even the mortality in these patients. PMID:3182997

Bergmann, O J

1988-10-01

288

Itraconazole Oral Solution for Primary Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancy and Profound Neutropenia: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Placebo, Multicenter Trial Comparing Itraconazole and Amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

end of the neutropenic period (>0.5 3 10 9 neutrophils\\/liter) or up to a maximum of 3 days following the end of neutropenia, unless a systemic fungal infection was documented or suspected. The maximum treatment duration was 56 days. In the intent-to-treat population, invasive aspergillosis was noted in 5 (1.8%) of the 281 patients assigned to itraconazole oral solution and

J. L. Harousseau; A. W. Dekker; A. Stamatoullas-Bastard; A. Fassas; W. Linkesch; J. Gouveia; R. De Bock; M. Rovira; W. F. Seifert; H. Joosen; M. Peeters; K. De Beule

2000-01-01

289

Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study comparing the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) indexes and indexes derived from the oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the results of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 731 drug-naïve Japanese men with type 2 diabetes mellitus\\u000a (T2DM) with fasting plasma glucose values ranging between 126 and 199 mg\\/dl. We then determined the index of insulin sensitivity\\u000a and insulin secretion across the entire range of glucose loading. Next, we examined the correlation between these indexes\\u000a and the

Ritsuko Yamamoto-HondaKeiichiro; Keiichiro Osame; Hiroji Kitazato; Michiko Shinkai-Goromaru; Akihiro Isogawa; Yoko Yoshida; Shoji Kawazu; Yasuo Akanuma; Mitsuhiko Noda

2011-01-01

290

Recent innovations in oral contraception.  

PubMed

Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone. PMID:20391327

Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

2010-03-01

291

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

Penn, Gerald

292

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

293

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

294

Diagnosing oral ulcers.  

PubMed

Oral ulcers are common and can have many causes, making diagnosis challenging. This article provides an overview of common oral ulcers and an algorithmic approach to establishing the correct diagnosis. Factors such as duration, pattern of recurrence, clinical appearance, mucosal location, and presence or absence of systemic symptoms are useful clues to determining an ulcer's cause. PMID:25621959

Bruce, Alison J; Dabade, Tushar S; Burkemper, Nicole M

2015-02-01

295

Steven Brown Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown Oral History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...

Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

296

Teaching Oral Language Appreciation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering pleasure in words should begin at a young age. But the discovery can continue among college students if oral communication courses offer parallels to the art and music appreciation courses which are part of most collegiate curricula. Some class activities which can enlarge appreciation of oral language are: (1) students may be assigned…

Jensen, Marvin D.

297

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

298

Personality traits in patients with oral malodor.  

PubMed

Many patients presenting at oral malodor clinics have psychological halitosis, which is characterized as being obsessive about having oral malodor or being distressed from a keen awareness of oral odor. We used the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG) to evaluate personality traits in patients presenting at the oral malodor clinic of this institute. The incidence of each TEG personality type was compared between a total of 600 patients presenting at the clinic and a cohort of healthy individuals. Differences were found between the malodor patient and healthy groups. Nurturing Parent (NP)-dominant, Adult (A)-dominant, inverse N (NP low, Free Child high), showed a significant decrease of 6.7, 11.3, and 3.6%, respectively; whereas N (A low) and N (NP high, Free Child low) showed a significant increase of 3.3 and 6.4%, respectively (p < 0.01). PMID:25477041

Sugiyama, Toshiko; Yamakura, Daiki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kameyama, Atsushi; Morinaga, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2014-01-01

299

[Oral kinesiology and the quality of life].  

PubMed

In a comparative study, the influence of oral health on the quality of life was investigated for people with temporomandibular pain, people with tooth wear and people with complete dentures. To this end, the study made use of the Oral Health Impact Profile. Both the total score and the scores on 4 of the 7 domains of the Oral Health Impact Profile were significantly higher in the research group with temporomandibular pain than in the research groups with tooth wear and complete dentures. These results suggest that among people with temporomandibular pain the influence of oral health on the quality of life is more negative than among people with tooth wear and among people with complete dentures. This result can probably be linked with the general finding that patients with temporomandibular pain bear a relatively high psycho-social burden. PMID:21491765

Papagianni, C E; van der Meulen, M J; Naeije, M; Lobbezoo, F

2011-03-01

300

[Erosive oral lichen planus: case report].  

