Sample records for comparing oral pilocarpine

  1. Oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomised 12 week controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tsifetaki, N; Kitsos, G; Paschides, C; Alamanos, Y; Eftaxias, V; Voulgari, P; Psilas, K; Drosos, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: A 12 week, single centre, randomised controlled study was performed. Twenty nine patients were randomly assigned to receive oral pilocarpine (5 mg twice a day), 28 only artificial tears, and 28 inferior puncta occlusion. Patients receiving oral pilocarpine and those with inferior puncta occlusion also received artificial tears. Patients were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study for their subjective global assessment of dry eyes and for their objective assessment of dry eyes (Schirmer's-I test, rose bengal test, and imprint test). Results: Patients taking oral pilocarpine had significant improvement in subjective global assessment of dry eyes, as was evaluated by improvement of >55 mm on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for responses to the eye questionnaire, compared with patients treated with artificial tears (p<0.001) and those with inferior puncta occlusion (p<0.05). Furthermore, patients receiving oral pilocarpine also showed greater objective improvement, as measured by the rose bengal test (p<0.05), while Schirmer's-I test showed no differences between the treated groups. Commonly reported adverse events were headache, increased sweating, nausea, and vomiting in the pilocarpine group, while one patient in the inferior puncta occlusion group had blepharitis and was withdrawn from the study. Conclusion: 10 mg of pilocarpine daily given to patients with SS for 12 weeks had a beneficial effect on subjective eye symptoms, as evaluated by improvement >55 mm on a VAS. Additionally, an improvement of rose bengal staining was noted, but an increase in tear production, as measured by the Schirmer-I test, was not substantiated. PMID:14644860

  2. Comparative immunohistochemistry of synaptic markers in the rodent hippocampus in pilocarpine epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Károly; András Mihály; Endre Dobó

    2011-01-01

    Pilocarpine-induced epileptic state (Status epilepticus) generates an aberrant sprouting of hippocampal mossy fibers, which alter the intrahippocampal circuits. The mechanisms of the synaptic plasticity remain to be determined. In our studies in mice and rats, pilocarpine-induced seizures were done in order to gain information on the process of synaptogenesis. After a 2-month survival period, changes in the levels of synaptic

  3. Comparative immunohistochemistry of synaptic markers in the rodent hippocampus in pilocarpine epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Károly, Norbert; Mihály, András; Dobó, Endre

    2011-10-01

    Pilocarpine-induced epileptic state (Status epilepticus) generates an aberrant sprouting of hippocampal mossy fibers, which alter the intrahippocampal circuits. The mechanisms of the synaptic plasticity remain to be determined. In our studies in mice and rats, pilocarpine-induced seizures were done in order to gain information on the process of synaptogenesis. After a 2-month survival period, changes in the levels of synaptic markers (GAP-43 and Syn-I) were examined in the hippocampus by means of semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) was examined in each brain using Timm's sulphide-silver method. Despite the marked behavioral manifestations caused by pilocarpine treatment, only 40% of the rats and 56% of the mice showed MFS. Pilocarpine treatment significantly reduced the GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the inner molecular layer in both species, with some minor differences in the staining pattern. Syn-I immunohistochemistry revealed species differences in the sprouting process. The strong immunoreactive band of the inner molecular layer in rats corresponded to the Timm-positive ectopic mossy fibers. The staining intensity in this layer, representing the ectopic mossy fibers, was weak in the mouse. The Syn-I immunoreactivity decreased significantly in the hilum, where Timm's method also demonstrated enhanced sprouting. This proved that, while sprouted axons displayed strong Syn-I staining in rats, ectopic mossy fibers in mice did not express this synaptic marker. The species variability in the expression of synaptic markers in sprouted axons following pilocarpine treatment indicated different synaptic mechanisms of epileptogenesis. PMID:20846710

  4. A Comparative Study on the Protection Profile of Lidocaine, Amifostine, and Pilocarpin on the Parotid Gland during Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartwig Kosmehl; Isabel Lauer; Roger Nadrowitz; Thilo Wedel; Peter Sieg

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual and the synergetic radioprotective effect of lidocaine, amifostine, and pilocarpin on the parotid gland. Forty-nine rabbits were randomized into seven groups (n = 7)—control, irradiated sham-treated, irradiated\\/lidocaine-pretreated, irradiated\\/ amifostine-pretreated, irradiated\\/pilocarpin-pretreated, ir- radiated\\/lidocaine + pilocarpin-pretreated, and irradiated\\/ amifostine + pilocarpin-pretreated groups. One week before irradiation (15 Gy) and 72 hours as

  5. The pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Curia, Giulia; Longo, Daniela; Biagini, Giuseppe; Jones, Roland S.G.; Avoli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) largely rests on the use of models of status epilepticus (SE), as in the case of the pilocarpine model. The main features of TLE are: (i) epileptic foci in the limbic system; (ii) an “initial precipitating injury”; (iii) the so-called “latent period”; and (iv) the presence of hippocampal sclerosis leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. Many of these characteristics can be reproduced in rodents by systemic injection of pilocarpine; in this animal model, SE is followed by a latent period and later by the appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). These processes are, however, influenced by experimental conditions such as rodent species, strain, gender, age, doses and routes of pilocarpine administration, as well as combinations with other drugs administered before and/or after SE. In the attempt to limit these sources of variability, we evaluated the methodological procedures used by several investigators in the pilocarpine model; in particular, we have focused on the behavioural, electrophysiological and histopathological findings obtained with different protocols. We addressed the various experimental approaches published to date, by comparing mortality rates, onset of SRSs, neuronal damage, and network reorganization. Based on the evidence reviewed here, we propose that the pilocarpine model can be a valuable tool to investigate the mechanisms involved in TLE, and even more so when standardized to reduce mortality at the time of pilocarpine injection, differences in latent period duration, variability in the lesion extent, and SRS frequency. PMID:18550176

  6. Comparative oral bioavailability advantage from curcumin formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhushan Munjal; Yogesh Bapurao Pawar; Sarsvatkumar Babulal Patel; Arvind Kumar Bansal

    The aim of the present study was to study the oral bioavailability of seven different formulations of curcumin (CRM). CRM\\u000a formulations viz. aqueous suspension, micronized suspension, nanosuspension, amorphous solid dispersion, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin\\u000a (HP-?-CD) inclusion complex, combination with piperine, and spray-dried CRM–milk composite were compared for oral bioavailability\\u000a in male Sprague–Dawley rats at a CRM dose of 250 mg\\/kg body weight using a

  7. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1 mg/kg) 30 min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20 mmol/kg), 15 min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline. Pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) was then administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. Mice were monitored for 2 h after pilocarpine injection, and seizure behavior grades were evaluated according to Racine's scale. All mice developed typical seizure behaviors of grade 3 or higher. Although the severity in terms of seizure behavior grade was not significantly different between groups, the mean (±SD) latency to the onset of seizure was significantly prolonged in BHB-treated mice (5.15±2.19 min) compared with controls (2.95±1.06 min; p<0.001). This study demonstrates that treatment with BHB significantly prolongs the latency to the onset of seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice and suggests that BHB, one of the ketone bodies, may be direct anticonvulsant. PMID:21723679

  8. Acute induction of epileptiform discharges by pilocarpine in the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain requires enhancement of blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Uva, L; Librizzi, L; Marchi, N; Noe, F; Bongiovanni, R; Vezzani, A; Janigro, D; de Curtis, M

    2008-01-01

    Systemic application of the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine, is commonly utilized to induce an acute status epilepticus that evolves into a chronic epileptic condition characterized by spontaneous seizures. Recent findings suggest that the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine may be triggered by changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. We tested the role of the BBB in an acute pilocarpine model by using the in vitro model brain preparation and compared our finding with in vivo data. Arterial perfusion of the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain with <1 mM pilocarpine did not cause epileptiform activity, but rather reduced synaptic transmission and induced steady fast (20-25 Hz) oscillatory activity in limbic cortices. These effects were reversibly blocked by co-perfusion of the muscarinic antagonist atropine sulfate (5 microM). Brain pilocarpine measurements in vivo and in vitro suggested modest BBB penetration. Pilocarpine induced epileptiform discharges only when perfused with compounds that enhance BBB permeability, such as bradykinin (n=2) or histamine (n=10). This pro-epileptic effect was abolished when the BBB-impermeable muscarinic antagonist atropine methyl bromide (5 microM) was co-perfused with histamine and pilocarpine. In the absence of BBB permeability enhancing drugs, pilocarpine induced epileptiform activity only after arterial perfusion at concentrations >10 mM. Ictal discharges correlated with a high intracerebral pilocarpine concentration measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. We propose that acute epileptiform discharges induced by pilocarpine treatment in the in vitro isolated brain preparation are mediated by a dose-dependent, atropine-sensitive muscarinic effect promoted by an increase in BBB permeability. Pilocarpine accumulation secondary to BBB permeability changes may contribute to in vivo ictogenesis in the pilocarpine epilepsy model. PMID:18082973

  9. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average latency after i.v. pilocarpine was 0.31 ± 0.03; 0.25-0.34 min with a time constant of 0.19 ± 0.07; 0.11-0.31 s. During i.v. pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in five monkeys, lens diameters decreased by 0.54 ± 0.09; 0.42-0.64 mm with a rate of change of 0.052 ± 0.002; 0.050-0.055 mm/D. Accommodative responses with i.v. pilocarpine were more rapid, consistent and stable than those with carbachol iontophoresis. The accommodative decrease in lens diameter with i.v. pilocarpine as a function of age was consistent with previous results using constant topical pilocarpine. Intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation is safe, more consistent and more rapid than carbachol iontophoresis and it requires no contact with or obstruction of the eye thus allowing continuous and uninterrupted refraction and ocular biometry measurements. PMID:23850971

  10. Pilocarpine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a ...

  11. Topical atenolol versus pilocarpine: a double-blind study of the effect on ocular tension.

    PubMed

    Wettrell, K; Wilke, K; Pandolfi, M

    1978-05-01

    Topical atenolol (a beta1-adrenoceptive antagonist), pilocarpine, and placebo were tested in a randomised double-blind crossover trial of 8 patients with ocular hypertenion. Atenolol (2% 3 times a day) caused a fall in intraocular pressure (IOP) comparable to that achieved by topical application of pilocarpine (2% 3 times a day). The decrease in IOP by each compound was demonstrable on the second day of application and was significantly (P is less than 0.05) reduced on the seventh and 14th days of treatment. The combination of 2% pilocarpine and 2% atenolol administered 15 minutes apart (3 times a day) lowered the IOP significantly from the second day of treatment, and this reduction persisted throughout the trial period of 14 days. This combined of treatment, treatment lowered the IOP more than either substance alone. However, this further decrease was statistically significant only on the 14th day of treatment (atenolol versus atenolol + pilocarpine, P is less than 0.05). No change of the episcleral venous pressure was observed after 14 days' treatment with either atenolol or pilocarpine alone, or combined. PMID:350263

  12. Manufacture of polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles with pilocarpine and timolol by micelle polymerization: factors influencing particle formation.

    PubMed

    Harmia-Pulkkinen, T; Tuomi, A; Kristoffersson, E

    1989-01-01

    Nanoparticles with pilocarpine and timolol were produced by micelle polymerization. The influence of manufacturing temperature, type of monomer, drug concentration and ethylcyanoacrylate concentration on the particle size were investigated with a Coulter Nano Sizer. The nanoencapsulation succeeded only with the pilocarpine or timolol base, not with the salts of these drugs. Different micelle formation in aqueous medium compared with organic solvents was evidently responsible for this phenomenon. The particle formation was affected both by the manufacturing temperature and the type of monomer. The smallest particles were produced at lower temperatures and with the most lipophilic monomers. The monomer and drug concentration had very little influence on the particle size. The nanoparticles made with pilocarpine were, in general, much bigger than those made with timolol. PMID:2715917

  13. Developing the potential ophthalmic applications of pilocarpine entrapped into polyvinylpyrrolidone-poly(acrylic acid) nanogel dispersions prepared by ? radiation.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rehim, Hassan A; Swilem, Ahmed E; Klingner, Anke; Hegazy, El-Sayed A; Hamed, Ashraf A

    2013-03-11

    The aim of this study was to improve the stability and bioavailability of pilocarpine in order to maintain an adequate concentration of the pilocarpine at the site of action for prolonged period of time. Thus, pH-sensitive polyvinylpyrrolidone-poly(acrylic acid) (PVP/PAAc) nanogels prepared by ? radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) in an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a template polymer were used to encapsulate pilocarpine. Factors affecting size and encapsulation efficiency were optimized to obtain nanogel suitable for entrapping drug efficiently. The PVP/PAAc nanogel particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their size can be controlled by the feed composition and concentration as well as the irradiation dose. Pilocarpine was loaded into the nanogel particles through electrostatic interactions where the AAc-rich nanogels exhibited the highest loading efficiency. The transmittance, mucoadhesion, and rheological characteristics of the nanogel particles were studied to evaluate their ocular applicability. The in vitro release study conducted in simulated tear fluid showed a relatively long sustained release of pilocarpine from the prepared PVP/PAAc nanogel particles if compared with pilocarpine in solution. PMID:23414209

  14. Seizure susceptibility in intact and ovariectomized female rats treated with the convulsant pilocarpine

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Goodman, Jeffrey H.; Rigoulot, Marie-Aude; Berger, Russell E.; Walling, Susan G.; Mercurio, Thomas C.; Stormes, Kerry; Maclusky, Neil J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous neuroendocrinological studies of seizures, the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures and epilepsy remains unclear. This may be due to the fact that previous studies have not systematically compared distinct endocrine conditions and included all relevant controls. The goal of the present study was to conduct such a study using pilocarpine as chemoconvulsant. Thus, age and weight-matched, intact or ovariectomized rats were tested to determine incidence of status epilepticus and to study events leading to status. Intact female rats were sampled at each cycle stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus 2). Convulsant was administered at the same time of day, 10:00–10:30 a.m. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significantly lower incidence of status on the morning of estrus, but differences were attenuated in older animals. Ovariectomized rats were distinct in their rapid progression to status. These results show that the incidence of status in female rats following pilocarpine injection, and the progression to pilocarpine-induced status, are influenced by reproductive state as well as age. The hormonal milieu present specifically on the morning of estrus appears to decrease susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced status, particularly at young ages. In contrast, the chronic absence of reproductive steroids that characterizes the ovariectomized rat leads to a more rapid progression to status. This dissociation between incidence vs. progression provides new insight into the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures. PMID:16084511

  15. Trichosanthes tricuspidata modulates oxidative toxicity in brain hippocampus against pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in mice.

    PubMed

    Smilin Bell Aseervatham, G; Sivasudha, Thilagar; Suganya, Mohan; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran

    2013-08-01

    Epilepsy prevails to be a neurological disorder in anticipation of safer drugs with enhanced anticonvulsant efficacy as presently available drugs fails to offer adequate control of epileptic seizures in about one-third of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Trichosanthes tricuspidata methanolic extract (TTME) against epilepsy mediated oxidative stress in pilocarpine induced mice. Intraperitonial administration of pilocarpine (85 mg/kg) induced seizure in mice was assessed by behavior observations, which is significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by TTME (100 and 200 mg/kg; i.p) in a dose dependant manner, similar to diazepam. Seizure was accompanied by significant increase in lipid peroxidation and the hippocampal nitrite content in pilocarpine group when compared with control. Moreover, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione levels were decreased in pilocarpine administered groups. TTME administration attenuated oxidative damage as evident by decreased lipid oxidative damage and nitrite-nitrate content and restored the level of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in hippocampus. Involvement of free radicals during epilepsy is further confirmed by histopathological analysis which showed the loss of neuronal cells in hippocampus CA1 and CA3 pyramidal region. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that TTME has anticonvulsant activity accompanied with the strong antioxidant potential plays a crucial role in reducing the oxidative stress produced by seizure. PMID:23686347

  16. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mohd. Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ–HA and CBZ–FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ–HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  17. Oral Mucocutaneous Lesions – A Comparative Clinicopathological and Immunofluorescence Study

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Annasamy; Varghese, Alex Kumaranthara; Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Ahmed, Shaheen; Venkatramani, Janaki; Sugirtharaj, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral mucosa is often affected by many diseases including mucocutaneous disorders. The diagnoses of these disorders are primarily based on history, clinical features, and histopathology. For the past few years’ immunofluorescence techniques emerged as an important tool to study the pathogenesis and in the diagnosis of oral mucocutaneous and vesiculobullous disorders. The present study was designed to carry out retrospective and prospective analysis of oral mucocutaneous lesions to elucidate the clinicopathologic features and its immunofluorescence findings. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 subjects with oral mucocutaneous lesions were retrieved from the oral pathology files of Tamil Nadu Govt. Dental College and their clinical features were evaluated, and the histopathology was also evaluated with the help of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. For the prospective study, biopsy from 12 subjects with oral mucocutaneous lesions was subjected to routine histopathological examination and DIF to evaluate the consistency of the methods. Results: In the retrospective analysis of 70 subjects with oral mucocutaneous lesions in relation to clinical features and histopathology, most of the findings were similar to the previous studies except for few criteria like male predilection in lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) and more prevalence of pemphigus vulgaris than MMP (2:1). In the prospective analysis of 12 subjects, the histopathological diagnosis was consistent with DIF study in 66% of cases. Conclusion: The diagnostic efficiency of oral mucocutaneous lesions can be improved by modern tools like DIF studies in addition to traditional methods like clinical and histopathology. PMID:25878481

  18. Oral candidiasis prevention in transplantation patients: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Elad; Alon Wexler; Adi A. Garfunkel; Michael Y. Shapira; Menachem Bitan

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Oral candidiasis occurs commonly in haematopoietic -stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients carrying a risk of systemic candidemia and mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to design an effective protocol that prevents oral candidiasis and improves tolerability. Methods: A prospective, randomized, longitudinal study with two treat- ment groups, (A) chlorhexidine (CHX) and (B) CHX combined with medium-dose amphotericin

  19. Topical and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have used pilocarpine to stimulate accommodation in both humans and monkeys. However, the concentrations of pilocarpine used and the methods of administration vary. In this study, three different methods of pilocarpine administration are evaluated for their effectiveness in stimulating accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed in 17 iridectomized, anesthetized rhesus monkeys aged 4–16 years. Maximum accommodation was stimulated in all these monkeys with a 2% pilocarpine solution maintained on the cornea for at least 30 min in a specially designed perfusion lens. In subsequent topical pilocarpine experiments, baseline refraction was measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and then while the monkeys were upright and facing forward, commercially available pilocarpine (2, 4, or 6%) was applied topically to the cornea as 2 or 4 drops in two applications or 6 drops in three applications over a five minute period with the eyelids closed between applications. Alternatively, while supine, 10–12 drops of pilocarpine were maintained on the cornea in a scleral cup for 5 min. Refraction measurements were begun 5 min after the second application of pilocarpine and continued for at least 30 min after initial administration until no further change in refraction occurred. In intravenous experiments, pilocarpine was given either as boluses ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg or boluses followed by a constant infusion at rates between 3.06 mg/kg/h and 11.6 mg/kg/h. Constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye in the perfusion lens produced 10.88 ± 2.73 D (mean ± SD) of accommodation. Topically applied pilocarpine produced 3.81 D ± 2.41, 5.49 D ± 4.08, and 5.55 D ± 3.27 using 2%, 4%, and 6% solutions respectively. When expressed as a percentage of the accommodative response amplitude obtained in the same monkey with constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye, the responses were 34.7% for 2% pilocarpine, 48.4% for 4% pilocarpine, and 44.6% for 6% pilocarpine. Topical 4% and 6% pilocarpine achieved similar, variable accommodative responses, but neither achieved maximum accommodation. IV boluses of pilocarpine achieved near maximal levels of accommodation at least ten times faster than topical methods. Doses effective for producing maximum accommodation ranged from 0.25 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg. IV pilocarpine boluses caused an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface, a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface, and a slight net anterior movement of the entire lens. Considerable variability in response amplitude occurred and maximum accommodative amplitude was rarely achieved with topical application of a variety of concentrations of commercially available pilocarpine. Intravenous infusion of pilocarpine was a rapid and reliable method of producing a nearly maximal accommodative response and maintaining accommodation when desired. PMID:20159011

  20. Comparative analysis of nasal and oral mucosa dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Allam; B. Niederhagen; M. Bucheler; T. Appel; H. Betten; T. Bieber; S. J. Bergé; N. Novak

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mucosal dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in tolerance induction as seen in mucosal immunotherapy of atopic diseases. Nevertheless little is known about the phenotypical differences of oral and nasal mucosal DC (nmDC). Recently, we could show that oral mucosal myeloid CD1a(+) DC (omDC) differ from their skin counterparts especially by the expression of high affinity receptor for

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE SKIN AND EYE DISEASES Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE SKIN AND EYE DISEASES Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type I, Athanasiadis GI, Behrendt H, Ring J, Darsow U, Napadow V. Acupuncture compared with oral antihistamine for type-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Allergy 2012; 67: 566­573. Keywords acupuncture; allergen

  2. An analytical chemical study of pilocarpine hydrochloride and its hydrolysis products 

    E-print Network

    Ibert, Edward R

    1956-01-01

    little excess base. To measure the effect of hydrolysis on optical activity, stan- dard solutions of pi. locsrpine were reacted with incremental additions of sodium hydroxide, diluted to volume, and the optical activities compared. It was found... LIBRARY h S SI COLLEGE OF TEXAS moles of' 'base had been added for each mole of' pilocarpine hydrochloride. After two moles of sodium hydroxide hsd been add. ed, further adcLLtions produced no appreciable change in optical activity even when they were...

  3. The master switch: Comparative study of mast cell in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cells carcinoma and their association with inflammation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Telagi, Neethu; Ahmed Mujib, BR; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Naik, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental and medical practitioners encounter wide spectrum of oral lesions in their day-to-day practice. Many of the lesions such as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), etc., are associated with tobacco and betel nut chewing. Oral leukoplakia, OSF, oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are the most commonly occurring oral diseases associated with characteristic clinical and histological features and are associated with chronic inflammation at some stage of the disease process. Aims: To study and compare the number, morphology and topographical distribution of mast cells in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), OSF and OSCC and to correlate different types of mast cells with the inflammatory infiltrate and vascularity of the lesions. Materials and Methods: Total number of subjects was 120 and equally divided into four groups of 30 as controls, OED, OSF and OSCC cases. Two sections of from each tissue embedded in paraffin wax block were made which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue stain. Mast cells were counted in five different zones. Results: In the present study, increased numbers of mast cells were seen in all lesions. The cases with mild, moderate and severe inflammation showed increased number of typical (TMCs), atypical (AMCs) and granular mast cells (GMCs), respectively. Conclusion: The result of the present study concludes that the mast cells play a key role in mediating the cross links between external angiogenic agent and local immunologic factors.

  4. Central mechanisms involved in pilocarpine-induced pressor response.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Borella, Thais L; Paulin, Renata F; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

    2011-10-28

    Pilocarpine (cholinergic muscarinic agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally to produce pressor responses; in the present study, using c-fos immunoreactive expression, we investigated the forebrain and brainstem areas activated by pressor doses of intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine. In addition, the importance of vasopressin secretion and/or sympathetic activation and the effects of lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region in awake rats were also investigated. In male Holtzman rats, pilocarpine (0.04 to 4?mol/kg b.w.) i.v. induced transitory hypotension followed by long lasting hypertension. Sympathetic blockade with prazosin (1mg/kg b.w.) i.v. or AV3V lesions (1 day) almost abolished the pressor response to i.v. pilocarpine (2?mol/kg b.w.), whereas the vasopressin antagonist (10?g/kg b.w.) i.v. reduced the response to pilocarpine. Pilocarpine (2 and 4?mol/kg b.w.) i.v. increased the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, organ vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla. These data suggest that i.v. pilocarpine activates specific forebrain and brainstem mechanisms increasing sympathetic activity and vasopressin secretion to induce pressor response. PMID:21689994

  5. Effect of ozone on oral cells compared with established antimicrobials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin C. Huth; Franz M. Jakob; Bernd Saugel; Christian Cappello; Ekaterini Paschos; Regina Hollweck; Reinhard Hickel; Korbinian Brand

    2006-01-01

    Ozone has been proposed as an alternative antiseptic agent in dentistry based on reports of its antimicrobial effects in both gaseous and aqueous forms. This study investigated whether gaseous ozone (4 · 106 l gm )3) and aqueous ozone (1.25- 20 l gm l )1) exert any cytotoxic effects on human oral epithelial (BHY) cells and gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells

  6. Continuous Low-Dose Oral Chemotherapy in Recurrent and Persistent Carcinoma of Cervix Following Chemoradiation: A Comparative Study Between Prolonged Oral Cyclophosphamide and Oral Etoposide

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Upasana; Barmon, Debabrata; Hazarika, Munlima; Deka, Pankaj; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Shrivastava, Sushruta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy and toxicities of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide in patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with recurrent and persistent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease were enrolled in this trial. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients each with one group receiving low dose oral cyclophosphamide (100 mg/day) and the other group receiving low-dose oral etoposide (50 mg/day). Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: Oral etoposide was not well tolerated with grade 2 neutropenia occurring in 33.3% and grade 3 neutropenia in 6.6% and thrombocytopenia occurring in 13.3%. Oral cyclophosphamide group on the other hand was better tolerated with none of the patients having thrombocytopenia and 6.6% patients having grade 2 neutropenia. There were two complete response (15.38%) and one partial response at the end of study (7.6%) in the cyclophosphamide group whereas there was no complete response and two partial response (16.6%) in the oral etoposide group. Conclusion: Long-term, low-dose oral etoposide was found to be less tolerated without any significant effect with patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy in contrast to oral cyclophosphamide which was found to be effective and well-tolerated by the patients. PMID:25191008

  7. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) adversely effects on pilocarpine seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Lee, Song Hee; Choi, Hui Chul; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-01-21

    Citicoline (CDP-choline; cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. Citicoline serves as a choline donor in the biosynthetic pathways of acetylcholine and neuronal membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. The ability of citicoline to reverse neuronal injury has been tested in animal models of cerebral ischemia and clinical trials have been performed in stroke patients. However, no studies have examined the effect of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death. To clarify the potential therapeutic effects of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death, we used an animal model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25mg/kg) in adult male rats. Citicoline (100 or 300 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space two hours after seizure onset and a second injection was performed 24h after the seizure. Citicoline was injected once per day for one week after pilocarpine- or kainate-induced seizure. Neuronal injury and microglial activation were evaluated at 1 week post-seizure. Surprisingly, rather than offering protection, citicoline treatment actually enhanced seizure-induced neuronal death and microglial activation in the hippocampus compared to vehicle treated controls. Citicoline administration after seizure-induction increased immunoglobulin leakage via BBB disruption in the hippocampus compared with the vehicle-only group. To clarify if this adverse effect of citicoline is generalizable across alternative seizure models, we induced seizure by kainate injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) and then injected citicoline as in pilocarpine-induced seizure. We found that citicoline did not modulate kainate seizure-induced neuronal death, BBB disruption or microglial activation. These results suggest that citicoline may not have neuroprotective effects after seizure and that clinical application of citicoline after seizure needs careful consideration. PMID:25446447

  8. Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Navasa; A Follo; JM Llovet; G Clemente; V Vargas; A Rimola; F Marco; C Guarner; M Forne; R Planas; R Banares; L Castells; MT Jimenez De Anta; V Arroyo; J Rodes

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis currently involves intravenous antibiotic administration. To test the possibility of treating spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with oral antibiotics, oral ofloxacin was compared with intravenous cefotaxime in this infection. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three cirrhotics with uncomplicated spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (no septic shock, grade II-IV hepatic encephalopathy, serum creatinine level of > 3 mg\\/dL, and

  9. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  10. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    PubMed Central

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  11. Comparative Bioavailability of Two Oral Formulations of Omeprazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta; Gerardo Reyes-García; Roberto Medina-Santillán; Jorge E. Herrera

    2009-01-01

    Omeprazole is a very widely used proton-pump inhibitor. Currently, there are several branches available in Mexico, however, limited information about their bioavailabilities is available. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability of two of them, Losec® and Omelcid®. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study that was carried out following the recommendations of the Declaration of

  12. Efficacy of topical retinoic acid compared with topical fluocinolone acetonide in the treatment of oral lichen planus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waranun Buajeeb; Petcharat Kraivaphan; Chongdee Pobrurksa

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of retinoic acid in an oral base 0.05% with fluocinolone acetonide in an oral base 0.1% in the treatment of atrophic and erosive oral lichen planus. Thirty-three patients with histologically proven oral lichen planus were asked to participate in the study. Lesions were scored ranging from 0 (no lesion) to

  13. Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2013-10-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

  14. Reconstruction of an in vitro cornea and its use for drug permeation studies from different formulations containing pilocarpine hydrochloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Tegtmeyer; Ioannis Papantoniou; Christel C. Müller-Goymann

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present contribution was to develop a functional three-dimensional tissue construct to study ocular permeation of pilocarpine hydrochloride from different formulations. The in vitro model was compared to excised bovine cornea. Modified Franz cells were used to study the transcorneal permeability. Analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparisons of the permeation rates through excised bovine

  15. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  16. Mandarin Oral Narratives Compared with English: The Pear/Guava Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbaugh, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)…

  17. Differences in the hippocampal frequency of creatine inclusions between the acute and latent phases of pilocarpine model defined using synchrotron radiation-based FTIR microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kutorasinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Chwiej, J

    2013-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. Of the animal models developed to investigate the pathogenesis of TLE, the one with pilocarpine-induced seizures is most often used. After pilocarpine administration in animals, three distinct periods--acute, latent, and chronic--can be distinguished according to their behavior. The present paper is the continuation of our previous study which has shown an increased occurrence of creatine inclusions in rat hippocampal formations from the acute phase of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and positive correlation between their quantity and the total time of seizure activity within the observation period. In this paper, we tried to verify if anomalies in hippocampal creatine accumulation were the temporary or permanent effect of pilocarpine-evoked seizures. To realize this purpose, male Wistar rats in the latent phase (3 days after pilocarpine administration) were examined. The results obtained for the period when stabilization of animal behavior and EEG occurs were afterwards compared with ones obtained for the acute phase of pilocarpine-induced SE and for naive controls. To investigate the frequency of creatine inclusions within the hippocampal formation as well as in its selected areas (sectors 1-3 of Ammon's horn (CA1-CA3), dentate gyrus (DG), and hilus of DG) and cellular layers (pyramidal, molecular, multiform, and granular cell layers), synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy was used. The applied technique, being a combination of light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy, allowed us to localize microscopic details in the analyzed samples and provided information concerning their chemical composition. Moreover, the use of a synchrotron source of IR radiation allowed us to carry out the research at the diffraction-limited spatial resolution which, because of the typical size of creatine inclusions (from a few to dozens of micrometers), was necessary for our study. The comparison of epileptic animals in the latent phase with controls showed statistically significant increase in the number of creatine inclusions for most of the analyzed hippocampal regions, all examined cellular layers, as well as the whole hippocampal formation. Moreover, for the hilus of the DG and CA3 area, the number of creatine deposits was higher in the latent than in the acute phase after pilocarpine injection. In light of the obtained results, an anomaly in the hippocampal accumulation of creatine is the long-term effect of pilocarpine-evoked seizures, and the intensity of this phenomenon may increase with time passing from the primary injury. PMID:23877175

  18. Oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease: a comparative safety study

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Mahyar; Delaney, Joseph A.C.; Bressler, Brian; Brophy, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent concerns have been raised about the risk of gallbladder disease associated with the use of drospirenone, a fourth-generation progestin used in oral contraceptives. We conducted a study to determine the magnitude of this risk compared with other formulations of oral contraceptives. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database. We included women who were using an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol combined with a progestin during 1997–2009. To be eligible, women had to have been taking the oral contraceptive continuously for at least six months. We computed adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for gallbladder disease using a Cox proportional hazards model. In the primary analysis, gallbladder disease was defined as cholecystectomy; in a secondary analysis, it was defined as hospital admission secondary to gallbladder disease. Results We included 2 721 014 women in the cohort, 27 087 of whom underwent surgical or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the follow-up period. Compared with levonorgestrel, an older second-generation progestin, a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease was associated with desogestrel (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.09), drospirenone (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.16–1.26) and norethindrone (adjusted RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14). No statistically significant increase in risk was associated with the other formulations of oral contraceptive (ethynodiol diacetate, norgestrel and norgestimate). Interpretation In a large cohort of women using oral contraceptives, we found a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease associated with desogestrel, drospirenone and norethindrone compared with levonorgestrel. However, the small effect sizes compounded with the possibility of residual biases in this observational study make it unlikely that these differences are clinically significant. PMID:21502354

  19. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-08-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  20. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  1. The traditional method of oral as-needed pain medication delivery compared to an oral patient-controlled analgesia device following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Teresa L; Cata, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    As-needed (PRN) oral pain medication is an essential part of multimodal pain therapy. Medication delivery is often delayed because of multiple demands upon nursing time in a busy postoperative nursing unit. Postoperative pain control was compared using either the manual delivery of PRN oral pain medication or a bedside oral patient-controlled analgesia device. Thirty patients in each group completed a survey on the day of discharge, and additional data were collected by chart reviews. Device patients had significantly better pain scores than the usual care group on postoperative Day 2 and within the last 24 hours prior to discharge. The device group reported statistically less pain interference overall with general activity, mood, physical therapy, sleep, and appetite. Use of an oral patient-controlled analgesia device may improve pain management and patient function following total knee arthroplasty compared to the traditional delivery of oral PRN pain medication. PMID:25058727

  2. Potential mechanism for the additivity of pilocarpine and latanoprost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol B Toris; Gui-Lin Zhan; Jian Zhao; Carl B Camras; Michael E Yablonski

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the ocular hypotensive mechanism underlying the additivity of latanoprost and pilocarpine.METHODS: This randomized, double-masked study included 30 patients with ocular hypertension on no ocular medications for at least 3 weeks. On each of six visits to the clinic, measurements were taken of aqueous flow and outflow facility by fluorophotometry, intraocular pressure by tonometry, and episcleral venous pressure

  3. Nucleotide excision repair is reduced in oral epithelial tissues compared with skin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Godar, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to internal tissues for diagnostic, therapeutic and cosmetic procedures has increased dramatically over the past decade. The greatest increase in UVR exposure of internal tissues occurs in the cosmetic industry where it is combined with oxidizing agents for teeth whitening, often in conjunction with indoor tanning. To address potential carcinogenic risks of these procedures, we analyzed the formation and repair of the DNA photoproducts associated with the signature mutations of UVR. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify the induction and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts in DNA purified from three reconstructed tissues, EpiDerm(TM) , EpiGingival(TM) and EpiOral(TM) . We observed comparable levels of DNA damage in all tissues immediately after UVR exposure. In contrast, repair was significantly reduced in both oral tissues compared with EpiDerm(TM) . Our data suggest that UVR exposure of oral tissues can result in accumulation of DNA damage and increase the risk for carcinoma and melanoma of the mouth. Because NER is a broad-spectrum defense against DNA damage caused by a variety of agents in addition to UVR, our data suggest that the relatively low NER efficiency observed in oral tissues may have wide-ranging consequences in this highly exposed environment. PMID:22519509

  4. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas M Furiak; Haya Ascher-Svanum; Robert W Klein; Lee J Smolen; Anthony H Lawson; Robert R Conley; Steven D Culler

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective

  5. Effect of Argemone mexicana (L.) against lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Asuntha, G; Raju, Y Prasanna; Sundaresan, C R; Rasheed, Arun; Chowdary, V Harini; Vandana, K R; Babu, K Satish; Prasad, K V S R G

    2015-01-01

    Argemone mexicana (L.) has a role in the treatment of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. We studied its effect on induced status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress in rats. SE was induced in male albino rats by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, ip) 24 h after injection of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, ip). Different doses of the ethanol extract of A. mexicana were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of SE was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter at every 30 min for another 90 min, using the Racine scoring system. In vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured utilizing thiobarbiturate-reactive substances. Both in vitro free radical nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the extract were also determined. The SE severity was significantly reduced following oral administration of the extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. None of the animals from groups 3 to 5 (with A. mexicana extract) have exhibited forelimb clonus of stage 4 seizure. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:25675709

  6. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

  7. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Sun Yum; Tae-Sung Ko; Dong Wook Kim

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1mg\\/kg) 30min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20mmol\\/kg), 15min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline.

