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Sample records for comparing oral pilocarpine

  1. Pilocarpine

    MedlinePlus

    ... with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people with Sjogren's syndrome (a condition that affects the immune system and causes dryness of certain parts of the body such as the eyes and mouth). Pilocarpine is in a class of ...

  2. Absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-pilocarpine following oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasuhiro; Endo, Takuro; Hara, Yoshiki; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Midgley, Ian; Smart, Clair I; John, Alexandra J; Chasseaud, Leslie F; McBurney, Alan; John, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    The absorption, distribution and excretion of pilocarpine (CAS 92-13-7) were studied after single oral doses of 14C-pilocarpine hydrochloride (CAS 54-71-7) to the Sprague-Dawley rat, administered in aqueous solution mainly at a dose level of 0.3 mg/kg. Rats also received single intravenous doses at 0.3 mg/kg so as to compare 14C pharmacokinetics and excretion. The oral 14C-dose was rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the duodenum and small intestine within 30 min in the male rat and 14C concentrations in plasma declined biexponentially with a terminal half-life of about 9 h. Over the oral dosage range studied, i.e. 0.1-1.0 mg/kg, there was no evidence of significant non-proportionality for Cmax of 14C, whereas there was some such evidence for AUG24. Tissue 14C concentrations in male and pregnant female (Day 18) rats peaked at 0.5 h and mostly declined in parallel with those in the plasma. Excluding tissues concerned with drug absorption and elimination, 14C concentrations in most tissues were similar to, or lower than, those in the plasma. The extent of placental transfer of 14C was small and less than 0.09% of a maternal dose reached a foetus. 14C diffused into maternal milk at concentrations similar to those in the plasma. The 14C-dose was rapidly excreted in male rats, mostly in the urine (about 80%) during 6 h post dose. Recoveries of 14C in mass balance (excretion) studies were in the range 96-100%. There were no apparent gender differences in the disposition of 14C-pilocarpine in the rat. PMID:15112864

  3. Subthalamic and Cortical Local Field Potentials Associated with Pilocarpine-Induced Oral Tremor in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lauren L.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Haque, Aileen F.; Errante, Emily L.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Tremulous jaw movements (TJMs) are rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at any particular stimulus. In rodents, TJMs are induced by neurochemical conditions that parallel those seen in human Parkinsonism, including neurotoxic or pharmacological depletion of striatal dopamine (DA), DA antagonism, and cholinomimetic administration. Moreover, TJMs in rodents can be attenuated by antiparkinsonian agents, including levodopa (L-DOPA), DA agonists, muscarinic antagonists, and adenosine A2A antagonists. In human Parkinsonian patients, exaggerated physiological synchrony is seen in the beta frequency band in various parts of the cortical/basal ganglia/thalamic circuitry, and activity in the tremor frequency range (3–7 Hz) also has been recorded. The present studies were undertaken to determine if tremor-related local field potential (LFP) activity could be recorded from motor cortex (M1) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) during the TJMs induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, which is a well-known tremorogenic agent. Pilocarpine induced a robust TJM response that was marked by rhythmic electromyographic (EMG) activity in the temporalis muscle. Compared to periods with no tremor activity, TJM epochs were characterized by increased LFP activity in the tremor frequency range in both neocortex and STN. Tremor activity was not associated with increased synchrony in the beta frequency band. These studies identified tremor-related LFP activity in parts of the cortical/basal ganglia circuitry that are involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism. This research may ultimately lead to identification of the oscillatory neural mechanisms involved in the generation of tremulous activity, and promote development of novel treatments for tremor disorders. PMID:27378874

  4. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic pilocarpine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and as an eye gel to apply to the eyes. The eye drops are usually ... instilling the next drop. Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or ...

  5. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model. PMID:2879688

  6. Effect of 0.1% pilocarpine mouthwash on xerostomia: double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Ahn, H-J; Choi, J-H; Jung, D W; Kwon, J-S

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 0.1% pilocarpine mouthwash in xerostomic patients. Sixty volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group used 0.1% pilocarpine solution, and the control group used 0.9% saline. The short- and long-term effects of pilocarpine were investigated by measuring the severity of oral dryness, minor salivary flow rates and unstimulated whole salivary flow rate at predetermined times. The severity of oral dryness was decreased in both groups at 0, 30 and 60 min after mouthwashing, with no significant difference between the groups. Buccal and labial secretions were increased in both groups, but only the experimental group exhibited increased palatal secretion. Labial and palatal secretions, but not buccal secretion, differed between the groups. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was increased in the experimental group and differed from that in the control group. After 4 weeks, the severity of oral dryness was decreased in both groups and did not differ between them. The oral dryness at night or on awakening significantly decreased in both groups, with no significant difference between them, but the oral dryness at other times of the day and the difficulty in swallowing foods were not significantly changed in both groups. Minor salivary and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates did not increase in both groups. Until 1 h after mouthwashing, 0.1% pilocarpine mouthwash increased minor salivary and unstimulated whole salivary secretions, but was not superior compared with 0.9% saline at relieving subjective oral dryness. PMID:24527846

  7. Perirhinal Cortex Hyperexcitability in Pilocarpine-Treated Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Benini, Ruba; Longo, Daniela; Biagini, Giuseppe; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex (PC), which is heavily connected with several epileptogenic regions of the limbic system such as the entorhinal cortex and amygdala, is involved in the generation and spread of seizures. However, the functional alterations occurring within an epileptic PC network are unknown. Here, we analyzed this issue by using in vitro electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry in brain tissue obtained from pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats and age-matched, nonepileptic controls (NECs). Neurons recorded intracellularly from the PC deep layers in the two experimental groups had similar intrinsic and firing properties and generated spontaneous depolarizing and hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials with comparable duration and amplitude. However, spontaneous and stimulus-induced epileptiform discharges were seen with field potential recordings in over one-fifth of pilocarpine-treated slices but never in NEC tissue. These network events were reduced in duration by antagonizing NMDA receptors and abolished by NMDA + non-NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonists. Pharmacologically isolated isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials had reversal potentials for the early GABAA receptor-mediated component that were significantly more depolarized in pilocarpine-treated cells. Experiments with a potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 antibody identified, in pilocarpine-treated PC, a significant immunostaining decrease that could not be explained by neuronal loss. However, interneurons expressing parvalbumin and neuropeptide Y were found to be decreased throughout the PC, whereas cholecystokinin-positive cells were diminished in superficial layers. These findings demonstrate synaptic hyper-excitability that is contributed by attenuated inhibition in the PC of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats and underscore the role of PC networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20865722