PubMed

Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. Rare among Blacks and Asian subjects, it is at the origin of symptoms ranging from burning pain during meals up to the inability to absorb solid foods or to ensure adequate oral hygiene. Its diagnosis is before all clinical, then confirmed by histopathological examination. Chronic and recurrent forms developments can cause malignant transformation where the importance of being known by any clinicians compared to other oral diseases. Treatment is difficult and aimed at palliation rather than cure. We report the only case of erosive oral lichen planus received and supported in the service of Stomatology of General Hospital in Douala during the last ten years and whose etiology is discussed. PMID:24380118

Belinga, L Essama Eno; Njifou, A; Noa, S Ananga; Ateba, G R; Ngan, W Bell

2013-09-01

301

IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self-efficacy and net benefits. Discussion IQuaD will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing periodontal disease in dentate adults in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners and patients in treatment decision making. Trial registration Protocol ID: ISRCTN56465715 PMID:24160246

2013-01-01

302

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

303

[Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

2014-12-01

304

Probiotics and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

Haukioja, Anna

2010-01-01

305

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

306

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Introduction 2 #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Hey everybody! My name's James Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related

Penn, Gerald

307

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related and oral communication Dysarthria 5 (After Darley et al., 1969) Ataxic Flaccid Hypo- kinetic Hyper- kinetic

Penn, Gerald

308

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran ...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

309

Phil Friedl Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-11-11

310

Glenn Lindell Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

2009-10-24

311

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

312

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

313

Terry Koenig Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...

Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren

2010-11-16

314

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

315

Mary Tholen Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Tholen conducted by Clint Shriner in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Mary Tholen describes her experiences growing up as a member of the Catholic Church, primarily in Hays, Kansas. She...

Tholen, Mary; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

316

Janice Bryant Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...

Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-29

317

Oral Melanotic Macule  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth. Similarly, any existing spot that changes size, shape, or color should also be evaluated promptly. Treatments Your Physician ... the oral melanotic macule stays stable in size, shape, and color, no treatment is needed. Nonetheless, some people want ...

318

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... v Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

319

Oral Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It ...

320

David Ollington Oral History  

E-print Network

in the Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from...

Ollington, David; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

321

Edith Bogart Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

2010-09-14

322

Leni Salkind Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...

Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-11

323

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with ...

324

Chris Husbands Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Chris Husbands conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Kansas, on June 12, 2014. Chris Husbands, a 24-year old Kansas City resident, discusses his 7-years of experience living in various ...

Husbands, Chris; Kolavalli, Chhaya

2014-01-01

325

Beverly Boyd Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Beverly Boyd conducted by Steve Teichgraeber in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2010. In this interview, Beverly Boyd discusses the life of Saint Rose-Phillippine Duchesne (1769-1852), a Catholic nun of the Society...

Boyd, Beverly; Teichgraeber, Steve

2010-11-12

326

David Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on October 31, 2009. In this interview, David Nelson discusses his journey from his childhood experiences in the Swedish Lutheran church in Burdick...

Nelson, David; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-10-31

327

Naomi Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, Kansas. After marriage, she...

Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

328

Joshua Shepherd Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joshua Shepherd conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Missouri, on June 15, 2014. In this interview, Joshua Shepherd discusses the organization of his intentional community in Kansas ...

Shepherd, Joshua; Kolavalli, Chhaya

2014-01-01

329

Seth Davidson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Seth Davidson conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 22, 2010. In this interview, Seth Davidson, lead pastor and founder of what is now the non-denominational Vintage Church in Lawrence, discusses...

Davidson, Seth; Stratton, Emily

2010-10-22

330

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

331

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

de la fuente oral o literaria, análisis estuctural del relato, Antropología, Creatividad, Comunicación, Investigación del Folclore, 72 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Motivación a la Lectura, Movimiento Corporal, Pedagogía, Psico y Neurolingüística... (91), y en el Internacional de Títeres de Bilbao (92). Así como la presencia en el Encuentro Nacional de Cuenteros (México, 1987 y 88), la Feria Internacional del Libro Infantil y Juvenil (México, 87), las Mesas Redondas sobre el Teatro...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

332

Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

2014-01-01

333

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

334

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

335

Oral Proficiency Testing in Special Circumstances: A Viable Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adaptation of the Foreign Service Institute's (FSI) oral interview test for oral language proficiency developed for use at the American Institute of Musical Studies' (AIMS) summer vocal institute in Austria to determine students' improvement in German language is discussed. The reasons for its selection over other major comparable tests are…

Reschke, Claus

336

Benefits and Risks of Third-Generation Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risks and benefits of third-generation oral contraceptives. DATA SOURCES A medlinesearch was done for English language articles published from 1985 through 1998 relating to the side-effect profile of third-generation oral contraceptives or their association with cardiovascular or thromboembolic disease. All articles containing original data were included. DATA SYNTHESIS The risk of venous thromboembolism appears to be 1.5- to 2.7-fold greater in users of third-generation, compared with second-generation, oral contraceptives. Compared with nonusers, women who use third-generation oral contraceptives may have a 4.8- to 9.4-fold greater risk of venous thromboembolism. Users of third-generation oral contraceptives do not appear to have an increased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonusers and may have risk of myocardial infarction of 0.26 to 0.7 compared with second-generation users. Whether third-generation oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased stroke risk is still not clear. CONCLUSIONS Although third-generation oral contraceptives most likely increase a user's risk of venous thromboembolism, their improved side-effect profile and their possible decreased association with myocardial infarction and stroke may make them a useful new class of oral contraceptives for most women except those at increased risk of venous thrombosis. PMID:10571709