  8. Comparative field evaluation of HIV rapid diagnostic assays using serum, urine, and oral mucosal transudate specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Tribble; Guénaël R. Rodier; Magdy D. Saad; Gérard Binson; Fabrice Marrot; Said Salah; Chakib Omar; Ray R. Arthur

    1997-01-01

    Background: Comparative field utility of selected HIV-1 assays using homologous collections of serum, urine and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) was determined in adult populations from a tuberculosis hospital and STD clinic in Djibouti, East Africa.Study design: Enzyme immunoassay with confirmatory Western blot was performed on all serum specimens for comparison with rapid, instrument-free assays (SUDS HIV-1, Murex; TestPack Abbott; and

  9. An open-label, multicenter study of the combination of amorolfine nail lacquer and oral itraconazole compared with oral itraconazole alone in the treatment of severe toenail onychomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Lecha; Mercè Alsina; Josep M. Torres Rodríguez; Fermín Ruiz de Erenchun; Alfons Mirada; Ana Beatris Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Background: Data indicate that combination therapy may provide enhanced clinical and economic benefits over monotherapy in the treatment of onychomycosis.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 topical amorolfine\\/oral itraconazole combination regimens with oral itraconazole alone in the treatment of severe toenail onychomycosis. Cost implications of all treatments were assessed in a pilot pharmacoeconomic analysis.Methods:

  10. Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Milán; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidán, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice. PMID:24060558

  11. Relative bioavailability and comparative clinical efficacy of different ivermectin oral formulations in lambs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy among oral formulations routinely used in sheep. The main goal of the work reported here was to perform a pharmaco-parasitological assessment of three different IVM oral formulations in lambs infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The comparative drug systemic exposure (IVM plasma concentrations) and nematodicidal efficacies (clinical efficacy) in lambs were determined for a reference (RF) and two different test (T1, T2) IVM oral formulations. One hundred and fifty six (n= 156) healthy Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into four experimental groups (n=39). Animals in each group received treatment (200 ?g/kg) with either the RF, one of the test IVM formulations or were kept as untreated control. Blood samples were collected over 15 days post-treatment (n=8). The IVM plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) (n=39) and evaluation of the clinical efficacy were performed at day 14 post-treatment (n=6), where a predominance of IVM highly resistant nematodes was observed. Results and conclusions Neither the overall kinetic behaviour nor the IVM systemic exposure differed among all the tested oral formulations. Equivalent efficacy results were obtained for the different preparations, with an evident therapeutic failure to control Haemonchus spp. and Teladorsagia circumcincta, which correlates with a high degree of nematode resistance to IVM. PMID:23398629

  12. The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

  13. Comparative study of oral health status between Scottish and Japanese schoolchildren aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Yonemitsu, M; Sutcliffe, P

    1992-12-01

    This study was carried out to examine and compare the differences in oral health status between Scottish (Fife) and Japanese (Motoyoshi) primary schoolchildren, and also to analyse some factors concerned with the differences found. It was observed that caries experience is higher in Motoyoshi than in Fife, despite Fife schoolchildren having poorer oral cleanliness and consuming snacks more frequently. However, Fife children had more fissure sealants and brushed their teeth more frequently with fluoridated dentifrice than did Motoyoshi children. The sugar content of snacks consumed by Motoyoshi children was higher than that of the Scots. Gingivitis (PMA positive rate) was higher in Fife than in Motoyoshi, and it was also noted that Fife children were less independent than Motoyoshi children in their daily behaviour. PMID:1464231

  14. A randomized, controlled trial comparing IV iron sucrose to oral iron in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Van Wyck; MICHAEL ROPPOLO; Carlos O. Martinez; Richard M. Mazey; STEPHEN MCMURRAY

    2005-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial comparing IV iron sucrose to oral iron in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD.BackgroundAlthough iron deficiency frequently complicates anemia in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD (ND-CKD), the comparative treatment value of IV iron infusion and oral iron supplementation has not been established.MethodsIn a randomized, controlled multicenter trial, we compared the efficacy of iron sucrose, given as 1 g

  15. Muscarinic receptor binding, plasma concentration and inhibition of salivation after oral administration of a novel antimuscarinic agent, solifenacin succinate in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Tomomi; Sato, Shuichi; Miyata, Keiji; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-01-01

    A novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, solifenacin succinate, inhibited specific binding of [N-methyl-3H]-scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in the mouse bladder, submaxillary gland and heart in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was greatest in the submaxillary gland, followed by the bladder and heart. After oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1??mol?kg?1) or solifenacin (62.4, 208??mol?kg?1), a significant dose- and time-dependent increase in KD values for specific [3H]-NMS binding was seen in the bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart, colon and lung, compared with control values. The increase in KD induced by oxybutynin in each tissue reached a maximum 0.5?h after oral administration and then rapidly declined, while that induced by solifenacin was greatest 2?h after administration and was maintained for at least 6 or 12?h, depending on the dose. The muscarinic receptor binding of oral solifenacin was slower in onset and of a longer duration than that of oxybutynin. Plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and its active metabolite (N-desethyl-oxybutynin, DEOB) were maximum 0.5?h after its oral administration and then declined rapidly. Oral solifenacin persisted in the blood for longer than oxybutynin. Pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion in mice was significantly reduced by oral administration of solifenacin and was completely abolished 0.5?h after oral oxybutynin. Although the suppression induced by solifenacin was more persistent than that due to oxybutynin, the antagonistic effect of solifenacin on the dose–response curves to pilocarpine was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. It is concluded that oral solifenacin persistently binds to muscarinic receptors in tissues expressing the M3 subtype, such as the bladder. PMID:15753946

  16. Comparative teratogenic effects of methyl salicylate applied orally or topically to hamsters.

    PubMed

    Overman, D O; White, J A

    1983-12-01

    Methyl salicylate was administered topically to pregnant hamsters at 7d9h and the teratogenic results were compared with those obtained following oral treatment with the same compound. Both treatments produced the same defect in embryos recovered at day 9: failure of fusion of the neural tube, especially in the area of the developing brain. Analysis of serum salicylate levels following both treatments produced similar curves and indicated that teratogenic levels of salicylate can reach the maternal circulation after topical exposure. PMID:6665740

  17. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  18. The comparative plasma pharmacokinetics of intravenous cefpodoxime sodium and oral cefpodoxime proxetil in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Boucher, J F; Hubbard, V L; Prough, M J; Flook, T F

    2007-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of cefpodoxime, and its prodrug, cefpodoxime proxetil, were evaluated in two separate studies, one following intravenous (i.v.) administration of cefpodoxime sodium and the second after oral (p.o.) administration of cefpodoxime proxetil to healthy dogs. After cefpodoxime administration, serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A single i.v. administration of cefpodoxime sodium at a dose of 10 mg cefpodoxime/kg body weight resulted in a cefpodoxime average maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 91 (+/-17.7) microg/mL, measured at 0.5 h after drug administration, an average half-life (t1/2) of 4.67 (+/-0.680) h, an average AUC(0-infinity) of 454 (+/-83.1) h.microg/mL, an average V(d(ss)) of 151 (+/-27) mL/kg, an average Cl(B) of 22.7 (+/-4.2) mL/h/kg and an average MRT(0-infinity) of 5.97 (+/-0.573) h. When dose normalized to 10 mg cefpodoxime/kg body weight, cefpodoxime proxetil administered orally resulted in Cmax of 17.8 +/- 11.4 microg/mL for the tablet formulation and 20.1 +/- 6.20 microg/mL for the suspension formulation and an average AUC(0-LOQ) of 156 (+/-76.1) h.microg/mL for the tablet formulation and 162 (+/-48.6) h.microg/mL for the suspension formulation. Relative bioavailability of the two oral formulations was 1.04 (suspension compared with tablet), whereas the absolute bioavailability of both oral formulations was estimated to be approximately 35-36% in the cross-study comparison with the i.v. pharmacokinetics. Combined with previous studies, these results suggest that a single daily oral dose of 5-10 mg cefpodoxime/kg body weight as cefpodoxime proxetil maintains plasma concentrations effective for treatment of specified skin infections in dogs. PMID:17610405

  19. Comparative absorption, distribution, and excretion of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated. Methods Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sample was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results TiO2 nanoparticles had extremely low absorption, while ZnO nanoparticles had higher absorption and a clear dose-response curve. Tissue distribution data showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were not significantly increased in sampled organs, even in the group receiving the highest dose (1041.5 mg/kg body weight). In contrast, Zn concentrations in the liver and kidney were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control. ZnO nanoparticles in the spleen and brain were minimally increased. Ti concentrations were not significantly increased in the urine, while Zn levels were significantly increased in the urine, again with a clear dose-response curve. Very high concentrations of Ti were detected in the feces, while much less Zn was detected in the feces. Conclusions Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated higher absorption and more extensive organ distribution when administered orally. The higher absorption of ZnO than TiO2 nanoparticles might be due to the higher dissolution rate in acidic gastric fluid, although more thorough studies are needed. PMID:23531334

  20. Comparative study between the Hybrid Capture II test and PCR based assay for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Kumar Chaudhary; Shruti Pandya; Ravi Mehrotra; Alok C Bharti; Mangal Singh; Mamta Singh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral malignancy is a major global health problem. Besides the main risk factors of tobacco, smoking and alcohol, infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic alterations are likely to play an important role in these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of HC-II assay and PCR for the detection of specific HPV type (HPV

  1. Experimental Basis for the High Oral Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin 1: A Comparative Study of DSP

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Diego A.; Louzao, M. Carmen; Fraga, María; Vilariño, Natalia; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues, dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2), are lipophilic and heat-stable marine toxins produced by dinoflagellates, which can accumulate in filter-feeding bivalves. These toxins cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans shortly after the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Studies carried out in mice indicated that DSP poisonous are toxic towards experimental animals with a lethal oral dose 2–10 times higher than the intraperitoneal (i.p.) lethal dose. The focus of this work was to study the absorption of OA, DTX1 and DTX2 through the human gut barrier using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we compared cytotoxicity parameters. Our data revealed that cellular viability was not compromised by toxin concentrations up to 1 ?M for 72 h. Okadaic acid and DTX2 induced no significant damage; nevertheless, DTX1 was able to disrupt the integrity of Caco-2 monolayers at concentrations above 50 nM. In addition, confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that the tight-junction protein, occludin, was affected by DTX1. Permeability assays revealed that only DTX1 was able to significantly cross the intestinal epithelium at concentrations above 100 nM. These data suggest a higher oral toxicity of DTX1 compared to OA and DTX2. PMID:24394641

  2. Treatment of ocular rosacea: comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Aysegul; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Takmaz, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints. METHODS One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline. RESULTS Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes (P<0.001). Cyclosporine was more effective in symptomatic relief and in the treatment of eyelid signs (P=0.01). There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Cyclosporine as a topical drug can be used in the treatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage. PMID:26086005

  3. Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas

    E-print Network

    Womack, Catherine Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancers include tobacco use, alcohol use, poor diet, HPV infection, poor oral care, low socio-economic status, gender and genetics, and age. This analysis aims to discover whether or not differences...

  4. Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.

    PubMed

    Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvão, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2015-02-01

    Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides--triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features--have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7% lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8% lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Total weight gain, intake, energy intake, and feed efficiency coefficient, prior to induction of SE, differed between groups (P < 0.05), where the triheptanoin-based KD group showed less weight gain than all other groups, less energy intake than the Control group and intermediate values of feed efficiency coefficient between Control and other KDs groups. Triheptanoin-based KD may have a neuroprotective effect on the establishment of SE in Wistar rats. PMID:25005004

  5. Effect of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on ultrasonic vocalizations in the infant rat pup.

    PubMed

    López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor; Medel-Matus, Jesus-Servando; Morgado-Valle, Consuelo; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; Pérez-Estudillo, César; Manzo, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Evidence shows that febrile convulsions induced in rat pups increase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs); however, the effect of status epilepticus (SE) induced in developing rats on USVs has not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to analyze USVs following lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE in fourteen-day-old (P14) rat pups. The rat pups were given 3-mEq/kg lithium chloride i.p. on the day before the induction of SE, which was carried out at P14 by subcutaneous injection of 100-mg/kg pilocarpine hydrochloride; control animals were given an equal volume of lithium chloride and saline on P13 and P14, respectively. Ultrasonic vocalizations were monitored at P15, P16, and P21 with a Mini 3 Bat Detector Ultra Sound Advice (15kHz-160kHz) set at 40±4kHz and digitally recorded in WAV format using the Audacity 1.3 beta software. A clear box (60×40×30cm) split down the middle with a holed wall was used; each pup was placed alone in one compartment, whereas its dam was placed on the other cage side at room temperature. Vocalizations were recorded over a 5-minute period, converted to sonograms and spectrograms, and analyzed using the Raven software. Parameters evaluated were as follows: USV frequency, latency to the first USV, and mean USV duration. There was a significant decrease in the latency (35.5±6.9s) and duration (50.8±8.6s) of USVs after SE compared with the control group (81.9±10.8s and 78.1±9.9s, respectively). Status epilepticus affected male and female rats differentially. PMID:24230988

  6. Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy is associated with actin cytoskeleton reorganization in the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Feng; Xiong, Tian-Qing; Tan, Bai-Hong; Song, Yan; Li, Shu-Lei; Yang, Li-Bin; Li, Yan-Chao

    2014-03-01

    Dramatic structural changes have been demonstrated in the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses in the post status epilepticus (SE) animals, suggesting a potential reorganization of filamentous actin (F-actin) network occurring in the hippocampus. However, until now the long-term effects of SE on the synaptic F-actin have still not been reported. In this study, phalloidin labeling combined with confocal microscopy and protein analyses were adopted to investigate the effects of pilocarpine treatment on the F-actin in the C57BL/6 mice. As compared to the controls, there was ? 43% reduction in F-actin density in the post SE mice. Quantitative analysis showed that the labeling density and the puncta number were significantly decreased after pilocarpine treatment (p<0.01, n=5 mice per group, Student's t-test). The puncta of F-actin in the post SE group tended to be highly clustered, while those in the controls were generally distributed evenly. The mean puncta size of F-actin puncta was 0.73±0.19?m(2) (n=1102 puncta from 5 SE mice) in the experimental group, significantly larger than that in the controls (0.51±0.10?m(2), n=1983 puncta from 5 aged-matched control mice, p<0.01, Student's t-test). These observations were well consistent with the alterations of postsynaptic densities in the same region, revealed by immunostaining of PSD95, suggesting the reorganization of F-actin occurred mainly postsynaptically. Our results are indicative of important cytoskeletal changes in the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after pilocarpine treatment, which may contribute to the excessive excitatory output in the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. PMID:24559838

  7. Continuous Compared With Cyclic Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrovic, Romana; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether continuous OCP (oral contraceptive pills) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCP, which induces withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms. Material and Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21/7 OCP regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) over the period of 6 months. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by VAS declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after one month (mean difference: -27.3; 95% CI: (-40.5,-14.2); p<0.001) and 3 months (mean difference: -17.8; 95% CI: (-33.4,-2.1); p=0.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 6 months, there was an increase in weight and decrease in systolic blood pressure in continuous compared with the cyclic group. Conclusions Both regimens of OCP are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Continuous OCP outperforms cyclic OCP in the short term, but this difference is lost after 6 months. PMID:22617578

  8. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  9. Controlled delivery of pilocarpine. 1. In vitro characterization of Gelfoam matrices.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, S R; Yalkowsky, S H

    1993-01-01

    The potential of Gelfoam absorbable gelatin sponge as a carrier for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine was examined. Prolonged in vitro release of pilocarpine was achieved through pharmaceutical modification of the device by embedding a retardant in the pores. The device embedded with cetyl ester wax released pilocarpine in a zero-order pattern (release exponent = 0.93 +/- 0.04) for up to 5 hr. This result corresponded well with a linear penetrant uptake by this device. The device impregnated with polyethylene glycol 400 monostearate exhibited anomalous drug transport with a release exponent of 0.63 +/- 0.02. The absorption of water by this retardant and the formation of a gel layer on the surface slowed the penetration of the release medium into the deeper sections of the matrix, as well as the rapid outward diffusion of drug, resulting in a prolonged release of pilocarpine. PMID:8430046

  10. The mechanism of action of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – compared with other anticoagulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meyer Michel Samama

    2011-01-01

    Although results of some phase III clinical trials of new oral anticoagulants are now known, it is important to understand the mechanisms of their actions. These new agents exert their anticoagulant effect via direct inhibition of a single Factor within the coagulation cascade (such as Factor Xa or thrombin). Rivaroxaban – the first oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – is

  11. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  12. Comparative adherence to oral hormonal agents in older women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Winson Y; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-07-01

    We aim to (1) compare compliance of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, and tamoxifen in women and (2) identify clinical factors associated with medication non-adherence and non-persistence. Female Medicare beneficiaries who were new users of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, or tamoxifen between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed. Multivariate-modified Poisson and Cox regression models were constructed to compare non-adherence and non-persistence, respectively, across the different oral agents. A total of 5,150 women were included: mean age was 76.4 years, 2352 initiated anastrozole, 1401 letrozole, 248 exemestane, and 1149 tamoxifen. Non-adherence and non-persistence were 41 and 49 % respectively, with exemestane being associated with the worst non-adherence and non-persistence (RR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.37-1.80, p < 0.001; HR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.63-2.30, respectively, p < 0.001), followed by letrozole (RR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.26-1.53, p < 0.001; HR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.32-1.64, respectively, p < 0.001), and anastrozole (RR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.27, p = 0.003; HR 1.14, 95 %CI 1.03-1.27, respectively, p = 0.011), whereas tamoxifen was associated with the best compliance. Use of statins and osteoporosis medications was correlated with improved adherence (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.82-0.96, p = 0.002 and RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.92, p < 0.001, respectively, for non-adherence) and persistence (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94, p < 0.001 and HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.78-0.96, p = 0.005, respectively, for non-persistence), but chronic kidney disease was correlated with worse non-persistence (HR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.33, p = 0.04). Age ? 70 years was also associated with worse compliance. Compliance to oral hormonal therapy varied depending on the type of agent, age, and concurrent medications, highlighting specific opportunities to improve adherence and persistence in older women with breast cancer. PMID:26070268

  13. Protective but Not Anticonvulsant Effects of Ghrelin and JMV-1843 in the Pilocarpine Model of Status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Lucchi, Chiara; Curia, Giulia; Vinet, Jonathan; Gualtieri, Fabio; Bresciani, Elena; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In models of status epilepticus ghrelin displays neuroprotective effects mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). This activity may be explained by anticonvulsant properties that, however, are controversial. We further investigated neuroprotection and the effects on seizures by comparing ghrelin with a more effective GHS-R1a agonist, JMV-1843. Rats were treated either with ghrelin, JMV-1843 or saline 10 min before pilocarpine, which was used to induce status epilepticus. Status epilepticus, developed in all rats, was attenuated by diazepam. No differences were observed among the various groups in the characteristics of pilocarpine-induced seizures. In saline group the area of lesion, characterized by lack of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, was of 0.45±0.07 mm2 in the hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and was accompanied by upregulation of laminin immunostaining, and by increased endothelin-1 expression. Both ghrelin (P<0.05) and JMV-1843 (P<0.01) were able to reduce the area of loss in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining. In addition, JMV-1843 counteracted (P<0.05) the changes in laminin and endothelin-1 expression, both increased in ghrelin-treated rats. JMV-1843 was able to ameliorate neuronal survival in the hilus of dentate gyrus and medial entorhinal cortex layer III (P<0.05 vs saline and ghrelin groups). These results demonstrate diverse protective effects of growth hormone secretagogues in rats exposed to status epilepticus. PMID:24015271

  14. Protective but not anticonvulsant effects of ghrelin and JMV-1843 in the pilocarpine model of Status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Lucchi, Chiara; Curia, Giulia; Vinet, Jonathan; Gualtieri, Fabio; Bresciani, Elena; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In models of status epilepticus ghrelin displays neuroprotective effects mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). This activity may be explained by anticonvulsant properties that, however, are controversial. We further investigated neuroprotection and the effects on seizures by comparing ghrelin with a more effective GHS-R1a agonist, JMV-1843. Rats were treated either with ghrelin, JMV-1843 or saline 10 min before pilocarpine, which was used to induce status epilepticus. Status epilepticus, developed in all rats, was attenuated by diazepam. No differences were observed among the various groups in the characteristics of pilocarpine-induced seizures. In saline group the area of lesion, characterized by lack of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, was of 0.45 ± 0.07 mm(2) in the hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and was accompanied by upregulation of laminin immunostaining, and by increased endothelin-1 expression. Both ghrelin (P<0.05) and JMV-1843 (P<0.01) were able to reduce the area of loss in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining. In addition, JMV-1843 counteracted (P<0.05) the changes in laminin and endothelin-1 expression, both increased in ghrelin-treated rats. JMV-1843 was able to ameliorate neuronal survival in the hilus of dentate gyrus and medial entorhinal cortex layer III (P<0.05 vs saline and ghrelin groups). These results demonstrate diverse protective effects of growth hormone secretagogues in rats exposed to status epilepticus. PMID:24015271

  15. A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

  16. A comparative study of two ESL writing environments: A computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Sullivan; Ellen Pratt

    1996-01-01

    Networked computer technology has become prevalent in higher education but little research has been conducted to attest to its benefits for the ESL student writer. This study compared students in two ESL writing environments; a networked computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom. Three measures were used to examine attitudes towards writing with computers, writing apprehension, and writing quality. In

  17. Comparative bioavailability of two oral metamizole formulations. Influence of the acetylation phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bacracheva, N; Drenska, A; Gorantcheva, J; Tyutyulkova, N; Vlahov, V

    1995-03-01

    The bioavailability of the four metabolites of metamizole (CAS 68-89-3), 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine (4-MAA), 4-formyl-amino-antipyrine (4-FAA), 4-amino-antipyrine (4-AA) and 4-acetyl-amino-antipyrine (4-AcAA) was compared after oral administration of a test (Analgin) and a reference formulation, both containing 1 g of metamizole. The study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers according to an open, randomized, cross-over design. The geometric mean of the area under the serum concentration-time curves (AUC) of 4-MAA for the test formulation was 87.61 (57.58-133.30) micrograms.h/ml and was similar to that for the reference formulation (86.83; 53.86-139.92 micrograms.h/ml). No statistically significant differences between test and reference formulation were found with respect to the rate of absorption (Cmax, tmax, 100 Cmax/AUC) of 4-MAA. For 4-FAA, 4-AA and 4-AcAA, the 90% confidence intervals of the bioavailability parameters lay also within the bioequivalence ranges. Four of the subjects were rapid and eight were slow acetylators. No differences were found between slow and rapid acetylators in the bioavailability of 4-MAA, the pharmacologically active metabolite of metamizole. PMID:7741785

  18. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  19. Comparing Medical and Dental Providers of Oral Health Services on Early Dental Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R. Gary; Preisser, John S.; Stearns, Sally C.; Weinberger, Morris; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Most state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children. We examined the association between who (PCP, dentist, or both) provides these services to Medicaid enrollees before age 3 years and oral health at age 5 years. Methods. We linked North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999–2006) to oral health surveillance data (2005–2006). Regression models estimated oral health status (number of decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and untreated disease (proportion of untreated decayed teeth), with adjustment for relevant characteristics and by using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to address confounding. Results. We analyzed data for 5235 children with 2 or more oral health visits from a PCP, dentist, or both. Children with multiple PCP or dentist visits had a similar number of overall mean decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth in kindergarten, whereas children with only PCP visits had a higher proportion of untreated decayed teeth. Conclusions. The setting and provider type did not influence the effectiveness of preventive oral health services on children’s overall oral health. However, children having only PCP visits may encounter barriers to obtaining dental treatment. PMID:24832418

  20. Randomized Study Comparing Two Regimens of Oral Sodium Phosphates Solution Versus Low-Dose Polyethylene Glycol and Bisacodyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramod Malik; David H. Balaban; William O. Thompson; Deborah J. B. Galt

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Low-volume bowel preparation regimens for colonoscopy are reported to improve patient acceptance and compliance. We sought\\u000a to compare the bowel cleansing efficacy, tolerability, and acceptability of three low-volume regimens: an oral sodium phosphates\\u000a solution 45\\/45 ml (NaP-45\\/45), a reduced-dose oral sodium phosphates solution 45\\/30 ml (NaP-45\\/30), and polyethylene glycol\\u000a plus bisacodyl (PEG-2L). Results A total of 121 patients were

  1. Comparative evaluation of transdermal diclofenac patch with oral diclofenac as an analgesic modality following root coverage procedures.

    PubMed

    Tejaswi, Devireddy Venkata; Prabhuji, M L V; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta

    2014-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is effective in the management of pain following periodontal surgery. However, oral administration of diclofenac can lead to gastrointestinal (GI) complications. To overcome these drawbacks, diclofenac is formulated as a transdermal patch, which delivers the drug into systemic circulation through skin. Twenty patients were selected for root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts bilaterally. Following the surgical procedure on the control sites, oral diclofenac sodium 100 mg was administered QD for 3 days. Following the surgical procedure on the contralateral test site, a transdermal diclofenac patch (TDP) was applied every 24 hours for 3 days. The TDP was effective in postoperative pain control following root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts. Pain tolerance was higher with the TDP as compared to oral administration, as it did not cause any GI complications. PMID:24983174

  2. The susceptibility of rats to pilocarpine-induced seizures is age-dependent.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, E A; Silva, D F; Turski, W A; Calderazzo-Filho, L S; Bortolotto, Z A; Turski, L

    1987-12-15

    Behavioral, electroencephalographic and morphological changes induced by systemic administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride were studied in 3-90-day-old rats. Pilocarpine, 100, 200 and 380 mg/kg, presented a characteristic array of behavioral patterns in developing rats. Hyper- or hypoactivity, tremor, loss of postural control, scratching, head bobbing and myoclonic movements of the limbs dominated the behavior in 3-9-day-old rats. No overt motor seizures were observed in this age group. More intense behavioral signs evolving in some animals to limbic seizures and status epilepticus occurred when pilocarpine was administered in 12-day-old-rats. The electrographic activity in these animals progressed from low voltage spiking registered concurrently in the hippocampus and cortex during the first week of life into localized epileptic activity in the hippocampus, which spread to cortical recordings during the second week of life. No morphological alterations were detected in the brains of 3-12-day-old rats subjected to the action of pilocarpine, 100-380 mg/kg. The adult pattern of behavioral and electroencephalographic sequelae after pilocarpine was encountered in 15-21-day-old rats. Akinesia, tremor and head bobbing progressed in 15-21-day-old rats given pilocarpine, 100-380 mg/kg, to motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus. The lethal toxicity of pilocarpine reached 50% during the third week of life. This increased susceptibility to the convulsant action of pilocarpine was characterized by a shortened latency for behavioral and electrographic signs, and an increased severity of seizures relative to older and younger rats. In 15-21-day-old rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced convulsions high voltage fast activity superposed over hippocampal theta-rhythm, progressed into high voltage spiking and spread to cortical records. The electrographic activity became well synchronized and then developed into seizures and status epilepticus. Morphological analysis of frontal forebrain sections in 15-21-day-old rats which underwent status epilepticus after pilocarpine revealed no damage or an attenuated pattern of damage. In 15-21-day-old rats which presented epilepsy-related brain damage, morphological breakdown was seen in the hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory cortex, neocortex and certain thalamic nuclei. No damage was detected in the substantia nigra and lateral thalamic nucleus. An adult pattern of the damage to the brain, in terms of extent and topography, was present in 4-5-week-old rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3440212

  3. Variations in elemental compositions of rat hippocampal formation between acute and latent phases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Appel, K; Setkowicz, Z

    2012-06-01

    There is growing experimental evidence that tracing the elements involved in brain hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity, and/or subsequent neurodegeneration could be a valuable source of data on the molecular mechanisms triggering or promoting further development of epilepsy. The most frequently used experimental model of the temporal lobe epilepsy observed in clinical practice is the one based on pilocarpine-induced seizures. In the frame of this study, the elemental anomalies occurring for the rat hippocampal tissue in acute and silent periods after injection of pilocarpine in rats were compared. X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for the topographic and quantitative elemental analysis. The differences in the levels of elements such as P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn between the rats 3 days (SE72) and 6 h (SE6) after pilocarpine injection as well as naive controls were examined. Comparison of SE72 and control groups showed, for specific areas of the hippocampal formation, lower levels of P, K, Cu, and Zn, and an increase in Ca accumulation. These results as well as further analysis of the differences between the SE72 and SE6 groups confirmed that seizure-induced excitotoxicity as well as mossy fiber sprouting are the mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative processes which may finally lead to spontaneous seizures in the chronic period of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, in the light of the results obtained, Cu seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in this animal model. For all areas analyzed, the levels of this element recorded in the latent period were not only lower than those for controls but were even lower than the levels found in the acute period. The decreased hippocampal accumulation of Cu in the phase of behavior and EEG stabilization, a possible inhibitory effect of this element on excitatory amino acid receptors, and enhanced seizure susceptibility in Menkes disease (an inherited Cu transport disorder leading to Cu deficiency in the brain) suggest a neuroprotective role rather than neurodegenerative and proconvulsive roles of Cu in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. PMID:22447169

  4. Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. Result To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Conclusion Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally-required for soluble versus insoluble forms of the protein antigens. If an antigen, such as EGFP, is soluble and expressed at high levels, a low-copy plasmid-cytoplasmic expression strategy is recommended; since it provokes the highest B cell responses and also induces good T cell responses. If a T cell response is preferred, a eukaryotic expression plasmid or a chromosome-based, cytoplasmic-expression strategy is more effective. For insoluble antigens such as HA, an outer membrane expression strategy is recommended. PMID:23013063

  5. A randomized clinical trial comparing vaginal misoprostol versus cervical Foley plus oral misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction.

    PubMed

    Hill, James B; Thigpen, Brad D; Bofill, James A; Magann, Everett; Moore, Lisa E; Martin, James N

    2009-01-01

    We compared labor induced by vaginal misoprostol versus a supracervical Foley catheter and oral misoprostol. Singleton pregnancies at > or = 24 weeks' gestation were randomized to either an initial 25-microg dose of intravaginal misoprostol, followed by 50-microg intravaginal doses at 3- to 6-hour intervals, or a supracervical Foley balloon and 100 microg of oral misoprostol at 4- to 6-hour intervals. Primary outcome was time from induction to delivery. One hundred twenty-six women were randomized to vaginal misoprostol alone (group I) and 106 women to Foley and oral misoprostol (group II). The groups were similar in age, weight, gestational age, parity, indication for induction of labor, and oxytocin use. Cesarean delivery rates at 37% and cesarean indications were similar ( P = 0.25). The time from induction to delivery in group II (12.9 hours) was significantly shorter than that in group I (17.8 hours, P < 0.001). Uterine tachysystole occurred less often in the vaginal misoprostol group (21% versus 39%, P = 0.015). Compared with vaginal misoprostol, delivery within 24 hours was significantly more likely with a Foley balloon and oral misoprostol. The use of terbutaline and peripartum outcomes were similar in the two groups. PMID:18850516

  6. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy. PMID:22642664

  7. Triheptanoin partially restores levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hadera, Mussie G; Smeland, Olav B; McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2014-04-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anticonvulsant in various epilepsy models. It is thought to improve energy metabolism in the epileptic brain by re-filling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with C4-intermediates (anaplerosis). Here, we injected mice with [1,2-(13) C]glucose 3.5-4 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) fed either a control or triheptanoin diet. Amounts of metabolites and incorporations of (13) C were determined in extracts of cerebral cortices and hippocampal formation and enzyme activity and mRNA expression were quantified. The percentage enrichment with two (13) C atoms in malate, citrate, succinate, and GABA was reduced in hippocampal formation of control-fed SE compared with control mice. Except for succinate, these reductions were not found in triheptanoin-fed SE mice, indicating that triheptanoin prevented a decrease of TCA cycle capacity. Compared to those on control diet, triheptanoin-fed SE mice showed few changes in most other metabolite levels and their (13) C labeling. Reduced pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in forebrains and decreased [2,3-(13) C]aspartate amounts in cortex suggest a pyruvate carboxylation independent source of C-4 TCA cycle intermediates. Most likely anaplerosis was kept unchanged by carboxylation of propionyl-CoA derived from heptanoate. Further studies are proposed to fully understand triheptanoin's effects on neuroglial metabolism and interaction. PMID:24236946

  8. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references.

  9. Effect of pilocarpine on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Erfanparast, Amir; Khalilzadeh, Emad

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of subcutaneous (SC) injection of pilocarpine (a cholinomimetic agent) and atropine (a muscarinic receptors antagonist) were investigated on a tonic model of orofacial pain in rats. The contribution of the endogenous analgesic opioid system was assessed using naloxone (an opioid receptors antagonist). Tonic orofacial pain was induced by SC injection of a diluted formalin solution (1%, 50 ?L) in the right upper lip, and the time spent face rubbing was measured in five min blocks for 1 h. Formalin induced a biphasic (first phase: 0-5 min and second phase: 15-35 min) pain response. Pilocarpine significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed both phases of orofacial pain. Atropine did not have any effect and naloxone non-significantly increased the intensity of pain when used alone. In the pre-injection examinations, atropine prevented, but naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of pilocarpine. The results indicated that SC injection of formalin in the orofacial region induced a marked biphasic pain. Pilocarpine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced antinociceptive effect in the orofacial formalin-induced pain. The endogenous opioid analgesic system may not have a role in pilocarpine-induced antinociception. PMID:25653753

  10. Clinical performance of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and oral contraceptives in young nulliparous women: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Suhonen; Maija Haukkamaa; Tell Jakobsson; Ilkka Rauramo

    2004-01-01

    This 1-year randomized study was carried out at family-planning clinics of two university hospitals to compare the safety and acceptability of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) and oral contraceptives (OCs) in young nulliparous women. The study population consisted of 200 women aged 18–25 years seeking contraception. Ninety-four women entered the LNG IUS group and 99 entered the OC group.

  11. Comparative in vitro activity of norfloxacin (MK-0366) and ten other oral antimicrobial agents against urinary bacterial isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M Y; Gruninger, R P; Nelson, S M; Klicker, R E

    1982-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a new oral antimicrobial agent, norfloxacin (MK-0366), was compared with those of nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, cinoxacin, tetracycline, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin against 628 urinary bacterial isolates. Norfloxacin was the most active antimicrobial agent tested against the gram-negative bacilli. It was less active than a few of the other antimicrobial agents against enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:6213200

  12. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

  13. Intermolecular interactions between cucurbit[7]uril and pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Na'il; Al-Handawi, Marieh B; Al-Kaabi, Leena; Ali, Liaquat; Salman Ashraf, S; Thiemann, Thies; Al-Hindawi, Bassam; Meetani, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) macrocycles and pilocarpine (PIL) were investigated in aqueous solution by using (1)H NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. The characterizations of the freeze-drying solid complex were conducted by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The DSC and thermogravimetry confirmed the production of a thermally stable solid complex. The NMR, CD and ESI-MS measurements confirmed asymmetric induction during the complexation reaction, in which the ?-lactone ring of PIL (not the imidazole nucleus) has been fully encapsulated within the cavity of CB7. The stability of the drug has significantly enhanced as evidenced by the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results are discussed in the context of utilizing non-conventional supramolecular host-guest approaches to enhance the chemical stability in aqueous media of hydrophilic PIL drugs as model compounds. The non-classical stereospecific interactions between CB7 and PIL drugs are also highlighted. PMID:24239578

  14. Comparative toxicokinetics, absolute oral bioavailability, and biotransformation of zearalenone in different poultry species.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; Broekaert, Nathan; De Baere, Siegrid; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-05-27

    After oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) administration of zearalenone (ZEN) to broiler chickens, laying hens, and turkey poults, the mycotoxin was rapidly absorbed (Tmax = 0.32-0.97 h) in all three species; however, the absolute oral bioavailability was low (F% = 6.87-10.28%). Next, also a rapid elimination of the mycotoxin in all poultry species was observed (T1/2el = 0.29-0.46 h). Both ?- and ?-zearalenone (ZEL) were formed equally after IV administration in all species studied, whereas an increased biotransformation to ?-ZEL was demonstrated after PO administration, indicating presystemic biotransformation mainly in broiler chickens and laying hens. In comparison to the latter, turkey poults demonstrated a more extensive biotransformation of ZEN to ?-ZEL after PO administration which could, in combination with the observed higher volume of distribution of ZEN, indicate a higher sensitivity of this species to the effects of ZEN in comparison to other poultry species. PMID:25947104

  15. A comparative study of three cranial sensory ganglia projecting into the oral cavity: in situ hybridization analyses of neurotrophin receptors and thermosensitive cation channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Matsumoto; Yasufumi Emori; Yuzo Ninomiya; Keiko Abe

    2001-01-01

    Peripheral cranial sensory nerves projecting into the oral cavity receive food intake stimuli and transmit sensory signals to the central nervous system. To describe and compare the features of the cranial sensory ganglia that innervate the oral cavity, i.e., the trigeminal, petrosal, and geniculate ganglia (TG, PG, and GG, respectively), in situ hybridization was conducted using riboprobes for neurotrophin receptors

  16. The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg

    1999-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

  17. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Randomized Trial Comparing Oral Uracil and Tegafur and Oral Leucovorin Vs. Intravenous 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, Alejandro de la [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: oncrtcph@saludalia.com; Garcia-Berrocal, Maria Isabel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Arias, Fernando [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Marino, Alfonso [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro Oncologico de Galicia, A Coruna (Spain); Valcarcel, Francisco; Magallon, Rosa; Regueiro, Carlos A.; Romero, Jesus; Zapata, Irma; Fuente, Cristina de la; Fernandez-Lizarbe, Eva; Vergara, Gloria; Belinchon, Belen; Veiras, Maria; Moleron, Rafael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Millan, Isabel [Department of Biostatistics, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a randomized trial, 5-fluorouracil (FU) plus leucovorin (LV) (FU+LV) vs. oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus LV (UFT+LV) given concomitantly with preoperative irradiation in patients with cT3-4 or N+ rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients were entered onto the trial. Patients received pelvic radiotherapy (4500-5,040 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks) and chemotherapy consisting of two 5-day courses of 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d LV and 350 mg/m{sup 2}/d FU in the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy (77 patients) or one course of 25 mg/d oral LV and 300 mg/m{sup 2}/d UFT for 4 weeks beginning in the second week of radiotherapy (78 patients). The primary endpoints were pathologic complete response (pCR) and resectability rate. Secondary endpoints included downstaging rate, toxicity, and survival. Results: Grade 3-5 acute hematologic toxicity occurred only with FU+LV (leukopenia 9%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in resectability rates (92.1% vs. 93.4%; p = 0.82). The pCR rate was 13.2% in both arms. Tumor downstaging was more frequent with UFT+LV (59.2% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.04). Three-year overall survival was 87% with FU+LV and 74% with UFT+LV (p = 0.37). The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence were 7.5% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.619; relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval 0.32-6.55). Conclusion: Although this study lacked statistical power to exclude clinically significant differences between both groups, the outcome of patients treated with UFT+LV did not differ significantly from that of patients treated with FU+LV, and hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in the experimental arm.

  18. Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with ?-2 microglobulin (?-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and ?-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to ?-2MG level in saliva. PMID:24948960

  19. Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

    2014-05-01

    Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with ?-2 microglobulin (?-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and ?-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to ?-2MG level in saliva. PMID:24948960

  20. Morphologic Integration of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells into Dentate Gyrus Circuitry in the Pilocarpine Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Michael C.; Zhan, Ren-Zhi; Nadler, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, many granule cells born into the postseizure environment migrate aberrantly into the dentate hilus. Hilar ectopic granule cells (HEGCs) are hyperexcitable and may therefore increase circuit excitability. This study determined the distribution of their axons and dendrites. HEGCs and normotopic granule cells were filled with biocytin during whole-cell patch clamp recording in hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated rats. The apical dendrite of 86% of the biocytin-labeled HEGCs extended to the outer edge of the dentate molecular layer. The total length and branching of HEGC apical dendrites that penetrated the molecular layer were significantly reduced compared with apical dendrites of normotopic granule cells. HEGCs were much more likely to have a hilar basal dendrite than normotopic granule cells. They were about as likely as normotopic granule cells to project to CA3 pyramidal cells within the slice, but were much more likely to send at least one recurrent mossy fiber into the molecular layer. HEGCs with burst capability had less well-branched apical dendrites than nonbursting HEGCs, their dendrites were more likely to be confined to the hilus, and some exhibited dendritic features similar to those of immature granule cells. HEGCs thus have many paths along which to receive synchronized activity from normotopic granule cells and to transmit their own hyperactivity to both normotopic granule cells and CA3 pyramidal cells. They may therefore contribute to the highly interconnected granule cell hubs that have been proposed as crucial to development of a hyperexcitable, potentially seizure-prone circuit. PMID:21455997

  1. Comparative efficacy and safety of transdermal oxybutynin and oral tolterodine versus placebo in previously treated patients with urge and mixed urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger R Dmochowski; Peter K Sand; Norman R Zinner; Marc C Gittelman; G. Willy Davila; Steven W Sanders

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesTo compare the efficacy and safety of an oxybutynin transdermal delivery system (OXY-TDS) and oral, long-acting tolterodine (TOL-LA) with placebo in previously treated patients with urge or mixed urinary incontinence.