  8. ACUTE INDUCTION OF EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGES BY PILOCARPINE IN THE IN VITRO ISOLATED GUINEA-PIG BRAIN REQUIRES ENHANCEMENT OF BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER PERMEABILITY

    PubMed Central

    UVA, L.; LIBRIZZI, L.; MARCHI, N.; NOE, F.; BONGIOVANNI, R.; VEZZANI, A.; JANIGRO, D.; DE CURTIS, M.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic application of the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine, is commonly utilized to induce an acute status epilepticus that evolves into a chronic epileptic condition characterized by spontaneous seizures. Recent findings suggest that the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine may be triggered by changes in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. We tested the role of the BBB in an acute pilocarpine model by using the in vitro model brain preparation and compared our finding with in vivo data. Arterial perfusion of the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain with <1 mM pilocarpine did not cause epileptiform activity, but rather reduced synaptic transmission and induced steady fast (20–25 Hz) oscillatory activity in limbic cortices. These effects were reversibly blocked by co-perfusion of the muscarinic antagonist atropine sulfate (5 μM). Brain pilocarpine measurements in vivo and in vitro suggested modest BBB penetration. Pilocarpine induced epileptiform discharges only when perfused with compounds that enhance BBB permeability, such as bradykinin (n=2) or histamine (n=10). This pro-epileptic effect was abolished when the BBB-impermeable muscarinic antagonist atropine methyl bromide (5 μM) was co-perfused with histamine and pilocarpine. In the absence of BBB permeability enhancing drugs, pilocarpine induced epileptiform activity only after arterial perfusion at concentrations >10 mM. Ictal discharges correlated with a high intracerebral pilocarpine concentration measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. We propose that acute epileptiform discharges induced by pilocarpine treatment in the in vitro isolated brain preparation are mediated by a dose-dependent, atropine-sensitive muscarinic effect promoted by an increase in BBB permeability. Pilocarpine accumulation secondary to BBB permeability changes may contribute to in vivo ictogenesis in the pilocarpine epilepsy model. PMID:18082973

  9. Pilocarpine

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a ...

  10. A Phase III Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Pilocarpine for Vaginal Dryness: NCCTG study N04CA1

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Charles L.; Balcueva, Ernie P.; Liu, Heshan; Sloan, Jeff A.; Kottschade, Lisa A.; Stella, Philip J.; Carlson, Mark D.; Moore, Dennis F.; Zon, Robin T.; Levitt, Ralph; Jaslowski, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Vaginal dryness is a common problem, for which effective and safe non-estrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, to a placebo. Vaginal dryness was recorded by patient-completed questionnaires at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks after study initiation. The primary endpoint for this study was the area under the curve (AUC) summary statistic comprised of the longitudinal responses obtained at baseline and through the six weeks of treatment to a numerical analogue scale asking patients to rate their perceived amount of vaginal dryness. The primary analysis was carried out by a single t-test using a two-sided alternative to compare the collective pilocarpine treatment arms versus the collective placebo arms. Results A total of 201 patients enrolled in this trial. The primary analysis, comparing vaginal dryness symptoms in the collective pilocarpine arms against the placebo arm, did not reveal any benefit for the pilocarpine treatment. This finding was confirmed by other secondary analyses. Toxicity evaluation revealed more nausea, sweating, rigors, and urinary frequency with the pilocarpine arms compared to the placebo arm. Conclusion Pilocarpine did not alleviate vaginal dryness. PMID:21702402

  11. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. Aim: To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Materials and Methods: Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions. PMID:26811574

  12. Unraveling the biosynthesis of pilocarpine in Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Costa, Yanna Dias; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-05-01

    Pilocarpine is found exclusively in species of Pilocarpus and the presence of other imidazole alkaloids has been reported in several species of the genus. Pilocarpine has several important pharmaceutical applications. Although several imidazole alkaloids related to pilocarpine have been reported in the previous years, little is still known about its biosynthetic route. At most, histidine has been reported as the precursor of pilocarpine. Based on our own previous reports and in an experiment where pilocarpine and related alkaloids (pilosine, trachyllophiline and anhydropilosine) were supplied to P. microphyllus leaves and the alkaloid profile analyzed by UPLC-MS, we suggest a biosynthesis pathway for pilocarpine. Further experiments using labeled precursors associated with transcriptome data may allow us to understand the whole biosynthesis pathway and its genetic control. PMID:26058143

  13. The Numbers Game: Oral History Compared with Quantitative Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpless, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Based on the work of William Stephenson, the "Q methodology," formulated in 1935, is compared to classic oral history in a case study of urban renewal. Results showed the methods to be complementary, both providing the same general description of citizen reaction to the project. (JDH)

  14. Aberrant DKK3 Expression in the Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-dhohrah, T.; Mashrah, M.; Yao, Z.; Huang, J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia. No significant association was observed between DKK3 expression and dysplastic status of OLK. Loss of DKK3 expression was observed in 15 of 30 cases in the OSF group, which was significantly associated with histological grade of OSF (P<0.0001). The percentage of positive cells gradually declined with the increasing severity of epithelial atrophy. A significant difference (P<0.01) was observed when comparing DKK3 expression among different groups of OLK and OSF cases. DKK3 may have diverse expressions in oral premalignant lesions. Loss of DKK3 expression in dysplastic/advanced stage of OSF may imply a high risk of progression to oral cancer. PMID:27349317

  15. Central mechanisms involved in pilocarpine-induced pressor response.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Borella, Thais L; Paulin, Renata F; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

    2011-10-28

    Pilocarpine (cholinergic muscarinic agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally to produce pressor responses; in the present study, using c-fos immunoreactive expression, we investigated the forebrain and brainstem areas activated by pressor doses of intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine. In addition, the importance of vasopressin secretion and/or sympathetic activation and the effects of lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region in awake rats were also investigated. In male Holtzman rats, pilocarpine (0.04 to 4μmol/kg b.w.) i.v. induced transitory hypotension followed by long lasting hypertension. Sympathetic blockade with prazosin (1mg/kg b.w.) i.v. or AV3V lesions (1 day) almost abolished the pressor response to i.v. pilocarpine (2μmol/kg b.w.), whereas the vasopressin antagonist (10μg/kg b.w.) i.v. reduced the response to pilocarpine. Pilocarpine (2 and 4μmol/kg b.w.) i.v. increased the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, organ vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla. These data suggest that i.v. pilocarpine activates specific forebrain and brainstem mechanisms increasing sympathetic activity and vasopressin secretion to induce pressor response. PMID:21689994