LeBlanc, Erin S; Laws, Ami

1999-01-01

337

Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost. PMID:21938271

Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

2011-01-01

338

Ocular changes with oral and transepidermal diethylcarbamazine therapy of onchocerciasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty men with moderate infection of Onchocerca volvulus were studied in a double-masked, controlled clinical trial to compare the safety and efficacy of oral diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with topical DEC lotion. Visual acuity and colour vision did not alter during the 6 months of observation, although 2 patients receiving DEC lotion and 3 patients receiving oral DEC developed either visual field

H R Taylor; B M Greene

1981-01-01

339

Controlled study of lactoperoxidase gel on oral flora and saliva in irradiated patients with oral cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if radiotherapy induces hyposalivation altering oral microbial flora. The purpose of this placebo-controlled, single-blind study was to determine beneficial effects of a saliva substitute and an oral hygiene product on irradiated patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Eighteen patients were assigned to the test group (Biotène Oral Balance gel [Lacléde Incorporated Healthcare Products, Gardena, CA] and toothpaste used daily), and another 18 were put on a conventional daily regimen (carboxymethylcellulose gel and Oral-B toothpaste [Laclede Pharmaceuticals, Gardena, CA]). Cultures for identifying and quantitating microorganisms, whole unstimulated saliva, and visual analog measurements for comfort were obtained before mucositis occurred and after treatment. Daily use of Biotène products enhanced control of microbial flora, improved salivary flow, and increased oral comfort as compared with control subjects. Four weeks after mucositis, some aerobic isolates disappeared in the test group; periodontal-associated bacteria were markedly decreased in the test group; and candidal species were significantly lowered in the test group. Although baseline saliva was lower in the test group (P = 0.001), after 4 weeks, no difference between groups existed; comfort was greater in the test group (P = 0.007). Use of enzyme-engineered Biotène products that assist in control of the oral microbial flora as well as supporting oral comfort through lubrication appear to be useful aids for irradiated patients with oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:17912104

Nagy, Katalin; Urban, Edit; Fazekas, Olga; Thurzo, Laszlo; Nagy, Elisabeth

2007-09-01

340

Genomic DNA copy number alterations from precursor oral lesions to oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is a multifactorial disease in which both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the aetiopathogenesis. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a higher incidence among Melanesian and South Asian countries. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to determine common genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) and their frequency by including 12 studies that have been conducted on OSCCs using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, we reviewed the literature dealing with CNAs that drive oral precursor lesions to the invasive tumors. Results showed a sequential accumulation of genetic changes from oral precursor lesions to invasive tumors. With the disease progression, accumulation of genetic changes increases in terms of frequency, type and size of the abnormalities, even on different regions of the same chromosome. Gains in 3q (36.5%), 5p (23%), 7p (21%), 8q (47%), 11q (45%), 20q (31%) and losses in 3p (37%), 8p (18%), 9p (10%) and 18q (11%) were the most common observations among those studies. However, losses are less frequent than gains but it appears that they might be the primary clonal events in causing oral cancer. PMID:24613650

Salahshourifar, Iman; Vincent-Chong, Vui King; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Zain, Rosnah Binti

2014-05-01

341

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

342

Investigation of the oral infections and manifestations seen in patients with advanced cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: A prospective, observational study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of oral infection among the patients with advanced malignancies, and to investigate the effects of therapy strategies and risk factors on the incidence of oral infection. Methods: The patients with advanced malignancies were enrolled into the study. The incidence of oral infection with different malignant tumor groups or different treatment methods and the diagnoses of oral infection were confirmed. Demographic data on age, gender, bed rest time, nutritional status, smoking habit and the presence of oral prosthesis were also recorded. Results: Oral infection was prevalent in 46% (391/850) of all cancer patients, with the highest rate in oral and maxillofacial cancer group (67%), followed by Hematological malignancy group (58.6%) and other groups (ranging from 43.3% to 35.3%). Oral candidiasis, oral herpes simplex, and oral mucositis were the popular infectious diseases in the patients. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, especially combined radio- and chemotherapy, resulted in more oral infections compared with palliative care and surgery. Poor nutritional status and oral prosthesis were identified as independent risk factors associated with oral infection. Conclusion: Oral infection is prevalent among advanced cancer patients and associated with therapy methods and risk factors. More oral health care should be carried out for the patients with advanced malignant tumor. PMID:24353702

Xu, Lihua; Zhang, Hualin; Liu, Jinsong; Chen, Xiaowei

2013-01-01

343

Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.