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of Sequential Intravenous (i.v.) and Oral Moxifloxacin Compared with Sequential i.v. and Oral Co-Amoxiclav with or without Clarithromycin in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Initial Parenteral Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Finch; D. Schurmann; O. Collins; R. Kubin; J. McGivern; H. Bobbaers; J. L. Izquierdo; P. Nikolaides; F. Ogundare; R. Raz; P. Zuck; G. Hoeffken

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present trial was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (400 mg) given intravenously (i.v.) once daily followed by oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) for 7 to 14 days with the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of co-amoxiclav (1.2 g) administered by i.v. infusion three times a day followed by oral co-amoxiclav (625 mg) three times

  3. Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S.; Dotson, Bianca Farrel; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F.; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (? ?CT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20971086

  4. Antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 increase hippocampal pyramidal neuron spine volume in vivo and protect against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Engel, Tobias; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Reynolds, James; Reschke, Cristina R; Conroy, Ronan M; McKiernan, Ross C; deFelipe, Javier; Henshall, David C

    2015-07-01

    Emerging data support roles for microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of various neurologic disorders including epilepsy. MicroRNA-134 (miR-134) is enriched in dendrites of hippocampal neurons, where it negatively regulates spine volume. Recent work identified upregulation of miR-134 in experimental and human epilepsy. Targeting miR-134 in vivo using antagomirs had potent anticonvulsant effects against kainic acid-induced seizures and was associated with a reduction in dendritic spine number. In the present study, we measured dendritic spine volume in mice injected with miR-134-targeting antagomirs and tested effects of the antagomirs on status epilepticus triggered by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine. Morphometric analysis of over 6,400 dendritic spines in Lucifer yellow-injected CA3 pyramidal neurons revealed increased spine volume in mice given antagomirs compared to controls that received a scrambled sequence. Treatment of mice with miR-134 antagomirs did not alter performance in a behavioral test (novel object location). Status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine was associated with upregulation of miR-134 within the hippocampus of mice. Pretreatment of mice with miR-134 antagomirs reduced the proportion of animals that developed status epilepticus following pilocarpine and increased animal survival. In antagomir-treated mice that did develop status epilepticus, seizure onset was delayed and total seizure power was reduced. These studies provide in vivo evidence that miR-134 regulates spine volume in the hippocampus and validation of the seizure-suppressive effects of miR-134 antagomirs in a model with a different triggering mechanism, indicating broad conservation of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24874920

  5. A comparative analysis of pupil attitudes toward selected oral language activities used with fifth graders in the public schools of Brazos County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Brusse, Frances Williams

    1967-01-01

    A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUPIL ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES USED WITH FIFTH GRADERS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis By FRANCES WILLIAMS BRUSSE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject Education A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUPIL ATTITUDES TOWARD SELECTED ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES USED WITH FIFTH GRADERS IN THE PUBLIC...

  6. Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso e Almendra Ibiapina; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Satyal, Prabodh; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-12

    Nimodipine has been shown to have an inhibitory action on seizures and brain damage in rodents. However, the pharmaceutical applicability of this drug is limited by its low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and high first-pass effect in the liver, which leads to low bioavailability. These difficulties can be overcome through the use of liposomes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine (NMD-Lipo) on pilocarpine-induced seizures. NMD-Lipo was prepared using the lipid-film hydration method. Central nervous system toxicity of NMD-Lipo was assessed by Hippocratic screening. Systemic toxicity was evaluated by analyses of biochemical and hematological parameters and by observing possible signs of toxicity. The possible anticonvulsant activity was tested by the pilocarpine model. The administration of the NMD-Lipo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg caused no toxicity in animals. Furthermore, NMD-Lipo prevented the installation of 100% of the pilocarpine-induced seizures and prevented the death of 100% of the mice treated with pilocarpine. These data shown that NMD-Lipo has an anticonvulsant activity significantly superior to free NMD, suggesting that the liposomes promoted a drug controlled release by improving its bioavailability and consequently increasing its pharmacological activity. PMID:25445375

  7. The sleep–wake cycle in adult rats following pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Matos; Rodrigo Tsai; Marcus Vinícius Baldo; Isac de Castro; Koichi Sameshima; Angela Cristina Valle

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between sleep and epilepsy is both complex and clinically significant. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) influences sleep architecture, while sleep plays an important role in facilitating and\\/or inhibiting possible epileptic seizures. The pilocarpine experimental model reproduces several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy and is one of the most widely used models in basic research. The aim of the

  8. Increased Levels of Acidic Calponin During Dendritic Spine Plasticity After Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures

    E-print Network

    Cossart, Rosa

    Increased Levels of Acidic Calponin During Dendritic Spine Plasticity After Pilocarpine, this protein is found in dendritic spines of adult hippocampal neurons. We hypothesized that this protein plays a role in regulating actin-based fila- ments during dendritic spine plasticity. To assess this hypothesis

  9. Factors affecting outcomes of pilocarpine treatment in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Buckmaster, Paul S.; Haney, Megan M.

    2012-01-01

    Pilocarpine-treated mice are an increasingly used model of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, outcomes of treatment can be disappointing, because many mice die or fail to develop status epilepticus. To improve animal welfare and outcomes of future experiments we analyzed results of previous pilocarpine treatments to identify factors that correlate with development of status epilepticus and survival. All treatments were performed by one investigator with mice of the FVB background strain. Results from 2413 mice were evaluated for effects of sex, age, body weight, and latency between administration of atropine methyl bromide and pilocarpine. All parameters correlated with effects on outcomes. Best results were obtained from male mice, 6–7 weeks old, and 21–25 g, with pilocarpine administered 18–30 min after atropine methyl bromide. In that group only 23% failed to develop status epilepticus, and 64% developed status epilepticus and survived. Those results are substantially better than that of the total sample in which 31% failed to develop status epilepticus and only 34% developed status epilepticus and survived. PMID:22721955

  10. Dexamethasone exacerbates cerebral edema and brain injury following lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus?

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, B.A.; Chun, K.P.; Ma, D.; Lythgoe, M.F.; Scott, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory therapies are the current most plausible drug candidates for anti-epileptogenesis and neuroprotection following prolonged seizures. Given that vasogenic edema is widely considered to be detrimental for outcome following status epilepticus, the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone is sometimes used in clinic for alleviating cerebral edema. In this study we perform longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging in order to assess the contribution of dexamethasone on cerebral edema and subsequent neuroprotection following status epilepticus. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to induce status epilepticus in rats. Following status epilepticus, rats were either post-treated with saline or with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg). Brain edema was assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging (T2 relaxometry) and hippocampal volumetry was used as a marker of neuronal injury. T2 relaxometry was performed prior to, 48 h and 96 h following status epilepticus. Volume measurements were performed between 18 and 21 days after status epilepticus. Unexpectedly, cerebral edema was worse in rats that were treated with dexamethasone compared to controls. Furthermore, dexamethasone treated rats had lower hippocampal volumes compared to controls 3 weeks after the initial insult. The T2 measurements at 2 days and 4 days in the hippocampus correlated with hippocampal volumes at 3 weeks. Finally, the mortality rate in the first week following status epilepticus increased from 14% in untreated rats to 33% and 46% in rats treated with 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg dexamethasone respectively. These findings suggest that dexamethasone can exacerbate the acute cerebral edema and brain injury associated with status epilepticus. PMID:24333865

  11. Effects of pilocarpine on breathing movements in normal, chemodenervated and brain stem-transected fetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M A; Moore, P J; Nijhuis, J G; Parkes, M J

    1988-01-01

    1. We examined the effects on fetal breathing movements (FBM) and electrocortical activity (ECoG) of the administration of pilocarpine to three groups of fetal sheep in utero: one group had peripheral chemodenervation; one group had peripheral chemodenervation and transection of the brain stem at the level of the colliculi; a third group of sham-operated animals acted as a control. 2. Pilocarpine induced a period of FBM characterized by their high amplitude (ca. 24 mmHg) and low frequency (ca. 0.65 Hz). It also produced low-voltage ECoG. These effects were seen both in normoxia and in hypoxia. They were independent of the ECoG state in which the drug was given. 3. In normoxia, pilocarpine-induced FBM were blocked by cholinergic antagonists which enter the central nervous system, atropine sulphate and scopolamine hydrobromide, but were either unaffected or were reduced in amplitude by antagonists with restricted access to the central nervous system, atropine methylnitrate and scopolamine methylbromide. In hypoxia, atropine sulphate and scopolamine hydrobromide again blocked FBM but now scopolamine methylbromide and atropine methylnitrate blocked the FBM in 42% of trials. In the remaining trials FBM remained virtually unchanged. 4. No differences were observed in the effects of pilocarpine on FBM or ECoG between chemodenervated fetuses and those which had been sham-operated. 5. In fetuses with transection of the brain stem, breathing was continuous irrespective of the ECoG. Pilocarpine increased the amplitude of FBM but did not alter the frequency of these FBM. These effects occurred both in normoxia and in hypoxia. 6. We conclude that pilocarpine produces effects on fetal behaviour via at least two sites in the central nervous system. One site lies in the pons or medulla and is responsible for the stimulation of FBM. The other site is above the level of the colliculi and is responsible for producing sustained low-voltage ECoG. These effects do not require the integrity of the peripheral chemoreceptors and we find no evidence to support the previous suggestion that the action of pilocarpine is via stimulation of these receptors. PMID:3418532

  12. Effects of pilocarpine on breathing movements in normal, chemodenervated and brain stem-transected fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M A; Moore, P J; Nijhuis, J G; Parkes, M J

    1988-06-01

    1. We examined the effects on fetal breathing movements (FBM) and electrocortical activity (ECoG) of the administration of pilocarpine to three groups of fetal sheep in utero: one group had peripheral chemodenervation; one group had peripheral chemodenervation and transection of the brain stem at the level of the colliculi; a third group of sham-operated animals acted as a control. 2. Pilocarpine induced a period of FBM characterized by their high amplitude (ca. 24 mmHg) and low frequency (ca. 0.65 Hz). It also produced low-voltage ECoG. These effects were seen both in normoxia and in hypoxia. They were independent of the ECoG state in which the drug was given. 3. In normoxia, pilocarpine-induced FBM were blocked by cholinergic antagonists which enter the central nervous system, atropine sulphate and scopolamine hydrobromide, but were either unaffected or were reduced in amplitude by antagonists with restricted access to the central nervous system, atropine methylnitrate and scopolamine methylbromide. In hypoxia, atropine sulphate and scopolamine hydrobromide again blocked FBM but now scopolamine methylbromide and atropine methylnitrate blocked the FBM in 42% of trials. In the remaining trials FBM remained virtually unchanged. 4. No differences were observed in the effects of pilocarpine on FBM or ECoG between chemodenervated fetuses and those which had been sham-operated. 5. In fetuses with transection of the brain stem, breathing was continuous irrespective of the ECoG. Pilocarpine increased the amplitude of FBM but did not alter the frequency of these FBM. These effects occurred both in normoxia and in hypoxia. 6. We conclude that pilocarpine produces effects on fetal behaviour via at least two sites in the central nervous system. One site lies in the pons or medulla and is responsible for the stimulation of FBM. The other site is above the level of the colliculi and is responsible for producing sustained low-voltage ECoG. These effects do not require the integrity of the peripheral chemoreceptors and we find no evidence to support the previous suggestion that the action of pilocarpine is via stimulation of these receptors. PMID:3418532

  13. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B versus Oral Minocycline in Treatment of Unstable Vitiligo: A Prospective Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Amir Hossein; Zeinali, Naser; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jamshidi, Kioumars; Khosravani, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Background. We have compared NB-UVB and oral minocycline in stabilizing vitiligo for the first time. Subjects and Methods. 42 patients were divided equally into two groups: the NB-UVB and minocycline groups. Phototherapy was administered twice a week on nonconsecutive days. In the minocycline group, patients were advised to take minocycline 100?mg once daily. The treatment period was 3 months. Vitiligo disease activity (VIDA) score was noted every 4 weeks for 12 months. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and monthly intervals. Results. Before the therapy, disease activity was present in 100% of the patients, which was reduced to 23.8% and 66.1% by the end of therapy in the NB-UVB and minocycline groups retrospectively (P < 0.05). 16 of the 21 (76/1%) patients with unstable disease in the NB-UVB group achieved stability, whereas this was the case for only 7 of the 21 (33.3%) in the minocycline group (P < 0.001). The diameter changes were statistically significant at the end of treatment in the NB-UVB group compared to the minocycline group (P = 0.031). Side effects in both groups were mild. Conclusion. NB-UVB was statistically more advantageous than oral minocycline in unstable vitiligo in terms of efficacy and the resulting stability. PMID:25221600

  14. The Comparability of English and Spanish Versions of Oral Language Proficiency Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Barbara J.; Spencer, Mary

    1983-01-01

    Compares five commonly used English-Spanish language dominance instruments according to area of language measured, domain assessed, developmental comparability, and language variety or dialect. Examines the proficiency information provided and the validity, reliability, and norming of the instruments. Concludes that the tests are not comparable…

  15. Downregulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Hernandez, Eder F.; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; rancisco, Sebastian F; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

    2008-01-01

    In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures. PMID:18295190

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Oral vs. Podcasting Reviewing Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Misty L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of podcasts to traditional delivery of information in classrooms. Four podcasts were created on the topics of asthma, diabetes, seizure disorders, and acute infections to aid students in reviewing for quizzes. Knowledge retained of students using podcasts was compared to the knowledge retained of…

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of naringin in rat after oral administration of chaihu-shu-gan-san aqueous extract and naringin alone.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Qi; Dong, Shu; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Peng, Jing-Bo; Yu, Chang-Yuan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula containing seven herbal medicines, has been used in the clinical treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome and depression in China. In order to explore the interaction between naringin and other constituents in CSGS, the pharmacokinetic difference of naringin in rats after oral administration of CSGS aqueous extract and naringin alone was investigated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of naringin in rats were achieved by quantification of its aglycone, naringenin by LC-MS/MS method. The double peaks phenomenon was observed in both serum profiles of rats after orally administered CSGS aqueous extract and naringin alone. However, the T1/2b was significantly decreased in rats given CSGS aqueous extract compared with naringin alone, and the mean residence time (MRT) and the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-?) were higher than those of naringin, which indicated that naringin in CSGS had higher bioavailability, longer term efficacy and somewhat faster metabolism and excretion than those of naringin. The results suggested that certain ingredients co-exist in CSGS could influence pharmacokinetic behavior of naringin. This also provides a reference for human studies. PMID:24958255

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Oral Cholera Vaccination in Bangladesh: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Chao, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. Methods & Findings We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1–14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. Conclusions We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions. PMID:25473851

  19. Comparative study of the effects of combined oral contraceptives in hemostatic variables: an observational preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F; Franceschini, Silvio A; Martinez, Edson Z; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Toloi, Maria Regina T

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30??g) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30??g) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30?kg/m², not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1?+?2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  20. Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E. (Kansas) [Kansas; (HWMRI)

    2013-11-20

    Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

  1. Oral treatment of keratinizing disorders of skin and mucous membranes with etretinate. Comparative study of 113 patients.

    PubMed

    Mahrle, G; Meyer-Hamme, S; Ippen, H

    1982-02-01

    This study reports comparative results of the effects of an aromatic retinoid, etretinate (RO 10-9359), on various disorders of the skin and mucous membranes. One hundred thirteen patients suffering from psoriasis, lichen planus, keratosis follicularis, and various other disorders were treated and examined. The patients received 25 to 100 mg/day of oral etretinate for up to 30 months. Patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and keratosis follicularis showed the best response. The conditions of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, palmoplantar psoriasis, and lichen planus also improved, but less impressively. The mucous membrane lesions of lichen planus and leukoplakia showed only moderate improvement. The most striking adverse clinical reactions observed were cheilitis (70%), dryness of the mucous membranes (27%), and hair loss (27%). PMID:7059226

  2. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  3. Comparative bioavailability study of a new quinine suppository and oral quinine in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinedum P; Olubukola Ayindea

    Purpose: There is the need for alternative and more convenient route of quinine (QN) administration in complicated and severe malaria. The purpose of this study is to compare the bioavailability (BA) of a new quinine suppository made from theobroma oil to that of an existing tablet formulation in healthy volunteers. Methods: Six healthy volunteers were administered with 300 mg of

  4. Direct oral anticoagulants compared with vitamin K antagonists for acute venous thromboembolism: evidence from phase 3 trials.

    PubMed

    van Es, Nick; Coppens, Michiel; Schulman, Sam; Middeldorp, Saskia; Büller, Harry R

    2014-09-18

    In the last 4 years, 6 phase 3 trials including a total of 27,023 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). To aid the clinician in assessing the amount of information, we address frequently raised clinical questions in a review of combined trial results. We included the phase 3 trials that compared dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban with VKA therapy in patients with acute symptomatic VTE. Recurrent VTE occurred in 2.0% of DOAC recipients compared with 2.2% in VKA recipients (relative risk [RR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.06). Treatment with a DOAC significantly reduced the risk of major bleeding (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.83). In parallel, intracranial bleeding, fatal bleeding, and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred significantly less in DOAC recipients. The efficacy and safety of DOACs were consistent in patients with pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, a body weight ?100 kg, moderate renal insufficiency, an age ?75 years, and cancer. In conclusion, DOACs and VKAs have similar efficacy in the treatment of acute symptomatic VTE, a finding that is consistent in key clinical subgroups. Treatment with a DOAC significantly reduces the risks of major bleeding. PMID:24963045

  5. Evaluation of sweat production by pilocarpine iontophoresis: a noninvasive screening tool for hypohidrosis in ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Basu, Surupa; Mitra, Monjori; Ghosh, Apurba

    2013-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a genetic disorder affecting the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The clinical presentation is heterogenous; however, hypohidrotic (reduced sweat) ectodermal dysplasia (HED) being the commonest. Also known as anhidrotic ED, sweat glands are sparse or rudimentary, leading to dysregulation of body temperature and episodes of uncontrolled hyperthermia due to reduced sweating. Of the many aids to document hypohidrosis in HED, we present here the technique of pilocarpine iontophoresis to induce, collect and measure sweat. Evaluation of sweat generated (against normally obtained values) is a non-invasive alternative to establish hypohidrosis in disorders such as HED. This augments clinical decision levels to plan skin biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis and facilitates patient management and early discharge. We present two cases of HED that were primarily diagnosed with sweat gland dysplasia using pilocarpine iontophoresis, and later confirmed with skin biopsy findings. PMID:24426251

  6. Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.

    PubMed

    Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 k? versus 160 ± 19 k?, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 ?l cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. PMID:23701521

  7. Treatment of Lithium-Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus Rat Models According to EEG Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Young Jeon

    Background: EEG shows a sequence of progressive changes in status epilepticus (SE). Timely antiepileptic drug treatment is an important factor for the prognosis of SE. Here we investigated the effect of treatment according to EEG staging in a lithium-pilocarpine SE rat model. Methods: By analyzing the on-going EEG of SE, we injected propofol (PF) or propofol and valproate (PF+VA) on

  8. Comparative study of the efficacy of herbal antioxdants oxitard and aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Halgatti, Vishal; Maheshwari, Sneha; Santosh, B S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent due to areca nut, tobacco and their products. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of oxitard and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and Methods: 120 subjects with OSMF were included in the study. The patients were clinico-pathologically diagnosed and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (oxitard group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 2 oxitard capsules twice daily and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Different clinical parameters were evaluated at regular intervals. Data was analyzed using the Student’s paired t test and Chi-square test. P-value <0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening and tongue protrusion was significant in the oxitard group (p=0.0005). Subjective symptoms of pain associated with the lesion (p=0.0003), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000) and speech (p=0.0001) also significantly improved in the Group A. The improvement in burning sensation was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p=0.002). There was a mild to moderate decrease in the size of the lesion. Conclusions: Though there is no definitive treatment for the condition however, overall assessment of symptoms like mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in swallowing and speech and pain associated with the lesion showed that oxitard capsules can bring about significant clinical improvements than aloe vera gel in the treatment of OSMF. Key words:Oral submucous fibrosis, oxitard capsules, aloe vera, burning sensation, mouth opening. PMID:25136428

  9. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  10. Comparative Susceptibility of Mosquito Populations in North Queensland, Australia to Oral Infection with Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yixin H.; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; O'Neill, Scott L.; Beebe, Nigel W.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

  11. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  12. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion. PMID:24610966

  13. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.r.burlage@rt.umcg.nl; Roesink, Judith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kampinga, Harm H. [Department of Cell Biology, Section for Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  14. Studies on the effect of pilocarpine incorporation into a submicron emulsion on the stability of the drug and the vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zurowska-Pryczkowska, K; Sznitowska, M; Janicki, S

    1999-05-01

    In order to obtain a novel ocular formulation with a potential for prolonging pilocarpine activity, the drug (2.0%) was incorporated into a submicron emulsion containing soya-bean oil and lecithin as emulgator. The effect of drug incorporation into the emulsion on its physical stability and on the other hand, the potential of the vehicle to reduce drug degradation at pH higher than 5.0 was studied. The pH was adjusted to 6.5 or 5.0 and the physicochemical stability of the formulations was observed. The mean diameter of oily particles in the resulting emulsions measured by a laser diffractometer was 0.6-0.7 micron and this was larger than in a drug-free emulsion where a 0.33 micron value was measured. The formulations were physically stable for 6 months at 4 degrees C, but progressing chemical degradation of pilocarpine was noted at pH 6.5. At that pH nearly 8% of pilocarpine was degraded to isopilocarpine and pilocarpic acid, both in the emulsion and in the solution. Thus, it may be concluded that pilocarpine in submicron emulsion is not protected against degradation. The presence of pilocarpine changes the physical stability of the vehicle since the formulation was easily destabilized during autoclaving or at room temperature. In the presence of higher concentration of lecithin (2.4%) or co-emulgators (poloxamer 2.0% or Tween 80 0.5%) the mean droplet size in the emulsions was the same as in a drug-free system. However the emulsions containing poloxamer were not stable during storage. Viscosity of pilocarpine emulsions can be increased by addition of methylcellulose or sodium carmellose (1.0%), but an intensive creaming occurs in these systems. Pilocarpine base is less suitable for emulsion preparation than hydrochloride salt, and emulsions prepared at pH 5.0 show the most satisfying stability. PMID:10382109

  15. The anticonvulsant actions of carisbamate associate with alterations in astrocyte glutamine metabolism in the lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Hadera, Mussie Ghezu; Faure, Jean-Baptiste; Berggaard, Nina; Tefera, Tesfaye Wolde; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2014-10-26

    As reported previously, in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), carisbamate (CRS) produces strong neuroprotection, leads to milder absence-like seizures, and prevents behavioral impairments in a subpopulation of rats. To understand the metabolic basis of these effects, here we injected 90 mg/kg CRS or vehicle twice daily for 7 days starting 1 h after status epilepticus (SE) induction in rats. Two months later, we injected [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate followed by head microwave fixation after 15 min. (13) C incorporation into metabolites was analyzed using (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that SE reduced neuronal mitochondrial metabolism in the absence but not in the presence of CRS. Reduction in glutamate level was prevented by CRS and aspartate levels were similar to controls only in rats displaying absence-like seizures after treatment [CRS-absence-like epilepsy (ALE)]. Glutamine levels in CRS-ALE rats were higher compared to controls in hippocampal formation and limbic structures while unchanged in rats displaying motor spontaneous recurrent seizures after treatment (CRS-TLE). Astrocytic mitochondrial metabolism was reduced in CRS-TLE, and either enhanced or unaffected in CRS-ALE rats, which did not affect the transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons. In conclusion, CRS prevents reduction in neuronal mitochondrial metabolism but its effect on astrocytes is likely key in determining outcome of treatment in this model. To understand the metabolic basis of the strong neuroprotection and reduction in seizure severity caused by carisbamate (CRS) in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we injected CRS for 7 days starting 1 h after status epilepticus and 2 months later [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate. (13) C Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis was performed on brain extracts and we found that CRS prevented reduction in neuronal mitochondrial metabolism but its effect on astrocytes was likely key in determining outcome of treatment in this model. ALE = absence like epilepsy; acetyl CoA = acetyl coenzyme A; GS = glutamine synthetase; PAG = phosphate activated glutaminase; PC = pyruvate carboxylase; OAA = oxaloacetate; TCA cycle = tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:25345404

  16. SITAGLIPTIN COMPARED WITH THIAZOLIDINEDIONES AS A THIRD-LINE ORAL ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AGENT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Stanley H.; Navar, Maria D.; Duran, Petra; Shaheen, Magda; Davidson, Mayer B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare sitagliptin and thiazolidinediones as third-line oral antihyperglycemic agents among ethnic minority patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods In an open-label, single-arm design, we treated type 2 diabetic patients who had suboptimal diabetes control on maximum tolerated dosages of metformin plus sulfonylureas with the addition of sitagliptin, 100 mg daily, and compared their responses with findings from a historical control group of similar patients treated with rosiglitazone, 8 mg daily, or pioglitazone, 45 mg daily, as their third-line oral agent. Patients were assessed bimonthly, and those who achieved hemoglobin A1c levels less than 7.5% at 4 months continued through 1 year of follow-up. Results One hundred eight patients were treated with sitagliptin, and 104 patients constituted the historical control group treated with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. At baseline, sitagliptin- and thiazolidinedione-treated patients had identical hemoglobin A1c levels (mean ± SD) (9.4 ± 1.8% and 9.4 ± 1.9%, respectively) and similar known diabetes duration (6.7 ± 5.0 years and 7.6 ± 5.8 years, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c was reduced in both groups at 4 months (P<.001), but the reduction was greater with thiazolidinediones than with sitagliptin (?2.0 ± 1.7% vs ?1.3 ± 1.8%; P = .006), as was the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin A1c level less than 7.5% (62% vs 46%; P = .026). Of all patients achieving a hemoglobin A1c level less than 7.5% at 4 months, the same proportions in each group sustained their hemoglobin A1c level less than 7.5% by 12 months (59% vs 58%). Sitagliptin was well tolerated. Conclusions Among ethnic minority patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes while taking maximum tolerated dosages of metformin and sulfonylureas, third-line add-on therapy with a thiazolidinedione controlled hyperglycemia more effectively than sitagliptin after 4 months. PMID:21550951

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of mangiferin after oral administration of pure mangiferin and US patented polyherbal formulation to rats.

    PubMed

    Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Inampudi, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

    2015-04-01

    The US patented polyherbal formulation for the prevention and management of type II diabetes and its vascular complications was used for the present study. The xanthone glycoside mangiferin is one of the major effector constituents in the Salacia species with potential anti-diabetic activity. The pharmacokinetic differences of mangiferin following oral administration of pure mangiferin and polyherbal formulation containing Salacia species were studied with approximately the same dose 30 mg/kg mangiferin and its distribution among the major tissue in Wistar rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,440, 2,160, and 2880 min) and subsequently analyzed using a validated simple and rapid LC-MS method. Plasma concentration versus time profiles were explored by non-compartmental analysis. Mangiferin plasma exposure was significantly increased when administered from formulation compared to the standard mangiferin. Mangiferin resided significantly longer in the body (last mean residence time (MRTlast)) when given in the form of the formulation (3.65 h). Cmax values of formulation (44.16 ?g/mL) administration were elevated when compared to equivalent dose of the pure mangiferin (15.23 ?g/mL). Tissue distribution study of mangiferin from polyherbal formulation was also studied. In conclusion, the exposure of mangiferin is enhanced after formulation and administration and could result in superior efficacy of polyherbal formulation when compared to an equivalent dose of mangiferin. The results indicate that the reason which delays the elimination of mangiferin and enhances its bioavailability might the interactions of the some other constituents present in the polyherbal formulation. Distribution study results indicate that mangiferin was extensively bound to the various tissues like the small intestine, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver except brain tissue. PMID:25273025

  18. Efficacy and safety of low dose oral prednisolone as compared to pulse intravenous methylprednisolone in managing moderate severe Graves’ orbitopathy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ajitesh; Dutta, Deep; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: High dose oral prednisolone (100 mg/day) in Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is limited by lesser response, and greater side-effects compared to intravenous (iv) methylprednisolone. Low dose oral prednisolone has not been evaluated in GO. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low dose oral prednisolone in GO. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 consecutive GO patients were screened of which 65 patients with previously untreated moderate-severe GO, clinical activity score (CAS) >2, without co-morbid states were randomized into treatment Group-A (iv methylprednisolone 0.5 g for 3 days/month for 4 months) and Group-B (oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks then tapered stopped), and followed-up. Thirty-one patients in each group with at least 1-year follow-up were analyzed. Responders were defined as improvement in ? 1 major response criteria or ? 2 minor response criteria. The trial is registered at ctri.nic.in (CTRI/2013/12/004264). Results: At 1-year, 27/31 (87.10%) patients were responders in Group-A compared to 17/31 (54.84%) in Group-B (P = 0.005). There was a greater improvement in CAS score in patients of Group-A as compared to Group-B (P < 0.001). Responders (n = 44) had significantly higher baseline intra-ocular pressures and left eye proptosis as compared to nonresponders. Cox-regression revealed baseline T4 levels, diplopia, and smoking history were predictive of remission. Low dose prednisolone was well tolerated, and the occurrence of adverse events were comparable in both groups. Conclusions: Low dose oral prednisolone is inferior to iv pulse methylprednisolone in managing GO, having a comparable side-effect profile. It can be a safe second line alternative in patients intolerant to pulse iv methylprednisolone. PMID:25932389

  19. COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

  20. Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: A cost effectiveness study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Geitona; Hara Kousoulakou; Markos Ollandezos; Kostas Athanasakis; Sotiria Papanicolaou; Ioannis Kyriopoulos

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the costs and effects of paliperidone extended release (ER), a new pharmaceutical treatment for the management of schizophrenia, with the most frequently prescribed oral treatments in Greece (namely risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and ziprasidone) over a 1-year time period. METHODS: A decision tree was developed and tailored to the specific circumstances of the Greek healthcare system. Therapeutic

  1. Interstrain differences of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampus and induction of hippocampal sclerosis with pilocarpine in mice.

    PubMed

    Dobó, Endre; Török, Ibolya; Mihály, András; Károly, Norbert; Krisztin-Péva, Beáta

    2015-01-01

    Rodent strains used in epilepsy research have various neurological characteristics. These differences were suggested to be attributed to the diverse densities of the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subunits. However, previous studies failed to find interstrain differences in the hippocampal receptor levels. We supposed that a detailed layer-to-layer analysis of the iGluR subunits in the hippocampus might reveal strain-dependent differences in their base lines and reactions induced by pilocarpine (PILO) between two mouse strains without documented ancestors. Levels of iGluR subunits in Balb/c and NMRI mice were compared using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. The alterations in the neuronal circuitry were validated by neuropeptide Y (NPY) and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) immunostainings. Immunohistochemistry showed interstrain laminar differences in some subunits of both the control and PILO-treated animals. The seizure-induced irreversible neuronal changes were accompanied by reduced GluA1 and GluA2 levels. Their changes were inversely correlated in the individual NMRI mice by Pearson's method. Increase in NPY immunoreactivity showed positive correlation with GluA1, and negative correlation with GluA2. The NMRI strain was susceptible to PILO-induced hippocampal sclerosis, while the Balb/c animals showed resistance. Basal levels of iGluRs differ in mouse strains, which may account for the interstrain differences in their reactions to the convulsant. PMID:25697672

  2. The comparative efficacy of decalcified allogenic bone matrix and intra-oral free osseous autografts in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Vikas; Gill, Amarjit Singh; Kapoor, Daljit; Gupta, Harinder

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The primary goal of periodontal treatment is the maintenance of the natural dentition in health and comfortable function. The shift in therapeutic concepts from resection to regeneration has significantly impacted the practice of periodontology. The objective of the present study is to compare the relative efficacy of intra-oral autogenous graft and decalcified allogenic bone matrix (DABM) in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 30 patients in the age group of 30-50 years with two almost identical intrabony defects, on either side of the mouth/upper and lower jaw, based upon the radiographic observations were selected from amongst the patients visiting the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Punjab Government Dental College and Hospital, Amritsar. One of the defect was selected randomly and filled with autogenous cancellous graft and the other with DABM. Post-operative assessment was done by taking radiographs, 12 weeks and 24 weeks post-operatively. Results: Definite bone fill was achieved both with intra-oral free osseous autograft and with DABM at 12 weeks observation, which further increased significantly at 24 weeks observation. The bone fill obtained with intra-oral free osseous autograft was found to be significantly higher than that with DABM both at 12 weeks and 24 weeks post-operative observation. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it establishes the superiority of the intra-oral free osseous autograft over that of DABM graft in correcting the intrabony defects. PMID:23633781

  3. Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-01-30

    A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for Bravecto™. PMID:25564276

  4. Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil + clorsulon + ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Hutchinson; K. Dawson; C. C. Fitzgibbon; P. J. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole.Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver

  5. Comparative efficacy of patient-controlled administration of morphine, hydromorphone, or sufentanil for the treatment of oral mucositis pain following bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A Coda; Barbara O'Sullivan; Gary Donaldson; Sharol Bohl; C. Richard Chapman; Danny D Shen

    1997-01-01

    A total of 119 bone marrow transplant patients suffering from oral mucositis pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia with morphine, hydromorphone and sufentanil. Patient ratings of pain and side-effects on visual analog scales were gathered daily from the start of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) therapy until the discontinuation of opioid treatment either

  6. Conditional neural knockout of the adenosine A(2A) receptor and pharmacological A(2A) antagonism reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements: studies with a mouse model of parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Pardo, Marta; Podurgiel, Samantha J; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Correa, Mercè

    2013-08-01

    Tremulous jaw movements are rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at any particular stimulus. In rats, tremulous jaw movements can be induced by a number of conditions that parallel those seen in human parkinsonism, including dopamine depletion, dopamine antagonism, and cholinomimetic drugs. Moreover, tremulous jaw movements in rats can be attenuated using antiparkinsonian agents such as L-DOPA, dopamine agonists, muscarinic antagonists, and adenosine A(2A) antagonists. In the present studies, a mouse model of tremulous jaw movements was established to investigate the effects of adenosine A(2A) antagonism, and a conditional neuronal knockout of adenosine A(2A) receptors, on cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements. The muscarinic agonist pilocarpine significantly induced tremulous jaw movements in a dose-dependent manner (0.25-1.0mg/kg IP). These movements occurred largely in the 3-7.5 Hz local frequency range. Administration of the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg IP) significantly attenuated pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. Furthermore, adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice showed a significant reduction in pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements compared to littermate controls. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the tremulous jaw movement model in mice, and indicate that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism and deletion are capable of reducing cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements in mice. Future studies should investigate the effects of additional genetic manipulations using the mouse tremulous jaw movement model. PMID:22947264

  7. THE EFFECT OF PILOCARPINE ON THE OUTPUT OF LYMPHOCYTES THROUGH THE THORACIC DUCT

    PubMed Central

    Rous, F. Peyton

    1908-01-01

    The intravenous injection of pilocarpine nitrate causes in the dog a rapid and considerable increase in the output of lymphocytes through the thoracic duct. The corresponding lymphocytosis induced by the drug in the blood of this animal is not profound, and increased cell-output with the lymph will explain a large part if not all of it. Quickened lymph-flow and dyspnœic breathing are accessory in the production of the large cell-output with the lymph, but it is mainly dependent on some undetermined element. The evidence points to the mechanical nature of this element. It is probably to be sought in direct pressure from contraction of smooth muscle, as suggested by Harvey, but his observation that atropine prevents the appearance of a lymphocytosis after pilocarpine cannot be quoted in proof because atropine much slows the lymph-flow, and thus decreases cell-output. These findings are in accord with the theory that makes mechanical factors responsible for rapidly appearing lymphocytosis. They show that there are more such factors than has been supposed. Especially do they indicate that the contribution of cells through the thoracic duct may be important in the production of lymphocytosis, and is not, as is often asserted, subsidiary to direct migration into the blood of cells from spleen, bone-marrow and the lymph-glands. PMID:19867134

  8. Antagonists of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors prevent pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Ilse; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Clarke, Vernon R J; Warre, Ruth; Khan, Ghous M; O'Neill, Michael J; Ornstein, Paul L; Bleakman, David; Ogden, AnnMarie; Weiss, Brianne; Stables, James P; Ho, Ken H; Ebinger, Guy; Collingridge, Graham L; Lodge, David; Michotte, Yvette

    2002-08-01

    Developments in the molecular biology and pharmacology of GLU(K5), a subtype of the kainate class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have enabled insights into the roles of this subunit in synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, little is known about the possible functions of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors in pathological conditions. We report here that, in hippocampal slices, selective antagonists of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors prevented development of epileptiform activity--evoked by the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine--and inhibited the activity when it was pre-established. In conscious rats, these GLU(K5) antagonists prevented and interrupted limbic seizures induced by intra-hippocampal pilocarpine perfusion, and attenuated accompanying rises in extracellular L-glutamate and GABA. This anticonvulsant activity occurred without overt side effects. GLU(K5) antagonism also prevented epileptiform activity induced by electrical stimulation, both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we propose that subtype-selective GLU(K5) kainate receptor antagonists offer a potential new therapy for epilepsy. PMID:12080343

  9. Memory B cell and other immune responses in children receiving two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine compared to responses following natural cholera infection in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel T; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M; Patel, Sweta M; Aktar, Amena; Khanam, Farhana; Uddin, Taher; Riyadh, M Asrafuzzaman; Saha, Amit; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Charles, Richelle; LaRocque, Regina; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2012-05-01

    Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than wild-type infection provides, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild-type disease versus vaccination, especially with regard to memory responses associated with long-term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2 to 5 years of age; n = 20) and older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 20) given two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against CtxB but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA, and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease than after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild-type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children. PMID:22441386

  10. Memory B Cell and Other Immune Responses in Children Receiving Two Doses of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine Compared to Responses following Natural Cholera Infection in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M.; Patel, Sweta M.; Aktar, Amena; Khanam, Farhana; Uddin, Taher; Riyadh, M. Asrafuzzaman; Saha, Amit; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Charles, Richelle; LaRocque, Regina; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than wild-type infection provides, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild-type disease versus vaccination, especially with regard to memory responses associated with long-term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2 to 5 years of age; n = 20) and older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 20) given two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against CtxB but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA, and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease than after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild-type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children. PMID:22441386

  11. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  12. Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application.