  16. Comparative Evaluation of EGF in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mohebbian, Mina; Sarookani, Mohammad-Reza; Harirchi, Iraj; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2015-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is classified as a potential malignant disorder, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva EGF among patients with OLP and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A cross-sectional study was performed on 27 patients with OLP (10 reticular and 17 atrophic-erosive forms), 27 patients with OSCC and 27 healthy control group. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva EGF were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used. The mean serum EGF in OLP and OSCC patients was significantly lower compared to healthy control group (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between OLP and OSCC patients. There was no significant difference in mean salivary EGF among groups. As serum EGF levels appear to be statistically similar in OLP and OSCC, it seems that EGF might play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP and its cancerization. PMID:26545991

  17. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. PMID:26004933

  18. Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats Involves Ischemic and Excitotoxic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Merigo, Flavia; Galiè, Mirco; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Farace, Paolo; Nicolato, Elena; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The neuron loss characteristic of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy patients is thought to be the result of excitotoxic, rather than ischemic, injury. In this study, we assessed changes in vascular structure, gene expression, and the time course of neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex during the acute period after onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Immediately after 2 hr SE, the subgranular layers of somatosensory cortex exhibited a reduced vascular perfusion indicative of ischemia, whereas the immediately adjacent supragranular layers exhibited increased perfusion. Subgranular layers exhibited necrotic pathology, whereas the supergranular layers were characterized by a delayed (24 h after SE) degeneration apparently via programmed cell death. These results indicate that both excitotoxic and ischemic injuries occur during pilocarpine-induced SE. Both of these degenerative pathways, as well as the widespread and severe brain damage observed, should be considered when animal model-based data are compared to human pathology. PMID:17971868

  19. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Oral Medications for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Ataru; Inoue, Sachie; Ishii, Tomonori; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2016-07-27

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease that imposes a significant burden on patients. Although multiple treatment options for PAH are available, head-to-head comparisons are difficult to conduct. Network meta-analysis (NMA) can be a useful alternative for direct comparison to estimate the relative effectiveness of multiple treatments. The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and NMA to evaluate the relative effectiveness among oral PAH medications.Data collection was performed by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Ichushi-Web. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing at least 1 of the following 3 outcome measurements; 6-minute walk distance test (6MWD), WHO functional class (WHOFC), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) were included (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015016557). Outcomes were evaluated by estimating the differences in the mean change from baseline or by estimating the odds ratios. Analyses were performed using WinBUGS 1.4.3.Seven double-blind RCTs were eligible. NMA results showed similar improvements in 6MWD for all medications assessed. Bosentan and sildenafil caused a statistically significant improvement in WHOFC compared to other medications.The relative effectiveness of oral PAH medications could be compared using NMA, which suggested the superiority of bosentan and sildenafil in the improvement of WHOFC. PMID:27385603

  1. Relapse and rehospitalization: comparing oral and depot antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Nina R

    2003-01-01

    A review of studies that compared conventional oral and depot antipsychotic medications highlighted the following points. Mirror-image studies in which patients served as their own controls provided evidence of substantial benefit for depot injectable medications. The randomized clinical trials did not, in general, support the findings of significant decrease in relapse rates between these 2 routes of administration. Across the studies reviewed, the 1-year relapse rate for long-acting depot medication was 27% compared with 42% for patients who received oral medication. The 27% risk of relapse in patients who received guaranteed depot medication suggests that relapse is not always driven by noncompliance. In the only study that lasted for 2 years, the risk of relapse decreased substantially in the depot-treated patients, suggesting that risk of noncompliance may be a more important factor in relapse over extended periods of time. A recent formal meta-analytic review of depot medications concluded that this route of administration resulted in clinical advantages in terms of global outcome. PMID:14680414

  2. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) adversely effects on pilocarpine seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Lee, Song Hee; Choi, Hui Chul; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-01-21

    Citicoline (CDP-choline; cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. Citicoline serves as a choline donor in the biosynthetic pathways of acetylcholine and neuronal membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. The ability of citicoline to reverse neuronal injury has been tested in animal models of cerebral ischemia and clinical trials have been performed in stroke patients. However, no studies have examined the effect of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death. To clarify the potential therapeutic effects of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death, we used an animal model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25mg/kg) in adult male rats. Citicoline (100 or 300 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space two hours after seizure onset and a second injection was performed 24h after the seizure. Citicoline was injected once per day for one week after pilocarpine- or kainate-induced seizure. Neuronal injury and microglial activation were evaluated at 1 week post-seizure. Surprisingly, rather than offering protection, citicoline treatment actually enhanced seizure-induced neuronal death and microglial activation in the hippocampus compared to vehicle treated controls. Citicoline administration after seizure-induction increased immunoglobulin leakage via BBB disruption in the hippocampus compared with the vehicle-only group. To clarify if this adverse effect of citicoline is generalizable across alternative seizure models, we induced seizure by kainate injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) and then injected citicoline as in pilocarpine-induced seizure. We found that citicoline did not modulate kainate seizure-induced neuronal death, BBB disruption or microglial activation. These results suggest that citicoline may not have neuroprotective effects after seizure and that clinical application of citicoline after

  3. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M; Iqbal, Z

    2011-05-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ-HA and CBZ-FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ-HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  4. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mohd. Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ–HA and CBZ–FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ–HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Simulated and Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI). The OPI is a method of assessing general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts: simple personal background questions posed in a simulated…

  6. Orality, Literacy and Music's Creative Potential: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1989-01-01

    Describes the rise of musical notation in the West, showing the relationship between that development and the origin of music literacy in China. Suggests that the balance of oral and literate means of music learning may foster creative expression in performance. Encourages the study and practice of orality in the training of young musicians. (LS)

  7. Oral versus intramuscular phytomenadione: safety and efficacy compared.

    PubMed

    von Kries, R

    1999-07-01

    Oral and intramuscular phytomenadione (vitamin K1) prophylaxis became an issue following the report of a potential carcinogenic effect of intramuscular but not oral phytomenadione prophylaxis. There is increasing evidence, however, that oral phytomenadione prophylaxis is less effective for the prevention of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) than intramuscular prophylaxis. Following a report of an increased cancer risk after intramuscular phytomenadione, a series of papers on this issue appeared. Although an increased risk for solid tumours could almost certainly be excluded, a potential risk for acute lymphatic leukaemia in childhood could not be ruled out definitively. Almost all cases of late VKDB are preventable with intramuscular phytomenadione prophylaxis administered once at birth, whereas a single oral dose given at birth is much less effective. Repeated oral phytomenadione doses given to breast-fed infants either weekly (1 mg) or daily (25 microg) seem to be as effective as intramuscular phytomenadione prophylaxis. The efficacy of 3 oral 2mg doses with the new mixed micellar preparation ('Konakion MM') remains to be established. Although a number of studies have failed to confirm a cancer risk with phytomenadione, these studies have been unable to rule out a risk definitely because absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. A meta-analysis of the available studies might provide 95% confidence intervals narrow enough to exclude even a small cancer risk with some certainty. Oral prophylaxis will probably be as safe as the intramuscular prophylaxis if given daily (25 microg) or weekly (1 mg). PMID:10433349