2012-10-01

344

A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover bioequivalence study comparing a fixed-dose pediatric combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension with individual liquid formulations in healthy adult male volunteers.  

PubMed

Lamivudine (CAS 134678-17-4) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. Stavudine (CAS 3056-17-5) is a synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue, active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lamivudine and stavudine in combination with other antiretroviral (ARV) agents are indicated for the treatment of HIV infection. As there are no suitable pediatric ARVs, adult fixed-dose ARVs are commonly used in children. This practice poses concerns about dose inaccuracy, which may lead to resistance or toxicity. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet for oral suspension, containing lamivudine 40 mg and stavudine 10 mg has been developed. An open-label, balanced, randomised, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted following administration of a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension (test formulation) and innovator products (reference formulations) in healthy, adult, male human subjects under fasting condition. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 36 h post dose. Plasma concentrations of lamivudine and stavudine were assayed using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence was assessed using a mixed effect ANOVA model. The ratio of the least-square means (FDC to individual products) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) for lamivudine and stavudine were all within 80.00-125.00%, suggesting a similar rate and extent of ARVs exposure in the bloodstream. The FDC and individual products were equally safe and well tolerated. The current FDC of lamivudine and stavudine is expected to provide a similar efficacy/safety profile as co-administration of the individual products, a better adherence to treatment, and considerable cost savings in the treatment of HIV in children. PMID:19338141

Monif, Tausif; Reyar, Simrit; Tiwari, Hari Krishan; Tippabhotla, Sudhakar Koundinya; Khuroo, Arshad; Thudi, Nageshwar Rao; Ahmed, Sarfaraz; Raghuvanshi, Rajeev

2009-01-01

345

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

346

Oral contraceptives, sociocultural beliefs and psychiatric symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurence of psychiatric symptoms as detected by the General Health Questionnaire was examined in three groups of Moslem women. Those who used oral contraceptives were compared to those who used local contraceptives and those using no contraceptives in relation to their beliefs about prohibition of contraception by the Islamic religious code and\\/or about possible health hazards of contraception. Those

M. Fakhr El-Islam; Taha H. Malasi; Sanaa I. Abu-Dagga

1988-01-01

347

[The ultrastructure of the juxta-oral organ (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the juxta-oral organ has been investigated in the goldhamster. Its morphology was comparable to that already described in other species. Located in the cheek or in its anatomical homologue, the juxta-oral organ consists of a string of epithelial cells surrounded by two distinct layers. The first one, made of connective tissue, contains numerous terminal nerve fibres. The second one, external and separated from the first one by a fluid-filled space, is very similar to a perineurium. The juxta-oral organ of the goldhamster presented a new feature: its central string of parenchymatous cells always contained some nervous fibres. The parenchymatous cells were compared to the keratinocytes in the basal layers of the oral epithelium and the general structure of the juxta-oral organ to that of several mechanoreceptors. It is likely that the juxta-organ exerts a mechano-receptor function. PMID:7469412

Jeanneret-Gris, B

1980-01-01

348

Discoloration of Provisional Restorations after Oral Rinses  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (?E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). A* values were found to be significantly higher with oral rinses (p<0.05), except Protemp II immersed in benzydamine HCl or alcohol-containing mouthwash. Conclusions: The type of the oral rinse did not affect the discoloration process. For long-term esthetic results, choosing MMA-based materials for provisional restorations appears to be more effective. PMID:24046524

Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, K?vanç Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

2013-01-01

349

Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameters among multiple groups and Tukey-HSD test was used to compare the mean values between groups. Results The mean nuclear area of keratinocytes from the mucosa of tobacco users was 46 ± 2.57 and that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion was 81.54 ± 4.31. While there was a significant (P=0.001) reduction in the cellular area of keratinocytes from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion when compared with those from oral smears of tobacco users. Conclusion Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes can serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:20690418

Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

2010-01-01

350

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

351

Recurrent oral thrush.  