    PubMed

    Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-01-01

    Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

  13. A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K; Altorjay, Istvan; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Gratzer, Cornelia; Nijhawan, Sandeep; Thomsen, Lars L

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label, non-inferiority study was conducted at 36 sites in Europe and India. Patients with known intolerance to oral iron were excluded. A total of 338 IBD patients in clinical remission or with mild disease, a hemoglobin (Hb) <12?g/dl, and a transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20% were randomized 2:1 to receive either IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 according to the Ganzoni formula (225 patients) or oral iron sulfate 200?mg daily (equivalent to 200?mg elemental iron; 113 patients). An interactive web response system method was used to randomize the eligible patient to the treatment groups. The primary end point was change in Hb from baseline to week 8. Iron isomaltoside 1,000 and iron sulfate was compared by a non-inferiority assessment with a margin of ?0.5?g/dl. The secondary end points, which tested for superiority, included change in Hb from baseline to weeks 2 and 4, change in s-ferritin, and TSAT to week 8, number of patients who discontinued study because of lack of response or intolerance of investigational drugs, change in total quality of life (QoL) score to weeks 4 and 8, and safety. Exploratory analyses included a responder analysis (proportion of patients with an increase in Hb ?2?g/dl after 8 weeks), the effect of regional differences and total iron dose level, and other potential predictors of the treatment response. RESULTS: Non-inferiority in change of Hb to week 8 could not be demonstrated. There was a trend for oral iron sulfate being more effective in increasing Hb than iron isomaltoside 1,000. The estimated treatment effect was ?0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.80, 0.06) with P=0.09 in the full analysis set (N=327) and ?0.45 (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.03) with P=0.04 in the per protocol analysis set (N=299). In patients treated with IV iron isomaltoside 1,000, the mean change in s-ferritin concentration was higher with an estimated treatment effect of 48.7 (95% CI: 18.6, 78.8) with P=0.002, whereas the mean change in TSAT was lower with an estimated treatment effect of ?4.4 (95% CI: ?7.4, ?1.4) with P=0.005, compared with patients treated with oral iron. No differences in changes of QoL were observed. The safety profile was similar between the groups. The proportion of responders with Hb ?2?g/dl (IV group: 67% oral group: 61%) were comparable between the groups (P=0.32). Iron isomaltoside 1,000 was more efficacious with higher cumulative doses of >1,000?mg IV. Significant predictors of Hb response to IV iron treatment were baseline Hb and C-reactive protein (CRP). CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate non-inferiority of IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 compared with oral iron in this study. Based on the dose–response relationship observed with the IV iron compound, we suggest that the true iron demand of IV iron was underestimated by the Ganzoni formula in our study. Alternative calculations including Hb and CRP should be explored to gauge iron stores in patients with IBD. PMID:24145678

  14. Comparison between the Effectiveness of Oral Phloroglucin and Cimetropium Bromide as Premedication for Diagnostic Esophagogastroduodenoscopy: An Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hye-Won; Na, Sun-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-In; Lee, Min-Jin; Song, Eun-Mi; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Hye-Kyoung; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Suppression of gastrointestinal (GI) peristalsis during GI endoscopy commonly requires antispasmodic agents such as hyoscine butylbromide, atropine, glucagon, and cimetropium bromide. This study examined the efficacy of oral phloroglucin for the suppression of peristalsis, its impact on patient compliance, and any associated complications, and compared it with intravenous or intramuscular cimetropium bromide administration. Methods This was a randomized, investigator-blind, prospective comparative study. A total of 172 patients were randomized into two groups according to the following medications administered prior to upper endoscopy: oral phloroglucin (group A, n=86), and cimetropium bromide (group B, n=86). The numbers and the degrees of peristalsis events at the antrum and second duodenal portion were assessed for 30 seconds. Results A significantly higher number of gastric peristalsis events was observed in group A (0.49 vs. 0.08, p<0.001), but the difference was not clinically significant. No significant difference between both groups was found in the occurrence of duodenal peristalsis events (1.79 vs. 1.63, p=0.569). The incidence of dry mouth was significantly higher with cimetropium bromide than with phloroglucin (50% vs. 15.1%, p<0.001). Conclusions Oral phloroglucin can be used as an antispasmodic agent during upper endoscopy, and shows antispasmodic efficacy and adverse effects similar to those of cimetropium bromide. PMID:25674526

  15. [Comparative study of the effectiveness of continuous or intermittent courses of a phlebotonic drug on venous disorders disclosed or aggravated by oral, estrogen-progesterone contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Allaert, F A; Vin, F; Levardon, M

    1992-01-01

    In patients with venous disorders related to oral contraceptives, venotonic treatment should be prescribed for as long as contraception is maintained. 2,295 patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years with venous insufficiency revealed or aggravated by oral contraceptives were randomised to receive venotonic treatment for one month either continuously or in parallel with active contraceptive treatment, from the 10th to the 28th day. The results demonstrated the values of prolonged treatment of venous disease, as its effects persisted and were reinforced with time. The possibility of intermittent prescription would appear to improve compliance and lower the cost of treatment while ensuring comparable long-term efficacy. PMID:1528969

  16. Comparative chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile by drinking water and oral intubation to Spartan® Sprague–Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick R. Johannsen; George J. Levinskas

    2002-01-01

    Groups of 100 male and 100 female Spartan® Sprague–Dawley rats were administered lifetime oral doses of Acrylonitrile (AN) by one of two routes of dosing, either at 0.1 or 10 mg\\/kg per day, 7 day per week by intubation or continually at 1 or 100 ppm AN in their drinking water. The doses selected were designed to approximate the same

  17. Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25?mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25069786

  18. Enhanced susceptibility to the GABA antagonist pentylenetetrazole during the latent period following a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Rattka, Marta; Brandt, Claudia; Bankstahl, Marion; Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A variety of acute brain insults bear the risk of subsequent development of chronic epilepsy. Enhanced understanding of the brain alterations underlying this process may ultimately lead to interventions that prevent, interrupt or reverse epileptogenesis in people at risk. Various interventions have been evaluated in rat models of symptomatic epilepsy, in which epileptogenesis was induced by status epilepticus (SE) or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Paradoxically, recent data indicated that administration of proconvulsant drugs after TBI or SE exerts antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying effects, although epilepsy is often considered to represent a decrease in seizure threshold. Surprisingly, to our knowledge, it is not known whether alterations in seizure threshold occur during the latent period following SE. This prompted us to study seizure threshold during and after the latent period following SE induced by lithium/pilocarpine in rats. Timed intravenous infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was used for this purpose. The duration of the latent period was determined by continuous video/EEG monitoring. Compared to control seizure threshold determined before SE, threshold significantly decreased two days after SE, but returned to pre-SE control thereafter. Moreover, the duration of PTZ-induced seizures was significantly increased throughout the latent period, which ranged from 6 to 10 days after SE. This increased susceptibility to PTZ likely reflects the complex alterations in GABA-mediated transmission that occur during the latent period following SE. The data will allow developing dosing regimens for evaluation of whether treatment with subconvulsant doses of PTZ during the latent period affects the development of epilepsy. PMID:21075125

  19. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen ? chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV ? chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that ?1(IV)/?2(IV) and ?5(IV)/?6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, ?1(IV)/?2(IV) chains preceded ?5(IV)/?6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen ?(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen ?(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen ?(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC. PMID:22694915

  20. Academic Oral English Development Among Spanish-speaking English Language Learners: Comparing Transitional Bilingual and Structured English Immersion Models 

    E-print Network

    Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly; Mathes, Patricia; Kwok, Oi-man

    2010-10-22

    , in two different types of programs under two conditions over a two-year age span. Debate on Language of Instruction ? Among ELL population 49% are placed in TBE programs and 38% in SEI programs (Alanis, 2000). Both aim to foster language minority...). ? Approximately equal gain each year in terms of English oral proficiency among Spanish-speaking ELLs, regardless of program type, namely two-way immersion, ESL, or English- only. ELLs with lower level of oracy tended to develop faster (Saunders & O...

  1. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required to further assess the efficacy of NOACs.

  2. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events.

    PubMed

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required to further assess the efficacy of NOACs. PMID:26150723

  3. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Konomos, Dorothy K.; Gravanis, Iordanis; Dewey, Stephen L.; Aguzzi, Adriano; Heppner, Frank L.; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2010-01-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 hours prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 hours prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation. PMID:20382223

  4. Intravenous Levetiracetam in the Rat Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Model: Behavioral, Physiological and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Moussally, Jon; Cash, Sydney S.; Karnam, Havisha B.; Cole, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency associated with neuronal injury, lasting behavioral disturbance, and a high rate of mortality. Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV), an antiepileptic drug approved to treat partial seizures, has recently been introduced. We sought to determine the effect of LEV administered intravenously in a chemoconvulsant model of status epilepticus. Methods We examined the effect of intravenous LEV in the rat lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Ten or 30 minutes after the onset of behavioral status epilepticus, animals were treated with LEV (200–1200 mg/kg i.v.) administered in a single bolus. Behavioral responses were recorded. Selected animals had continuous EEG recording before, during and after the administration of LEV. Some animals were sacrificed 24 h after the experiment and processed for histochemical assessment of neuronal injury. Results When administered 30 minutes after the onset of behavioral epileptic seizures, transient attenuation of ictal behavior was observed in animals treated with 800 mg/kg or more of LEV. The duration of behavioral attenuation increased sharply as the dose rose to 1000 mg/kg or higher, from a mean of 4 minutes to 23.6 minutes. When administered 10 minutes after seizure onset, 400 mg/kg of LEV resulted in transient ictal behavioral attenuation, and higher doses caused relatively longer periods of attenuation. Pretreatment with LEV prior to pilocarpine also delayed the onset of seizures. EEG recordings, however, showed no significant attenuation of ictal discharge. By contrast, TUNEL staining demonstrated less neuronal injury in hippocampii and other limbic structures in animals that responded behaviorally to LEV. Conclusions Intravenous administration of LEV in a chemoconvulsant model of status epilepticus results in attenuation of behavioral manifestations of seizure discharge and in reduction of neuronal injury but does not significantly alter ictal discharge recorded by EEG. PMID:20026136

  5. Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy study of the rat hippocampal formation after pilocarpine-evoked seizures.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Dumas, P; Eichert, D; Dudala, J; Setkowicz, Z

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SRFTIR) micro-spectroscopy and imaging were used for topographic and semi-quantitative biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue in cases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The tissue samples were analyzed with a beam defined by small apertures and spatial resolution steps of 10 microm which allowed us to probe the selected cellular layers of hippocampal formation. Raster scanning of the samples has generated 2D chemical cartographies revealing the distribution of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Spectral analysis has shown changes in the saturation level of phospholipids and relative secondary structure of proteins. Special interest was put in the analysis of two areas of the hippocampal formation (sector 3 of the Ammon's horn, CA3 and dentate gyrus, DG) in which elemental abnormalities were observed during our previous studies. Statistically significant increase in the saturation level of phospholipids (increased ratio of the absorption intensities at around 2921 and 2958 cm(-1)) as well as conformational changes of proteins (beta-type structure discrepancies as shown by the increased ratio of the absorbance intensities at around 1631 and 1657 cm(-1) as well as the ratio of the absorbance at 1548 and 1657 cm(-1)) were detected in pyramidal cells of CA3 area as well as in the multiform and molecular layers of DG. The findings presented here suggest that abnormalities in the protein secondary structure and increases in the level of phospholipid saturation could be involved in mechanisms of neurodegenerative changes following the oxidative stress evoked in brain areas affected by pilocarpine-induced seizures. PMID:20362662

  6. Neuroprotective effects of diazepam, carbamazepine, phenytoin and ketamine after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Liberato, José Luiz; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Cell damage and spatial localization deficits are often reported as long-term consequences of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of repeated drug administration after long-lasting status epilepticus. Groups of six to eight Wistar rats received microinjections of pilocarpine (2.4 mg/microl, 1 microl) in the right dorsal hippocampus to induce a status epilepticus, which was attenuated by thiopental injection (35 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 hrs after onset. Treatments consisted of i.p. administration of diazepam, ketamine, carbamazepine, or phenytoin at 4, 28, 52, and 76 hr after the onset of status epilepticus. Two days after the treatments, rats were tested in the Morris water maze and 1 week after the cognitive tests, their brains were submitted to histology to perform haematoxylin and eosin staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence detection. Post-status epilepticus rats exhibited extensive gliosis and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1, CA3 (70% cell loss for both areas) and dentate gyrus (60%). Administration of all drugs reduced cell loss in the hippocampus, with best effects observed in brains slices of diazepam-treated animals, which showed less than 30% of loss in the three areas and decreased GFAP immunolabelling. Treatments improved spatial navigation during training trials and probe trial, with exception of ketamine. Interestingly, in the probe trial, only diazepam-treated animals showed preference for the goal quadrant. Our data point to significant neuroprotective effects of repeated administration of diazepam against status epilepticus-induced cell damage and cognitive disturbances. PMID:19371260

  7. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

  8. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I am bothered by the color of my gums”(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),“I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

  9. Phototoxicity to sulphonamide-derived oral antidiabetics and diuretics: comparative in-vitro and in-vivo investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaag, Edgar; Anholt, Helle; Moan, Johan; Thune, Per

    1997-12-01

    Seven oral antidiabetics (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, glipizide, gliquidone, glymidine, tolazamide, and tolbutamide), and 14 diuretics (bemetizide, bendroflumethiazide, benzylhydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, butizide, chlortalidone, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, piretanide, polythiazide, trichlormethiazide, and xipamide) were investigated for potential phototoxicity in vitro using a cell culture model and in vivo in hairless mice. After exposure to broad band UVA, the majority of the substances tested in vitro yielded phototoxic action leading to loss of culture forming ability. In vivo, all tested substances induced edema or ulceration, and lead to a significant increase in skin fold thickness of the mouse skin. In all a number of substances not described to induce clinical photosensitivity nor phototoxicity in vitro or in vivo were detected in our testing. In determining potential photosensitizers, it seems important to utilize different test methods, as not all substances will exhibit action in a given assay.

  10. Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 ?g levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 ?g ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 ?g EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 ?g LNG/30 ?g EE [Treatment 2] or 150 ?g desogestrel [DSG]/30 ?g EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [? 18.3 pmol/L] > ? 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

  11. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. Wash your hands to remove any medication. To apply the eye ... absorbed. Replace and tighten the cap right away. Wipe off any excess gel from your eyelids and lashes with a clean tissue. Wash your hands again.

  12. Differential progression of Dark Neuron and Fluoro-Jade labelling in the rat hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L Poirier; R ?apek; Y De Koninck

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the progression of cellular injury in a model of hippocampal epileptogenesis, we used two histochemical methods reported to specifically label injured neurons, the Dark Neuron stain and Fluoro-Jade. Pilocarpine was administered systemically (380mg\\/kg i.p.) to induce status epilepticus. The duration of status epilepticus was controlled to last 1h by stopping it with diazepam (4mg\\/kg i.p.). The progression of

  13. Des-acyl ghrelin attenuates pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures via the ghrelin receptor and not the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Coppens, Jessica; Demuyser, Thomas; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    Des-acyl ghrelin, widely accepted to work independently of the ghrelin receptor, is increasingly being implicated in a number of biological functions. The involvement of des-acyl ghrelin in epilepsy has only been recently reported. In this study, apart from unravelling the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on seizure thresholds and seizure severity in two models of pilocarpine-induced seizures, we mainly attempted to unravel its anticonvulsant mechanism of action. Since it was found that des-acyl ghrelin administration affected food intake via the orexin pathway, we first determined whether this pathway was responsible for des-acyl ghrelin's seizure-attenuating properties using the dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant. We noted that, while des-acyl ghrelin showed dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects against focal pilocarpine-evoked seizures in rats, almorexant did not affect seizure severity and did not reverse des-acyl ghrelin's anticonvulsant effect. Subsequently, to investigate whether the ghrelin receptor was implicated in des-acyl ghrelin's anticonvulsant properties, we tested this peptide in ghrelin receptor deficient mice and wild type mice, all infused with pilocarpine intravenously. Unexpectedly, we found that des-acyl ghrelin significantly elevated seizure thresholds in C57Bl/6 and wild type mice but not in ghrelin receptor knock-out mice. Taken together, our results indicate the involvement of the ghrelin receptor in the anticonvulsant effects of des-acyl ghrelin on pilocarpine-induced seizures. We also show for the first time that dual antagonism of hippocampal orexin receptors does not affect seizure severity. PMID:26002375

  14. Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0.18). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral mucoperiosteal flap could be an option in the choice of interpositional materials in surgery of TMJ ankylosis. PMID:25745573

  15. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  16. [Comparative diagnostic value of echography and oral radiologic examination of the gallbladder in relation to surgical findings].

    PubMed

    Cervi, P M; Scutellari, P N; Calzolari, F; Pavani, F; Pelizzola, D; Pollinzi, V; Piffanelli, A; Tosi, S P

    1983-07-14

    For nearly 60 years, since it was introduced by Graham and Cole (1924), oral cholecystography (OCG) has been used as the imaging technique of choice in investigation of gallbladder disorders. Recently, the future of OCG has come into doubt, principally as a result of ultrasonography, with the advent of high-resolution real-time scanning. Stones are seen as echoes within the lumen of the gallbladder and are associated with an acoustic shadow, findings which are highly specific. On this basis, to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting cholelithiasis, the A. have performed by real-time cholecystosonography 60 patients with not diagnostic OCG in a group of 546 patients affected by gallbladder diseases. Our results have confirmed that sonography revealed 4 normal gallbladders, 51 gallstones and 1 primary gallbladder cancer, with 5 cases of false positive. The true false negative rate has been difficult to determine, as surgery is usually not performed after a negative study. The accuracy of cholecystosonography for gallstone diagnosis was found to be 88,1% for all three Crade's categories. PMID:6866302

  17. Oral English development and its impact on emergent reading achievement: a comparative study of transitional bilingual and structured english immersion models

    E-print Network

    Tong, Fuhui

    2009-05-15

    ) and control/experimental structured English immersion (SEI). The purpose of my study was (a) to capture the growth trajectory and rate of oral English acquisition, (b) to investigate the role of oral English development in acquiring English reading skills...

  18. Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ramael; Florence De Smedt; Nathalie Toublanc; Christian Otoul; Pierre Boulanger; Jean-Michel Riethuisen; Armel Stockis

    2006-01-01

    Background: Antiepileptic drugs are usually administere dorally, but alternative routes of drug delivery may be required when oral administration is not feasible.Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-dose bioavailability of an IV formulation of levetiracetam relative to oral tablets and the multiple-dose tolerability and pharmacokinetics of this formulation compared with placebo in healthy subjects.Methods: This study

  19. Analysis of the outcome of concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with S-1 compared to super-selective intra-arterial infusion for oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, AKIHIKO; HIJIOKA, HIROSHI; IKEDA, RYUJI; ISHIDA, TAKAYUKI; NOZOE, ETSURO; NAKAMURA, NORIFUMI

    2012-01-01

    We introduced concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, as treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from October 2005. The clinical usefulness and medical safety of CCRT with S-1 (S-1 group) for OSCC were analyzed and compared with CCRT using super-selective intra-arterial infusion (AI group). The subjects in the S-1 group underwent external irradiation, at a total dose of 30 Gy, with S-1 chemotherapy. The AI group received cisplatin (CDDP) or carboplatin (CBDCA) combined with daily radiotherapy at a total dose of 40 Gy. The histological effects and disease-specific survival rates were almost equivalent in the S-1 and AI groups. Adverse events were less frequent in the S-1 group, while hematological toxicity, including anemia, thrombopenia and pharyngeal edema, was observed in the AI group. The results of this study indicate that CCRT combined with S-1 is a more effective and safer treatment for OSCC than AI. PMID:22783379

  20. Cost-minimization study comparing annual infusion of zoledronic acid or weekly oral alendronate in women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro; Espinosa-Ortega, Fabricio

    2014-01-01

    Cost-minimization study to assess the annual direct costs of 2 antiresorptive strategies in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral densities (BMDs). Patients were randomly assigned to receive 70 mg of oral weekly alendronate or a 1-time 5mg of intravenous zoledronic acid. All medical and nonmedical direct costs were recorded for 1 yr. Student's t-test or the Chi-squared test was used. A total of 101 postmenopausal women were enrolled with a mean age of 58.3 ± 7.6 yr and a postmenopausal period of 13.5 ± 8.3 yr. A total of 50 patients completed 1 yr of alendronate and 51 patients received zoledronic acid. At baseline, no differences were seen between the 2 groups in anthropometric measures, comorbidities, and bone mineral density. The costs for medical attention for low bone mass were $81,532 (US Dollars) for the alendronate group and $69,251 for the zoledronic acid group; the cost per patient was $1631 in the alendronate group vs $1358 in the zoledronic acid group (p<0.0001). Therefore, zoledronic acid treatment provided an annual savings of 15% of the direct costs compared with oral alendronate treatment. Moreover, there was a significant increase in lumbar spine T-scores in the zoledronic acid group when compared with the alendronate group. Annual zoledronic acid infusion as an antiresorptive treatment in women with low BMD provides significant monetary savings when compared with weekly alendronate therapy for 1 yr. Zoledronic acid infusion is also linked to higher increase in BMD and compliance. PMID:24613450

  1. Gabapentin Administration Reduces Reactive Gliosis and Neurodegeneration after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alicia Raquel; Angelo, Maria Florencia; Villarreal, Alejandro; Lukin, Jerónimo; Ramos, Alberto Javier

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces in rodents several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy, by inducing an acute status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. It has been proposed that the neuronal network reorganization that occurs during latency determines the subsequent appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuronal and glial responses during the latency period that follows SE. Given the potential role of astrocytes in the post-SE network reorganization, through the secretion of synaptogenic molecules such as thrombospondins, we also studied the effect of treatment with the ?2?1 thrombospondin receptor antagonist gabapentin. Adult male Wistar rats received 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine. Once SE was achieved, seizures were stopped with 20 mg/kg diazepam. Animals then received 400 mg/kg/day gabapentin or saline for either 4 or 14 days. In vitro experiments were performed in dissociated mixed hippocampal cell culture exposed to glutamate, and subsequently treated with gabapentin or vehicle. During the latency period, the hippocampus and pyriform cortex of SE-animals presented a profuse reactive astrogliosis, with increased GFAP and nestin expression. Gliosis intensity was dependent on the Racine stage attained by the animals and peaked 15 days after SE. Microglia was also reactive after SE, and followed the same pattern. Neuronal degeneration was present in SE-animals, and also depended on the Racine stage and the SE duration. Polysialic-acid NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression was increased in hippocampal CA-1 and dentate gyrus of SE-animals. Gabapentin treatment was able to reduce reactive gliosis, decrease neuronal loss and normalize PSA-NCAM staining in hippocampal CA-1. In vitro, gabapentin treatment partially prevented the dendritic loss and reactive gliosis caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. Our results show that gabapentin treatment during the latency period after SE protects neurons and normalizes PSA-NCAM probably by direct interaction with neurons and glia. PMID:24250797

  2. Oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ginger; Sutton, Eliza L

    2015-05-01

    Oral contraception (OC) remains a popular noninvasive, readily reversible approach for pregnancy prevention and, largely off label, for control of acne, hirsutism, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation, menorrhagia, and other menstrual-related symptoms. Many OC formulations exist, with generics offering lower cost and comparable efficacy. Certain medical conditions, including hypertension, migraine, breast cancer, and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), present contraindications. Blood pressure measurement is the only physical examination or testing needed before prescription. Although no OC is clearly superior to others, OCs containing the second-generation progestin levonorgestrel have been associated with lower VTE risk than those containing other progestins. PMID:25841596

  3. Comparative chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile by drinking water and oral intubation to Spartan Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Frederick R; Levinskas, George J

    2002-06-24

    Groups of 100 male and 100 female Spartan Sprague-Dawley rats were administered lifetime oral doses of Acrylonitrile (AN) by one of two routes of dosing, either at 0.1 or 10 mg/kg per day, 7 day per week by intubation or continually at 1 or 100 ppm AN in their drinking water. The doses selected were designed to approximate the same daily intake of AN in each of two separate studies, whether by a single bolus dose (intubation) or a more continuous dosing regimen in drinking water. Each study had its own untreated control group of 100 rats per sex. In the drinking water study, the equivalent mean dosage of AN administered to males and females were 0, 0.09, and 0.15 mg/kg per day, respectively, at the 1 ppm level, and 0, 8.0 and 10.7 mg/kg per day, respectively, for 100 ppm dose groups. In both studies, groups of ten rats per sex were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 18 months and at study term. Ophthalmoscopic, hematological, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis and full histopathological exams were performed on control and high dose groups of rats in each study. Similar tests were done in lower dose groups, as required, to define dose-responses of observed effects. All animals were necropsied and underwent microscopic examination of target tissues, including brain, ear canal, stomach, spinal cord and any observable tissue masses. High dose male and female rats in both studies exhibited statistically decreased body weights. Food consumption and water intake were reduced only in the drinking water study. Due to increased deaths in groups of high dose rats of both studies receiving AN, all intubation test groups were terminated after 20 months of treatment. Surviving males and females in the drinking water study were terminated after 22 and 19 months, respectively. Small, sometimes statistically significant, reductions in hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte count were observed in male and female rats in both high dose (10 mg/kg per day intubation and 100 ppm drinking water) groups from both studies. There were increases in absolute or relative organ weight ratios for liver and adrenal in the high dose intubation study groups, but could not be correlated with AN toxicity in the absence of adverse clinical biochemistry or microscopic findings. Similar organ weight findings were not observed in the drinking water study. Again, there were no changes in clinical biochemistry or microscopic findings in these tissues. Absolute kidney weights were increased in high dose male and female rats in the intubation study and high dose female rats only in the drinking water study. Male and female rats from high dose groups in each study had a higher incidence of palpable masses of the head and the nonglandular stomach and, in females only, the mammary region. In both sexes, treatment-related tumors of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord), ear canal, and gastrointestinal tract, and in females only, the mammary gland (intubation only) were observed in rats administered either 10 mg/kg per day by intubation or 100 ppm in drinking water. Animals from the intubation study had a substantially higher incidence of AN-related site-specific tumors than did their drinking water study counterparts. While a similar spectrum of tumors was produced by both oral dosing regimens, there were some notable differences in organ-specific incidence of tumors. Astrocytomas of the brain and spinal cord were found at a higher incidence in those rats exposed continuously to AN administered in the drinking water versus bolus dosing by intubation. Conversely, a higher incidence of squamous cell carcinomas/papillomas of the forestomach and adenocarcinomas of the intestine and, in females only, carcinomas of the mammary gland were observed in high dose rats receiving AN by intubation. An increase in the degree of severity of forestomach hyperplasia was observed in all high dose groups of animals, irrespective of mode of administration. These effects were more pronounced, were correlated with a much higher incidence of forestomach tumors, and were identified earlier (12

  4. Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Dose Intravenous Peramivir with Oral Oseltamivir in Patients with Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection ? †

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Shigeru; Yen, Muh-Yong; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Ishida, Tadashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jingoro

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ?20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. PMID:21825298

  5. Comparing the Oral Health Status of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Children from Puerto Rico: a Case-control Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    López del Valle, Lydia M.; Ocasio-López, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective Children with type 1 diabetes have infrequently been the subjects of studies examining oral health status (caries and gingival diseases); in addition, no study of this type has ever been on Puerto Rican children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of Puerto Rican children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) either with or without type 1 diabetes and compare the two groups with regard to that status. Methods This was a matched case-control study. A convenience sample of 25 children with type 1 diabetes (cases) and 25 non-diabetic children (controls), all ranging in age from 6 to 12 years and matched by age and gender, was evaluated by a calibrated dentist for caries, bleeding on probing, and plaque and calculus indexes. A sample of saliva was taken from each subject and analyzed to determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to describe and assess the data. Results We used the caries index to evaluate the teeth of the children participating in our study; we found significant differences in the number of lesions in the permanent teeth of diabetic children compared to the number found in the permanent teeth of non-diabetic children (1.43 and 0.56, respectively; p = 0.05). The mean number of sites of bleeding on probing for diabetic children was 23.9; for non-diabetic children it was 4.2. Diabetic children had more plaque than did the control children (plaque index = 2.5 vs. 0.8; p = 0.007) and more bleeding on probing (p = 0.001). High levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic children were statistically significantly associated with a greater number of sites with bleeding on probing. Conclusion Diabetic children are at higher risk for caries and gum disease than are non-diabetic children. PMID:21932712

  6. Efficacy and tolerance of rifampicin-linezolid compared with rifampicin-cotrimoxazole combinations in prolonged oral therapy for bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Pasquet, A; Legout, L; Beltrand, E; Dubreuil, L; Migaud, H; Yazdanpanah, Y; Senneville, E

    2009-12-01

    Both linezolid and cotrimoxazole are antibiotics that are well suited for oral therapy of bone and joint infections (BJI) caused by otherwise resistant Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (resistance to fluoroquinolones, maccolides, betalactamines). However, in this context, no data are currently available regarding the safety and tolerance of these antibiotics in combination with rifampicin. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a combination of rifampicin and linezolid (RLC) with those of a combination of rifampicin and cotrimoxazole (RCC) in the treatment of BJI. Between February 2002 and December 2006, 56 adult patients (RLC, n = 28; RCC, n = 28), including 36 with infected orthopaedic devices (RLC, n = 18; RCC, n = 18) and 20 with chronic osteomyelitis (RLC, n = 10; RCC, n = 10), were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. Patients who discontinued antibiotic therapy within 4 weeks of commencing treatment were considered to represent cases of treatment failure and were excluded. Rates of occurrence of adverse effects were similar in the two groups, at 42.9% in the RLC group and 46.4% in the RCC group (p = 1.00), and led to treatment discontinuation in four (14.3%) RLC and six (21.4%) RCC patients. Cure rates were found to be similar in the two groups (RLC, 89.3%, RCC, 78.6%; p = 0.47). Prolonged oral RLC and RCC therapy were found to be equally effective in treating patients with BJI caused by resistant GPC, including patients with infected orthopaedic devices. However, the lower cost of cotrimoxazole compared with linezolid renders RCC an attractive treatment alternative to RLC. Further larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:19438638

  7. A comparative study of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus: a randomized clinical controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hasan Hoseinpour; Falaki, Farnaz; Sanatkhani, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Meysam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-07-01

    Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as a new treatment option that is free from side effects for erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus (OLP). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (TB-PDT) with local corticosteroids on treatment of erosive-atrophic OLP. In this randomized clinical trial, 25 patients with keratotic-atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus were allocated randomly into two groups. Group 1 (experimental): topical application of toluidine blue with micropipette was applied, and after 10 min, the patients were treated with a 630-nm GaAlAs laser (power density: 10 mW/cm(2)) during two visits. Group 2 (control) used mouthwash diluted with dexamethasone (tab 0/5 in 5 ml water) for 5 min, and then, it was spat out, and after 30 min, the mouth was rinsed with 30 drops of nystatin 100,000 units for 5 min and again spat out. Demographic data, type, and severity of the lesions and pain were recorded before and after treatment and then at the 1-month follow-up visit. Response rate was defined based on changes in intensity of the lesions and pain. In the experimental and control groups, sign scores of changes significantly reduced after treatment respectively (p?=?0.021) and (p?=?0.002), but between the two groups, no significant difference was observed (p?=?0.72). In the experimental (p?=?0.005) and control groups (p?=?0.001), the intensity of lesions significantly reduced after treatment and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p?=?0.001). The mean amount of improvement in pain was significantly greater in the control group compared with the experimental group (p?

  8. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats and in pentylenetetrazole-induced hippocampal astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Liang, Feng; Wang, Bing; Le, Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated cytokine that has emerged as an important neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions. In the present study, we detected and compared the dynamic expression of PTN in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of immature rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Moreover, we also confirmed the results by examining PTN expression in hippocampal astrocytes cultured in the presence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Immunohistochemistry showed faint immunostaining of PTN in the control hippocampus and adjacent cortex. Notably, PTN immunoreactivity began to increase in relatively small cells in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 2h and 3 weeks after seizures, and the labeling intensity reached the maximum level in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 8 weeks after seizures. Furthermore, we also found that PTZ treatment significantly reduced astrocytic viability in a dose-dependent manner and time-dependently increased expression levels of PTN in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of PTN in the brain tissues may be involved in epileptogenesis. PMID:24157126

  9. Additional Antiepileptic Mechanisms of Levetiracetam in Lithium-Pilocarpine Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y.; El Sayeh, Bahia M.; Abdallah, Dalaal M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the antiepileptic mechanisms of levetiracetam (LEV); however, its effect on catecholamines and the inflammatory mediators that play a role in epilepsy remain elusive. In the current work, lithium (Li) pretreated animals were administered LEV (500 mg/kg i.p) 30 min before the induction of convulsions by pilocarpine (PIL). Li-PIL-induced seizures were accompanied by increased levels of hippocampal prostaglandin (PG) E2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-10. Moreover, it markedly elevated hippocampal lipid peroxides and nitric oxide levels, while it inhibited the glutathione content. Li-PIL also reduced hippocampal noradrenaline, as well as dopamine contents. Pretreatment with LEV protected against Li-PIL-induced seizures, where it suppressed the severity and delayed the onset of seizures in Li-PIL treated rats. Moreover, LEV reduced PGE2 and MPO, yet it did not affect the level of both cytokines in the hippocampus. LEV also normalized hippocampal noradrenaline, dopamine, glutathione, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide contents. In conclusion, alongside its antioxidant property, LEV anticonvulsive effect involves catecholamines restoration, as well as inhibition of PGE2, MPO, and nitric oxide. PMID:24098559

  10. Involvement of Thalamus in Initiation of Epileptic Seizures Induced by Pilocarpine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Hua; Li, Jia-Jia; Lu, Qin-Chi; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested that thalamus is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the role of thalamus is still unclear. We obtained local filed potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activities from CA1 of hippocampus and parafascicular nucleus of thalamus during the development of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice. Two measures, redundancy and directionality index, were used to analyze the electrophysiological characters of neuronal activities and the information flow between thalamus and hippocampus. We found that LFPs became more regular during the seizure in both hippocampus and thalamus, and in some cases LFPs showed a transient disorder at seizure onset. The variation tendency of the peak values of cross-correlation function between neurons matched the variation tendency of the redundancy of LFPs. The information tended to flow from thalamus to hippocampus during seizure initiation period no matter what the information flow direction was before the seizure. In some cases the information flow was symmetrically bidirectional, but none was found in which the information flowed from hippocampus to thalamus during the seizure initiation period. In addition, inactivation of thalamus by tetrodotoxin (TTX) resulted in a suppression of seizures. These results suggest that thalamus may play an important role in the initiation of epileptic seizures. PMID:24778885

  11. A Comparative Efficacy of Low-Dose Combined Oral Contraceptives Containing Desogestrel and Drospirenone in Premenstrual Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wichianpitaya, Jirath; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of low-dose COC containing desogestrel (DSG) with drospirenone (DRSP) in the changes of premenstrual symptoms. Methods. In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 90 women with premenstrual syndrome who required COC were randomly recruited and allocated equally to receive either 6 cycles of 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE)/150 micrograms DSG (DSG group) or 20 micrograms EE/3?mg DRSP (DRSP group) in 24/4 extended regimen. Analysis of covariance and repeated analysis of variance were used to determine the difference of mean Women's Health Assessment Questionnaire (WHAQ) scores changes between groups, within group, and in premenstrual, menstrual, and postmenstrual phases. Results. Baseline characteristics and WHAQ scores were comparable. At the ends of the 3rd and the 6th cycles, mean WHAQ scores of all the 3 phases in DRSP group showed significant reduction and were significantly lower than those in DSG group. DSG group showed significant reduction in both premenstrual and menstrual phases after the 6th cycle. Adverse effects were comparable in both groups. In conclusion, low-dose COC containing either DSG or DRSP reduced premenstrual symptoms, but the latter showed greater efficacy and earlier reduction. PMID:23577032

  12. Comparative oral bioavailability of non-fixed and fixed combinations of artesunate and amodiaquine in healthy Indian male volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anny Fortin; Roger K. Verbeeck; Frans H. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Objective  The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties, bioavailability and tolerability of artesunate\\u000a (AS) and amodiaquine (AQ) administered as a fixed-dose combination (Amonate FDC tablets; Dafra Pharma, Turnhout, Belgium)\\u000a or as a non-fixed dose combination of separate AS tablets (Arsuamoon; Guilin Pharmaceutical Co, Shanghai, China) and AQ tablets\\u000a (Flavoquine; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a randomized,

  13. Comparative bioavailability of alpha-methyldopa normal and film tablet formulations after single oral administration in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Róna; K. Ary; G. Renczes; B. Gachályi; Gy. Grézal; S. Drabant; I. Klebovich

    2001-01-01

    Summary  In a single dose, randomized, cross-over study, with one week of wash-out period, the relative bioavailability of Dopegyt®\\u000a tablets containing 250 mg alpha-methyldopa (AMD) and Presinol® film tablets with identical active ingredient content was examined\\u000a in 24 healthy volunteers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since technologically two completely different preparations (a film-tablet and a non-film-tablet) having significantly different\\u000a in vitro dissolution were to be compared,

  14. A comparative analysis of pupil attitudes toward selected oral language activities used with fifth graders in the public schools of Brazos County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Brusse, Frances Williams

    1967-01-01

    : Independent variables Hypotheses Importance of the Study Limitations of the Study Definition of Terms Used Attitudes toward oral language activities Selected oral language activities Oral language activity attitude scale White, Negro, and Latin... to variables in sex; I. g. ; ethnic groups, white, Negro and Latin- or Mexican-American; socio- economic levels, to be determined from information about the education and/or occupation of the subject's father and/or mother; and levels of achievement...