  8. To evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Vyom; Goyal, Chinu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene, and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students. In this study, 142 visually impaired children from a blind school in the age group of 6-18 years were enrolled with a similar number of age and sex matched sighted students studying in different schools of Chandigarh. The outcome variables were oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal status. The visually impaired had been found to have better oral hygiene practices, a nonsignificant difference of oral hygiene scores but a significantly high value for bleeding scores as compared to sighted students. Age wise comparisons showed that bleeding scores were highly significant in 9-11 years and 12-14 years age group as compared to 6-8 years and 15-18 years age group. It could be related that the increased prevalence of bleeding sites despite of better oral hygiene practices in visually impaired group might be the result of their handicap to visualize plaque. PMID:23451928

  9. Comparing Students' Individual Written and Collaborative Oral Socioscientific Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Amanda M.; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing and critiquing scientific arguments has become an increasingly important goal for science education. Yet, the differences in the ways students construct collaborative oral and individual written socioscientific arguments are not well established. Our research with one middle school class in an urban New England school district…

  10. Comparative oral dose toxicokinetics of sodium selenite and selenomethionine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxicokinetics of selenium (Se) absorption, distribution, and elimination were determined in serum and whole blood of lambs that were orally dosed with various doses of Se as sodium selenite (inorganic Se) or selenomethionine (organic Se). Thirty-two lambs were randomly assigned to eight treatm...

  11. Synthesis of N-1', N-3'-disubstituted spirohydantoins and their anticonvulsant activities in pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Schanne, Francis A X; Yoganathan, Sabesan; Stephani, Ralph A

    2016-06-15

    Herein we report the synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of a library of eighteen new compounds that are structural mimics of phenytoin. These class of compounds contain a N-1', N-3'-disubstituted spirohydantoin scaffold, where the N-1' and N-3' positions are modified with an alkyl group or aryl group. Of the eighteen compounds synthesized and tested, compound 5c showed the best anticonvulsant activity. It completely prevented the precursor events of motor seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Additionally, ten of the analogs were more effective than phenytoin when compared using the Racine's score in the pilocarpine model. Based on the structure activity relationship (SAR), we concluded that alkyl groups (ethyl, propyl or cyclopropyl) at N-3' position and 4-nitro phenyl group at N-1' position are desirable. PMID:27133483

  12. Down-regulation of mGluR8 in pilocarpine epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Kral, T; Erdmann, E; Sochivko, D; Clusmann, H; Schramm, J; Dietrich, D

    2003-03-15

    Activation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) leads to a powerful inhibition of glutamate release from many synaptic terminals throughout the CNS. mGluRs as autoreceptors are believed to provide a negative feedback system that prevents potentially toxic accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular space during synchronous synaptic activity such as epileptic seizures. In this study we analyzed the function of presynaptic mGluR8 on terminals of the lateral perforant pathway in the pilocarpine model of limbic epilepsy. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded in hippocampal slices of rats that developed spontaneous recurrent seizures after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SRS group) showed a significantly reduced sensitivity to Group III mGluR agonists and severe mossy fiber sprouting. The Group III mGluR agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4, 10 microM) depressed fEPSPs in the SRS group only by 26 +/- 21% compared to 50 +/- 18% in untreated rats. Similarly, the mGluR8 preferring agonist (R,S)-4-phosphonophenylglycine (PPG, 5 microM) was significantly less effective in slices from SRS rats (43 +/- 4% vs. 83 +/- 5%). Concentration-response curves for L-AP4 revealed that the EC(50) values were not different between the control and SRS group (13 +/- 7 microM vs. 9 +/- 9 microM), while the maximal depressing effect was significantly reduced. The remaining depressing effect of L-AP4 in the SRS group could be blocked by the Group III specific antagonists (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and alpha-methyl-L-AP4 (MAP4). Rats that did not develop SRS following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus were indistinguishable from control rats: fEPSPs were highly sensitive to L-AP4 and there was no mossy fiber sprouting. The results show that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus can lead to a downregulation of mGluR8 and suggest that the condition of SRS is associated with a deteriorated autoregulation

  13. Comparative Human Oral Clinical Pharmacology of Cefadroxil, Cephalexin, and Cephradine

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Morris; Jackson, Andre; Ximenes, Jose; De Menezes, Jairo Perche

    1977-01-01

    At equivalent oral doses, cefadroxil has a longer serum half-life, slower urinary excretion rate, greater area under the serum level versus time curve than cephalexin or cephradine, and peak serum concentrations that are 75 to 80% those of cephalexin. The calculated, apparent in vivo volume of distribution of cefadroxil is greater than that of cephalexin. These properties infer greater persistence of cefadroxil in serum and urine and more prolonged in vivo bacterial exposure to cefadroxil than to cephalexin or cephradine. Neither cefadroxil nor cephalexin demonstrates drug accumulation on repeated administration. The serum levels achieved by cefadroxil are unaffected by food. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefadroxil are supportive of the development of clinical efficacy data which could indicate that cefadroxil could be administered at 12-h intervals. PMID:848940

  14. Effect of Argemone mexicana (L.) against lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Asuntha, G; Raju, Y Prasanna; Sundaresan, C R; Rasheed, Arun; Chowdary, V Harini; Vandana, K R; Babu, K Satish; Prasad, K V S R G

    2015-01-01

    Argemone mexicana (L.) has a role in the treatment of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. We studied its effect on induced status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress in rats. SE was induced in male albino rats by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, ip) 24 h after injection of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, ip). Different doses of the ethanol extract of A. mexicana were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of SE was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter at every 30 min for another 90 min, using the Racine scoring system. In vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured utilizing thiobarbiturate-reactive substances. Both in vitro free radical nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the extract were also determined. The SE severity was significantly reduced following oral administration of the extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. None of the animals from groups 3 to 5 (with A. mexicana extract) have exhibited forelimb clonus of stage 4 seizure. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:25675709