PubMed

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterized by the presence of at least two out of three clinical features, which include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. The authors' present an one and a half year old girl with recurrent oral thrush who presented with generalised afebrile seizure. Evaluation revealed severe hypocalcemia with low parathormone and normal vitamin D level consistent with hypoparathyroidism. In view of the oral candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, a clinical possibility of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (type 1) was strongly considered. Her mother, on subsequent pregnancy was subjected to gene analysis of the fetus (chorionic villus sampling) and also for this child (index case). Both the fetus and index child were confirmed to have the AIRE gene mutation of APS1. After detailed counseling the parents opted for medical termination of the pregnancy. In children who present with recurrent oral thrush we need to consider but also look beyond immunodeficiency. PMID:24081895

Sivabalan, Somu; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Srinath, M V

2014-04-01

352

Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

Brincker, H

1977-01-01

353

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

354

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

355

Oral myiasis in children.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

2012-04-01

356

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

357

Oral Myiasis : Case Report  

PubMed Central

Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224

Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

2002-01-01

358

Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

2001-09-01

359

The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…

Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

1996-01-01

360

Evidence-based oral care for oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Nurses must intervene to provide evidence-based supportive care and symptom management for cancer patients. Oral mucositis, a distressing side effect of cancer treatment, is both a research and clinical priority. Nurses can lead improvements with evidence-based oral mucositis interventions. This article describes application of evidence-based clinical recommendations for oral mucositis across diverse patient populations. PMID:24069711

Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

2013-01-01

361

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

362

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

363

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

364

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2012-07-01

365

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2013-07-01

366

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2014-07-01

367

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2011-07-01

368

Oral Drug Absorption  

E-print Network

properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

Yamashita, Shinji

2006-10-26

369

Alcohol and oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, particularly when associated with tobacco use, has been recognized as an important risk factor for mouth cancer for almost 50 years. Together, they are associated with approximately 75% of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. However, intake of alcohol remains high in many countries. The rising incidence of oral cancer has prompted a revaluation of the role of alcohol (both alone

Graham R. Ogden

2005-01-01

370

[Halitosis in oral diseases].  

PubMed

The presence of hydrogen sulfide, methilmercaptane, dimethilsulfide, putrescine, cadaverine in exhaled air was evaluated in the study. The concentrations of the named substances were defined in various oral diseases. The received results are of interest for differential diagnostics of halitosis causes. PMID:22678600

Bakhmutov, D N; Kharchenko, O I; Ianushevich, O O

2012-01-01

371

Justin Jenkins Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational church-plant in Lawrence...

Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-06

372

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

373

Methotrexate and oral ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methotrexate is well established in the drug treatment of various neoplastic diseases. More recently it has become increasingly used as a once-weekly, low-dose treatment of disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in these conditions and it is likely that dentists will encounter patients taking this drug in general dental practice. Oral ulceration can

G M J Deeming; J Collingwood; M N Pemberton

2005-01-01

374

History of oral contraception.  

PubMed

On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

Dhont, Marc

2010-12-01

375

Anaphylaxis to oral furosemide.  

PubMed

Furosemide, one of the most used diuretic drugs, rarely induces type-1 allergic reactions It is included in the non-aromatic sulfonamides but a cross-reactivity mechanism between this group and the sulfonamides antibiotics, has not been clearly demonstrated. A 24-year-old woman, 10 minutes after the intake of one pill of Seguril 40mg experienced oral itching, generalized urticaria, facial angioedema, dyspnea and hypotension. She recovered after the administration of parental adrenaline, methyl-prednisolone and dyphenhydramine. An skin prick test with furosemide (10 mg/ml) was negative. The intradermal skin tests were positive to furosemide (1 %) as well as sulfamethoxazole (0.03 mg/ml), with 10 atopic and non-atopic negative controls. The patient rejected the performance of an oral challenge test with sulfamethoxazole. IgE-mediated reactions to furosemide are infrequent, but it could be the cause of life-threatening reactions. We have reported a case of anaphylaxis after the oral administration of furosemide with a demonstrated hypersensitivity mechanism through the positive intradermal skin test. The previous administration of the drug could probably the mechanism of sensitization, but the positive intradermal test to sulfamethoxazole would open the hypothesis of a cross-reactivity between non-aromatic and antimicrobial sulfonamides. It could be necessary an oral challenge test with furosemide in allergic patients to sulfamides. PMID:14670291

Domínguez-Ortega, J; Martínez-Alonso, J C; Domínguez-Ortega, C; Fuentes, M J; Frades, A; Fernández-Colino, T

2003-01-01

376

Comparative metabolites in plasma and urine of normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of the traditional Chinese scutellaria-coptis herb couple by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Scutellaria-coptis herb couple is widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating type 2 diabetes; however, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its main bioactive components in type 2 diabetic rats remains unknown. In this paper, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) and the MetaboLynx™ software combined with mass defect filtering (MDF) together provided unique high throughput capabilities for drug metabolism study with excellent MS mass accuracy and enhanced MS(E) data acquisition. This rapid automated analysis method was successfully applied for screening and identification of the absorbed and metabolized constituents after oral administration of scutellaria-coptis extract to rats. The results showed that a total of 14 metabolites of two parent compounds were detected and tentatively identified in vivo based on the characteristics of their protonated ions. Main parent components of scutellaria-coptis extract such as baicalin and berberine were absorbed into the blood circulation of the rats. Differences of metabolite classes were not observed between normal and type 2 diabetic rat plasma and urine samples. However, the concentrations of baicalin and methylated berberine in type 2 diabetic rat plasma were much higher than those in normal sample. While, the concentrations of these two compounds in type 2 diabetic rat urine were remarkably lower than those in normal sample. This helped maintain a high blood drug concentration which might be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the developed method was simple and reliable, revealing that it could be used to rapid screen and propose the structures of active components responsible for pharmacological effects of scutellaria-coptis and to better clarify its action mechanism. This work suggests that the integrative metabolism approach makes a useful template for drug metabolism research of TCMs. PMID:24976485