  15. Effect of perampanel, a novel AMPA antagonist, on benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model

    PubMed Central

    Hanada, Takahisa; Ido, Katsutoshi; Kosasa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of diazepam, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists perampanel and GYKI52466 in a lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) model. SE was induced in rats using lithium chloride, scopolamine methyl bromide, and pilocarpine. Diazepam 10, 20, or 40 mg kg?1, or perampanel 1, 2.5, 5, or 8 mg kg?1 were administered intravenously at 10 or 30 min after seizure onset, and GYKI52466 50 mg kg?1, or combinations of diazepam 2.5–5 mg kg?1 and perampanel 0.5–1 mg kg?1, were administered intravenously at 30 min after seizure onset. Diazepam 20 mg kg?1 terminated seizures (based on electroencephalography and assessment of behavioral seizures) in 2/6 rats at 10 min and 0/6 rats at 30 min (ED50: 10 min, 30 mg kg?1; 30 min, not determined). Perampanel 8 mg kg?1 terminated seizures in 6/6 rats at both 10 and 30 min (ED50: 10 min 1.7 mg kg?1; 30 min, 5.1 mg kg?1). GYKI52466 50 mg kg?1 terminated seizures in 2/4 rats at 30 min. Co-administration of diazepam 5 mg kg?1 and perampanel 1 mg kg?1 terminated seizures in 9/9 rats at 30 min. In conclusion, perampanel and GYKI52466 provided efficacy in a lithium-pilocarpine SE model at 30 min after seizure onset, when SE was refractory to diazepam, supporting the therapeutic potential of AMPA receptor antagonists for refractory SE. The perampanel dose required to terminate seizures was reduced by combination with diazepam, suggesting synergy. PMID:25505607

  16. A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed. PMID:23086987

  17. Efficacy of Benzocaine 20% Topical Anesthetic Compared to Placebo Prior to Administration of Local Anesthesia in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    de Freiras, Guilherme Camponogara; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha; Blaya, Diego Segatto; Moreira, Carlos Heitor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a topical anesthetic to a placebo on pain perception during administration of local anesthesia in 2 regions of the oral cavity. A split-mouth, double-blind, randomized clinical trial design was used. Thirty-eight subjects, ages 18-50 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, received 4 anesthetic injections each in regions corresponding to the posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSA) and greater palatine nerve (GPN), totaling 152 sites analyzed. The side of the mouth where the topical anesthetic (benzocaine 20%) or the placebo was to be applied was chosen by a flip of a coin. The needle used was 27G, and the anesthetic used for administration of local anesthesia was 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. After receiving the administration of local anesthesia, each patient reported pain perception on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 100-mm length. The results showed that the topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects: there was no statistically significant VAS difference between the PSA and the GPN pain ratings. A higher value on the VAS for the anesthesia of the GPN, relative to the PSA, was observed for both groups. Regarding gender, male patients had higher values on the VAS compared with female patients, but these differences were not meaningful. The topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects on pain perception for injection of local anesthesia for the PSA and GPN. PMID:26061572

  18. Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Parras, F; Guerrero, M C; Bouza, E; Blázquez, M J; Moreno, S; Menarguez, M C; Cercenado, E

    1995-01-01

    Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal carriers of MRSA. The eradication rates with mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 90 days were 93 and of 93, 100 and 100, 97 and 94, 100 and 92, 96 and 95, and 78 and 71%, respectively, for nasal carriage. At 7, 14, and 28 days the eradication rates for extranasal carriage by the two regimens were 23 and 74, 83 and 76, and 45 and 69%, respectively. The efficacies and safety of both regimens were similar. The MRSA isolates were not resistant to the study drugs either at the baseline or at follow-up. These results suggest that mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid, both used in conjunction with a chlorhexidine soap bath, are equally effective and safe for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal MRSA carriers. Mupirocin was easier to use but was more expensive. PMID:7695302

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetics of three monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids after oral administration of Acontium carmichaeli extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in Sini Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Liu, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cao, Hong; Chai, Yifeng

    2015-07-01

    Sini decoction (SND) is an important traditional Chinese multiherbal formula, which is widely used to treat cardiovascular disease. Acontium carmichaeli (AC) is a leading herb in SND, whose main components are monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids (MDAs). The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics of three MDAs in rat plasma after oral administration of AC extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in SND. A sensitive, accurate and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine the contents of three MDAs in rat plasma. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: AC, AC?+?ZO, AC?+?GU and SND groups. There were significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax , Tmax, t1/2 , AUC(0-24) , MRT and CL). Compared with the AC group, Cmax , AUC(0-24) and CL of three MDAs increased and t1/2 decreased in AC?+?ZO, AC?+?GU and SND groups. Little changed in the AC?+?GU group in comparison with AC?+?ZO group, which indicated that other ingredients in ZO may promote the absorption rate and accelerate excretion rate of MDAs. The results could be helpful for revealing the compatibility mechanism of Chinese multiherbal medicine and providing clinical medication guidance on AC and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in SND. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25516169

  20. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. PMID:25716658

  1. Comparative effectiveness of different oral antibiotics regimens for treatment of urinary tract infection in outpatients: an analysis of national representative claims database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Tse Gabriel; Lee, Shih-Hao; Chang, Shy-Shin; Lee, Si-Huei; Lee, Matthew; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2014-12-01

    There are very limited data on the postmarketing outcome comparison of different guideline antibiotic regimens for patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We carried out a population-based comparative effectiveness study from year 2000 through 2009, using the administrative data of 2 million patients from the National Health Informatics Project of Taiwan. Treatment failure was defined as either hospitalization or emergency department visits for UTI. Odd ratios were computed using conditional logistic regression models matched on propensity score. We identified 73,675 individuals with UTI, of whom 54,796 (74.4%) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 4184 (5.7%) received ciprofloxacin, 3142 (4.3%) received levofloxacin, 5984 (8.1%) received ofloxacin, and 5569 (7.6%) received norfloxacin. Compared with TMP-SMX, the composite treatment failure was significantly lowered for norfloxacin in propensity score (PS) matching analyses (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99). Both norfloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98) and ofloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49-0.99) had significantly lowered composite treatment failure rate when compared with ciprofloxacin. Subgroup analysis suggested that both norfloxacin and ofloxacin were more effective in female patients without complications (W/O indwelling catheters, W/O bedridden status and W/O spinal cord injury), when compared with either TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin. Among outpatients receiving oral fluoroquinolone therapy for UTIs, there was evidence of superiority of norfloxacin or ofloxacin over ciprofloxacin or TMP-SMX in terms of treatment failure. Given the observational nature of this study and regional difference in antibiotic resistance patterns, more studies are required to validate our results. PMID:25526477

  2. Oral electricity.

    PubMed

    Certosimo, A J; O'Connor, R P

    1996-01-01

    "Oral electricity," "electrogalvanism," or "galvanic currents" has long been recognized as a potential source of oral pain and discomfort. This phenomenon of oral galvanism results from the difference in electrical potential between dissimilar restorative metals located in the mouth. In this case report, the literature is reviewed, and an interesting case study'is presented. The patient's clinical presentation, and the duration and constancy of the oral symptoms, pose diagnostic challenges. A simple, yet effective treatment regimen is proposed. PMID:8957826

  3. Fish oil provides protection against the oxidative stress in pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nejm, Mariana B; Haidar, André A; Marques, Márcia J G; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nogueira, Fernando N; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. Neuronal loss observed in epileptic brain may be result of an overproduction of free radicals (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between antioxidant defenses and oxidizing agents (free radicals), which can lead to tissue injury. The n-3 PUFAs are important for the development and maintenance of central nervous system functions. Research by our group has shown that chronic treatment with fish oil, immediately after status epilepticus (SE), exhibits both neuroprotective effects and effects on neuroplasticity. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate if fish oil exhibits a protective effect against oxidative stress. Animals were subjected to TLE model by pilocarpine administration. After 3 h of SE they were randomly divided into the following groups: control animals treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil and animals with epilepsy treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil. After 90 days, superoxide anion production, enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p47(PHOX) and gp91(PHOX)) were analyzed. Our results showed evidences that reactive oxygen species are increased in animals with epilepsy and that fish oil supplementation could counteract it. Fish oil supplementation promoted protection against oxidative stress by multiple ways, which involved the reduction of activity and expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and increased the activity and expression of antioxidants enzymes, contributing to well-known neuroprotective effect in epilepsy. PMID:25893881

  4. A Cellular Mechanism for Dendritic Spine Loss in the Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Jonathan E.; Moore, Bryan J.; Henderson, Scott; Campbell, John N.; Churn, Severn B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have documented a synaptic translocation of calcineurin (CaN) and increased CaN activity following status epilepticus (SE), however the cellular effect of these changes in CaN in the pathology of SE remains to be elucidated. This study examined a CaN-dependent modification of the dendritic cytoskeleton. CaN has been shown to induce dephosphorylation of cofilin, an actin depolymerization factor. The ensuing actin depolymerization can lead to a number of physiological changes that are of interest in SE. Methods SE was induced by pilocarpine injection, and seizure activity was monitored by video-EEG. Subcellular fractions were isolated by differential centrifugation. CaN activity was assayed using a para-nitrophenol phosphate assay protocol. Cofilin phosphorylation was assessed using phosphocofilin-specific antibodies. Cofilin-actin binding was determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and actin polymerization was measured using a triton-solubilization protocol. Spines were visualized using a single-section rapid Golgi impregnation procedure. Results The immunoreactivity of phosphocofilin decreased significantly in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomal samples after SE. SE-induced cofilin dephosphorylation could be partially blocked by the pre-injection of CaN inhibitors. Cofilin activation could be further demonstrated by increased actin-cofilin binding and a significant depolymerization of neuronal actin, both of which were also blocked by CaN inhibitors. Finally, we demonstrated a CaN-dependent loss of dendritic spines histologically. Discussion The data demonstrate a CaN-dependent, cellular mechanism through which prolonged seizure activity results in loss of dendritic spines via cofilin activation. Further research into this area may provide useful insights into the pathology of SE and epileptogenic mechanisms. PMID:18479390

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetic interactions of Quercetin and Rutin in rats after oral administration of European patented formulation containing Hipphophae rhamnoides and Co-administration of Quercetin and Rutin.

    PubMed

    Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Chintala, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

    2014-06-01

    Quercetin and Rutin are most common flavone constituents of some herb extracts such as Hippophae rhamnoides L. Inter and intra herb pharmacokinetics interactions of Quercetin and Rutin were investigated in the present study. Pharmacokinetic study was investigated in the two groups of rats (n = 6) for pharmacokinetic interactions between the Quercetin and Rutin (2.5 mg/kg) mixture treated alone with European patented polyherbal formulation containing equivalent weight of the above. The total plasma concentrations of Quercetin and Rutin were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A method was developed and validated according to the ICH guidelines. The results of the present study shows that there are great differences in the pharmacokinetics of Quercetin and Rutin when they are administered together and from the polyherbal formulation which will be interacted by many other constituents. The bioavailability of Quercetin was lowered from the polyherbal formulation when compared with the co-administration, whereas the Rutin bioavailability has increased from the polyherbal formulation when compared with the co-administration. The maximum plasma concentration of Quercetin from coadministration and polyherbal formulation was 165.3 ± 31.9 and 90.8 ± 21.4 ng/mL, respectively, whereas in the case of Rutin it was 61.1 ± 29.3 and 121.7 ± 19.2 ng/mL. After polyherbal formulation administration to rats the AUC0-24, AUC0-? and AUMC0-? of both Quercetin and Rutin significantly increased when compared to co-administration. The above results proved that inter and intra herb pharmacokinetic interactions between Quercetin and Rutin. Possible interactions of the other constituents with hydrolyzing enzymes in the formulation enhances the oral bioavailability of Rutin. Accordingly besides the drug herb interactions, inter and intra herb interaction might be brought into view with the wide use of herbal remedies. PMID:24888486

  6. An open, comparative, multicentre clinical study of combined oral therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS for treating Chinese patients with erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Jin; Zhi-Chao Zhang; Ji-Hong Liu; Jun Lu; Yu-Xin Tang; Xiang-Zhou Sun; Wei-Dong Song; Bing Gao; Ying-Lu Guo; Zhong-Cheng Xin

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of combined oral therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS compared to sildenafil monotherapy in treating Chinese patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH\\/LUTS). The trial was conducted in hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Wuhan and Guangzhou, five major cities in China.

  7. Reduced hippocampal manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) signal during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: edema or apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Persike, Daniele Suzete; Castro, Leticia Urbano Cardoso de; Sanches, Talita Rojas Cunha; Andrade, Lúcia da Conceição; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-05-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been considered a surrogate marker of Ca(+2) influx into activated cells and tracer of neuronal active circuits. However, the induction of status epilepticus (SE) by kainic acid does not result in hippocampal MEMRI hypersignal, in spite of its high cell activity. Similarly, short durations of status (5 or 15min) induced by pilocarpine did not alter the hippocampal MEMRI, while 30 min of SE even reduced MEMRI signal Thus, this study was designed to investigate possible explanations for the absence or decrease of MEMRI signal after short periods of SE. We analyzed hippocampal caspase-3 activation (to evaluate apoptosis), T2 relaxometry (tissue water content) and aquaporin 4 expression (water-channel protein) of rats subjected to short periods of pilocarpine-induced SE. For the time periods studied here, apoptotic cell death did not contribute to the decrease of the hippocampal MEMRI signal. However, T2 relaxation was higher in the group of animals subjected to 30min of SE than in the other SE or control groups. This result is consistent with higher AQP-4 expression during the same time period. Based on apoptosis and tissue water content analysis, the low hippocampal MEMRI signal 30min after SE can potentially be attributed to local edema rather than to cell death. PMID:24630048

  8. Isovaline attenuates generalized epileptiform activity in hippocampal and primary sensory cortices and seizure behavior in pilocarpine treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wilson; Smith, Autumn B; Pilitsis, Julie G; Shin, Damian S

    2015-07-10

    Anti-seizure drugs are the most commonly employed treatment option for epilepsy and these generally provide effective management of seizures. However, 30% of patients with epilepsy are not adequately treated with anti-seizure medications and are considered intractable. Recently we reported that isovaline, a unique amino acid, could attenuate seizure like events (SLEs) in two in vitro hippocampal seizure models by selectively increasing the activity of interneurons, but not pyramidal neurons. Isovaline also attenuated hippocampal epileptiform activity and behavioral seizures in vivo in rats administered 4 aminopyridine (4AP). Here, we investigate whether isovaline is efficacious in attenuating secondarily generalized epileptiform activity and behavioral seizures in rats administered pilocarpine. We found that 150mg/kg isovaline administered intravenously abolished pilocarpine-induced epileptiform activity in the primary sensory cortex and hippocampus and attenuated generalized forebrain behavioral seizures. We are the first to demonstrate that isovaline may be a plausible anti-seizure drug for secondarily generalized seizures and this could potentially lead to the development of a novel class of anti-seizure drugs focused around the unique mechanism(s) of isovaline. PMID:26007701

  9. Reorganization of supramammillary-hippocampal pathways in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence for axon terminal sprouting.

    PubMed

    Soussi, Rabia; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Bassot, Emilie; Bras, Hélène; Coulon, Patrice; Chaudhry, Farrukh Abbas; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Ferhat, Lotfi; Esclapez, Monique

    2015-07-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), spontaneous seizures likely originate from a multi-structural epileptogenic zone, including several regions of the limbic system connected to the hippocampal formation. In this study, we investigate the structural connectivity between the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) and the dentate gyrus (DG) in the model of MTLE induced by pilocarpine in the rat. This hypothalamic nucleus, which provides major extracortical projections to the hippocampal formation, plays a key role in the regulation of several hippocampus-dependent activities, including theta rhythms, memory function and emotional behavior, such as stress and anxiety, functions that are known to be altered in MTLE. Our findings demonstrate a marked reorganization of DG afferents originating from the SuM in pilocarpine-treated rats. This reorganization, which starts during the latent period, is massive when animals become epileptic and continue to evolve during epilepsy. It is characterized by an aberrant distribution and an increased number of axon terminals from neurons of both lateral and medial regions of the SuM, invading the entire inner molecular layer of the DG. This reorganization, which reflects an axon terminal sprouting from SuM neurons, could contribute to trigger spontaneous seizures within an altered hippocampal intrinsic circuitry. PMID:24889162

  10. The role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, Jennifer L; Decker, Michael J; Levey, Allan I

    2002-07-01

    Pilocarpine-induced seizures are mediated by the M(1) subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), but little is known about the signaling mechanisms linking the receptor to seizures. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade is activated by M(1) mAChR and is elevated during status epilepticus. Yet, the role of ERK activation prior to seizure has not been evaluated. Here, we examine the role of pilocarpine-induced ERK activation in the induction of seizures in mice by pharmacological and behavioral approaches. We show that pilocarpine induces ERK activation prior to the induction of seizures by both western blot and immunocytochemistry with an antibody to phosphorylated ERK. In addition, we show that the ERK pathway inhibitor SL327 effectively blocks the pilocarpine-induced ERK activation. However, SL327 pretreatment has no effect on the initiation of seizures. In fact, animals treated with SL327 had higher seizure-related mortality than vehicle-treated animals, suggesting activated ERK may serve a protective role during seizures. In addition, ERK inhibition had no effect on the development of the long-term sequelae of status epilepticus (SE), including mossy fiber sprouting, neuronal death and spontaneous recurrent seizures. PMID:12091480

  11. The additive effect of latanoprost to maximum-tolerated medications with low-dose, high-dose, or no pilocarpine therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong H Shin; Michael S McCracken; Rick E Bendel; Robert Pearlman; Mark S Juzych; Bret A Hughes; Laura L Schulz; Chaesik Kim; Nam H Baek

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the efficacy of latanoprost additive therapy in patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) out of control while taking maximum-tolerated medications and to determine whether pilocarpine therapy has a dose-dependent adverse effect on the efficacy of latanoprost therapy.

  12. Results of a randomized trial comparing sequential intravenous/oral treatment with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole to imipenem/cilastatin for intra-abdominal infections. The Intra-Abdominal Infection Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Solomkin, J S; Reinhart, H H; Dellinger, E P; Bohnen, J M; Rotstein, O D; Vogel, S B; Simms, H H; Hill, C S; Bjornson, H S; Haverstock, D C; Coulter, H O; Echols, R M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was compared with imipenem/cilastatin for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. A secondary objective was to demonstrate the ability to switch responding patients from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Intra-abdominal infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Antimicrobial therapy often includes a 7- to 10-day intravenous course. The use of oral antimicrobials is a recent advance due to the availability of agents with good tissue pharmacokinetics and potent aerobic gram-negative activity. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously (CIP/MTZ IV) or imipenem intravenously (IMI IV) throughout their treatment course, or ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously and treatment with oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole when oral feeding was resumed (CIP/MTZ IV/PO). RESULTS: Among 671 patients who constituted the intent-to-treat population, overall success rates were as follows: 82% for the group treated with CIP/MTZ IV; 84% for the CIP/MTZ IV/PO group; and 82% for the IMI IV group. For 330 valid patients, treatment success occurred in 84% of patients treated with CIP/MTZ IV, 86% of those treated with CIP/MTZ IV/PO, and 81% of the patients treated with IMI IV. Analysis of microbiology in the 30 patients undergoing intervention after treatment failure suggested that persistence of gram-negative organisms was more common in the IMI IV-treated patients who subsequently failed. Of 46 CIP/MTZ IV/PO patients (active oral arm), treatment success occurred in 96%, compared with 89% for those treated with CIP/MTZ IV and 89% for those receiving IMI IV. Patients who received intravenous/oral therapy were treated, overall, for an average of 8.6 +/- 3.6 days, with an average of 4.0 +/- 3.0 days of oral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate statistical equivalence between CIP/MTZ IV and IMI IV in both the intent-to-treat and valid populations. Conversion to oral therapy with CIP/MTZ appears as effective as continued intravenous therapy in patients able to tolerate oral feedings. PMID:8604912

  13. Induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation for organ preservation compared to surgery with selective chemoradiation in patients with advanced oral cavity carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Spector, Matthew E.; Bellile, Emily L.; Rozek, Laura S.; Lin, Tasha; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Urba, Susan G.; Carey, Thomas E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory T.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an induction selection(IS) concurrent chemoradiation(CRT) protocol versus primary surgical extirpation in advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma(OCSCC). Design Retrospective matched cohort study Setting Tertiary care hospital Patients Nineteen patients with resectable stage III/IV OCSCC were into a phase II IS trial. Patients with >50% response underwent concurrent CRT and patients with <50% underwent surgical treatment and radiation therapy. A comparison cohort of patients treated with primary surgical extirpation was selected from the University of Michigan during a similar time period and frequency matched for inclusion criteria and patient characteristics to those patients included from the phase II IS trial. There was no difference in age, gender, pre-treatment AJCC-stage, T-classification, N-classification, smoking status, alcohol status, or tumor subsite between the two groups. Median follow-up was 9.4-years in the IS cohort and 7.1-years in the surgical cohort. Main Outcome Measures Overall Survival(OS), Disease-specific survival(DSS) and . Local-regional control(LRC) Results OS at 5-years was 32% in the IS group and 65% in the surgical cohort. DSS at 5-years was 46% in the IS group and 75% in the surgical cohort. LRC at 5-years was 26% in the IS cohort and 72% in the surgical cohort. Multivariable analysis demonstrated significantly better OS, DSS and LRC outcomes (p=0.03,p=0.001 and p=0.0005,respectively) in the surgical cohort. Conclusion Primary surgical treatment showed significantly better OS, DSS and LRC compared to IS in this matched patient cohort. Despite success of organ preservation IS protocols in the larynx, comparative survival analysis of an IS protocol versus primary surgical extirpation for OCSCC demonstrates significantly better outcomes in the surgical cohort. These findings support surgery as the principal treatment for OCSCC. PMID:24370563

  14. PI3K? deficiency enhances seizures severity and associated outcomes in a mouse model of convulsions induced by intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabel Vieira de Assis; Campos, Alline Cristina; Miranda, Aline Silva; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Amaral-Martins, Flávia; Vago, Juliana Priscila; Santos, Rebeca Priscila de Melo; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Vieira, Luciene Bruno; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Fiebich, Bernd L; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an enzyme involved in different pathophysiological processes, including neurological disorders. However, its role in seizures and postictal outcomes is still not fully understood. We investigated the role of PI3K? on seizures, production of neurotrophic and inflammatory mediators, expression of a marker for microglia, neuronal death and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice (WT and PI3K?(-/-)) subjected to intrahippocampal microinjection of pilocarpine. PI3K?(-/-) mice presented a more severe status epilepticus (SE) than WT mice. In hippocampal synaptosomes, genetic or pharmacological blockade of PI3K? enhanced the release of glutamate and the cytosolic calcium concentration induced by KCl. There was an enhanced neuronal death and a decrease in the doublecortin positive cells in the dentate gyrus of PI3K?(-/-) animals after the induction of SE. Levels of BDNF were significantly increased in the hippocampus of WT and PI3K?(-/-) mice, although in the prefrontal cortex, only PI3K?(-/-) animals showed significant increase in the levels of this neurotrophic factor. Pilocarpine increased hippocampal microglial immunolabeling in both groups, albeit in the prelimbic, medial and motor regions of the prefrontal cortex this increase was observed only in PI3K?(-/-) mice. Regarding the levels of inflammatory mediators, pilocarpine injection increased interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus of WT and PI3K?(-/-) animals and in the prefrontal cortex of PI3K?(-/-) animals 24h after the stimulus. Levels of TNF? were enhanced in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of only PI3K?(-/-) mice at this time point. On the other hand, PI3K? deletion impaired the increase in IL-10 in the hippocampus induced by pilocarpine. In conclusion, the lack of PI3K? revealed a deleterious effect in an animal model of convulsions induced by pilocarpine, suggesting that this enzyme may play a protective role in seizures and pathological outcomes associated with this condition. PMID:25749189

  15. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

  16. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day 28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)- methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups. PMID:22091463

  17. Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be caused by several things, including: Poor oral hygiene Some foods Dentures Gum disease Dry mouth Tobacco use Respiratory, ... other health problems Some medicines Practicing good oral hygiene and avoiding tobacco and some foods often helps people with bad-smelling breath. You ...

  18. Increased susceptibility to acetylcholine in the entorhinal cortex of pilocarpine-treated rats involves alterations in KCNQ channels.

    PubMed

    Maslarova, Anna; Salar, Seda; Lapilover, Ezequiel; Friedman, Alon; Veh, Rüdiger W; Heinemann, Uwe

    2013-08-01

    In models of temporal lobe epilepsy, in-vitro exposure of the entorhinal cortex (EC) to low concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) induces muscarinic-dependent seizure-like events. Potassium channels from the KCNQ/Kv7 family, which close upon activation of muscarinic receptors, are mutated in several epileptic syndromes such as benign familial neonatal convulsions (KCNQ2/KCNQ3) and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (KCNQ1). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether the ictogenic effect of ACh involves alterations of KCNQ channels. In horizontal temporo-hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rats, field potential recordings of epileptiform activity were performed in response to the application of ACh, the KCNQ blocker linopirdine, and KCNQ agonists. In the EC of control rats, ACh (20 and 50 ?M) induced nested fast activity in the range of 15-20 Hz riding on <1 Hz slow oscillations. By contrast, in slices from pilocarpine-treated rats, 5 ?M ACh was sufficient to induce interictal discharges that frequently transformed to epileptiform events at 20 ?M ACh. While the non-specific KCNQ/Kv7 channel blocker linopirdine (20 and 50 ?M) had no effect in control animals, in slices from epileptic rats it induced interictal discharges or seizure-like events. These could be blocked by the unspecific KCNQ/Kv7 agonist retigabine and attenuated by the Kv7.1 agonist L364-373. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced expression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in the EC and of KCNQ3-positive dendrites in the subiculum of epileptic rats. These results indicate that channels of the KCNQ family are key regulators of seizure susceptibility and their decreased availability in the epileptic tissue may reduce seizure threshold and contribute to ictogenesis. PMID:23583611

  19. A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low-Dose Oral Sodium Phosphate Plus Stimulant Laxatives with Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Colon Cleansing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C Hookey; William T Depew; Stephen J Vanner

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the combination of a single dose (45 ml) oral sodium phosphate (NaP), four bisacodyl tablets (5 mg), and one bisacodyl enema (10 mg) preparation, Fleet Prep Kit 3 (FPK #3), was better tolerated and more efficacious than 4 L polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) for colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled

  20. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF RADIONUCLIDES IN MAMMALS. I. UPTAKE AND RETENTION OF ORALLY ADMINISTERED Zn⁶⁵ BY FOUR MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Richmond; J. E. Furchner; G. A. Trafton; W. H. Langham

    1962-01-01

    Uptake and retention of a single oral administration of Zn⁶⁵Cl\\/sub ; 2\\/ in mice, rats, dogs, and 4 human subjects were studied by whole-body counting ; methods. Retention functions for each species were accurately represerted by ; multiple rate equations composed of three exponential terms. The average ; effective haif-time of the longest component (which accounts for approximately ; 95%

  1. Comparative study on the excretion of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside in mice after oral and intravenous administration by using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Chen, Yinghui; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the excretion of pure vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VOG) in mice following oral and intravenous administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A sensitive and specific HPLC method with hespridin as internal standard, a Diamonsil C18 column protected with a KR C18 guard column and a mixture consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.1% glacial acetic acid (6:2:18:74, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was developed and validated for quantitative analysis in biological samples. VOG could be excreted as prototype in excreta including urine and feces after both routes of administration, and the cumulative excretion of VOG was 24.31?±?11.10% (17.97?±?5.59% in urinary excretion; 6.34?±?5.51% in fecal excretion) following oral dosing and 5.66?±?3.94% (4.78?±?3.13% in urinary excretion; 0.88?±?0.81% in fecal excretion) following intravenous dosing. The results showed that the elimination of VOG after the two routes was fairly low, which meant that VOG was metabolized as other forms and the elimination after oral dosing was almost 4.3-fold that after intravenous dosing. For both routes of administration, VOG excreted as prototype in urine was much more than that in feces, nearly 2.83-fold for oral administration and 5.43-fold for intravenous administration, which should be attributed to enterohepatic circulation. Taken together, renal excretion was the dominant path of elimination of VOG for oral and intravenous administration in mice and biliary excretion contributed less. PMID:23760836

  2. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Nateglinide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken three times daily. Take ... that contain alcohol or sugar; mesoridazine (Serentil); niacin; oral contraceptives (birth control pills); perphenazine (Trilafon); phenelzine (Nardil); ...

  3. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  4. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  5. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  7. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  8. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  9. Activation of cerebral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma exerts neuroprotection by inhibiting oxidative stress following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yu; Xiao-Guang Shao; Hong Sun; Yong-Nan Li; Jun Yang; Yan-Chun Deng; Yuan-Gui Huang

    2008-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) can cause severe neuronal loss and oxidative damage. As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists possess antioxidative activity, we hypothesize that rosiglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, might protect the central nervous system (CNS) from oxidative damage in epileptic rats. Using a lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE model, we found that rosiglitazone significantly reduced hippocampal neuronal loss 1 week after SE, potently suppressed

  10. Progressive Metabolic Changes Underlying the Chronic Reorganization of Brain Circuits during the Silent Phase of the Lithium–Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy in the Immature and Adult Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Dubé; Sylvette Boyet; Christian Marescaux; Astrid Nehlig

    2000-01-01

    The lithium–pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy reproduces most of the features of human temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we explored the correlation between metabolic changes, neuronal damage, and epileptogenesis during the silent phase following status epilepticus (SE) induced by Li-Pilo in 10- (P10) and 21-day-old (P21) and adult rats. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglcs) were measured at

  11. Lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in immature rats result in long-term deficits in spatial learning and hippocampal cell loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Lu Wu; Li-Tung Huang; Chia-Wei Liou; Tzu-Jou Wang; Yu-Ren Tung; Hsin-Yueh Hsu; Ming-Chi Lai

    2001-01-01

    Rat pups age of 14 postnatal day (P14) were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PC) model of status epilepticus (SE). Control rats (n=6) were given an equivalent volume of saline intraperitoneally. Behavioral testing began on P60 including the Morris water maze, the radial arm maze, and the rotarod test. Brain were then analyzed with cresyl violet stain for histological lesions and evaluated

  12. Oral feeding.

    PubMed

    Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

  13. Comparative study of Pluronic(®) F127-modified liposomes and chitosan-modified liposomes for mucus penetration and oral absorption of cyclosporine A in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Xia, Dengning; Li, Xiuying; Zhu, Quanlei; Yu, Hongzhen; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Liposomes modified using cationic and hydrophilic nonionic polymers are 2 popular carriers for improving oral drug absorption. Cationic polymer-modified liposomes can adhere to the intestinal wall mucus (mucoadhesive type), while liposomes modified using hydrophilic nonionic polymers can penetrate across the mucus barrier (mucus-penetrating type). Chitosan-modified liposomes (CS-Lip, mucoadhesive type) and Pluronic(®) F127-modified liposomes (PF127-Lip, mucus-penetrating type) were engineered to investigate the differences between these mucoadhesive and mucus-penetrating systems in oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug, cyclosporine A (CyA). Stability of CS-Lip and PF127-Lip was studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The intestinal mucus adhesion or penetration of liposomes was studied by confocal laser scanning microcopy and fluorophotometry using coumarin 6 as the fluorescent probe. The oral absorption of CyA-loaded liposomes was also studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that CS-Lip tended to aggregate in SIF, to be trapped by mucus, to remain mainly in the upper portion of the intestinal tract, and to show limited penetration ability. In contrast, PF127-Lip were more stable in the SIF and SGF, were found throughout the intestinal tract, and were able to penetrate the mucus layers to reach the epithelial surface. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed that the Cmax and AUC0-t of PF127-Lip were 1.73- and 1.84-fold higher than those of CS-Lip, respectively (P<0.05). In conclusion, the stability and mucus-penetrating ability of PF127-Lip in the gastrointestinal tract rendered it more suitable than the mucoadhesive CS-Lip for oral delivery CyA. PMID:23583840

  14. Comparing the Visual Analogue Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Oral Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Naderi, Hodad; Robbins, James M.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Damiano, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), in measuring overall health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with oral clefts relative to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQLTM) Generic Core Scales, one of the most validated and commonly used methods to measure pediatric HRQoL. Methods: The study included a population-based sample of 307 children aged 5 to 10 years who were born in Iowa, New York, and Arkansas with non-syndromic oral clefts. Data on HRQoL were obtained using a VAS and PedsQLTM via self-administered interviews with the parents. We evaluated the correlations between the VAS and PedsQLTM total scores, and the correlations of each of these two scales with a series of child health and wellbeing indicators. Results: The VAS and PedsQLTM scores were well-correlated (r = 0.67). There were no prominent differences between the correlations of VAS and PedsQLTM with the selected indicators of child health and wellbeing; differences in correlations were less than 0.1. Differences in HRQoL by cleft type were more pronounced on the PedsQLTM. Conclusions: Our study finds the VAS to perform relatively well in measuring overall HRQoL among children with oral clefts. The VAS may be useful as a screening tool to identify children with oral clefts at risk of low HRQoL for referral into more comprehensive evaluations and for measuring average HRQoL across a sample of children. PMID:24743844

  15. Nanoparticle encapsulation improves oral bioavailability of curcumin by at least 9-fold when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shaikh; D. D. Ankola; V. Beniwal; D. Singh; M. N. V. Ravi Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin, a derived product from common spice turmeric that is safe and beneficial in several aliments was formulated into biodegradable nanoparticles with a view to improve its oral bioavailability. The curcumin encapsulated nanoparticles prepared by emulsion technique were spherical in shape with particle size of 264nm (polydispersity index 0.31) and 76.9% entrapment at 15% loading. The curcumin encapsulated nanoparticles were

  16. Effect of ketogenic diet on nucleotide hydrolysis and hepatic enzymes in blood serum of rats in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Müller, Alexandre Pastoris; Figueiró, Fabrício; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos L Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, used for treating refractory epilepsy in children. We have previously shown alterations in nucleotidase activities from the central nervous system and blood serum of rats submitted to different models of epilepsy. In this study we investigated the effect of KD on nucleotidase activities in the blood serum, as well if KD has any influence in the activity of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities in Wistar rats submitted to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. At 21 days of age, rats received an injection of lithium chloride and, 18-19 h later, they received an injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride for status epilepticus induction. The results reported herein show that seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine elicit a significant increase in ATP hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as a decrease in ADP hydrolysis and aspartate aminotransferase activity. The KD is a rigorous regimen that can be associated with hepatic damage, as shown herein by the elevated activities of liver enzymes and 5'-nucleotidase in blood serum. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of lithium on nucleotidases in blood serum. PMID:20443057

  17. Differential Injury Responses in Oral Mucosal and Cutaneous Wounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Szpaderska; J. D. Zuckerman; L. A. DiPietro

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucosa heals faster than does skin, yet few studies have compared the repair at oral mucosal and cutaneous sites. To determine whether the privileged healing of oral injuries involves a differential inflammatory phase, we compared the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine production in wounds of equivalent size in oral mucosa and skin. Significantly lower levels of macrophage, neutrophil, and

  18. An observational study comparing 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance with fasting plasma glucose in pregnant women: both poorly predictive of birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Ouzilleau, Christian; Roy, Marie-Andrée; Leblanc, Louiselle; Carpentier, André; Maheux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Background The definition and treatment of glucose intolerance during pregnancy are matters of intense controversy. Our goal was to examine the value of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in terms of its ability to predict birth weight percentile in a group of women with singleton pregnancies who received minimal treatment for their glucose intolerance. Methods We reviewed the results of OGTTs performed between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation in a group of 300 consecutive high-risk women (mean age 29.5 years [95% confidence interval, CI, 28.9–30.1]; parity 1.5 [95% CI 1.4–1.7]) whose plasma glucose level 1 hour after a randomly administered 50-g glucose load was 8.0 mmol/L or above. These data were compared with results for a randomly selected control group of 300 women whose plasma glucose level 1 hour after a 50-g glucose load was less than 8.0 mmol/L (mean age 28.0 years [95% CI 27.4–28.6]; parity 1.5 [95% CI 1.3–1.6]). Results For 76 (25.3%) of the 300 high-risk women, the plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g glucose load (confirmatory OGTT) was 7.8 mmol/L or more, but only 6 of these were treated with insulin, which emphasizes the low level of intervention in this group. Thirty (10.0%) of the neonates in this group were large for gestational age (LGA; adjusted weight at or above the 90th percentile). This proportion did not significantly differ from the proportion for the control group (25 or 8.3%). After exclusion of the 6 insulin-treated women, simple correlations between birth weight percentile and fasting or 2-hour plasma glucose levels were very weak (r = 0.23 and 0.16 respectively; p < 0.01). The correlation between birth weight percentile and fasting or 2-hour plasma glucose persisted in a multiple regression analysis that included the following maternal variables: age, prepregnancy weight, weight gain during pregnancy, parity and smoking. In the multivariate models, the standardized coefficients for fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose levels were low (r = 0.19 [p < 0.001] and r = 0.13 [p = 0.02] respectively). These multivariate models could not explain more than 22% of the total variability in birth weight percentile. Interpretation In this population of pregnant, untreated diabetic women, plasma glucose levels (either fasting or after various glucose loads) were independently but poorly correlated with birth weight; no more than 3% to 5% of birth weight variability could be explained by changes in glucose tolerance. Fasting plasma glucose was consistently but marginally better than the plasma glucose level 2 hours after 75-g glucose load for predicting LGA neonates. We conclude that neonatal macrosomia is influenced by variables that are largely independent of plasma glucose concentrations. PMID:12591779

  19. A comparative study between the efficacy of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shanehsaz, Siavash M; Ishkhanian, Silva

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major world health problem, which is increasing in incidence. Pentavalent antimonials have been considered as standard treatment for leishmaniasis. Many studies are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for patients with CL. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL. This study was, to our knowledge, the first to show the effect of combination therapy oral cimetidine and MA in the treatment of CL all over the world. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 patients with suspected CL were referred to the Aleppo University Hospital Clinic; 90 of these patients with the clinical and parasitological diagnosis of CL were recruited and were randomly divided into three treatment groups of 30 subjects each. Group A was treated with MA 60 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo. Groups B and C received MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral cimetidine 1200 mg/d, MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo, respectively. The duration of treatment was three weeks for all groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was classified in three levels as complete response, partial response, and no response. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using KI square, Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Mayer, and ANOVA tests. At the end of the study (12 weeks), the rate of complete response was 91.11% in the first group, and 84.66% and 78.33% in groups B and C, respectively (P < 0.05). The highest response rate was for the group treated with a standard dose of systemic MA and placebo. Our results showed that although oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic MA had less efficacy in comparison to a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL, it still can be considered as a replacement therapy in high-risk patients (such as patients with heart, kidney, and/or liver disease) under close supervision of physicians. PMID:26108265

  20. A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis. PMID:21191530

  1. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus”) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus”) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive oral mucosa, e.g., in cases of aggressive cancer therapy or for patients with tracheostoma. PMID:24653972

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  3. Oral Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

  4. Cystic fibrosis in Korean children:a case report identified by a quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat test and genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kang Mo; Park, Hwa Young; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Min Goo; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kang, Im Ju; Lee, Sang Il

    2005-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and the mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene contributes to the CF syndrome. Although CF is common in Caucasians, it is known to be rare in Asians. Recently, we experienced two cases of CF in Korean children. The patients were girls with chronic productive cough since early infancy. Chest computed tomography showed the diffuse bronchiectasis in both lungs, and their diagnosis was confirmed by the repeated analysis of a quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis test (QPIT). The sweat chloride concentrations of the first patient were 108.1 mM/L and 96.7 mM/L. The genetic analysis revealed that she was the compound heterozygote of Q1291X and IVS8 T5-M470V. In the second case, the sweat chloride concentrations were 95.0 mM/L and 77.5 mM/L. Although we performed a comprehensive search for the coding regions and exon-intron splicing junctions of CFTR gene, no obvious disease-related mutations were detected in the second case. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CF in Korean children identified by a QPIT and genetic analysis. The possibility of CF should be suspected in those patients with chronic respiratory symptoms even in Korea. PMID:15716623

  5. Cystic Fibrosis in Korean Children: A Case Report Identified by a Quantitative Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Sweat Test and Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kang-Mo; Park, Hwa-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Min-Goo; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kang, Im-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and the mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene contributes to the CF syndrome. Although CF is common in Caucasians, it is known to be rare in Asians. Recently, we experienced two cases of CF in Korean children. The patients were girls with chronic productive cough since early infancy. Chest computed tomography showed the diffuse bronchiectasis in both lungs, and their diagnosis was confirmed by the repeated analysis of a quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis test (QPIT). The sweat chloride concentrations of the first patient were 108.1 mM/L and 96.7 mM/L. The genetic analysis revealed that she was the compound heterozygote of Q1291X and IVS8 T5-M470V. In the second case, the sweat chloride concentrations were 95.0 mM/L and 77.5 mM/L. Although we performed a comprehensive search for the coding regions and exon-intron splicing junctions of CFTR gene, no obvious disease-related mutations were detected in the second case. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CF in Korean children identified by a QPIT and genetic analysis. The possibility of CF should be suspected in those patients with chronic respiratory symptoms even in Korea. PMID:15716623

  6. A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

    2014-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL(-1) at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL(-1) vs. 2.4 g dL(-1) ) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. PMID:24639149

  7. A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL?1 at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL?1 vs. 2.4 g dL?1) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. Am. J. Hematol. 89:646–650, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639149

  8. Immune responses to the O-specific polysaccharide antigen in children who received a killed oral cholera vaccine compared to responses following natural cholera infection in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel T; Uddin, Taher; Xu, Peng; Aktar, Amena; Johnson, Russell A; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Bufano, Meagan Kelly; Eckhoff, Grace; Wu-Freeman, Ying; Yu, Yanan; Sultana, Tania; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraf I; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Kovác, Pavol; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2013-06-01

    Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower levels of protective efficacy and shorter durations of protection in young children than in adults. Immunity against cholera is serogroup specific, and immune responses to Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the antigen that mediates serogroup-specific responses, are associated with protection against disease. Despite this, responses against V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), a key component of the LPS responsible for specificity, have not been characterized in children. Here, we report a comparison of polysaccharide antibody responses in children from a region in Bangladesh where cholera is endemic, including infants (6 to 23 months, n = 15), young children (24 to 59 months, n = 14), and older children (5 to 15 years, n = 23) who received two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine 14 days apart. We found that infants and young children receiving the vaccine did not mount an IgG, IgA, or IgM antibody response to V. cholerae OSP or LPS, whereas older children showed significant responses. In comparison to the vaccinees, young children with wild-type V. cholerae O1 Ogawa infection did mount significant antibody responses against OSP and LPS. We also demonstrated that OSP responses correlated with age in vaccinees, but not in cholera patients, reflecting the ability of even young children with wild-type cholera to develop OSP responses. These differences might contribute to the lower efficacy of protection rendered by vaccination than by wild-type disease in young children and suggest that efforts to improve lipopolysaccharide-specific responses might be critical for achieving optimal cholera vaccine efficacy in this younger age group. PMID:23515016

  9. Immune Responses to the O-Specific Polysaccharide Antigen in Children Who Received a Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine Compared to Responses following Natural Cholera Infection in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Taher; Xu, Peng; Aktar, Amena; Johnson, Russell A.; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Bufano, Meagan Kelly; Eckhoff, Grace; Wu-Freeman, Ying; Yu, Yanan; Sultana, Tania; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraf I.; Charles, Richelle C.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ková?, Pavol; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower levels of protective efficacy and shorter durations of protection in young children than in adults. Immunity against cholera is serogroup specific, and immune responses to Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the antigen that mediates serogroup-specific responses, are associated with protection against disease. Despite this, responses against V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), a key component of the LPS responsible for specificity, have not been characterized in children. Here, we report a comparison of polysaccharide antibody responses in children from a region in Bangladesh where cholera is endemic, including infants (6 to 23 months, n = 15), young children (24 to 59 months, n = 14), and older children (5 to 15 years, n = 23) who received two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine 14 days apart. We found that infants and young children receiving the vaccine did not mount an IgG, IgA, or IgM antibody response to V. cholerae OSP or LPS, whereas older children showed significant responses. In comparison to the vaccinees, young children with wild-type V. cholerae O1 Ogawa infection did mount significant antibody responses against OSP and LPS. We also demonstrated that OSP responses correlated with age in vaccinees, but not in cholera patients, reflecting the ability of even young children with wild-type cholera to develop OSP responses. These differences might contribute to the lower efficacy of protection rendered by vaccination than by wild-type disease in young children and suggest that efforts to improve lipopolysaccharide-specific responses might be critical for achieving optimal cholera vaccine efficacy in this younger age group. PMID:23515016

  10. Oral sedation.

    PubMed

    Dionne, R

    1998-09-01

    "I fear a trip to the dentist more than I fear death" is the response one person gave in a national survey recently cited in USA Today. While clearly representing an extreme, the results of many surveys suggest that fear of dentistry is still prevalent and is a measure of the failure of current therapeutic approaches to reduce pain and anxiety sufficiently to enable people, especially those with special needs, to visit the dentist. Patients who are fearful would likely seek oral health care more regularly if anesthesia and sedation were more readily available. Taking into consideration that the safety of anxiolytic drugs is highly dependent on the drug, dose, and route of administration used, oral premedication should be the sedative technique used by most dentists because it is efficacious, requires little monitoring when appropriate doses are used, and is unlikely to result in serious morbidity. PMID:9852800

  11. Neuronal degeneration is observed in multiple regions outside the hippocampus after lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat.