  15. Physical training decreases susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures in the injured rat brain.

    PubMed

    Setkowicz, Zuzanna; Kosonowska, Emilia; Kaczyńska, Małgorzata; Gzieło-Jurek, Kinga; Janeczko, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence that physical activity ameliorates the course of epilepsy in animal models as well as in clinical conditions. Since traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest determinants of epileptogenesis, the present study focuses on the question whether a moderate long-term physical training can decrease susceptibility to seizures evoked following brain damage. Wistar rats received a mechanical brain injury and were subjected to daily running sessions on a treadmill for 21 days. Thereafter, seizures were induced by pilocarpine injections in trained and non-trained, control groups. During the acute period of status epilepticus, the intensity of seizures was assessed within the six-hour observation period. The trained rats showed considerable amelioration of pilocarpine-induced motor symptoms when compared with their non-trained counterparts. Histological investigations of effects of the brain injury and of physical training detected significant quantitative changes in parvalbumin-, calretinin- and NPY-immunopositive neuronal populations. Some of the injury-induced changes, especially those shoved by parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons, were abolished by the subsequent physical training procedure and could, therefore, be considered as neuronal correlates of the observed functional amelioration of the injured brain. PMID:26972533

  16. Amiloride suppresses pilocarpine-induced seizures via ASICs other than NHE in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Li-Fang; Chen, Xu-Ming; Pan, Song-Qing; Lu, Zu-Neng; Xiao, Zhe-Man

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although recent studies have indicated that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) may play an important role in suppressing status epilepticus (SE) in rats, the precise mechanism is unclear. We attempted to investigate the antiepileptic effect of amiloride in SE rats and its mechanism. Methods: Rats with seizures induced by Li-pilocarpine were randomly divided into four groups, phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group, amiloride group, levetiracetam group and acidic liquid group, respectively. The electroencephalogram (EEG) of each group was recorded. Then rats treated with different drugs (2 h after amiloride or PBS injection or 1 h after PBS injection) and a normal control group was selected for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of ASIC1a, ASIC3 and sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in each group was detected. Results: Amiloride reduced the frequency of discharge in 60~90 min after injection significantly. In acidic liquid group, the epileptic discharge was increased in 0~30 min. Moreover, the expression of ASIC1a, ASIC3 and NHE was obviously increased in the SE groups. Compared with SE groups, the expression of ASIC1a and ASIC3 mRNA in amiloride group decreased significantly. While NHE mRNA expression in the SE groups showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Amiloride inhibited pilocarpine-induced SE and the anti-epileptic mechanism was associated with deactivation of the ASIC1a and ASIC3 instead of NHE in rats. PMID:26823770

  17. Characterisation of the membrane transport of pilocarpine in cell suspension cultures of Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Pilocarpine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Pilocarpus genus, with important pharmaceutical applications. Previous reports have investigated the production of pilocarpine by Pilocarpus microphyllus cell cultures and tried to establish the alkaloid biosynthetic route. However, the site of pilocarpine accumulation inside of the cell and its exchange to the medium culture is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the intracellular accumulation of pilocarpine and characterise its transport across membranes in cell suspension cultures of P. microphyllus. Histochemical analysis and toxicity assays indicated that pilocarpine is most likely stored in the vacuoles probably to avoid cell toxicity. Assays with exogenous pilocarpine supplementation to the culture medium showed that the alkaloid is promptly uptaken but it is rapidly metabolised. Treatment with specific ABC protein transporter inhibitors and substances that disturb the activity of secondary active transporters suppressed pilocarpine uptake and release suggesting that both proteins may participate in the traffic of pilocarpine to inside and outside of the cells. As bafilomicin A1, a specific V-type ATPase inhibitor, had little effect and NH4Cl (induces membrane proton gradient dissipation) had moderate effect, while cyclosporin A and nifedipine (ABC proteins inhibitors) strongly inhibited the transport of pilocarpine, it is believed that ABC proteins play a major role in the alkaloid transport across membranes but it is not the exclusive one. Kinetic studies supported these results. PMID:25474486

  18. Comparative evaluation of oral flupirtine and oral diclofenac sodium for analgesia and adverse effects in elective abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sandhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Khichy, Sudhir; Singh, Harsimrat; Singh, Kulwinder; Sharan, Radhe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flupirtine is a centrally-acting, nonopioid analgesic that interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Aim: The present study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of orally administered flupirtine and diclofenac sodium for postoperative pain relief. Settings and Design: In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, 100 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist grade I and II in the age group of 18–65 years of either sex undergoing elective abdominal surgeries were included after taking informed consent. Materials and Methods: The present study started after 12 h of surgery and patients were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each. For postoperative analgesia, group A received flupirtine 100 mg orally and group B received diclofenac sodium 50 mg orally and study drugs were repeated every 6 hourly for 5 days postoperatively. Vital parameters and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain were recorded at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h, and adverse effects were noted for 48 h of the study period. Statistical Analysis: Data were compiled and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test and two-tailed Student's t-test. Results: Visual analogue scores decreased more rapidly in diclofenac group during 1st h, hence there was rapid onset of analgesia in this group as compared to flupirtine group but later on VAS was comparable in both groups at all measured intervals (P > 0.05). Patients in diclofenac group experienced significantly more heartburn (P = 0.00), impaired taste sensation (P < 0.001) and dizziness (P = 0.004) as compared to flupirtine group. Conclusion: Oral flupirtine and diclofenac sodium were equally effective for postoperative analgesia. There was faster onset of analgesia with diclofenac sodium, but flupirtine was better tolerated by the patients because of its minimal adverse effects. PMID:25886424

  19. Comparative study of the in situ immune response in oral and nasal mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, M R; Morgado, F N; Valete-Rosalino, C M; Martins, A C; Moreira, J; Quintella, L P; de Oliveira Schubach, A; Conceição-Silva, F

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) may occur in both nasal and oral mucosa. However, despite the impressive tissue destruction, little is known about the oral involvement. To compare some changes underlying inflammation in oral and nasal ML, we performed immunohistochemistry on mucosal tissue of 20 patients with ML (nasal [n = 12]; oral [n = 8] lesions) and 20 healthy donors using antibodies that recognize inflammatory markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD22, CD68, neutrophil elastase, CD1a, CLA, Ki67, Bcl-2, NOS2, CD62E, Fas and FasL). A significantly larger number of cells, mainly T cells and macrophages, were observed in lesions than in healthy tissue. In addition, high nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression was associated with a reduced detection of parasites, highlighting the importance of NOS2 for parasite elimination. Oral lesions had higher numbers of neutrophils, parasites, proliferating cells and NOS2 than nasal lesions. These findings, together with the shorter duration of oral lesions and more intense symptoms, suggest a more recent inflammatory process. It could be explained by lesion-induced oral cavity changes that lead to eating difficulties and social stigma. In addition, the frequent poor tooth conservation and gingival inflammation tend to amplify tissue destruction and symptoms and may impair and confuse the correct diagnosis, thus delaying the onset of specific treatment. PMID:22098533