Jiang, Shu; Xu, Jun; Qian, Da-Wei; Shang, Er-Xin; Liu, Pei; Su, Shu-Lan; Leng, Xue-Jiao; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Du, Leyue; Zhao, Min

2014-08-15

377

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

PubMed Central

Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

2012-01-01

378

Adolescents and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

Sanfilippo, J S

1991-01-01

379

HIV and AIDS: Oral Effects  

MedlinePLUS

HIV and AIDS Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects The oral effects of HIV and AIDS occur because of your weakened immune system and ... of medicines that you may take for HIV/AIDS. Dry mouth can make you more prone to ...

380

Anticoagulation orale en pratique gériatrique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – Atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism are particularly frequent in the elderly. Whether or not prescribe oral anticoagulant treatment in the elderly is therefore a common question for the physician. Despite the benefits of anticoagulation demonstrated in clinical trials, oral anticoagulant therapy is underused in the elderly.Current knowledge and key points. – Indications for oral anticoagulation are discussed specifically

M Debray; E Pautas; P Couturier; A Franco; V Siguret

2003-01-01

381

Frame Tales and Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a

Bonnie D. Irwin

2003-01-01

382

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

383

Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

2013-01-01

384

Current developments for the oral delivery of heparin.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to oral therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an oral heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new oral anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), Apixaban (Eliquis(®)) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa(®)) have reached the market, but their use is limited to certain indications. Therefore, the development of oral formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using oral formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. PMID:25219865

Schlüter, Anna; Lamprecht, Alf

2014-01-01

385

Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents  

PubMed Central

Introduction The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician’s medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee’s response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM) residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. Methods EM residents (n=35) were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17) or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18) conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL). Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1–8 scale). Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. Results We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. Conclusion The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents. Virtual environments for oral examinations should continue to be explored, particularly since they offer an inexpensive, more comfortable, yet equally rigorous alternative. PMID:25834684

McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R.; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P.; Nelson, Richard

2015-01-01

386

Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords “oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion”. The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use. PMID:24778989

Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A. G.

2013-01-01

387

A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the i.art. injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition, the serum naproxen pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds, administered at the highest equimolar doses, were obtained during the first 6 h after dosing. Results At the two highest tested doses, both naproxen and ATB-346 reduced edema and pain score (measured 3 and 5 h after CGN; P?

2013-01-01

388

Oral health policies in Brazil.  

PubMed

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply. PMID:19838553

Pucca, Gilberto Alfredo; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Chagas, Luciana de Deus; Sivestre, Rosa Maria

2009-01-01

389

Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.  

PubMed

Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

2014-07-01

390

Oral hypoglycemic agent update.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

1978-07-01

391

Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

2015-01-01

392

New oral anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years.\\u000a Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological\\u000a profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which\\u000a is the

Taki Galanis; Lynda Thomson; Michael Palladino; Geno J. Merli

2011-01-01

393

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

394

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

395

[Extended cycle oral contraceptives].  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive pills are conventionally prescribed in a manner that causes monthly withdrawal uterine bleeding (lunar month). The reasons for this are historical without an inherent medical need. According to our literature search, there are patients' demands for less frequent menstrual cycles. We have learned from patients who were given the pill continuously for long periods due to medical or social indications that continuous administration of the contraceptive pill is feasible and safe. In the current review, the authors have searched the literature regarding extended cycle oral contraception for periods of time up to one year. This way of administration of the pill is not compromising the efficacy of pregnancy prevention, nor is it detrimental in terms of cardiovascular and hemostatic complications or endometrial malignancy. It is known that there is a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in users of oral contraceptives up to 10 years, regardless of the mode of administration. From a few studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, there is concern that continuous treatment may be deleterious, while sequential is not. Extended cycle contraceptive treatment has a few side effects, mainly increased breakthrough bleeding but decreased withdrawal bleeding. Other side effects were less prevalent than in conventional administration. PMID:17990394

Geist, Ruth; Beyth, Yoram

2007-10-01

396

Validation of the dutch registry of common oral clefts: quality of recording specific oral cleft features.  