    PubMed

    Scholl, E A; Dudek, F E; Ekstrand, J J

    2013-11-12

    Although hippocampal sclerosis is frequently identified as a possible epileptic focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, neuronal loss has also been observed in additional structures, including areas outside the temporal lobe. The claim from several researchers using animal models of acquired epilepsy that the immature brain can develop epilepsy without evidence of hippocampal neuronal death raises the possibility that neuronal death in some of these other regions may also be important for epileptogenesis. The present study used the lithium pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy in immature animals to assess which structures outside the hippocampus are injured acutely after status epilepticus. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were implanted with surface EEG electrodes, and status epilepticus was induced at 20 days of age with lithium pilocarpine. After 72 h, brain tissue from 12 animals was examined with Fluoro-Jade B, a histochemical marker for degenerating neurons. All animals that had confirmed status epilepticus demonstrated Fluoro-Jade B staining in areas outside the hippocampus. The most prominent staining was seen in the thalamus (mediodorsal, paratenial, reuniens, and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei), amygdala (ventral lateral, posteromedial, and basomedial nuclei), ventral premammillary nuclei of hypothalamus, and paralimbic cortices (perirhinal, entorhinal, and piriform) as well as parasubiculum and dorsal endopiriform nuclei. These results demonstrate that lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat brain consistently results in neuronal injury in several distinct areas outside of the hippocampus. Many of these regions are similar to areas damaged in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, thus suggesting a possible role in epileptogenesis. PMID:23896573

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of active alkaloids after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract and Wuji Wan formulas in rat using a UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Yuejie; Wang, Yajie; Yang, Qing; Dong, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yiwei; Gong, Zipeng; Zhang, Ruijie

    2015-03-01

    Wuji Wan (WJW), containing Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian in Chinese, HL), Frutus Evodiae Rutaecarpae (Wuzhuyu, WZY) and Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, BS), is a classical traditional Chinese medical formula employed in treating intestinal disorders. Berberine (BBR) and palmatine (PMT) are the major active alkaloids in HL and have analgesic and anti-microbial effects. A sensitive, specific and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of BBR and PMT in rat plasma and in situ intestinal perfusion solution. In comparison with the pharmacokinetic parameters of BBR and PMT, t 1/2, C max, T max, AUC, CL and MRT after intragastric (i.g.) administration with HL extract alone, those remarkably changed after i.g. administration with WJW formulas 1 and 2 (herb proportions are 12:2:3 and 12:1:12). Particularly, the oral bioavailability of PMT in WJW formula 1 was significantly increased. In rat intestinal perfusion experiments, the apparent permeability coefficient value of PMT was (1.45 ± 0.72) × 10(-5) cm/s when perfusion with HL was performed, and the value was significantly increased to (3.92 ± 0.52) × 10(-5) cm/s on perfusion with WJW formula 1. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetic parameters and absorption of BBR and PMT are affected by the other herbs or ingredients from WJW formulas. PMID:24577954

  13. Oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: comparative pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Solange; Zimmermann, Stefan; Adjei, Alex A

    2014-09-01

    The development of orally active small molecule inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has led to new treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with activating mutations of the EGFR gene show sensitivity to, and clinical benefit from, treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKls). First generation reversible ATP-competitive EGFR-TKls, gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first, second-line or maintenance therapy. Despite initial benefit, most patients develop resistance within a year, 50-60% of cases being related to the appearance of a T790M gatekeeper mutation. Newer, irreversible EGFR-TKls - afatinib and dacomitinib - covalently bind to and inhibit multiple receptors in the ErbB family (EGFR, HER2 and HER4). These agents have been mainly evaluated for first-line treatment but also in the setting of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKls. Afatinib is the first ErbB family blocker approved for patients with NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations; dacomitinib is in late stage clinical development. Mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors (AZD9291, CO-1686, HM61713) that specifically target the T790M resistance mutation are in early development. The EGFR-TKIs differ in their spectrum of target kinases, reversibility of binding to EGFR receptor, pharmacokinetics and potential for drug-drug interactions, as discussed in this review. For the clinician, these differences are relevant in the setting of polymedicated patients with NSCLC, as well as from the perspective of innovative anticancer drug combination strategies. PMID:25027951

  14. Stereological analysis of GluR2-immunoreactive hilar neurons in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yiqun; Nadler, J. Victor

    2007-01-01

    Mossy fiber sprouting and the genesis of ectopic granule cells contribute to reverberating excitation in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain. This study determined whether the extent of sprouting after status epilepticus in rats correlates with the seizure-induced degeneration of GluR2-immunoreactive (GluR2+) hilar neurons (presumptive mossy cells) and also quantitated granule cell-like GluR2-immunoreactive hilar neurons. Stereological cell counting indicated that GluR2+ neurons account for 57% of the total hilar neuron population. Prolonged pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus killed 95% of these cells. A smaller percentage of GluR2+ neurons (74%) was killed when status epilepticus was interrupted after 1-3.5 h with a single injection of phenobarbital, and the number of residual GluR2+ neurons varied among animals by a factor of 6.2. GluR2+ neurons were not necessarily more vulnerable than other hilar neurons. In rats administered phenobarbital, the extent of recurrent mossy fiber growth varied inversely and linearly with the number of GluR2+ hilar neurons that remained intact (P = 0.0001). Thus the loss of each GluR2+ neuron was associated with roughly the same amount of sprouting. These findings support the hypothesis that mossy fiber sprouting is driven largely by the degeneration of and/or loss of innervation from mossy cells. Granule cell-like GluR2-immunoreactive neurons were rarely encountered in the hilus of control rats, but increased 6- to 140-fold after status epilepticus. Their number did not correlate with the extent of hilar cell death or mossy fiber sprouting in the same animal. The morphology, number, and distribution of these neurons suggested that they were hilar ectopic granule cells. PMID:17475251

  15. High Ratio of Synaptic Excitation to Synaptic Inhibition in Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells of Pilocarpine-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ren-Zhi; Timofeeva, Olga

    2010-01-01

    After experimental status epilepticus, many dentate granule cells born into the postseizure environment migrate aberrantly into the dentate hilus. Hilar ectopic granule cells (HEGCs) have also been found in persons with epilepsy. These cells exhibit a high rate of spontaneous activity, which may enhance seizure propagation. Electron microscopic studies indicated that HEGCs receive more recurrent mossy fiber innervation than normotopic granule cells in the same animals but receive much less inhibitory innervation. This study used hippocampal slices prepared from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus to test the hypothesis that an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition contributes to the hyperexcitability of HEGCs. Mossy fiber stimulation evoked a much smaller GABAA receptor–mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSC) in HEGCs than in normotopic granule cells from either control rats or rats that had experienced status epilepticus. However, recurrent mossy fiber-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of similar size were recorded from HEGCs and normotopic granule cells in status epilepticus–experienced rats. HEGCs exhibited the highest frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and the lowest frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) of any granule cell group. On average, both mEPSCs and mIPSCs were of higher amplitude, transferred more charge per event, and exhibited slower kinetics in HEGCs than in granule cells from control rats. Charge transfer per unit time in HEGCs was greater for mEPSCs and much less for mIPSCs than in the normotopic granule cell groups. A high ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synaptic function probably accounts, in part, for the hyperexcitability of HEGCs. PMID:20881195

  16. Enhanced Tonic GABA Current in Normotopic and Hilar Ectopic Dentate Granule Cells After Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ren-Zhi; Nadler, J. Victor

    2009-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy, loss of inhibitory neurons and circuit changes in the dentate gyrus promote hyperexcitability. This hyperexcitability is compensated to the point that dentate granule cells exhibit normal or even subnormal excitability under some conditions. This study explored the possibility that compensation involves enhanced tonic GABA inhibition. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were made from normotopic granule cells in hippocampal slices from control rats and from both normotopic and hilar ectopic granule cells in slices from rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. After status epilepticus, tonic GABA current was an order of magnitude greater than control in normotopic granule cells and was significantly greater in hilar ectopic than in normotopic granule cells. These differences could be observed whether or not the extracellular GABA concentration was increased by adding GABA to the superfusion medium or blocking plasma membrane transport. The enhanced tonic GABA current had both action potential–dependent and action potential–independent components. Pharmacological studies suggested that the small tonic GABA current of granule cells in control rats was mediated largely by high-affinity ?4?x? GABAA receptors but that the much larger current recorded after status epilepticus was mediated largely by the lower-affinity ?5?x?2 GABAA receptors. A large ?5?x?2-mediated tonic current could be recorded from controls only when the extracellular GABA concentration was increased. Status epilepticus seemed not to impair the control of extracellular GABA concentration by plasma membrane transport substantially. Upregulated tonic GABA inhibition may account for the unexpectedly modest excitability of the dentate gyrus in epileptic brain. PMID:19474175

  17. Decreased expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism in the hippocampal granular layer of rats submitted to the pilocarpine epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Bruno; Torres, Laila; Stein, Mariana; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Herai, Roberto; Okamoto, Oswaldo; Cavalheiro, Esper

    2014-02-21

    Long-term structural and functional changes in the hippocampus have been identified as the primary physiopathological basis for temporal lobe epilepsy. These changes include reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus. The intimate mechanisms of these changes are beginning to be revealed. Here, we show the possibility of using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate the dentate granular cell layer of Wistar rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and mass spectrometry for laser-captured cells, we identified molecular events that could be altered as part of the epileptic pathogenic process. According to our results, eight proteins related to energy metabolism were differentially expressed between both the control and pilocarpine-treated animals. These results provide, for the first time, new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and can contribute to a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the genesis and maintenance of the epileptic state. PMID:24373985

  18. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

  19. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking ... Nicotine oral inhalation comes as a cartridge to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. Follow the directions on ...

  20. [Oral hygiene with tongue cleaners].

    PubMed

    Neander, Klaus-Dieter

    2004-04-01

    The investigation presented here is part of a series of studies on oral hygiene that deal with a very common problem occurring in everyday practice. Two different methods of mouth cleaning were tested in a comparative study on 150 subjects. At least in German-speaking countries, our methodology was groundbreaking in that measuring tools for evaluation of the oral hygiene measures implemented had not been available thus far. The results of this study clearly showed that the typical method of oral hygiene (gauze wrapped around a wooden spatula and toothbrush) produces much poorer cleaning results than the method using tongue cleaners. Surprisingly, we also observed that the eating habits of the participants "treated" with tongue cleaners improved markedly. Thus, we were able to conclusively demonstrate a connection between oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency. PMID:15137672

  1. Comparative bioavailability of two oral formulations of clopidogrel: determination of clopidogrel and its carboxylic acid metabolite (SR26334) under fasting and fed conditions in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Nina; Lachance, Sylvain; Lévesque, Ann; Breznik, Marjanca; Cvitkovi? Mar?i?, Lea; Merslavi?, Mateja; Grabnar, Iztok; Mateovi?-Rojnik, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Two randomized, single dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative bioavailability of two clopidogrel formulations under fasting and fed conditions. Assessment of bioequivalence was based upon measurement of plasma concentrations of the parent drug, clopidogrel, and its major (inactive) metabolite, clopidogrel carboxylic acid, using improved methanol-free extraction. Bioequivalence of Krka's formulation to the innovator's formulation was demonstrated under both fasting and fed conditions on 205 volunteers. Confidence intervals for AUC0-t, AUC0-inf and Cmax of clopidogrel and its main metabolite were well within the acceptance range of 80.00 to 125.00 %. Food substantially increased the bioavailability of clopidogrel from both formulations, while no effect of food on the extent and rate of exposure to the metabolite was observed. The effect of food was comparable between the two formulations, as indicated by the same direction and rank of food impact on the bioavailability of both formulations. PMID:24670351

  2. Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two oral formulations of flurbiprofen: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study in Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Aisha; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Abbas, Mateen

    2013-11-01

    Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:24191330

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Oral Drug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Meng, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in elder men and a number of drugs alone or combined are clinically used for this disorder. But available studies investigating the comparative effects of different drug therapies are limited. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH with network meta-analysis. Materials and Methods An electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH within 24 weeks. Comparative effects were calculated using Aggregate Data Drug Information System. Consistency models of network meta-analysis were created and cumulative probability was used to rank different therapies. Results A total 66 RCTs covering seven different therapies with 29384 participants were included. We found that ?-blockers (ABs) plus phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) ranked highest in the test of IPSS total score, storage subscore and voiding subscore. The combination therapy of ABs plus 5?-reductase inhibitors was the best for increasing maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) with a mean difference (MD) of 1.98 (95% CI, 1.12 to 2.86) as compared to placebo. ABs plus muscarinic receptor antagonists (MRAs) ranked secondly on the reduction of IPSS storage subscore, although monotherapies including MRAs showed no effect on this aspect. Additionally, PDE5-Is alone showed great effectiveness for LUTS/BPH except Qmax. Conclusions Based on our novel findings, combination therapy, especially ABs plus PDE5-Is, is recommended for short-term treatment for LUTS/BPH. There was also evidence that PDE5-Is used alone was efficacious except on Qmax. Additionally, it should be cautious when using MRAs. However, further clinical studies are required for longer duration which considers more treatment outcomes such as disease progression, as well as basic research investigating mechanisms involving PDE5-Is and other pharmacologic agents alleviate the symptoms of LUTS/BPH. PMID:25216271

  4. Comparative Genomics of Oral Isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico Genome Subtraction Does Not Reveal Accessory DNA Associated with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5 to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 bp to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool, with a user-friendly JAVA graphical interface. PMID:24291226

  5. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 23). A comparative 2- and 4-week repeated oral dose testicular toxicity study of boric acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Kudo, S; Tanase, H; Yamasaki, M; Nakao, M; Miyata, Y; Tsuru, K; Imai, S

    2000-10-01

    To assess the validity and limitations of 2-week repeated daily dosing to detect toxic effects on male reproductive organs in rodents, a comparative 2- and 4-week oral repeated dosing study of boric acid, a known testicular toxicant, was given to 6- or 8-week-old Crj:Wistar rats at daily levels of 0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The ages of the rats were selected so that they were all sacrificed at 10 weeks of age. The testes and epididymides were weighed at necropsy; histopathological specimens were prepared in a routine manner and stained with H&E or PAS-H. In addition, the sperm number and motility rates were evaluated. There were no boric acid-induced effects on reproductive organ weights and on gross behavior/appearance in any groups in either the 2- or 4-week studies. The sperm number and motility rate were not decreased in any group after 2 weeks, while both decreased in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups after 4 weeks. Histopathologically, as evidence of toxicity at the early stage of boric acid exposure, retention of step 19 spermatids of stages IX-XI was observed in the testes of almost all rats treated with 500 mg/kg after both 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Degenerative/necrotic germ cells and multinucleated giant cell formation were observed in 2 weeks, though to a lesser extent than in 4 weeks. On stage analysis of germinal cells in 2 weeks, spermatogonia and spermatids of stage VII were found to be decreased, and pachytene spermatocytes of stage X were increased. In conclusion, the results indicate that if the selection of doses is appropriate, testicular toxicity of boric acid can be detected even after only 2 weeks of repeated daily oral treatment. PMID:11349447

  6. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  7. Comparative pharmacological profile of muscarinic agonists in the isolated ileum, the pithed rat, and the mouse charcoal meal transit test.

    PubMed

    Williams, P D; Colbert, W E; Shetler, T J; Turk, J A

    1992-03-01

    1. Several reportedly selective (McN-A-343, M1; RS-86, M2; pilocarpine, M3) and non-selective (oxotremorine, acetylcholine, cis-dioxalone, arecoline, muscarine) muscarinic agonists were examined for comparative pharmacological potency in three diverse models: the guinea pig ileum, the pithed rat, and the mouse charcoal meal transit test. 2. In the guinea pig ileum, all of the compounds examined were associated with concentration-dependent contractions. 3. The apparent order of potency in the isolated ileum was cis-dioxalone greater than acetylcholine greater than oxotremorine greater than arecoline greater than RS-86 greater than pilocarpine greater than McN-A-343. 4. The pA2 values for atropine and pirenzepine in the ileum ranged from 8.4 to 9.4 and 6.1 to 7.7, respectively, indicative of a single receptor, most likely M3. 5. In the mouse charcoal meal transit test, non-selective muscarinic agonists produced dose-dependent increases in gastrointestinal transit, while selective agonists failed to produce any significant changes. 6. Scopolamine methylbromide, a peripherally acting non-selective muscarinic antagonist, significantly reduced the ability of muscarine to increase transit. 7. The compounds were further examined for dose-dependent pressor effects in the pithed rat, which are known to be mediated by stimulation of M1-receptors in sympathetic ganglia. 8. McN-A-343 produced the greatest pressor response, as measured by the percent increase in mean pressure, followed by pilocarpine. 9. Pirenzepine antagonized the pressor response of McN-A-343 and pilocarpine in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:1639230

  8. Oral muscosal melanomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce F Barker; William M Carpenter; Troy E Daniels; Michael A Kahn; Alan S Leider; Francina Lozada-Nur; Denis P Lynch; Raymond Melrose; Philip Merrell; Thomas Morton; Edmund Peters; Joseph A Regezi; Susan D Richards; Gordon M Rick; Michael D Rohrer; Lee Slater; Jeffery C. B Stewart; Charles E Tomich; Robert A Vickers; Norman K Wood; Stephen K Young

    1997-01-01

    A workshop to discuss primary oral melanomas was convened at the annual Western Society of Teachers of Oral Pathology meeting in Bannf, Alberta, Canada. Fifty oral melanomas, identified from the files of the participants, were reviewed in order to better understand the clinical features, histologic spectrum, and natural history of these perplexing lesions. Results confirmed that oral melanomas occur in

  9. Nutrition and oral cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Marshall; Peter Boyle

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and oral cancer is reviewed. Ecologic and case-control studies provide most of the evidence regarding the nutritional epidemiology of oral cancer. The ecologic evidence is that the considerable geographic variation in the incidence of oral cancer is consistent with variation in nutrition. Because incipient oral cancer is likely to affect the diets of

  10. Plasticizer effect and comparative evaluation of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes for oral osmotic pumps of naproxen sodium.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, N; Mishra, B

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of cellulose acetate (CA) and ethylcellulose (EC)-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes (SPMs) for osmotic pump tablets (OPTs) of naproxen sodium (NPS) so as to deliver a constant, predetermined amount of drug in solution form over a fixed span of time, independent of external environmental conditions. Osmotic pump tablets were designed with different coating variables and optimized in terms of nature of plasticizer, membrane thickness, and orifice diameter. The effect of insertion of an inner microporous film around the NPS core to minimize deformation of the SPM due to peristaltic movement of the gut was also studied. Osmotic pump tablets composed of membranes with water-soluble plasticizer, propyleneglycol (PG), released drug mainly through diffusion, whereas those designed with CA and EC-HPMC (4:1) coats containing water-insoluble plasticizer, castor oil, released their contents by perfect zero-order kinetics over a prolonged period of time, though the average release rate that could be achieved with the EC-HPMC (4:1) membrane was only about half the rate achieved with the CA membrane for the same membrane thickness. Release rates for both the membranes decreased with increasing membrane thickness and were found to be independent of orifice diameter, agitation intensity, and pH of the dissolution medium. PMID:12056533

  11. Observance du traitement hormonal substitutif de la ménopause : résultats d’une étude prospective française de deux ans, comparant un traitement transdermique et une association fixe par voie orale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Serfaty; P de Reilhac; E Eschwege; V Ringa; P Blin; A Nandeuil; C Tavera; M Mathieu

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. – To evaluate rates of continuation with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at 2 years in 2 cohorts of female patients, one of which was treated with a set combination of oral oestradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate and the other with percutaneous 17 ?-oestradiol gel combined with an oral progestogen selected by the prescribing doctor.Patients and methods. – A prospective,

  12. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  13. Palifermin for Oral Mucositis after Intensive Therapy for Hematologic Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Spielberger; Patrick Stiff; William Bensinger; Teresa Gentile; Daniel Weisdorf; Tarun Kewalramani; Thomas Shea; Saul Yanovich; Keith Hansen; Stephen Noga; John McCarty; C. Frederick LeMaistre; Eric C. Sung; Bruce R. Blazar; Dieter Elhardt; Mon-Gy Chen; Christos Emmanouilides

    2009-01-01

    background Oral mucositis is a complication of intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no ef- fective treatment. We tested the ability of palifermin (recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor) to decrease oral mucosal injury induced by cytotoxic therapy. methods This double-blind study compared the effect of palifermin with that of a placebo on the development of oral mucositis in 212 patients with

  14. The extracellular matrix protein SC1/hevin localizes to excitatory synapses following status epilepticus in the rat lithium-pilocarpine seizure model.

    PubMed

    Lively, Starlee; Brown, Ian R

    2008-10-01

    The epileptic brain is characterized by increased susceptibility to neuronal hyperexcitability. The rat lithium-pilocarpine model, which mimics many features of temporal lobe epilepsy, has been used to study processes leading to the development of recurrent seizures. After a prolonged seizure episode, termed status epilepticus (SE), neural changes occur during a period known as epileptogenesis and include neuronal cell death, reactive gliosis, axonal sprouting, and synaptogenesis. Extracellular matrix adhesion molecules are important regulators of synaptogenesis and axonal sprouting resulting from SE. SC1, also known as hevin, is an antiadhesive extracellular matrix molecule that localizes to synapses in the mammalian brain. In this study, the distribution of SC1 protein in neurons following SE was examined using the lithium-pilocarpine model. SC1 protein levels in neuronal cell bodies showed a transient decrease at 1 day post-SE, which coincided with an increase of SC1 in the synapse-rich neuropil that was identified with the synaptic marker synaptophysin. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the decrease of SC1 signal in neurons at 1 day post-SE and showed that SC1 remained localized to postsynaptic elements throughout the seizure time course. Increased colocalization of SC1 was detected with the excitatory synaptic markers vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), AMPA receptor subunit GluR1, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1, but not with the inhibitory synaptic markers vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 (GABA(A) beta2), which could reflect enhanced association of SC1 with excitatory synapses. These findings suggest that SC1 may be involved in synaptic modifications underlying epileptogenesis. PMID:18488994

  15. Simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III and four ginsenosides by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat and beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiaowen; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-05-01

    A fast, selective, and quantitative ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rg1 in the plasma of rat and beagle dog after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. After addition of the internal standard, salidroside, the plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with methanol/0.01% acetic acid water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in a switching ionization mode. The method was examined, and found to be precise and accurate with the linearity range of the compounds. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of the analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard were all >75.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat and beagle dog plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of ginsenoside Rg1, while the others had significant differences, which may due to the different mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. PMID:24610822

  16. Comparison of sublingually and orally administered triazolam for premedication before oral surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W Berthold; Raymond A Dionne; Sharon E Corey

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated sublingual administration of triazolam for preoperative sedation in dental outpatients.Study design. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared 0.25 mg sublingual triazolam, 0.25 mg oral triazolam, and placebo administered 1 hour before oral surgery.Results. Sublingual triazolam resulted in significantly less anxiety and pain at 15 minutes intraoperatively than both oral triazolam and placebo (p < 0.05). Patients' global

  17. Adherence of oral streptococci to keratinized and nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sklavounou, A; Germaine, G R

    1980-02-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius to adhere to keratinized versus nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells was compared. S. mitis and S. salivarius exhibited significantly greater adherence to keratinized cells than to nonkeratinized cells. S. mutans and S. sanguis adhered equally well to either epithelial cell type. It is concluded that keratinization of epithelial cells may be a significant factor in the adherence of certain oral streptococci to the oral mucosa. PMID:6155336

  18. Evaluation of an oral care protocol intervention in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in paediatric cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. F Cheng; A Molassiotis; A. M Chang; W. C Wai; S. S Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Oral mucositis is the most frequent and severe complication of chemotherapy in children with cancer that can aggravate the child's clinical condition and increase the risk of infection. This prospective comparative study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a preventive oral care protocol in reducing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children with cancer. During an 8-month period, 42 children aged

  19. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto(®)) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto (®)) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ? 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  20. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto(®)) and an Oral Afoxolaner Chewable (NexGard (®)) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This randomised controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours postinfestation on dogs when compared to oral afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) / flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) afoxolaner chewable (dosage 3.1 - 6.2 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, and 28; live (attached and non-attached) and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against live D. variabilis at 6 hours for Group 1 was 95 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 38 - 48 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 97 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 27 - 59 %. Efficacy against A. americanum at 6 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 % and for Group 2 was < 0 - 38 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 98 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 1 - 40 %. Live and total (total live and dead attached) tick counts in Group 1 against both tick species were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) than Group 2 and 3 at all time points. The number of live or total ticks on Group 2 dogs was never significantly lower when compared to the respective number of ticks on Group 3 (controls). This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than afoxolaner on all challenge days. PMID:26152410

  1. A pharmacokinetic study comparing single and repeated oral doses of 20 mg and 40 mg omeprazole and its two optical isomers, S omeprazole (esomeprazole) and R omeprazole, in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hassan-Alin; T. Andersson; M. Niazi; K. Röhss

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacokinetics of S-omeprazole (esomeprazole), R-omeprazole and racemic omeprazole following single and repeated oral doses of 20 mg and 40 mg of each compound in healthy male and female subjects. Methods In an open, randomised, three-way, cross-over study, 12 subjects received 20 mg and another 12 subjects received 40 mg S-omeprazole, R-omeprazole and racemic omeprazole as oral solutions once daily for

  2. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  3. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

  4. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd E. Dewhirst; Erin A. Klein; Emily C. Thompson; Jessica M. Blanton; Tsute Chen; Lisa Milella; Catherine M. F. Buckley; Ian J. Davis; Marie-Lousie Bennett; Zoe V. Marshall-Jones

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S

  5. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15?years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02084433.

  6. Successful oral acyclovir desensitization.

    PubMed

    Henry, R E; Wegmann, J A; Hartle, J E; Christopher, G W

    1993-05-01

    A 65-year-old woman with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) complicated by recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection developed angioedema on the initiation of her second course of oral acyclovir therapy. Oral rechallenge in hospital three days later confirmed acyclovir hypersensitivity. Vidarabine and foscarnet therapies were abandoned after treatment failure and unacceptable toxicity. Acyclovir desensitization was accomplished using a protocol derived from oral penicillin desensitization regimens. Mucocutaneous HSV infection responded to intravenous acyclovir followed by chronic oral suppression without recurrences of HSV or hypersensitivity. This report is an example of acyclovir hypersensitivity and successful oral desensitization. PMID:8498729

  7. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  8. Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica

    E-print Network

    Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

    1995-10-01

    narrador oral escénico y del público como interlocutores. También analizan la narración oral como una de las formas de hipnosis alternativa. Y se detienen en la Técnica: Cómo seleccionar el cuento, Cómo analizarlo, Cómo interiorizarlo y apropiárselo para..., sabiduría, estimulación, provocación, humildad, indefensión, transparencia; un acto de hipnosis alternativa, de belleza, audacia, pureza, indagación, lealtad, justicia, libertad, dignificación, solidaridad, amistad y amor. La oralidad, por tanto...

  9. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  10. Oral Rivaroxaban for Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bauersachs; S. D. Berkowitz; B. Brenner; H. R. Büller; H. Decousus; A. S. Gallus; A. W. Lensing; F. Misselwitz; M. H. Prins; G. E. Raskob; A. Segers; P. Verhamme; P. Wells; G. Agnelli; H. Bounameaux; A. Cohen; B. L. Davidson; F. Piovella; S. Schellong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide a simple, fixed-dose regimen for treating acute deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and for continued treatment, without the need for laboratory monitoring. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, event-driven, noninferiority study that compared oral rivaroxaban alone (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily) with subcutaneous enoxaparin followed

  11. Primary oral health care.

    PubMed

    Honkala, Eino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the background and evolution of primary oral health care (POHC), including the development of an oral health policy, by identifying the resources necessary for oral health services, reviewing the evidence of the effectiveness of oral health promotion and education, providing essential oral health care, and establishing evidence of the benefits of regular dental visits for effective POHC. At present, evidence for the effectiveness of oral health education and regular dental visits is very weak. Nevertheless, POHC needs to be developed as an integral part of primary health care (PHC). Therefore, a need exists to increase financial investment, resources and workforce in PHC to lower the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in the Middle-East using the POHC approach. PMID:24503932

  12. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

  13. Non-oral contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten I. Black; Ali Kubba

    2008-01-01

    Non-oral contraception is increasingly being promoted by contraceptive experts as a more convenient and, in many cases, safer and more efficacious alternative to oral contraception. Injectables, implants and intrauterine methods offer the advantage of being long-acting and less user dependent, factors which may potentially improve contraceptive compliance. Combined contraceptive methods in non-oral delivery forms offer a choice for women who

  14. Christopher Draven Oral History

    E-print Network

    Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

    2010-01-12

    Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...://hdl.handle.net/1808/5684 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

  15. Oral-systemic health during pregnancy: exploring prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and behavioral skills.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse. PMID:25366104

  16. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  17. FDG-PET and NeuN-GFAP Immunohistochemistry of Hippocampus at Different Phases of the Pilocarpine Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yi; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Zhirong; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hippocampal glucose hypometabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying pathophysiological basis for this hypometabolism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hippocampal hypometabolism and the histological changes seen in rats after systemic pilocarpine treatment. Methods: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) was performed on day zero (untreated), day seven (latent) and day sixty (chronic phase) after the initial status epilepticus. The microPET imaging data were correlated with the immunoreactivity of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus at each time point. Results: 18F-FDG-microPET images showed the hippocampus presented with persistent hypometabolism during epileptogenesis and partly recovered in the chronic phase. Hippocampal glucose uptake defects correlate with NeuN immunoreactivity in the latent phase and GFAP immunoreactivity in the chronic phase. Conclusions: Severe glucose hypometabolism in the hippocampus during the latent phase correlates with neuronal cell loss. The partial recovery of hippocampal glucose uptake in the chronic phase may be due to astrogliosis. PMID:25798055

  18. Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

  19. Oral infections and septicemia in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, O J

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the role of oral infections during septicemic episodes in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies, 78 febrile episodes in 46 patients were monitored with daily clinical and microbiological investigations. The 19 septicemic episodes did not differ from the 59 other febrile episodes in the qualitative composition of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic oral microflora or in the presence of teeth or acute oral infections on day 1. The oral prevalence rates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were higher on days 10, 11, and 12 in the febrile episodes with septicemia when compared with those of febrile episodes without septicemia. The prevalence of a probable oral focus in septicemia was 10.5%, and the prevalence of a probable or possible oral origin in septicemia was 31.6%. The results suggest that prevention and elimination of oral infections may reduce the morbidity and perhaps even the mortality in these patients. PMID:3182997

  20. Recent innovations in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone. PMID:20391327

  1. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  2. signal processing and oral communication

    E-print Network

    Penn, Gerald

    SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

  3. GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hokwon

    GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS THESIS, DISSERTATION/MUSIC DOCUMENT, PROFESSIONAL: Phone: MEANS OF PUBLICIZING ORAL DEFENSE Department email Posted flyer UNLV Today Department website GPSA/GPSA Lounge Other (specify): Date: ORAL DEFENSE

  4. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  5. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  6. Extreme oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Benny; Vyloppilli, Suresh; Ahsan, Auswaf; Anirudhan, Anroop

    2014-09-01

    Extreme oral myiasis is a rare condition, mostly affecting bedridden patients whose oral health care measures are neglected. Single stage manual removal of the maggots along with the necrotic tissue, debridement, and suturing under general anesthesia is the most effective way to treat the condition. Preventive measures are also equally important to eliminate the cause and recurrence.  PMID:25228190

  7. Scoring oral mucositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Parulekar; R Mackenzie; G Bjarnason; R. C. K Jordan

    1998-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a common, dose limiting and potentially serious complication of both radiation and chemotherapy. Both these therapies are non-specific, interfering with the cellular homeostasis of both malignant and normal host cells. An important effect is the loss of the rapidly proliferating epithelial cells in the oral cavity, gut and in the bone marrow. Within the mouth, the loss

  8. Oral Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Julia G; Garcha, Gurkaran S; Lakkis, Nasser

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 5 million patients in the United States. The rate of stroke in adults with atrial fibrillation depending on their risk factors varies between 1-20% annually. Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin has been the mainstay therapy but it is cumbersome and requires close follow-up. Since 2010, three new oral anticoagulants have received Food and Drug Administration approval for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. This review summarizes data from three landmark trials: RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE. In addition, issues relating to cost, reversal, drug interactions, and perioperative discontinuation are discussed. Compared to Warfarin, Dabigatran 150mg twice daily lowered the primary outcome of stroke/systemic embolism by 34% (number needed to treat/yr 169) and had similar incidence of major bleeding. Rivaroxaban demonstrated non inferiority compared to the warfarin group for the primary outcome of stroke and systemic embolism and major bleeding. Apixaban showed a relative risk reduction for the primary outcome of 21% (number needed to treat300), and lowered major bleeding down by 31% (number needed to treat/yr 104). Apixaban also showed a mortality benefit compared to warfarin (3.52 vs. 3.94%/year, p 0.047). All 3 oral anticoagulants lowered rates of intracranial hemorrhage. The use of Rivaroxaban and Apixaban has been projected to reduce medical costs when compared to warfarin, and Dabigatran is projected to have similar costs. All the 3 oral anticoagulants have robust randomized controlled trials supporting their comparability to warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in non valvular atrial fibrillation, with Apixaban showing superiority in incidence of strokes, major bleeding, and mortality. PMID:25277117

  9. Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H E Innes; D B Smith; S M O'Reilly; P I Clark; V Kelly; E Marshall

    2003-01-01

    Neutropenic sepsis remains a potentially life-threatening complication of anticancer chemotherapy. However, it is possible to identify patients who are at low risk for serious complications and for whom less-intensive, more-convenient treatment may be appropriate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral antibiotics in conjunction with early hospital discharge in comparison with standard in-patient

  10. Genes and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

  11. Mode of Birth Delivery Affects Oral Microbiota in Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lif Holgerson; L. Harnevik; O. Hernell; A. C. R. Tanner; I. Johansson

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of the microbiota of the gut has been shown to differ between infants delivered by Caesarian section (C-section) and those delivered vaginally. The aim of the present study was to compare the oral microbiota in infants delivered by these different routes. The oral biofilm was assayed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) in healthy three-month-old infants, 38

  12. Candida biotypes in patients with oral leukoplakia and lichen planus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verónica Lipperheide; Guillermo Quindós; Yolanda Jiménez; José Pontón; José Vicente Bagán-Sebastián; José Manuel Aguirre

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of yeasts in 35 leukoplakia and 34 oral lichen planus patients was compared with that observed in persons without\\u000a oral diseases. Serotype and morphotype were determined on Candida albicans isolates. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity specimens of 43.7% of the patients. C. albicans (serotype A) was the predominant species (76% in leukoplakia, 88.2% in lichen planus and

  13. Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

  14. Oral yeast carriage correlates with presence of oral epithelial dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M McCullough; M Jaber; A. W Barrett; L Bain; P. M Speight; S. R Porter

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between the presence of Candida albicans and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and level of colonisation of oral yeast in patients undergoing an incisional oral mucosal biopsy in order to assess whether the amount of oral yeast present correlated with

  15. Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? There are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). Oral ...