  20. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    PubMed Central

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  1. Comparative efficacy of intranasal and oral vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J A; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Shields, S; Wappel, S; Bowers, A; Lacoste, S; Xu, Z; Ball, E

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the comparative efficacy of vaccines administered intranasally or orally to protect puppies from disease subsequent to experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a randomized controlled trial was performed using 48 approximately 8-week-old specific pathogen free, Bb naive Beagle puppies. Puppies were randomized into three groups and administered vaccines containing Bb intranasally or orally, or a placebo intranasally. Twenty-one days later, all dogs were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of Bb. Clinical signs, nasal bacterial shedding and immune responses were monitored for 28 days after challenge. Intranasally vaccinated puppies had significantly lower rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing (i.e. were less sick clinically) than control puppies. The distinction between the orally vaccinated puppies and the control puppies was less consistent. The orally vaccinated puppies had less coughing and less retching than the control puppies, but nasal discharge and sneezing did not differ from control animals. Orally vaccinated puppies had higher rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing than the intranasally vaccinated puppies. Although both intranasal and oral Bb vaccines stimulated immune responses associated with disease sparing following Bb infection, the intranasal route of delivery conferred superior clinical outcomes. The observed difference in clinical efficacy suggests the need to question the rationale for the use of currently available orally administered Bb vaccines. PMID:27256028

  2. Higher prevalence and gene amplification of HPV16 in oropharynx as compared to oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, Hideo; SUGIYAMA, Masaru; OHTA, Kouji; RAHMAN, Mohammad Zeshaan; TAKECHI, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx. PMID:27556212

  3. Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2015-03-01

    Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

  4. Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2013-10-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Oral Health on the Santo Domingo Pueblo Reservation.

    PubMed

    Batliner, Terrence; Wilson, Anne; Davis, Elaine; Gallegos, Joaquin; Thomas, Jacob; Tiwari, Tamanna; Fehringer, Karen; Wilson, Katherine; Albino, Judith

    2016-06-01

    The study was done to compare oral health data from a tribe in a relatively accessible location between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico to national American Indian data and broader US data sets. Participants (N = 399) were recruited via random sampling of housing units. Dental health measures included DMFT/dmft and dental sealants. Comparisons were made using data from large-scale oral health surveillance studies. There was no difference in oral health for 3-5 year olds compared to a recent study of AI/AN preschool children. Compared to the general US population, Santo Domingo Pueblo children and adults showed higher prevalence of untreated decay. Children ages 5-19 had higher rates of sealant retention on permanent teeth, and adults showed lower prevalence of complete tooth retention. The children ages 5-19 and 12-19 with at least one sealant have significantly lower DMFT and less untreated decay than those without sealants. However, the percentage of children with and without sealants who had untreated decay was still more than two times higher than the general US population. Oral health of American Indian children and adults in Santo Domingo Pueblo was worse compared to the general US population but similar to previous results reported for the same Indian Health Service Area even though their location is less isolated than many other tribes. PMID:26611694

  6. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE
    Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1
    1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  7. Mandarin Oral Narratives Compared with English: The Pear/Guava Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbaugh, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)…

  8. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-08-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  9. A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

  10. Effects of A1 receptor agonist/antagonist on spontaneous seizures in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Beatriz Oliveira; Hamani, Clement; Ferreira, Elenn; Miranda, Maísa Ferreira; Fernandes, Maria José S; Rodrigues, Antonio M; de Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Covolan, Luciene

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous anticonvulsant that activates pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. A1 receptor agonists increase the latency for the development of seizures and status epilepticus following pilocarpine administration. Although hippocampal adenosine is increased in the chronic phase of the pilocarpine model, it is not known whether the modulation of A1 receptors may influence the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the A1 receptor agonist RPia ([R]-N-phenylisopropyladenosine) and the A1 antagonist DPCPX (8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) administered to chronic pilocarpine epileptic rats would respectively decrease and increase the frequency of SRS and hippocampal excitability. Four months after Pilo-induced SE, chronic epileptic rats were video-monitored for the recording of SRS before (basal) and after a 2-week treatment with RPia (25μg/kg) or DPCPX (50μg/kg). Following sacrifice, brain slices were studied with electrophysiology. We found that rats given RPia had a 93% nonsignificant reduction in the frequency of seizures compared with their own pretreatment baseline. In contrast, the administration of DPCPX resulted in an 87% significant increase in seizure rate. Nontreated epileptic rats had a similar frequency of seizures along the study. Corroborating our behavioral data, in vitro recordings showed that slices from animals previously given DPCPX had a shorter latency to develop epileptiform activity, longer and higher DC shifts, and higher spike amplitude compared with slices from nontreated Pilo controls. In contrast, smaller spike amplitude was recorded in slices from animals given RPia. In summary, the administration of A1 agonists reduced hippocampal excitability but not the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures in chronic epileptic rats, whereas A1 receptor antagonists increased both. PMID:27371881

  11. Effects of ketogenic diets on the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus of rats.

    PubMed

    Gama, Iclea Rocha; Trindade-Filho, Euclides Marinho; Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Melo, Isabelle Tenório; Cabral-Junior, Cyro Rego; Barros, Elenita M; Galvão, Jaqueline A; Pereira, Wanessa S; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Domingos, Bruna R; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2015-02-01

    Two sources of medium-chain triglycerides--triheptanoin with anaplerotic properties and coconut oil with antioxidant features--have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the management of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We investigated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) containing coconut oil, triheptanoin, or soybean oil on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a control diet (7% lipids) or a KD containing soybean oil, coconut oil, or triheptanoin (69.8% lipids). The ketogenic and control diets had a lipid:carbohydrate + protein ratio of 1:11.8 and 3.5:1, respectively. SE was induced in all rats 20 days after initiation of the dietary treatment, through the administration of pilocarpine (340 mg/kg; i.p.). The latency, frequency, duration, and severity of seizures before and during SE were observed with a camcorder. SE was aborted after 3 h with the application of diazepam (5 mg/kg; i.p.). The rats in the triheptanoin-based KD group needed to undergo a higher number of seizures to develop SE, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Total weight gain, intake, energy intake, and feed efficiency coefficient, prior to induction of SE, differed between groups (P < 0.05), where the triheptanoin-based KD group showed less weight gain than all other groups, less energy intake than the Control group and intermediate values of feed efficiency coefficient between Control and other KDs groups. Triheptanoin-based KD may have a neuroprotective effect on the establishment of SE in Wistar rats. PMID:25005004