PubMed

Objective : Since 1997, common oral clefts in the Netherlands have been recorded in the national oral cleft registry using a unique descriptive recording system. This study validates data on the topographic-anatomical structure, morphology, and side of individual anomalies of the primary palate and secondary palate that form the oral cleft. Design : Validation study. Setting : All 15 Dutch cleft palate teams reporting presurgery oral cleft patients to the national registry. Patients : A random sample of 250 cases registered in the national database with oral clefts from 1997 through 2003; of these, 13 cases were excluded. Main Outcome Measures : By linking registry data with clinical data, we identified differential recording rates by comparing the prevalence, and we measured the degree of agreement by computing validity and reliability statistics. Results : The topographic-anatomical structures (lip, alveolus, and hard and soft palates) of the anomalies had near-perfect interdatabase agreement with a sensitivity of 88% to 99%. However, when analyzing the individual anomalies in detail (morphology and side), validity decreased and depended on morphological severity. This association was most evident for anomalies of the secondary palate. For example, sensitivity was higher for "complete cleft hard palate" (92%) than for "submucous cleft hard/soft palate" (69%). Conclusions : Overall, the validity of Dutch registry data on oral clefts is good, supporting the feasibility of this unique recording system. However, when analyzing oral cleft data in detail, the quality appears to be related to anatomical location and morphological severity. This might have implications for etiologic research based on registry data and for guidelines on neonatal examination. PMID:21091368

Rozendaal, Anna M; Luijsterburg, Antonius J M; Mohangoo, Ashna D; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M; de Vries, Esther; Vermeij-Keers, Christl

2012-09-01

397

The perception of materials through oral sensation.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

2014-01-01

398

The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

2014-01-01

399

A five way crossover human volunteer study to compare the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol following oral administration of two commercially available paracetamol tablets and three development tablets containing paracetamol in combination with sodium bicarbonate or calcium carbonate.  

PubMed

This report concerns a single dose randomized five way crossover study to compare the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol from two commercially available paracetamol (500 mg) tablets and three different development paracetamol (500 mg) tablet formulations containing either sodium bicarbonate (400 mg), sodium bicarbonate (630 mg) or calcium carbonate (375 mg). The results demonstrated that addition of sodium bicarbonate (630 mg) to paracetamol tablets, increased the rate of absorption of paracetamol relative to conventional paracetamol tablets and soluble paracetamol tablets. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (400 mg) to paracetamol tablets increased the absorption rate of paracetamol relative to conventional paracetamol tablets, but there was no difference in the rate of absorption compared to soluble paracetamol tablets. Inclusion of calcium carbonate (375 mg) to paracetamol tablets had no effect on absorption kinetics compared to the conventional paracetamol tablet. The faster absorption observed for the sodium bicarbonate formulations may be as a result of an increase in gastric emptying rate leading to faster transport of paracetamol to the small intestine where absorption takes place. PMID:10799813

Grattan, T; Hickman, R; Darby-Dowman, A; Hayward, M; Boyce, M; Warrington, S

2000-05-01

400

Alternative Method of Oral Dosing for Rats  

PubMed Central

Oral administration of drugs to laboratory rodents typically is achieved by using the gavage technique. Although highly effective, this method occasionally can cause esophageal injury as well as restraint-associated distress, particularly with repeated use. The aim of this study was to assess an alternative oral dosing method that could reduce the distress and morbidity associated with standard gavage techniques. The palatability and pharmacokinetic profile of 2 medicines approved for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, donepezil and galantamine, were investigated in male Lister hooded rats by using a syringe-feeding method and compared with results from traditional gavage administration. In addition, the stimulant nicotine was tested by using the syringe-feeding method in a separate series of experiments. Animals reliably learned to drink voluntarily from the syringe, and latency to drink decreased rapidly. The addition of donepezil, galantamine, or nicotine to sucrose had no apparent effect on the palatability of the solution, although nicotine produced aversive effects that inhibited subsequent voluntary intake. Oral bioavailability was improved by using syringe feeding with donepezil but not galantamine. Both drugs improved cognitive performance in the novel object recognition test, with similar behavioral profiles between the 2 methods of administration. Our results suggest that the syringe-feeding technique is an effective alternative oral dosing method in rats. PMID:20587166

Atcha, Zeenat; Rourke, Claire; Neo, Aveline HP; Goh, Catherine WH; Lim, Jean SK; Aw, Chiu-Cheong; Browne, Edward R; Pemberton, Darrel J