  16. Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

  17. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth. It is usually inhaled twice daily or once ... doctor about how you should use your other oral and inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment ...

  18. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Umeclidinium oral inhalation is used in adults to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by ... Umeclidinium comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually inhaled ...

  19. Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... comes as a dry powder to inhale by mouth using a specially designed inhaler. When salmeterol is ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment ...

  20. Triamcinolone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Triamcinolone comes as an aerosol to use by oral inhalation. It usually is inhaled three or four ... as possible through your nose while keeping your mouth shut. Open Mouth Technique: Open your mouth wide, ...

  1. Pentobarbital Oral and Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to be used rectally. ... Grisactin), medications for depression or seizures, metronidazole (Flagyl), oral contraceptives, propranolol (Inderal), quinidine, rifampin, sedatives, sleeping pills, ...

  2. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    QVAR® Oral Inhaler ... Beclomethasone comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled three or four times ... as possible through your nose while keeping your mouth shut. Open Mouth Technique: Open your mouth wide, ...

  3. Oral Melanotic Macule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral melanotic macule is a non-cancerous (benign), dark spot found on the lips or inside the ... are more common in middle-aged people, in dark-skinned people, and in females. Signs and Symptoms ...

  4. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-01

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  6. Orality, History, and \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Carl Seifert

    2002-01-01

    Patrick Chamoiseau's Creole Folktales (1988) makes a concerted effort to reproduce the oral storytelling of the Creole slaves of the French Antilles in order to explore and promote the cultural and literary notion of \\

  7. Naomi Nelson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

    2009-09-18

    Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, Kansas. After marriage, she...

  8. Oral Health Presentation Objectives

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    and mouth care we can develop dental caries or tooth decay. This is caused by bacteria in our mouths, increase calcium intake, tobacco prevention (chew r/t oral cancer and dental decay). 4. Dental Decay

  9. Karen Cooksey Oral History

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Karen; Heidrick, Sarah

    2009-11-09

    Oral history interview with Karen Cooksey conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Salina, Kansas, on November 9, 2009. In this interview, Karen Cooksey describes her experiences belonging to the congregations of the Methodist ...

  10. Extended Abstracts Oral Presentations,

    E-print Network

    Extended Abstracts Oral Presentations, Sessions & Workshops United Nations Convention to Combat Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 2nd Scientific Conference and are strengthening our scientific to the well) Stafford Odengo (Child carry water) Dibyendu Dey Choudhury (Women transporting water) Citation

  11. Dan Chaverin Oral History

    E-print Network

    Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

    2009-12-06

    Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

  12. Glenn Lindell Oral History

    E-print Network

    Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

    2009-10-24

    Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

  13. Terry Koenig Oral History

    E-print Network

    Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-11-16

    Oral history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...

  14. Janice Bryant Oral History

    E-print Network

    Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-12-29

    Oral history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  16. Beverly Boyd Oral History

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Beverly; Teichgraeber, Steve

    2010-11-12

    Oral history interview with Beverly Boyd conducted by Steve Teichgraeber in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2010. In this interview, Beverly Boyd discusses the life of Saint Rose-Phillippine Duchesne (1769-1852), a Catholic nun of the Society...

  17. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of substances. The most common causes are food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are more commonly implicated in intraoral hypersensitivity ...

  18. Edith Bogart Oral History

    E-print Network

    Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

    2010-09-14

    Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

  19. Clearance and Metabolism of Starch Foods in the Oral Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald A. B. Linke; Lucia H. Birkenfeld

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth

  20. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  1. The Human Oral Metagenome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mullany; Philip Warburton; Elaine Allan

    \\u000a The human oral cavity is estimated to contain more than 750 bacterial species (Jenkinson and Lamont, 2005; Paster et al.,\\u000a 2006). Although this figure is controversial, the fact remains that up to half of the species in the oral microbiota cannot\\u000a yet be cultivated in the laboratory. Therefore, metagenomics is a powerful way of accessing these unculturable bacteria in\\u000a order

  2. The comparative effects of povidone-iodine and normal saline mouthwashes on oral mucositis in patients after high-dose chemotherapy and APBSCT--results of a randomized multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Vokurka, Samuel; Bystrická, Eva; Koza, Vladimír; Scudlová, Jana; Pavlicová, Vladislava; Valentová, Dana; Bocková, Jana; Misaniová, Lubica

    2005-07-01

    Antimicrobial solutions are widely used in the nursing care of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM). There is little evidence, however, supporting their use for reducing mucosal damage. In our study, 132 patients were randomized to use normal saline (n=65) or povidone-iodine diluted 1:100 (n=67) mouthwashes for OM prophylaxis and treatment after high-dose chemotherapy comprising BEAM or HD-L-PAM followed by autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. The study groups were well balanced in respect of age, sex, chemotherapy and the number of CD34+ cells in the graft. No significant difference was found between the groups in respect of OM characteristics, fever of unknown origin (FUO) and other infections. The antimicrobial solution was less tolerable for patients. OM occurred significantly more often in females than in males (86% vs 60%, P=0.0016) and was worse and of longer duration. The mechanical effect of mouthwashes might have a certain importance in FUO prevention. When indicating oral rinses, the patient's individual preference and tolerance of solutions offered should be considered. PMID:15798915

  3. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  4. Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

  5. Oral films as breakthrough tools for oral delivery of proteins/peptides.

    PubMed

    Castro, Pedro M; Fonte, Pedro; Sousa, Flávia; Madureira, Ana Raquel; Sarmento, Bruno; Pintado, Manuela E

    2015-08-10

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides demonstrate unique, peerless, pharmacological characteristics such as high specificity to receptors and superior biological mimicking of physiological mechanisms, resulting in a better therapeutic index compared to conventional chemical-derived drugs. However, proteins also present inherent bioavailability limitations. Thus, this paper proposes several effective tools to improve protein/peptide drugs stability, permeability and pharmacokinetics with special emphasis on oral polymeric films as oral delivery platforms. Indeed, oral films present inherent characteristics that can greatly enhance biological performance of proteins and peptides and patient compliance along with other advantages that are critically discussed in this review. A rational choice of excipients addressed in and manufacture processes are also focused. In addition, possible toxicity issues to be overtaken and critical analysis regarding current market tendencies respecting oral films and protein/peptides along with future prospects are disclosed. PMID:25979328

  6. [The ultrastructure of the juxta-oral organ (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Jeanneret-Gris, B

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the juxta-oral organ has been investigated in the goldhamster. Its morphology was comparable to that already described in other species. Located in the cheek or in its anatomical homologue, the juxta-oral organ consists of a string of epithelial cells surrounded by two distinct layers. The first one, made of connective tissue, contains numerous terminal nerve fibres. The second one, external and separated from the first one by a fluid-filled space, is very similar to a perineurium. The juxta-oral organ of the goldhamster presented a new feature: its central string of parenchymatous cells always contained some nervous fibres. The parenchymatous cells were compared to the keratinocytes in the basal layers of the oral epithelium and the general structure of the juxta-oral organ to that of several mechanoreceptors. It is likely that the juxta-organ exerts a mechano-receptor function. PMID:7469412

  7. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kourt Chatelain; Spencer Phippen; Jonathan McCabe; Christopher A. Teeters; Susan O'Malley; Karl Kingsley

    2008-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell

  8. Oral Breathing Increases P th and Vocal Effort by Superficial Drying of Vocal Fold Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahalakshmi Sivasankar; Kimberly V Fisher

    2002-01-01

    Oral breathing superficially dehydrates the airway lumen by decreasing the depth of the sol layer in humans and animals. Conversely, nasal breathing can increase the humidity of inspired air. We compared the effects of short-term oral and nasal breathing on Pth and perceived vocal effort in 20 female subjects randomly assigned to two groups: oral breathing (N = 10, age

  9. Safety of Oral Sulfates in Rats and Dogs Contrasted With Phosphate-Induced Nephropathy in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell W. Pelham; Robert G. Russell; Eric L. Padgett; Frederick E. Reno; Mark v B. Cleveland

    2009-01-01

    An oral sulfate salt solution (OSS), under development as a bowel cleansing agent for colonoscopy in humans, is studied in rats and dogs. In rats, a maximum practical oral OSS dose (5 g\\/kg\\/d) is compared with an oral sodium phosphate (OSP) solution, both at about 7 times the clinical dose. OSS induces the intended effects of loose stools and diarrhea.

  10. Oral manifestations in HIV infection: fungal and bacterial infections, Kaposi's sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Reichart

    2003-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a frequent oral manifestation of HIV infection, is a marker disease and occurs as a pseudomembranous, erythematous or rarely hyperplastic variant; angular cheilitis is also seen. Candida albicans is frequently isolated but other species such as C. krusei and C. dublienensis are emerging. Resistance against fluconazole is common. Bacterial oral infections are comparatively rare and are

  11. Oral Leukoplakia – an Update

    PubMed Central

    PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

  12. Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

  13. The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

  14. Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

  15. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

  16. Oral myiasis: case report.

    PubMed

    Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M

    2013-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Zidovudine Entrapped in Biodegradable Nanospheres in Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANA P. CALLENDER; NALINI JAYAPRAKASH; AARON BELL; VIDMANTAS PETRAITIS; RUTA PETRATIENES; MYRNA CANDELARIO; ROBERT SCHAUFELE; JAMES M. DUNN; SHIZUKO SEI; THOMAS J. WALSH; FRANK M. BALIS

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of oral zidovudine entrapped in a 50:50 polyactide-coglycolide matrix (nano- spheres) was compared to those of standard oral and parenteral zidovudine formulations in rabbits. The bio- availability of zidovudine nanospheres at 50 mg\\/kg of body weight was 76%, and this dose achieved prolonged expo- sure to zidovudine compared to standard formulations without an increase in the drug's

  18. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  19. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  20. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PCOS is healthy nutrition, exercise, and medications. Adolescent girls and young women are frequently prescribed oral contraceptive ... endometriosis. Oral contraceptive pills lower hormone levels in girls with PCOS and regulate their menstrual periods. Hormone ...

  1. Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnant. Getting oral health care, practicing good oral hygiene, eating healthy foods, and practicing other healthy behaviors will help keep ... Keep getting oral health care, practicing good oral hygiene, eating healthy foods, and practicing other healthy behaviors. ? Take care of ...

  2. GENOMICS OF ORAL BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Duncan

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbi- ology research community has benefited through

  3. Genomics of Oral Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators’ ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects

  4. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  5. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  6. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

  7. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

  8. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  9. Oral Manifestations of Viral Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis P. Lynch

    other chapters dealing with specific viruses. Second, the clinical oral manifestations of such infections are described, with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis of specific oral viral lesions. Third, the methods used in the diagno- sis of oral viral lesions are presented. Fourth, a summary of current therapeutic management strategies is presented, along with their relation- ship to long-term prognosis.

  10. Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A G

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords "oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion". The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use. PMID:24778989

  11. Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R.; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P.; Nelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician’s medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee’s response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM) residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. Methods EM residents (n=35) were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17) or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18) conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL). Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1–8 scale). Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. Results We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. Conclusion The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents. Virtual environments for oral examinations should continue to be explored, particularly since they offer an inexpensive, more comfortable, yet equally rigorous alternative. PMID:25834684

  12. Evaluation of a Training Programme for Non-Health Professionals as Oral Health Educators

    PubMed Central

    Seman, Kamariah; Yaacob, Habibah; Hamid, Abd. Manaf Hj.; Ismail, Abdul Rashid; Yusoff, Azizah

    2008-01-01

    Involvement of oral health educators among non-health professionals in oral health promotion is important in the prevention of oral diseases. This study was carried out to compare the level of oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers before and after oral health seminar. Pre-test data was collected by distributing questionnaire to pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, who attended the seminar on “Oral Health” (n=33) and they were required to fill anonymously before the seminar started. The questions consisted of information on general background, perceived oral health status, oral health knowledge and the environment where they work. After two weeks, post-test data was collected using the same structured questionnaire and identification code was used to match the pre and post data. SPSS 11.5 was use for statistical analysis. Two out of 33 eligible preschool teachers were considered non-respondents due to absenteeism during the post-test data collection. The response rate was 94.0% (n = 31). The study shows a significant improvement in oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, after seminar (p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Thus, we can conclude that the oral health programme (seminar) appeared effective at influencing oral health educator’s knowledge towards oral health. PMID:22589623

  13. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  14. Prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia. Evaluation of treatment with oral prednisone, oral acyclovir, and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Benoldi, D; Mirizzi, S; Zucchi, A; Allegra, F

    1991-04-01

    The effects of prednisone, oral acyclovir, and radiotherapy were compared with placebo in the prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia. No treatment used was able to prevent, with statistical significance, post-herpetic neuralgia, although prednisone and acyclovir showed some pain reduction in the acute phase. Radiotherapy was of no value in either the acute or post-herpetic phase. PMID:2050460

  15. Serum lipid profile in oral precancer and cancer: a diagnostic or prognostic marker?

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Deepanshu; Sunil, M K; Singh, Param Pal; Singla, Neetu; Rani, S R Ashwini; Kaur, Beant

    2014-01-01

    Background: Changes in lipid profile have been associated with malignancy because of their key role in the maintenance the integrity of the cell membrane. This study evaluated the alterations in serum lipid profile in untreated patients of oral submucus fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia, and oral lichen planus and proven cases of oral cancer with respect to healthy controls. Materials & Methods: In this case control study, 20 clinically and histopathologically proven patients of oral precancer and oral cancer each were compared with 20 healthy controls. In these groups, serumlipids including: (i) Total cholesterol. (ii) Triglycerides (TGL). (iii) High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) were analyzed. Results: Decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL in the subjects with the oral precancer and oral cancer as compared to the controls was statistically significant. There was also decrease in plasma levels of TGL and VLDL in oral cancer subjects as compared to precancer subjects. Thus, it was found that there is an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and patients. Conclusion: Post operative morbidity was increasing along with more operating time and increase in the depth of mandibular third molar impaction. How to cite the article: Garg D, Sunil MK, Singh PP, Singla N, Rani SR, Kaur B. Serum lipid profile in oral precancer and cancer: a diagnostic or prognostic marker? J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):33-9. PMID:24876700

  16. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  17. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  18. Damaging oral habits.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  19. Differential cytotoxicity of long-chain bases for human oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes, oral fibroblasts, and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Christopher; Mehalick, Leslie A; Fischer, Carol L; Lanzel, Emily A; Bates, Amber M; Walters, Katherine S; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Guthmiller, Janet M; Johnson, Georgia K; Wertz, Philip W; Brogden, Kim A

    2015-08-19

    Long-chain bases are present in the oral cavity. Previously we determined that sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Here, we determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases for oral cells, an important step in considering their potential as antimicrobial agents for oral infections. This information would clearly help in establishing prophylactic or therapeutic doses. To assess this, human oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF), and dendritic cells (DC) were exposed to 10.0-640.0?M long-chain bases and glycerol monolaurate (GML). The effects of long-chain bases on cell metabolism (conversion of resazurin to resorufin), membrane permeability (uptake of propidium iodide or SYTOX-Green), release of cellular contents (LDH), and cell morphology (confocal microscopy) were all determined. GE keratinocytes were more resistant to long-chain bases as compared to GF and DC, which were more susceptible. For DC, 0.2-10.0?M long-chain bases and GML were not cytotoxic; 40.0-80.0?M long-chain bases, but not GML, were cytotoxic; and 80.0?M long-chain bases induced cellular damage and death in less than 20min. The LD50 of long-chain bases for GE keratinocytes, GF, and DC were considerably higher than their minimal inhibitory concentrations for oral pathogens, a finding important to pursuing their future potential in treating periodontal and oral infections. PMID:26005054

  20. [Oral candidiasis and dentures].

    PubMed

    Ahariz, M; Loeb, I; Courtois, P

    2010-04-01

    Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus usually colonize the human oral cavity. Immunocompromised patients or individuals with an imbalance of their oral microflora can develop yeast infections from this reservoir. However, saliva protects oral mucosa against candidosis; in turn, dry mouth is associated with increased yeast counts and candidosis risk. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown Candida incorporation into biofilms covering different biomaterials such as dentures: these biofilms may be an increased risk factor for invasive candidosis when the host immune system is compromised. Daily denture brushing is recommended to all wearers. Family or healthcare workers must take over this task when there is autonomy loss, especially in the elderly. In case of candidosis in denture wearers, decontamination of dentures is mandatory. Antimycotics (azoles, nystatin) must be kept for curative treatments of infected patients; they are less active against Candida biofilms on dentures and could lead to emergent resistance if applied daily to dentures against yeast colonization. There are several antiphlogistic solutions with antifungal properties. Nevertheless, literature data does not integrate all aspects of denture care: welfare of denture wearers, prevention of candidosis, biomaterial defects after decontamination processing, and taking into account possible Candida biofilm development. Daily brushing of dentures remains the key recommendation. PMID:20347465

  1. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, N.; Amaechi, B.; Niederman, R.; Acevedo, A.-M.; Vianna, R.; Ganss, C.; Ismail, A.; Honkala, E.

    2011-01-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  2. p53 expression in oral lichenoid lesions and oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Arreaza, A; Rivera, H; Correnti, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to compare the expression of p53 protein in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR). The study population consisted of 65 patients--31 diagnosed with OLP and 34 with OLR. The results showed more p53 positive cases in the OLP group than in the OLR group. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.114). The most common immunolocalization was observed at the basal cell layer. Due to the chance of potential future malignancy, follow-up for all cases is recommended. PMID:25574723

  3. Interpretation of Benefit-Risk of Enoxaparin as Comparator in the RECORD Program: Rivaroxaban Oral Tablets (10 milligrams) for Use in Prophylaxis in Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Van Thiel; Evi Kalodiki; Rakesh Wahi; Evan Litinas; Wasimul Haque; Gundu Rao

    2009-01-01

    The Regulation of Coagulation in Major Orthopedic surgery reducing the Risk of DVT and PE (RECORD) clinical program of rivaroxaban consists of 4 phase III clinical trials comparing rivaroxaban with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing either total hip or total knee replacement surgery. Despite the comprehensive and extensive nature of this program, it had

  4. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  5. Oral Health Literacy Assessment: development of an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish speakers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; Stucky, Brian; Rozier, Gary; Lee, Shoou-Yih; Zeldin, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish-speaking adults, evaluate its psychometric properties, and determine its comparability to an English version. Methods The Oral Health Literacy Assessment in Spanish (OHLA-S) and English (OHLA-E) are designed with a word recognition section and a comprehension section using the multiple-choice format developed by an expert panel. Validation of OHLA-S and OHLA-E involved comparing the instrument with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 204 English-speaking subjects. Comparability between Spanish and English versions was assessed by testing for differential item functioning (DIF) using item response theory. Results We considered three OHLA-S scoring systems. Based on validity and reliability comparisons, 24 items were retained in the OHLA-S instrument. OHLA-S was correlated with another health literacy instrument, Spanish Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were also found between OHLA-S and years of schooling, oral health knowledge, overall health, and an understanding of written health-care materials (P < 0.05). OHLA-S displayed satisfactory reliability with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.70-0.80. DIF results suggested that OHLA-S and OHLA-E scores were not comparable at a given level of oral health literacy. Conclusions OHLA-S has acceptable reliability and validity. OHLA-S and OHLA-E are two different measurement tools and should not be used to compare oral health literacy between English- and Spanish-speaking populations. PMID:23215757

  6. Alternative Method of Oral Dosing for Rats

    PubMed Central

    Atcha, Zeenat; Rourke, Claire; Neo, Aveline HP; Goh, Catherine WH; Lim, Jean SK; Aw, Chiu-Cheong; Browne, Edward R; Pemberton, Darrel J

    2010-01-01

    Oral administration of drugs to laboratory rodents typically is achieved by using the gavage technique. Although highly effective, this method occasionally can cause esophageal injury as well as restraint-associated distress, particularly with repeated use. The aim of this study was to assess an alternative oral dosing method that could reduce the distress and morbidity associated with standard gavage techniques. The palatability and pharmacokinetic profile of 2 medicines approved for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, donepezil and galantamine, were investigated in male Lister hooded rats by using a syringe-feeding method and compared with results from traditional gavage administration. In addition, the stimulant nicotine was tested by using the syringe-feeding method in a separate series of experiments. Animals reliably learned to drink voluntarily from the syringe, and latency to drink decreased rapidly. The addition of donepezil, galantamine, or nicotine to sucrose had no apparent effect on the palatability of the solution, although nicotine produced aversive effects that inhibited subsequent voluntary intake. Oral bioavailability was improved by using syringe feeding with donepezil but not galantamine. Both drugs improved cognitive performance in the novel object recognition test, with similar behavioral profiles between the 2 methods of administration. Our results suggest that the syringe-feeding technique is an effective alternative oral dosing method in rats. PMID:20587166

  7. Negligible effect of oral garlic oil on the oral absorption of pyridoxine in metadoxine in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Kang, Hee Eun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Myung Gull

    2010-07-01

    Metadoxine [an ion-pair between pyridoxine and pyrrolidone carboxylate (PCA)] plus garlic oil treatment synergistically reduces alcoholic steatosis compared to each agent alone. We evaluated the effect of garlic oil on the pharmacokinetics of pyridoxine. After the oral administration of metadoxine, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of pyridoxine were significantly greater (by 40.6%) and higher (by 63.9%), respectively, than after oral administration of pyridoxine plus PCA. Oral metadoxine plus garlic oil also gave larger AUC (31.8%) and higher C(max) (64.9%) than pyridoxine plus PCA. However, garlic oil did not change the AUC or C(max) of pyridoxine in metadoxine. Thus, garlic oil does not enhance the metadoxine activity by affecting the absorption of pyridoxine. PMID:20661709

  8. Pulse versus Oral Methylprednisolone Therapy in Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Shahidi-Dadras; Ahdieh Karami; Parviz Toosy

    Background: Although corticosteroids have dramatically altered the prognosis of patients with pemphigus vulgaris, morbidity and mortality from systemic corticosteroid side-effects remains high. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone has been used successfully in blistering diseases to avoid the complications of long-term orally-administered glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and side-effects of oral and pulse steroid therapy in the

  9. Oral manifestations in transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  10. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  11. Sexual differences in oral health behaviour and factors associated with oral health behaviour in Japanese young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Tada; Nobuhiro Hanada

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the state of oral health behaviour between genders and to analyse factors associated with oral health behaviour by gender in young adults. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected from 527 adults (245 men and 282 women) aged 20–29 years who consulted dentists in Chiba City. The Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney analysis, and logistic regression

  12. Diseases of the Oral Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohra Zaidi; Sean W. Lanigan

    \\u000a The oral cavity can provide valuable clues to cutaneous disorders, and should be included in every skin examination. A number\\u000a of skin diseases have oral manifestations, such as pemphigus, erythema multiforme, SLE, lichen planus, psoriasis, viral infections,\\u000a etc. Most of the lesions are in the form of ulcers or white patches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is covered

  13. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  14. Oral versus written assessments: a test of student performance and attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Huxham; Fiona Campbell; Jenny Westwood

    2010-01-01

    Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into ‘oral’ and ‘written’ groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were compared. Students in the second smaller cohort

  15. Oral versus written assessments: a test of student performance and attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Huxham; Fiona Campbell; Jenny Westwood

    2012-01-01

    Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into ‘oral’ and ‘written’ groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were compared. Students in the second smaller cohort

  16. Immune Disorders (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePLUS

    Immune Disorders Rheumatoid Arthritis Lupus Erythematosus Scleroderma (Progressive Systemic Sclerosis) Selective Immunoglobulin Deficiencies Thymic Hypoplasia Dermatomyositis X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Ataxia Telangiectasia Rheumatoid Arthritis Oral Effects ...

  17. Allison Oral History

    E-print Network

    Albin, Tami; Allison

    2014-03-13

    date of publication Citing Under the Rainbow Oral History Interviews Your citation should include information that will allow people to find this transcript. Please consult a citation guide (Chicago, MLA, ALA) for the correct citation style for audio/video interviews...—I lost it on the meth. And in 2001 I was raped by three men and the doctor gave me all kinds of pills. I mean, I think he felt sorry for me and he just—(laugh) he gave me Percocet, Lortab. There was a lot of physical damage from the rape...

  18. Training in oral medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, J M

    2001-01-01

    88 members of the UK specialty society of oral medicine were asked about career satisfaction and their views on training programmes. 70% responded (79% of consultants and all accredited trainees). Men work longer hours than women, report less control over their work and experience more stress. Although high work satisfaction is reported, nearly one-third regret their choice of specialty. Men more than women do locum work while training. Most respondents would welcome flexible training, job shares, financial support during training and a mentoring scheme. PMID:11234205

  19. Michael Johnson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-16

    ) for the correct citation style for audio/video interviews or transcripts. Please be sure to include: Narrator’s name e.g. Bill Smith Interviewer’s Name e.g. Tami Albin Date of interview e.g. March 26, 2009 Name of project and location e.g. Under... support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind...

  20. Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2001-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the number of animals used, their diet, the differences in Candida strains, and the duration of the studies. These variables notwithstanding, the following could be concluded. (i) The primate model is ideal for investigating Candida-associated denture stomatitis since both erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions have been produced in monkeys with prosthetic plates; they are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain and maintain. (ii) The rat model (both Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) is well proven for observing chronic oral candidal colonization and infection, due to the ease of breeding and handling and their ready availability. (iii) Mice are similar, but in addition there are well characterized variants simulating immunologic and genetic abnormalities (e.g., athymic, euthymic, murine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficient models) and hence are used for short-term studies relating the host immune response and oral candidiasis. Nonetheless, an ideal, relatively inexpensive model representative of the human oral environment in ecological and microbiological terms is yet to be described. Until such a model is developed, researchers should pay attention to standardization of the experimental protocols described here to obtain broadly comparable and meaningful data. PMID:11292645

  1. Oral health awareness in Croatian and Italian urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cukovi?-Bagi?, Ivana; Dumanci?, Jelena; Nuzzolese, Emilio; Marusi?, Miljenko; Lepore, Maria Maddalena

    2012-03-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate and compare differences in oral health awareness between Croatian and Italian urban adolescents. The sample consisted of primary school last grade students aged between 13 and 15 years, 300 children from Zagreb (Croatia) and 298 children from Bari (Italy). Oral health awareness was evaluated using a self-administered standardized questionnaire. Self-perception of oral health proved to be different between the two groups (p < 0.001). The Croatians reported that their oral health was "excellent" or "very-good" more often than the Italians (68.6% vs. 50.2%). The reasons given for visiting a dentist were different (p < 0.001). The Italians cleaned their teeth more often than the Croatians ("two or more times a day", 83.1% vs. 72.2%, p < 0.003). Wooden toothpicks were preferred by the Croatians (p < 0.001), while floss was preferred by the Italians (p = 0.03). The awareness regarding the use of fluoridated toothpaste was higher in the Italian group (95.6% vs. 72.5%, p < 0.001). The Croatians were consuming sweetened foods more often than the Italians (p < 0.001). Croatian adolescents reported more indicators of a lower level of oral health awareness than the Italians, while on the contrary Croatians had higher esteem of their oral health. Defining national preventive strategies is essential for improving adolescents' attitudes toward oral health in both countries, particularly in Croatia. PMID:22816224

  2. A comparative electrographic analysis of the effect of sec-butyl-propylacetamide on pharmacoresistant status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, W; Bialer, M; Hen, N; Shekh-Ahmad, T; Kaufmann, D; Yagen, B; Ricks, K; Roach, B; Nelson, C; Dudek, F E

    2013-02-12

    Better treatment of status epilepticus (SE), which typically becomes refractory after about 30 min, will require new pharmacotherapies. The effect of sec-butyl-propylacetamide (SPD), an amide derivative of valproic acid (VPA), on electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) was compared quantitatively to other standard-of-care compounds. Cortical electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from rats during ESE induced with lithium-pilocarpine. Using a previously-published algorithm, the effects of SPD on ESE were compared quantitatively to other relevant compounds. To confirm benzodiazepine resistance, diazepam (DZP) was shown to suppress ESE when administered 15 min after the first motor seizure, but not after 30 min (100mg/kg). VPA (300 mg/kg) also lacked efficacy at 30 min. SPD (130 mg/kg) strongly suppressed ESE at 30 min, less after 45 min, and not at 60 min. At a higher dose (180 mg/kg), SPD profoundly suppressed ESE at 60 min, similar to propofol (100mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg). After 4-6h of SPD-induced suppression, EEG activity often overshot control levels at 7-12h. Valnoctamide (VCD, 180 mg/kg), an SPD homolog, was also efficacious at 30 min. SPD blocks pilocarpine-induced electrographic seizures when administered at 1h after the first motor seizure. SPD has a faster onset and greater efficacy than DZP and VPA, and is similar to propofol and pentobarbital. SPD and structurally similar compounds may be useful for the treatment of refractory ESE. Further development and use of automated analyses of ESE may facilitate drug discovery for refractory SE. PMID:23159312

  3. Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Marie-Noelle

    2004-01-01

    In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

  4. In vitro Short-Time Killing Activity of PovidoneIodine (Isodine® Gargle) in the Presence of Oral Organic Matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiko Yoneyama; Masaki Shimizu; Makiko Tabata; Junko Yashiro; Toshihiko Takata; Muneo Hikida

    2006-01-01

    In order to estimate the clinical efficacy of a povidone-iodine oral antiseptic (PVP-I) on oral bacterial infectious diseases, we studied the effect of oral organic matter on the in vitro killing activity of PVP-I. In addition, we compared the in vitro short-time killing activity of PVP-I with those of other oral antiseptics using mouth-washing and gargling samples collected from healthy

  5. [Oral form of fibrolipoma].

    PubMed

    Despotov, O; Ficheva, M; Avramov, T

    2003-01-01

    The pleomorphism of the tussies taking part in the formation of oral cavity is basis for the great majority of benign and malignant tumors. They often have similar clinical manifestations macroscopic view. Histological investigations help us for exact diagnosis and adequate treatment. Authors present a clinical case of 67 years old female treated in II ORL clinic of a tumour, originating from the floor of oral cavity, displacing tongue to the left. First complaints of the pathient a dating from 23 years. During that period the tumour gradually increased its dimensions and obstructed swallowing. The weight of the pathient of the time of the admitance at the hospital was 47 Kg. After operative removal of the tumour, the woman was in very good condition. The histological result--fibrolipoma. At the control examination (3 and 6 months after operation) she had increase her weight by 17 and 21 Kg respectively. This case present the conclusion that even benign tumours should be removed in shortes possible terms after the diagnoses. PMID:15587749

  6. Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

  7. Comparative trial of the use of antiplatelet and oral anticoagulant in thrombosis prophylaxis in patients undergoing total cavopulmonary operation with extracardiac conduit: echocardiographic, tomographic, scintigraphic, clinical and laboratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pessotti, Cristiane Felix Ximenes; Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli; Jatene, Ieda Biscegli; Oliveira, Patrícia Marques; Succi, Fabiana Moreira Passos; Moreira, Valeria de Melo; Lopes, Rafael Willain; Pedra, Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of aspirin and warfarin for prophylaxis of thrombosis in patients undergoing total cavopulmonary anastomosis. Evaluate whether coagulation factors (VII, VIII and protein C), clinical data, fenestration or hemodynamic factors, interfere with postoperative thrombosis. Methods A prospective, randomized study of 30 patients, randomized into Group I (Warfarin) and Group II (AAS), underwent total cavopulmonary shunt with extracardiac conduit, between 2008 and 2011, with follow-up by clinical visits to evaluate side effects and adhesion. Performed transesophageal echocardiography in post operatory time, 3, 6,12 and 24 months; angiotomography at 6, 12 and 24 months to evaluate changes in the internal tube wall or thrombi and pulmonary scintigraphy to evaluate possible PTE. Results Two deaths in group I; 33.3% of patients had thrombus (46.7% in Group II). The previous occurrence of thrombus and low levels of coagulation protein C were the only factors that influenced the time free of thrombus (P=0.035 and 0.047). Angiotomographic evaluation: 35.7% in group II presented material accumulation greater than 2 mm (P=0.082). Scintigraphy: two patients had PTE in group II. Five patients had difficulty to comply with the treatment, 4 in group I with INR ranging from 1 to 6.4. Conclusion The previous occurrence of thrombus is a risk factor for thrombosis in the postoperative period. Patients using AAS tend to deposit material in the tube wall. The small sample size did not allow to conclude which is the most effective drug in the prevention of thrombosis in this population. PMID:25714215

  8. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changing. Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged Women Dentists ... May Decrease Chances of Oral Cancer Important Oral Health Considerations for Women at All Life Stages Is Kissing Dangerous to ...

  9. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Appeals § 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be...desirable for a proper presentation of the appeal. An...the briefs without an oral hearing will receive...Upon a showing of good cause,...

  10. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... desktop! more... Why is Oral Health Important for Men? Article Chapters Why is Oral Health Important for ... then the other. Updated: February 2007 Related Articles: Men's Oral Health Is Kissing Dangerous to Your Health? ...

  11. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608...Circular A-76 § 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the...appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official...

  12. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102...Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a...

  13. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570.107 Section 570.107 Federal...REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests...

  14. Interaction of anticonvulsants and oral contraceptives in epileptic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Diamond, M P; Greene, J W; Thompson, J M; VanHooydonk, J E; Wentz, A C

    1985-06-01

    Oral contraceptives are in widespread use, and are commonly prescribed for contraception in patients taking other medications. An example of this is the concomitant use of oral contraceptives and anticonvulsants in epileptic patients. This combination creates a potential for drug interactions which may alter the efficacy of both medications. An apparent interaction between oral contraceptives and anticonvulsants was observed in this study of epileptic adolescent females. This interaction was evidenced by menstrual irregularities which occurred in 65% (7 of 11) of adolescents on both medications concomitantly. The frequency of irregularity was significantly higher in these adolescents when compared to adolescents on either medication alone. Irregularities appeared to be alleviated by increasing the strength of the oral contraceptive, and although a concern, the increased dosage did not affect seizure control. PMID:4042660

  15. Oral lichen planus: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mollaoglu

    2000-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a disease that can persist in some patients for a long time. The buccal mucosa, tongue and gingiva are the most common sites, whereas palatal lesions are uncommon. Oral lichen planus affects women more often than men in a ratio of 2:3. It can present in a number of forms: reticular, papular, plaque-like, erosive, atrophic and

  16. Oral lichen planus: An overview.

    PubMed

    Krupaa, R Jayasri; Sankari, S Leena; Masthan, K M K; Rajesh, E

    2015-04-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  17. Altered Oral Viral Ecology in Association with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. PMID:24846382

  18. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl?, total protein, albumins, F? and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  19. Oral administration of alginic acid oligosaccharide suppresses IgE production and inhibits the induction of oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Uno, Tsukasa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2006-12-01

    We have found that alginic acid oligosaccharide (ALGO) enhanced Th1 by promoting IL-12 production, suggesting that ALGO can be applied as an anti-allergic food. In this study we examined both positive and negative functions of ALGO. First we investigated the anti-allergic activity of ALGO, as a positive function, when orally administered. IgE production was significantly inhibited in mice fed ALGO as compared to control mice. This result indicates that ALGO had anti-allergic activity even when orally administered. On the other hand, we also found a negative function of ALGO. Oral co-administration of a protein antigen and ALGO inhibited the induction of oral tolerance to the protein. These data indicate the potential of ALGO as an anti-allergic food material and the necessity of further examination to determine a safe method application. PMID:17151448

  20. Oral hyaline ring granuloma.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Gallesio, Cesare; Campisi, Paola; Roccia, Fabio; Berrone, Sid

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline ring granuloma is a rare oral lesion with an unclear and controversial etiology, characterized by the presence of rings of palely eosinophilic structureless material (the so-called hyaline rings) with multinucleated giant cells around and within the very same rings.Various theories have been proposed about the pathogenesis of hyaline ring granulomas. Many authors consider a vegetable origin, suggesting that it may represent a reaction to foreign material such as food (and in particular pulses). Instead, other authors deny this possibility, proposing that the hyaline rings might represent degenerated blood vessels, degenerated collagen, or fibrosed extravasated serum proteins.The aim of this article is to present a case of hyaline ring granuloma and to briefly review the literature. PMID:23348341

  1. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases have continued to increase throughout the developed world. Subcutaneous immunotherapy has been a mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis and asthma, however, some patients are precluded from treatment. On the other hand, in the case of food allergy, treatments simply do not exist. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy, with its superior safety and ease of administration, offers an alternative for patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and has also been promising as a potential treatment for food allergy. The review summarizes significant advances from the past year including further data on the effectiveness of existing treatments, preliminary data on novel treatments, and further understanding of the mechanisms of these new therapies. PMID:25133094

  2. Comparison between oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol on uterine contractility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gemzell Danielsson; L Marions; A Rodriguez; B. W Spur; P. Y. K Wong; M Bygdeman

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare the degree of absorption and the effect on uterine contractility of the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol after vaginal and oral administration.Methods: Thirty women with a normal intrauterine pregnancy between 8 and 11 weeks’ gestation who requested termination of pregnancy were given either 0.2 mg (orally n = 5; vaginally n = 6) or 0.4 mg (orally n

  3. Oral Microbiome Profiles: 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing and Microarray Assay Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiyoung Ahn; Liying Yang; Bruce J. Paster; Ian Ganly; Luc Morris; Zhiheng Pei; Richard B. Hayes

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesThe human oral microbiome is potentially related to diverse health conditions and high-throughput technology provides the possibility of surveying microbial community structure at high resolution. We compared two oral microbiome survey methods: broad-based microbiome identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and targeted characterization of microbes by custom DNA microarray.MethodsOral wash samples were collected from 20 individuals at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer

  4. Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anish Ashok; Nainani, Purshotam; Upadhyay, Bipin; Kavle, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done. PMID:23248484

  5. Oral bacterial community dynamics in paediatric patients with malignancies in relation to chemotherapy-related oral mucositis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Carlsson, G; Agholme, M Barr; Wilson, J A L; Roos, A; Henriques-Normark, B; Engstrand, L; Modéer, T; Pütsep, K

    2013-12-01

    The role of oral bacteria in the development of chemotherapy-related oral mucositis has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate oral bacterial community diversity and dynamics in paediatric patients with malignancies in relation to the occurrence of oral mucositis. Patients with malignancies (n = 37) and reference individuals without known systemic disorders (n = 38) were recruited. For patients, oral bacterial samples were taken from mucosal surfaces both at the time of malignancy diagnosis and during chemotherapy. If oral mucositis occurred, samples were taken from the surface of the mucositis lesions. Oral mucosal bacterial samples were also taken from reference individuals. All samples were assessed using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene 454 pyrosequencing method. A lower microbial diversity (p < 0.01) and a higher intersubject variability (p < 0.001) were found in patients as compared with reference individuals. At the time of malignancy diagnosis (i.e. before chemotherapy) patients that later developed mucositis showed a higher microbial diversity (p < 0.05) and a higher intersubject variability (p < 0.001) compared with those without mucositis. The change of bacterial composition during chemotherapy was more pronounced in patients who later developed mucositis than those without mucositis (p < 0.01). In conclusion, we found a higher microbial diversity at the time of malignancy diagnosis in patients who later develop oral mucositis and that these patients had a more significant modification of the bacterial community by chemotherapy before the occurrence of mucositis. These findings may possibly be of clinical importance in developing better strategies for personalized preventive management. PMID:23829394

  6. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  7. Enhancement of the oral absorption of cyclosporin in man.