  12. Effect of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on ultrasonic vocalizations in the infant rat pup.

    PubMed

    López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor; Medel-Matus, Jesus-Servando; Morgado-Valle, Consuelo; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; Pérez-Estudillo, César; Manzo, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Evidence shows that febrile convulsions induced in rat pups increase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs); however, the effect of status epilepticus (SE) induced in developing rats on USVs has not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to analyze USVs following lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE in fourteen-day-old (P14) rat pups. The rat pups were given 3-mEq/kg lithium chloride i.p. on the day before the induction of SE, which was carried out at P14 by subcutaneous injection of 100-mg/kg pilocarpine hydrochloride; control animals were given an equal volume of lithium chloride and saline on P13 and P14, respectively. Ultrasonic vocalizations were monitored at P15, P16, and P21 with a Mini 3 Bat Detector Ultra Sound Advice (15kHz-160kHz) set at 40±4kHz and digitally recorded in WAV format using the Audacity 1.3 beta software. A clear box (60×40×30cm) split down the middle with a holed wall was used; each pup was placed alone in one compartment, whereas its dam was placed on the other cage side at room temperature. Vocalizations were recorded over a 5-minute period, converted to sonograms and spectrograms, and analyzed using the Raven software. Parameters evaluated were as follows: USV frequency, latency to the first USV, and mean USV duration. There was a significant decrease in the latency (35.5±6.9s) and duration (50.8±8.6s) of USVs after SE compared with the control group (81.9±10.8s and 78.1±9.9s, respectively). Status epilepticus affected male and female rats differentially. PMID:24230988

  13. Induction of pilocarpine formation in jaborandi leaves by salicylic acid and methyljasmonate.

    PubMed

    Avancini, Graziela; Abreu, Ilka N; Saldaña, Marleny D A; Mohamed, Rahoma S; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2003-05-01

    Jaborandi seedlings were subjected to different treatments in order to study the induction of pilocarpine in the leaves. In addition four extraction methods were assessed to extract the alkaloid from dried leaves. The highest yielding extraction and recovery was observed when dried leaves were first treated with base and then extracted with chloroform. Salt stress (NaCl), wounding, hypoxia, and N and K omission of the nutrient soln caused reductions in pilocarpine contents. Whereas complete nutrient soln and P omission maintained normal levels of the alkaloid. Salicylic acid and methyljasmonate induced a 4-fold increase of pilocarpine, but this increase was dependent on the concentration and time after exposure. PMID:12711138

  14. Efficacy of oral ketamine compared to midazolam for sedation of children undergoing laceration repair

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Orit; Barkan, Shiri; Breitbart, Rachelle; Berkovitch, Sofia; Toledano, Michal; Weiser, Giora; Karadi, Natali; Nassi, Anat; Kozer, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation during laceration repair at a pediatric emergency department. Methods: Children between 1 and 10 years requiring laceration repair were randomly assigned to 2 groups, treated either with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) or with oral ketamine (5 mg/kg). Main outcomes measured were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by the parent on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the number of children who required intravenous sedation. Secondary outcomes included VAS by physician, pain assessment by child, maximal sedation depth assessed by the University of Michigan Sedation Scale, time until University of Michigan Sedation Scale 2 or more, general satisfaction of a parent and treating physician, length of procedure, total sedation time, and the incidence of any adverse events. Results: Sixty-eight children were recruited of which 33 were girls. Average age was 5.08 ± 2.14 years. Thirty-seven children were treated with ketamine and 31 with midazolam. Parent-assessed VAS in ketamine treated patients was 5.07 ± 0.75 compared with 3.68 ± 0.7 in midazolam treated patients [mean difference = 1.39 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.47 to 3.26]. Twelve (32%) of the children treated with ketamine required the addition of IV sedation compared to only 2 children (6%) of the children treated with midazolam [odds ratio (adjusted for age and gender) 6.1, 95% CI: 1.2 to 30.5]. The rest of the measured variables were similar between the groups, with no statistical significance. Discussion: No difference in the level of pain was found between ketamine and midazolam treated patients. Compared with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg), oral ketamine (5 mg/kg) was associated with higher rates of sedation failure, and thus is not recommended as a single agent for oral sedation in children requiring laceration repair. PMID:27368000

  15. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  16. Comparative study of frequency of micronuclei in normal, potentially malignant diseases and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Varsha Ajit; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Shah, Nishat; Kangane, Suresh; Ghule, Hrishikesh M.; Rani, SR Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Context: The assessment of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated oral epithelial cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aims: To detect MN in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms and also to detect frequency of MN in premalignant lesions and conditions (potentially malignant diseases [PMD's]) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To correlate frequency of MN in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC followed by a histopathological grading. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects (30 smokeless tobacco users, 30 smokers and 30 nontobacco users) consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of PMD's and OSCC were selected for the study. Cytosmears from the groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN was identified according to the Tolbert et al. criteria. Results: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers. The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in PMD's (P < 0.0001). The frequency of MN correlated with the histopathological grade was statistically significant. Conclusion: MN index can be used as a biomarker/screening test among the high-risk groups particularly the smokeless tobacco users and PMD's. MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC. PMID:27003966

  17. Central moxonidine on salivary gland blood flow and cardiovascular responses to pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Thiago Santos; Takakura, Ana Carolina Thomaz; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Renzi, Antonio; Menani, José Vanderlei