2010-01-01

401

Acupuncture compared to oral antihistamine for type I hypersensitivity itch and skin response in adults with atopic dermatitis – a patient and examiner blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Background Itch is the major symptom of atopic dermatitis (AD). Acupuncture has been shown to exhibit a significant effect on experimental itch in AD. Our study evaluated acupuncture and anti-histamine itch therapy (cetirizine) on type-I-hypersensitivity itch and skin reaction in AD using a patient and examiner blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Methods Allergen–induced itch was evaluated in 20 AD patients after several interventions in separate sessions: preventive (preceding) and abortive (concurrent) verum acupuncture (VAp and VAa), cetirizine (10mg, VC), corresponding placebo interventions (preventive, PAp, and abortive, PAa, placebo acupuncture; placebo cetirizine pill, PC), and a no-intervention control (NI). Itch was induced on the forearm and temperature modulated over 20 minutes, using our validated model. Outcome parameters included itch intensity, wheal and flare size, and the D2 Attention test. Results Mean itch intensity (SE: 0.31 each) was significantly lower following VAa (31.9) compared to all other groups (PAa: 36.5; VC: 36.8; VAp: 37.6; PC: 39.8; PAp: 39.9; NI: 45.7, p<0.05). There was no significant difference between VAp and VC (p>0.1), though both therapies were significantly superior to their respective placebo interventions (p<0.05). Flare size following VAp was significantly smaller (p=0.034) than PAp. D2 attention test score was significantly lower following VC compared to all other groups (p<0.001). Conclusions Both VA and cetirizine significantly reduced type-I-hypersensitivity itch in AD patients, compared to both placebo and NI. Timing of acupuncture application was important, as VAa had the most significant effect on itch, potentially due to counter-irritation and/or distraction. Itch reduction following cetirizine coincided with reduced attention. PMID:22313287

Pfab, Florian; Kirchner, Marie-Therese; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Schuster, Tibor; Schalock, Peter C.; Fuqin, Jiang; Athanasiadis, Georgios I.; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Darsow, Ulf; Napadow, Vitaly

2012-01-01

402

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht, Iran, enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For each individual a detailed questionnaire based on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines in order to diagnosis of the lesions was filled and it contained all the required data. Participants were divided into two groups with and without oral mucosal lesions and oral mucosal lesions were divided into two groups with and without. Demographic characteristics and clinical information including age, sex, smoking (cigarette and tobacco), opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene were collected and compared between these two groups. Results The prevalence of mucosal lesions in our study was 19.4%. Our data demonstrated higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in males and young adults (30-40 years). The most common mucosal lesion among our participants was Fissured tongue(4%), followed by Fordyce granules(2.8%), geographic tongue(2.6%) , Pigmentation(2.5%), Candida(1.8%), Smoker Plate(1.6%), lingual Varices(1.5%), Petechiae(1.4%) and lingual labial(1.4%) . Leukoplakia was observed only in two people (0.1%).No case of malignant lesions was detected. No statistically significant difference was confirmed between the two groups regarding smoking, opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene. Conclusions Our data has provided baseline information about epidemiologic aspects of oral mucosal lesions which can be valuable in organized national program targeting on oral health and hygiene in the society. PMID:24396581

Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

2013-01-01

403

Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

2015-01-01

404

Oral Manifestations in HIV/AIDS-Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess factors influencing the distribution of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS-infected children attending the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic in Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprising 237 children (males/females: 113/124) aged 1 to 12 years. The parents/guardians were interviewed to obtain demographic information, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and health seeking behaviours as well as any medications taken. The children were clinically examined for oral lesions based on World Health Organization criteria with modifications. Results: About 71.7% of the children cleaned their teeth. About 16.9% of the children had visited a dentist since birth, mainly for emergency care. One or more oral lesions were recorded in 73% of the children of whom 19.0% experienced discomfort during oral functions. Cervical lymphadenopathy, oral candidiasis and gingivitis were the most common soft tissue oral lesions: 60.8%, 28.3% and 19.0%, respectively. Except for dental caries, the overall frequency distribution of soft tissue oral lesions was significantly lower in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as compared to their counterparts not on HAART. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous and permanent dentitions was 42.2% and 11.0%, respectively. Tooth brushing and previous visits to the dentist were indirectly and significantly associated with dental caries. About 5.9% (n=14) of the children had <200 CD3 + CD4 T-lymphocyte cells per ?l of blood. Conclusions: The majority of the children had one or more oral lesions, particularly in the group not on HAART. Some of the lesions were associated with discomfort during oral functions. PMID:21769270

Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha; Kutesa, Annet; Muwazi, Louis; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Kekitinwa, Addy

2011-01-01

405

Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery is rarely seen as a separate entity from adult oral and maxillofacial surgery. Many procedures are similar on adults and children; however, children have unique behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic considerations. Children also have a propensity for certain injuries and pathologic lesions. Children born with congenital anomalies may also have a special subset of needs. This article is a brief review of oral and maxillofacial surgery on the pediatric population. PMID:23174612

Kutcipal, Elizabeth

2013-01-01