    PubMed Central

    Drewe, J; Meier, R; Vonderscher, J; Kiss, D; Posanski, U; Kissel, T; Gyr, K

    1992-01-01

    1. The oral absorption of cyclosporin from three new semi-solid oral formulations was compared with the standard soft gelatine preparation in twelve healthy male volunteers. One formulation was based on a solid micellar solution, while the other two, with different in vitro release properties, were based on a microemulsion principle. 2. The results showed that the solid micellar solution and the faster releasing microemulsion formulation increased the extent of absorption on average by 45.2 and 49.0%, respectively, compared with the reference soft gelatine capsule. PMID:1633069

  8. Elite athletes and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bryant, S; McLaughlin, K; Morgaine, K; Drummond, B

    2011-09-01

    Elite athletes follow demanding training regimes to achieve optimal performance. Training incorporates strategies which coincide with risk factors for dental caries and erosion. The important role of a disease-free oral cavity for peak performance is often overlooked and oral health may be compromised. This initial exploratory study aimed to identify risk factors for dental caries and erosion in elite triathletes. Questionnaires regarding training, diet and oral health were distributed to a sample of elite triathletes in New Zealand. A further sample of 10 athletes was randomly selected from the Dunedin triathlon club to participate in a clinical oral examination. Sports drinks were consumed by 83.9% of the triathletes while training; for 48.4% consumption of both sports drinks and water was described as 'little sips often, from a bottle'. Eating during training sessions was reported by 93.5% of participants; of those 62.1% ate only during cycling training. Only 3.2% perceived training as high risk to oral health. All clinical examination cases were assessed as high risk for developing caries. The diet of elite triathletes is consistent with a high risk profile for caries and erosion. Future research should be aimed at oral health promotion programs for the athletes, coaches and oral-health providers. PMID:21590645

  9. Oral surgery in anticoagulated patients without reducing the dose of oral anticoagulant: A prospective randomized study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C Souto; A Oliver; I Zuazu-Jausoro; A Vives; J Fontcuberta

    1996-01-01

    Purpose:This study assessed the risk associated with several schedules of perioperative treatment with coumadin in anticoagulated patients who underwent oral surgery.Patients and Methods:A prospective, randomized study compared bleeding complications with six perioperative schedules in 92 patients chronically treated with acenocoumarol. In three of the perioperative schedules, the dose was reduced before surgery and calcium heparin was added. In the other

  10. Posttranscriptional regulation of oral bacterial adaptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Justin; Chen, Zhiyun; Liu, Nan; Kreth, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, it has become increasingly evident that posttranscriptional regulation is among the most important mechanisms used by bacteria to modulate gene expression in response to environmental perturbations. Posttranscriptional mechanisms provide a much faster response and lower energy burden compared to most transcription regulatory pathways and they have the unique advantage that they can override existing transcriptional responses once the environment changes. Because of this, virulence factor gene expression is particularly suited for posttranscriptional control, and not surprisingly, an abundance of recent evidence indicates that posttranscriptional regulators are the predominant virulence regulators of human pathogens. Typically, this involves global riboregulators that primarily serve as modulators of virulence gene translation initiation and/or mRNA stability. Surprisingly little has been reported about posttranscriptional regulatory pathways in oral bacteria, but recent results suggest that oral species are equally dependent upon posttranscriptional control of their adaptive genetic responses. In this report, we discuss the major themes in RNA-based regulation of gene expression and review the available literature related to the most commonly studied oral bacterial species. PMID:24695639

  11. Oral focal mucinosis: case report

    PubMed Central

    GERMANO, F.; ABATE, R.; SANTINI, F.; DRI, M.; ARCURI, C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an uncommon disease of unknown aetiology. It is considered to be the oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis and cutaneous myxoid cyst and it is characterized by a focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue. A preoperative diagnosis is almost impossible, and the clinical suspicion, usually made by exclusion, must be confirmed by a bioptic examination followed by histological observations. The Authors report a case of focal oral mucinosis diagnosed and treated in a male adult patient. PMID:23285343

  12. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  13. Elements in oral health programs.

    PubMed

    Lam, Anty

    2014-03-01

    Demographically, dental caries remains the single most common disease of childhood. Various campaigns have been carried out to promote and to improve the oral health of children. However, the prevalence of dental caries was still more than 50% in many communities. This article reviews different approaches used in dental health programs in industrialized and developing countries. To build a comprehensive oral health preventive program, three elements are essential. They are oral health education/instruction, primary prevention measures and secondary prevention measures. PMID:24851389

  14. Immunohistochemical Expression of Mast Cell in Oral Reactive Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Setareh; Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Modabbernia, Shirin; Farzin, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Soft tissue reactive lesions are the most common lesions of the oral cavity. Although many studies have shown the interaction of mast cells with fibroblasts and their participation in fibrosis, the role of mast cells in these lesions is not well understood. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cells (MCs) count in oral soft-tissue reactive lesions including peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), irritation fibroma (IF) and normal oral mucosa. Materials and Method In this cross-sectional study, 50 samples including IF, PGCG, POF (14 cases for each group) and 8 cases of normal oral mucosa were stained with tryptase antibody through immunohistochemistry. The number of mast cells was counted in 5HPF containing maximum counts for each section stained with tryptase. Statistical analysis including Chi-square test and Tukey test with a significance level of 0.05 were considered. Results The number of MCs was found to have increased in reactive lesions compared with normal oral mucosa. MCs count in the POF group was higher than the others. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of reactive oral lesions and induction of fibrous tissues. Chemical mediators released from mast cells might influence other cells, especially fibroblasts, to induce fibrosis.

  15. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  16. Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yookyeong Carolyn; Park, Jae Yeon; Ahn, Kang-Min; Park, Chansik; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of terahertz (THz) imaging at frozen temperature for the clinical application of oral cancer detection was investigated by analyzing seven oral tissues resected from four patients. The size, shape, and internal position of the oral cancers were mapped by THz radiation in the frequency range of 0.2–1.2 THz at ?20 °C and 20 °C, and compared with those identified in the histological examination. THz imaging of frozen tissue was found to offer greater sensitivity in distinguishing cancerous areas from surrounding tissue and a larger THz-frequency spectral difference between the oral cancer and normal mucosa than room-temperature THz imaging. A cancerous tumor hidden inside tissue was also detected using this method by observing the THz temporal domain waveform. The histological analysis showed that these findings resulted from cell structure deformations involving the invasion of oral tumor and neoplastic transformations of mucous cells. Therefore, a cytological approach using THz radiation at a frozen temperature might be applied to detect oral cancer. PMID:24010003

  17. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Oral Brush Biopsies Identifies Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor as a Promising, Mechanism-Based Oral Cancer Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Ondrey, Frank G.; Wuertz, Beverly R. K.; Chen, Xiaobing; Zhu, Yaqin; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A decrease in the almost fifty percent mortality rate from oral cancer is needed urgently. Improvements in early diagnosis and more effective preventive treatments could affect such a decrease. Towards this end, we undertook for the first time an in-depth mass spectrometry-based quantitative shotgun proteomics study of non-invasively collected oral brush biopsies. Proteins isolated from brush biopsies from healthy normal tissue, oral premalignant lesion tissue (OPMLs), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and matched control tissue were compared. In replicated proteomic datasets, the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) protein stood out based on its decrease in abundance in both OPML and OSCC lesion tissues compared to healthy normal tissue. Western blotting in additional brushed biopsy samples confirmed a trend of gradual decreasing SLPI abundance between healthy normal and OPML tissue, with a larger decrease in OSCC lesion tissue. A similar SLPI decrease was observed in-vitro comparing model OPML and OSCC cell lines. In addition, exfoliated oral cells in patients’ whole saliva showed a loss of SLPI correlated with oral cancer progression. These results, combined with proteomics data indicating a decrease in SLPI in matched healthy control tissue from OSCC patients compared to tissue from healthy normal tissue, suggested a systemic decrease of SLPI in oral cells correlated with oral cancer development. Finally, in-vitro experiments showed that treatment with SLPI significantly decreased NF-kB activity in an OPML cell line. The findings indicate anti-inflammatory activity in OPML, supporting a mechanistic role of SLPI in OSCC progression and suggesting its potential for preventative treatment of at-risk oral lesions. Collectively, our results show for the first time the potential for SLPI as a mechanism-based, non-invasive biomarker of oral cancer progression with potential in preventive treatment. PMID:24748380

  18. Smart Talk: Improving Children's Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Janie F.; Perkins, J. Helen

    2003-01-01

    Encourages caregivers to engage children in oral language activities that will help children develop skills necessary for reading and writing. Examines: (1) oral language as a predecessor to reading; (2) talking leading to learning; and (3) rich oral environment as a scaffold. Concludes with examples of oral-language activities for infants,…

  19. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Ann L.; Burk, Tamara L.

    Focusing exclusively on the art and science of oral communication for grades K-8, this book explains fundamental concepts in contemporary oral communication instruction and suggests practical strategies for implementing a competency-based approach to oral communication in an integrated classroom setting. The book also emphasizes oral communication…

  20. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  1. Nutrition, diet and oral health.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2001-12-01

    Teeth are valued, not least for their contribution to appearance and social acceptability. The cost of treating oral disease, though, is high--about 2.2 billion pounds in the UK in 1999-2000. Nutrition and diet are major determinants of oral health or disease and the purpose of this lecture was to review their impact on the more important oral diseases: defects in the structure and appearance of teeth, dental caries, dental erosion, periodontal disease, noma, and oral cancer. There is growing realisation of the detrimental impact of dental impairment on food choice, nutrient intake and nutritional status. A common feature of many of these diseases is that the causes are well known. However, they are not yet preventable because their aetiology (and prevention) is intimately involved with lifestyle. Nevertheless, there are some hopeful signs of progress being made in several areas. PMID:11768570

  2. Oral dependence and dependent behavior.

    PubMed

    Shilkret, C J; Masling, J

    1981-04-01

    Eighty undergraduates were asked to solve a series of difficult puzzles, with the instructions that they could ask for help as often as necessary. Half the subjects had an experimenter of the same sex and half of the opposite sex. The subjects were categorized as high or low dependent based on the percentage of oral dependent responses they gave on the Rorschach test. The results indicated that while the male subjects generally performed as predicted (with high oral dependent males asking for help more than low oral dependent males), the opposite results were obtained for females. Additional analyses suggested that what has been called oral dependence consists of at least two factors that relate in different ways to other variables. PMID:16370730

  3. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  4. Social Capital and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Tangade, Pradeep; Rajwar, Yogesh Chand; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Social determinants have always been an important element of the oral health. It has been seen that social aspects like the organizations and relations influence the health of population. A new domain named social capital has come up into limelight which refers to “features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions”. The bonds between individuals, both in intimate relationships and in voluntary associations have been claimed to have health promoting effects. Oral health can never be segregated from general health as they are bidirectional in their relationship. Therefore determinants of general health and its promotion are interlinked with that of oral health. So, this review tries to figure out the effects of social capital on various aspects of oral health. PMID:25386549

  5. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Diseasemodifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  6. The Importance of Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, M. Sue

    1982-01-01

    Offers the results of a survey taken at the College of Charleston in South Carolina indicating that faculty members, recent graduates, and employers all feel that college education in communication should stress training in oral communication skills. (JL)

  7. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  8. Tigemonam, an oral monobactam.

    PubMed

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1988-01-01

    Tigemonam is an orally administered monobactam. At less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml it inhibited the majority of strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Serratia marcescens, and Yersinia enterocolitica. At less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml it inhibited Haemophilus spp., Neisseria spp., and Branhamella catarrhalis. It did not inhibit Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Tigemonam was more active than cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate and inhibited many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin. Some Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii strains resistant to aminothiazole iminomethoxy cephalosporins and aztreonam were resistant to tigemonam. The MIC for 90% of hemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, and C and for Streptococcus pneumoniae was 16 micrograms/ml, but the MIC for 90% of enterococci, Listeria spp., Bacteroides spp., and viridans group streptococci was greater than 64 micrograms/ml. Tigemonam was not hydrolyzed by the common plasmid beta-lactamases such as TEM-1 and SHV-1 or by the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Enterobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, and Bacteroides spp. Tigemonam inhibited beta-lactamases of E. cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but did not induce beta-lactamases. The growth medium had a minimal effect on the in vitro activity of tigemonam, and there was a close agreement between the MICs and MBCs. PMID:3279906

  9. Southern Oral History Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

  10. Two Models of Raters in a Structured Oral Examination: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Ainslie, Martha; Myers, Kathryn; Wood, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Oral examinations have become more standardized over recent years. Traditionally a small number of raters were used for this type of examination. Past studies suggested that more raters should improve reliability. We compared the results of a multi-station structured oral examination using two different rater models, those based in a station,…

  11. Oral immunization with hepatitis B surface antigen expressed in transgenic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingxian Kong; Liz Richter; Yu Fang Yang; Charles J. Arntzen; Hugh S. Mason; Yasmin Thanavala

    2001-01-01

    Oral immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) derived from yeast (purified product) or in transgenic potatoes (uncooked unprocessed sample) was compared. An oral adjuvant, cholera toxin, was used to increase immune responses. Transgenic plant material containing HBsAg was the superior means of both inducing a primary immune response and priming the mice to respond to a subsequent parenteral

  12. Therapeutic effect of oral Kalanchoe pinnata leaf extract in murine leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. G. Da Silva; S. S. Costa; S. C. F. Mendonça; E. M. Silva; V. L. G. Moraes; B. Rossi-Bergmann

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a leaf extract from Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) was investigated in BALB\\/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. Oral treatment with Kp significantly delayed onset of disease as compared to untreated mice or mice receiving Kp by the intravenous or topical routes. When initiated at early stages of infection, daily oral doses of 8 mg prevented lesion growth and

  13. Feasibility of using gold nanorods for optical contrast in two photon microscopy of oral carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saam Motamedi; Tuya Shilagard; Luke Koong; Gracie Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) combined with two-photon microscopy were explored for potential application in imaging of oral carcinogenesis. GNRs have been shown to be effective contrast agents for two photon luminescence in that excitation laser powers required for imaging are low compared to traditional fluorophores. Imaging of cells, ex vivo tissues, and in vivo oral mucosa labeled with GNRs was performed

  14. Oral nicardipine versus intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of preterm labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Elaine Larmon; Brendan S. Ross; Warren L. May; Ginger A. Dickerson; Richard G. Fischer; John C. Morrison

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral nicardipine in acute therapy for preterm labor with those of parenteral magnesium sulfate. Study Design: Patients between 24 and 34 weeks’ gestation with documented preterm labor were randomly assigned to receive oral nicardipine (n = 57) or intravenous magnesium sulfate (n = 65) as initial

  15. Outpatient Treatment of Moderate Croup With Dexamethasone: Intramuscular Versus Oral Dosing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine K. Rittichier; Carol A. Ledwith

    ABSTRACT. Objective. Steroid use for the treatment of croup has been supported by several studies, although few have addressed the use of oral dexamethasone for outpatient management. The efficacy of oral (PO) versus intramuscular (IM) dosing of dexamethasone in the out- patient treatment of moderate croup are compared in this study. Methods. Patients between the ages of 3 months and

  16. Oral versus Written Assessments: A Test of Student Performance and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Westwood, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into "oral" and "written" groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were…

  17. Menopause and the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mutneja, Puneet; Dhawan, Pankaj; Raina, Anudeep; Sharma, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to be aware of the symptoms and health care needs of peri-menopausal/menopausal/postmenopausal women. This article attempts to provide an insight into the multifarious oral manifestations at menopause along with the relevant prosthodontic implications. PMID:22837914

  18. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

  19. Communication in the Oral History Interview: Investigating Problems of Interpreting Oral Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, E. Culpepper; And Others

    The application of hermeneutic theory to the study of the oral history interview is proposed in this paper. The first section of the paper indicates why the oral interview is central to the approach of the oral historian; it then defines oral history as a communicative process and suggests an approach to investigating the oral interview that uses…

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Feeding in Infants with BPD on Nasal CPAP.

    PubMed

    Hanin, Melissa; Nuthakki, Sushma; Malkar, Manish B; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-04-01

    Safety and efficacy of oral feeding was examined in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). We hypothesized that repetitive oral feeding enhances aero-digestive outcomes and reduces resource utilization. Data from infants with BPD (37-42 weeks post menstrual age) that were orally fed while on NCPAP (n = 26) were compared with those that were exclusively gavage fed on NCPAP (n = 27). Subject assignment was random and physician practice based. Specifically, we compared the differences in aero-digestive milestones, resource utilization, and safety metrics. Demographic characteristics such as gender distribution, gestational age, and birth weight, clinical characteristics such as frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus needing surgical ligation were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Characteristics of respiratory support and airway milestones were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). However, infants in NCPAP-oral fed group had earlier acquisition of full oral feeding milestone by 17 days (median) versus infants who were not orally fed during NCPAP (p < 0.05). Discharge weights and the frequency of gastrostomy tube placement were also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There were no tracheostomies in either group. There was no incidence of clinically significant aspiration pneumonia in infants during the period of the oral feeding while on NCPAP. Controlled introduction of oral feedings in infants with BPD during NCPAP is safe and may accelerate the acquisition of oral feeding milestones. PMID:25380678

  1. Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23778491

  2. Antifungal drug resistance of oral fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Niimi; Norman A. Firth; Richard D. Cannon

    2010-01-01

    Fungi comprise a minor component of the oral microbiota but give rise to oral disease in a significant proportion of the population.\\u000a The most common form of oral fungal disease is oral candidiasis, which has a number of presentations. The mainstay for the\\u000a treatment of oral candidiasis is the use of polyenes, such as nystatin and amphotericin B, and azoles

  3. Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Nokta

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated\\u000a with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid\\u000a gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral\\u000a therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the

  4. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production. PMID:10545668

  5. MicroRNA-205 suppresses the oral carcinoma oncogenic activity via down-regulation of Axin-2 in KB human oral cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Min-Gyeong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Park, Mi-Ra; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Heung-Joong; Chun, Hong Sung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Moon, Sung-Min; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small noncoding RNA molecule, 19-25 nucleotides in length, which regulates several pathways including cell development, cell proliferation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis, etc. In this study, the over-expression of microRNA-205 (miR-205) increased the number of apoptotic cells by at least 4 times compared to the control. In addition, over-expressed miRNA in KB oral cancer cells triggered apoptosis via the caspase cascade, including the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-3, and PARP. Flow cytometry showed that apoptotic cell death was increased significantly by 35.33% in KB oral cancer cells with over-expressed miR-205 compared to the control. The microarray data showed that axis inhibitor protein 2 (Axin2) was down-regulated in KB oral cancer cells transfected with miR-205. In addition, Axin2 was down-regulated by approximately 50% by over-expressed miR-205 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, Axin2 was up-regulated in KB oral cancer compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, the cell cytotoxicity and apoptotic population of KB oral cancer cells were increased significantly after Axin2 siRNA transfection. These results suggest that Axin2 is might be as potential oncogene in KB oral cancer cells. The luciferase assay showed that over-expressed miR-205 in KB oral cancer cells suppressed AXIN2 expression through an interaction with its own binding site at AXIN2 3'UTR (64-92). These results suggest that miR-205 is a novel anti-oncogenic miRNA in KB oral cancer cells, and may have potential applications in oral cancer therapy. PMID:24166197

  6. Whole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Multani, Shaleen; Dabholkar, Jyoti; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-03-01

    The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples. PMID:25663065

  7. Washback of an Oral Assessment System in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ana P.; Alvarez, Marta E.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a research study to determine the washback effect of an oral assessment system on some areas of the teaching and learning of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The research combined quantitative and qualitative research methods within a comparative study between an experimental group and a comparison group.…

  8. The knowledge of healthcare professionals regarding elderly persons' oral care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Kearns; M W Barber; M A Gosney; A J Preston

    2006-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and views of nursing staff on both acute elderly care and rehabilitation wards regarding elderly persons' oral care with that of carers in nursing homes.Subjects One hundred nurses working on acute, sub-acute and rehabilitation wards for elderly people (Group 1) and 75 carers in nursing homes (Group 2) were

  9. Quantitative assessment of apoptosis in oral lichen planus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balvinder K. Bloor; Fouzia K. Malik; Edward W. Odell; Peter R. Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this study were to examine the frequency of apoptoses in oral lichen planus by in situ end labeling, to ascertain whether this technique is as sensitive as conventional histologic analysis, and to examine the effect of lymphocytic infiltration. Study design. Numbers of apoptoses in hematoxylin-eosin stained sections were compared with numbers of apoptotic nuclei identified by

  10. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Monensin oral dosage forms. Monensin, as the base or the sodium salt, contains a minimum of 90 percent monensin activity...minimum of 95 percent derived from monensin A plus B. Using thin layer chromatography, the R f value must be comparable to a...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Monensin oral dosage forms. Monensin, as the base or the sodium salt, contains a minimum of 90 percent monensin activity...minimum of 95 percent derived from monensin A plus B. Using thin layer chromatography, the R f value must be comparable to a...

  12. Acid Production by Oral Strains of Candida albicans and Lactobacilli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Klinke; S. Kneist; J. J. de Soet; E. Kuhlisch; S. Mauersberger; A. Förster; W. Klimm

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed, pure resting-cell suspensions were obtained by culturing a total of 28 oral isolates comprising the species

  13. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended. PMID:21077293

  14. Early oral analgesia after fast-track cardiac anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kogan; Benjamen Medalion; Ehud Raanani; Erez Sharoni; Alon Stamler; Natalia Pak; Bernardo A. Vidne; Leonid A. Eidelman

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a Purpose  Oral analgesia after “fast-track” cardiac anesthesia has not been explored. The aim of this study was to compare two oral\\u000a oxycodone analgesic regimens.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred-twenty patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned postoperatively to receive\\u000a immediate-release oxycodone 5 mg and acetaminophen 325 mg (Percocet-5) (group I)per os four times daily, or controlled-release oxycodone 10 mg (OxyContin)

  15. Partnerships for better oral health.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, E

    2003-05-01

    Improving oral health in populations who do not easily access the private dental office or the available community care site is a challenge to dental hygienists and others concerned with the health and well-being of all. Partnerships for improved oral health have been part of the community health efforts for many years and in many countries. With the knowledge, skills, and resources that are held by specific groups and organisations combined into a larger entity of a partnership or coalition, greater impact on oral health issue may be possible. Agencies and individuals interested in making improvements in oral health status in any particular target group may begin a process of working with others who have an interest in improving the health and well being of that target group. In a world that is increasingly synergistic and mutually dependent, improvements in oral health can be advanced by considering the elements of successful coalition building and forming partnerships with multiple organisations and individuals. PMID:16451530

  16. Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-11-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:25289722

  17. Oral Candida infection and colonization in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A.; Dwivedi, P.; Ioannidou, E.; Shaqman, M.; Hull, D.; Burleson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Oral Candida carriage and infection have been reported to be associated with a greater risk for systemic infection in transplant recipients; however, a systematic analysis of the oral Candida titers and species has not been previously conducted. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis, the oral carrier status, Candida titers and species in this population. Methods Ninety kidney and heart transplant subjects and 72 age-matched healthy controls were included. Swabs from the oral mucosa and a standardized amount of unstimulated saliva were plated on Chromagar™ Candida, and colony-forming units per millilitre were calculated. Initial speciation was based on colony color and was confirmed by standard germ tube, biotyping, or polymerase chain reaction assays. Results Infection with C. albicans was detected in seven transplant subjects and none of the controls. The transplant group had significantly higher oral Candida titers than the control group. There were no statistically significant relationships between the dose or type of immunosuppressants and oral Candida titers or infection. A significantly higher percentage of transplant subjects were colonized by more than one species, compared with control subjects. The most frequent species combination in transplant subjects was C. albicans and C. glabrata. C. glabrata was isolated from 13.5% of transplant carriers and none of the controls. Conclusions Increased oral Candida infection and carriage titers were found in the transplant population. Although the majority of transplant patients were colonized by C. albicans, C. glabrata appears to emerge as the second most prevalent species. PMID:19416456

  18. Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, T.; Jung, W.; You, J. S.; Chen, Z.; Osann, K.; Tromberg, B.

    2005-04-01

    Objectives: Early detection of cancer and its curable precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Despite significant advances in treatment, oral cancer still results in 10,000 U.S. deaths annually, mainly due to the late detection of most oral lesions. Specific aim was to use a combination of non-invasive optical in vivo technologies to test a multi-modality approach to non-invasive diagnostics of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Methods: In the hamster cheek pouch model (120 hamsters), in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) mapped epithelial, subepithelial and vascular change throughout carcinogenesis in specific, marked sites. In vivo multi-wavelength multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generated (SHG) fluorescence techniques provided parallel data on surface and subsurface tissue structure, specifically collagen presence and structure, cellular presence, and vasculature. Images were diagnosed by 2 blinded, pre-standardized investigators using a standardized scale from 0-6 for all modalities. After sacrifice, histopathological sections were prepared and pathology evaluated on a scale of 0-6. ANOVA techniques compared imaging diagnostics with histopathology. 95% confidence limits of the sensitivity and specificity were established for the diagnostic capability of OCT/ODT+ MPM/SHG using ROC curves and kappa statistics. Results: Imaging data were reproducibly obtained with good accuracy. Carcinogenesis-related structural and vascular changes were clearly visible to tissue depths of 2mm. Sensitivity (OCT/ODT alone: 71-88%; OCT+MPM/SHG: 79-91%) and specificity (OCT alone: 62-83%;OCT+MPM/SHG: 67-90%) compared well with conventional techniques. Conclusions: OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG are promising non-invasive in vivo diagnostic modalities for oral dysplasia and malignancy. Supported by CRFA 30003, CCRP 00-01391V-20235, NIH (LAMMP) RR01192, DOE DE903-91ER 61227, NIH EB-00293 CA91717, NSF BES-86924, AFOSR FA 9550-04-1-0101.

  19. Oral Bisphosphonate and Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Nationwide Claim Study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiology studies suggest that oral bisphosphonate may increase the risk of esophageal cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the association between exposure of oral bisphosphonate and risk of esophageal cancer. Methods Using the nationwide medical claim database in South Korea, 2,167,955 subjects, who initiated osteoporosis treatment (oral bisphosphonate, intravenous bisphosphonate or raloxifene) or performed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) between 2008 and 2012, were analyzed. Diagnosis of esophageal cancer was estimated from medical claim database. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was estimated by comparing with incidence in the general population. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to investigate age-adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of esophageal cancer. Results The present study included oral bisphosphonate group (N=1,435,846), comparator group 1 (intravenous bisphosphonate or raloxifene, N=78,363) and comparator group 2 (DXA, N=653,746). Mean age was 65.6±8.8 years and mean observation duration was 30.9±17.7 months. During 5,503,688 patient-years, 205 esophageal cancer incidences were observed. The annual incidence of esophageal cancer was 3.88, 4.21, and 3.30 for oral bisphosphonate group, comparator group 1 and comparator group 2, respectively. SIR of esophageal cancer was 1.24, 1.38, and 1.40 for oral bisphosphonate group, comparator group 1 and comparator group 2, respectively. Esophageal cancer risk of oral bisphosphonate group was not significantly different from comparator group 1 and comparator group 2 (aHR 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-1.98 and aHR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.30, respectively). Conclusions The use of oral bisphosphonate was not associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer in real clinical practice using large scale nationwide database. PMID:26082917

  20. [Contemplations on responsibility for oral healthcare].

    PubMed

    Slootweg, P J; de Baat, C

    2012-05-01

    The academic dental education in The Netherlands has been extended to 6 years, among other reasons in order to make it possible for responsibility for oral healthcare to be borne in a wide medical context. It is the job of the 3 national dental schools to make this happen. The new dentist should know and recognize all (peri-)oral disorders and oral symptoms of systemic diseases, and he should be able to deliver oral healthcare to medically compromised patients. Accepting this responsibility is required for dentistry to be transformed into medical oral healthcare and for dentists to be upgraded to oral physicians. PMID:22667192

  1. The application of vizilite in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K M K; Kumar, M Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

  2. The Application of Vizilite in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K. M. K.; Kumar, M. Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

  3. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  4. The thermosensitive TRPV3 channel contributes to rapid wound healing in oral epithelia.

    PubMed

    Aijima, Reona; Wang, Bing; Takao, Tomoka; Mihara, Hiroshi; Kashio, Makiko; Ohsaki, Yasuyoshi; Zhang, Jing-Qi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshio; Masuko, Sadahiko; Goto, Masaaki; Tominaga, Makoto; Kido, Mizuho A

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity provides an entrance to the alimentary tract to serve as a protective barrier against harmful environmental stimuli. The oral mucosa is susceptible to injury because of its location; nonetheless, it has faster wound healing than the skin and less scar formation. However, the molecular pathways regulating this wound healing are unclear. Here, we show that transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channel, is more highly expressed in murine oral epithelia than in the skin by quantitative RT-PCR. We found that temperatures above 33°C activated TRPV3 and promoted oral epithelial cell proliferation. The proliferation rate in the oral epithelia of TRPV3 knockout (TRPV3KO) mice was less than that of wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated the contribution of TRPV3 to wound healing using a molar tooth extraction model and found that oral wound closure was delayed in TRPV3KO mice compared with that in WT mice. TRPV3 mRNA was up-regulated in wounded tissues, suggesting that TRPV3 may contribute to oral wound repair. We identified TRPV3 as an essential receptor in heat-induced oral epithelia proliferation and wound healing. Our findings suggest that TRPV3 activation could be a potential therapeutic target for wound healing in skin and oral mucosa. PMID:25351988

  5. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1?mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  6. Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

  7. [Pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Glück, U

    1990-05-01

    Allergic diseases are frequent, affecting 10%-15% of the population. The atopic symptoms manifest mainly as pollinosis or bronchial asthma. Many of the atopic patients have an additional food-related allergy, often due to a cross-reactivity between pollen allergens (birch, hazelnut, alder, mugwort) and food allergens. The foods which most frequently elicit oral, gastro-intestinal or anaphylactic symptoms are fruits such as apples, peaches, cherries or apricots, but also nuts and vegetables from the botanic group of the compositae (celery, carrots, fennel, sunflower kernels, camomile, parsley, etc.). While fruits mainly cause oral symptoms (aphthae, stomatitis, swelling of the lips or tongue, pharyngitis, hoarseness and laryngeal oedema), nuts and celery can often also induce acute generalized symptoms, such as severe laryngeal oedema, bronchial asthma, urticaria or allergic shock. In our experience these patients tend to minimize their oral symptoms and the practitioner has often to ask about them specifically. PMID:2373647

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Salivary TNF-? in Oral Lichen Planus Patients.

    PubMed

    Malarkodi, T; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in oral lichen planus patients and to compare the levels of TNF-? between saliva and serum of OLP and controls. Methods. Serum and whole saliva from 30 patients with active lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) and 30 healthy persons were investigated for the presence of TNF-? by enzyme immunoassay. Student's independent t-test and two-sample binomial proportion test were used to calculate significance of the mean values of TNF-alpha in serum and saliva and to determine the proportions of the detected and nondetected samples in both groups. Results. Proportion of detection and the mean of detectability between saliva and serum of Group B show an almost equal value, which suggests that saliva can be a good alternate to serum to analyze TNF-? in oral lichen planus patients. PMID:25861271

  9. [Comparison of DNA adducts between oral, pharyngeal and larynx cancer].

    PubMed

    Pabiszczak, M; Banaszewski, J; Szmeja, Z; Szyfter, K; Szyfter, W

    2001-01-01

    The results concerning examination of DNA adducts in oral (23 patients), pharyngeal (23 patients) and larynx cancer (10 patients) subjects are presented. DNA adduct levels were compared in respect to anatomical structure (primary tumour location), number of cigarettes smoked, TNM stage, and age of patients. DNA was isolated from removed tissue (tumour and non-tumour surrounding tissue) using detergent/phenol extraction. 32P-postlabelling assay including nuclease P1-enhancement modification was applied. Aromatic DNA adducts were found in all studied tissues. Total DNA adduct levels (tumour and non-tumour tissues) was lowest in larynx cancer, higher in oral cancer and highest in pharyngeal cancer. There were no influence of age into formation of DNA adducts. The higher level of DNA adducts was found in tumour tissue of oral cancer in the group of smokers with metastasis into lymph nodes. PMID:11868331

  10. Modified oral metronidazole desensitization protocol.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Samantha R; Pien, Lily C; Gutta, Ravi C; Abouhassan, Susan R

    2014-03-01

    The Center for Disease Control guidelines recommend desensitization to metronidazole in patients with trichomoniasis and hypersensitivity to metronidazole. There is only one published oral metronidazole desensitization protocol. The purpose of this study was to design a new, more gradual oral desensitization protocol to decrease systemic reactions that may occur when using the previously published protocol. We present two patients with presumed IgE-mediated allergy to metronidazole who underwent oral desensitization using our modified protocol. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman with trichomoniasis who presented for metronidazole desensitization with a history of intraoperative anaphylaxis and positive skin tests to metronidazole. The patient tolerated six doses of the modified desensitization but developed systemic symptoms of nasal congestion and diffuse pruritus after the 25- and 100-mg doses. Both reactions were treated with intravenous (i.v.) antihistamines. Because of gastrointestinal irritation, the desensitization was completed at a dose of 250 mg orally every 6 hours. Case 2 was a 42-year-old woman with trichomoniasis and a history of hives immediately after administration of i.v. metronidazole who presented for desensitization. The patient had negative skin-prick and intradermal testing to metronidazole. She developed lip tingling and pruritus on her arms 15 minutes after the 10-mg dose. Fexofenadine at 180 mg was given orally and symptoms resolved. She tolerated the rest of the protocol without reaction and received a total dose of 2 g of metronidazole. Our oral metronidazole desensitization for presumed IgE-mediated reactions offers a second option for physicians wishing to use a more gradual escalation in dose. PMID:24612959

  11. Teledentistry: Distant Diagnosis of Oral Disease Using E-Mails

    PubMed Central

    Morosini, Imara de Almeida Castro; Possebon, Renata Seleme; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of telediagnosis in oral medicine, through the transmission of clinical digital images by e-mail. Subjects and Methods: The sample included 60 consecutive patients who sought oral medicine services at the Federal University of Paraná, in the state of Paraná, located in southern Brazil. The clinical history and oral lesion images were recorded using clinical electronic charts and a digital camera, respectively, and sent by e-mail to two oral medicine consultants. The consultants provided a maximum of two clinical hypotheses for each case, which were compared with biopsy results that served as the gold standard. Results: In 31 of the 60 cases (51.7%), both consultants made the correct diagnosis; in 17 cases (28.3%), only one consultant made the correct diagnosis; and in 12 cases (20%), neither consultant made the correct diagnosis. Therefore, in 80% of cases, at least one consultant provided the correct diagnosis. The agreement between the first consultant and the gold standard was substantial (?=0.669), and the agreement between the second consultant and the gold standard was fair (?=0.574). Conclusions: The use of information technology can increase the accuracy of consultations in oral medicine. As expected, the participation of two remote experts increased the possibility of correct diagnosis. PMID:23356381

  12. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, J. M.; Lake, R. C.; Hansen, R. J.; Lunghofer, P. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after administration of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling and dose interval modeling were performed. Repeated measures anova was used to compare parameters between administration routes. Bioavailability of ondansetron was 32% (oral) and 75% (subcutaneous). Calculated elimination half-life of ondansetron was 1.84 ± 0.58 h (intravenous), 1.18 ± 0.27 h (oral) and 3.17 ± 0.53 h (subcutaneous). The calculated elimination half-life of subcutaneous ondansetron was significantly longer (P < 0.05) than oral or intravenous administration. Subcutaneous administration of ondansetron to healthy cats is more bioavailable and results in a more prolonged exposure than oral administration. This information will aid management of emesis in feline patients. PMID:24330064

  13. Oral health status in a population of Nigerian diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Fatusi, Olawunmi A; Akintomide, Anthony; Kolawole, Kikelomo; Ajayi, Adesuyi

    2005-11-15

    Oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus have been documented, but the effect of glycemic control on the oral tissues has been scantily reported. The oral health status of 65 metabolically controlled adult diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was prospectively assessed over six months and compared with that of 54 non-diabetic acting as controls. The mean duration of diabetes was 100.5+/-85.1 months. The difference in periodontal status of the patients and control, assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), was not statistically significant (p=0.07). The degree of hyposalivation between the two groups was, however, statiscally significant (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the altered taste, burning mouth sensation, angular cheilitis, glossitis, and stomatitis status of the two groups. We conclude, with adequate metabolic control, the oral health status of a diabetic may not be significantly different from that of a non-diabetic except for xerostomia. A good understanding of the interactions between systemic diseases and oral health is imperative for physicians and dental practitioners. The need for early detection and closer linkages between the dental and medical professions in managing diabetic patients is emphasized. PMID:16299609

  14. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide in oral precancer patients.

    PubMed

    Metgud, R; Anandani, C; Singh, K

    2015-05-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer has been the subject of speculation and conflicting reports in the literature. The high incidence of oral cancer and precancer has been linked to tobacco chewing and smoking habits; NO is considered an indicator of tobacco-related diseases. We compared salivary NO levels in oral precancer and normal patients. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 15 patients with oral precancer (group 1) and 15 healthy age and sex matched subjects (group 2). Salivary nitrite levels were estimated using a colorimetric method and a spectrophotometer. The salivary nitrite concentration of group 2 (median = 4.21 ?g/ml) was significantly less than for group 1 (median = 12.91 ?g/ml). We have added evidence concerning involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of oral cancer, but whether it is a potentially carcinogenic agent at the concentration at which it is present in oral precancer patients requires further evaluation. PMID:25831210

  15. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  16. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  17. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  18. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  19. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study.

    PubMed

    Jaitley, Shweta; Agarwal, Pankaj; Upadhyay, Ramballabh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology). In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions. PMID:26148621

  20. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535