    2003-10-17

    Peripheral treatment with the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine induces intense salivation that is inhibited by central injections of the alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist moxonidine. Salivary gland blood flow controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems may affect salivation. We investigated the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and in the vascular resistance in the submandibular/sublingual gland (SSG) artery, superior mesenteric (SM) artery and low abdominal aorta (hindlimb) in rats treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) pilocarpine alone or combined with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) moxonidine. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannula implanted into lateral ventricle (LV) and anesthetized with urethane were used. Pilocarpine (4 micromol/kg of body weight) i.p. reduced SSG vascular resistance (-50+/-13% vs. vehicle: 5+/-3%). Pilocarpine i.p. also increased mesenteric vascular resistance (15+/-5% vs. vehicle: 2+/-3%) and MAP (16+/-3 mmHg, vs. vehicle: 2+/-3 mmHg). Moxonidine (20 nmol) i.c.v. increased SSG vascular resistance (88+/-12% vs. vehicle: 7+/-4%). When injected 15 min following i.c.v. moxonidine, pilocarpine i.p. produced no change on SSG vascular resistance. Pilocarpine-induced pressor responses and increase in mesenteric vascular resistance were not modified by i.c.v. moxonidine. The treatments produced no change in heart rate (HR) and hindlimb vascular resistance. The results show that (1) i.p. pilocarpine increases mesenteric vascular resistance and MAP and reduces salivary gland vascular resistance and (2) central moxonidine increases salivary gland vascular resistance and impairs pilocarpine-induced salivary gland vasodilatation. Therefore, the increase in salivary gland vascular resistance may play a role in the anti-salivatory response to central moxonidine. PMID:14499959

  18. Doxycycline protects against pilocarpine-induced convulsions in rats, through its antioxidant effect and modulation of brain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Carlos Renato Alves; Damasceno, Flávio Maia; de Aquino-Neto, Manuel Rufino; de Andrade, Geanne Matos; Fontenele, Juvênia Bezerra; de Medeiros, Thales Augusto; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2011-06-01

    This work evaluated doxycycline (2nd generation tetracycline) protection against pilocarpine-induced convulsions in rats. The animals were treated with doxycycline (Dox: 10 to100 mg/kg, i.p., 7days), 30min before the pilocarpine injection (P: 300mg/kg, i.p.) and observed for cholinergic signs, latencies to the first convulsion and death. Amino acid concentrations, lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels in temporal cortices were determined as well as the radical scavenging activity. Doxycycline increased latencies to the first convulsion and death as compared to the untreated P300 group. It also decreased glutamate and aspartate, increased GABA, blocked nitrite formation, reduced TBARS contents and showed a radical scavenging activity. Finally, doxycycline decreased the number of degenerating neurons (evaluated by fluoro-jade staining) and increased the number of viable neurons (assessed by cresyl violet staining) as compared do the P300 group. The antioxidant effect associated with decreased levels of excitatory and increased levels of inhibitory amino acids could explain the neuroprotective effect of doxycycline. PMID:21382396

  19. Time course evaluation of behavioral impairments in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mark William; Lopes, Samantha Cristiane; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Costa, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; de Mello, Nelson; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Farina, Marcelo; Walz, Roger; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy is a brain function disorder characterized by unpredictable and recurrent seizures. The majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is the most common type of epilepsy, have to live not only with seizures but also with behavioral alterations, including anxiety, psychosis, depression, and impaired cognitive functioning. The pilocarpine model has been recognized as an animal model of TLE. However, there are few studies addressing behavioral alterations in the maturation phase when evaluating the time course of the epileptogenic process after pilocarpine administration. Therefore, the present work was designed to analyze the neurobehavioral impairments of male adult Wistar rats during maturation and chronic phases in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Behavioral tests included: open-field tasks, olfactory discrimination, social recognition, elevated plus maze, and the forced swimming test. The main behavioral alterations observed in both maturation and chronic phases of the pilocarpine model were olfactory and short-term social memory deficits and decrease in the immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, increased anxiety-like responses were only observed in the maturation phase. These findings indicate that early behavioral impairments can be observed in the pilocarpine model during the maturation phase, and these behavioral deficits also occur during the acquired epilepsy (chronic phase). Several of the neurobehavioral impairments that are associated with epilepsy in humans were observed in the pilocarpine-treated rats, thus, rendering this animal model a useful tool to study neuroprotective strategies as well as neurobiological and psychopathological mechanisms associated with epileptogenesis. PMID:26773677

  20. Formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of effects of super disintegrants in cefixime oral disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Remya, Ks; Beena, P; Bijesh, Pv; Sheeba, A

    2010-07-01

    The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate. PMID:21042477

  1. Formulation Development, Evaluation and Comparative Study of Effects of Super Disintegrants in Cefixime Oral Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Remya, KS; Beena, P; Bijesh, PV; Sheeba, A

    2010-01-01

    The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate. PMID:21042477

  2. Is the burden of oral diseases higher in urban disadvantaged community compared to the national prevalence?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The urban low income has often been assumed to have the greatest dental treatment needs compared to the general population. However, no studies have been carried out to verify these assumptions. This study was conducted to assess whether there was any difference between the treatment needs of an urban poor population as compared to the general population in order to design an intervention programme for this community. Methods A random sampling of living quarters (households) in the selected areas was done. 586 adults over 19 years old living in these households were clinically examined using World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Survey criteria 4th edition (1997). Results The overall prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, denture wearers and temporomandibular joint problems were 70.5%, 97.1%, 16.7% and 26%, respectively. The majority (80.5%) needed some form of dental treatment. The highest treatment needs were found in the oldest age group while the lowest were in the youngest group (19-29 years) (p = 0.000). The most prevalent periodontal problem was calculus; regardless of gender, ethnicity and age. Significantly more females (20.5%) wore prosthesis than males (11.1%) (p = 0.003). Prosthetic status and need significantly increased with age (p = 0.000). About one in four adults had Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) problems. Overall, it was surprising to note that the oral disease burden related to caries, prosthetic status and treatment need were lower in this population as compared to the national average (NOHSA, 2010). However, their periodontal disease status and treatment needs were higher compared to the national average indicating a poor oral hygiene standard. Conclusions The evidence does not show that the overall oral disease burden and treatment needs in this urban disadvantaged adult population as higher than the national average, except for periodontal disease. The older age groups and elderly were identified as the most in

  3. Behavioral and neurochemical studies in mice pretreated with garcinielliptone FC in pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Paula dos S C L; Lopes, Joselma S L; Vieira, Priscila de S; Pinheiro, Emanuelly E A; da Silva, Mirna L de G; Silva Filho, José Carlos C L; da Costa, Joaquim S; David, Jorge M; de Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2014-09-01

    Garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from hexanic fraction seed extract of species Platonia insignis Mart. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat skin diseases in both humans and animals as well as the seed decoction has been used to treat diarrheas and inflammatory diseases. However, there is no research on GFC effects in the central nervous system of rodents. The present study aimed to evaluate the GFC effects at doses of 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg on seizure parameters to determine their anticonvulsant activity and its effects on amino acid (γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine, aspartate and glutathione) levels as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice hippocampus after seizures. GFC produced an increased latency to first seizure, at doses 25mg/kg (20.12 ± 2.20 min), 50mg/kg (20.95 ± 2.21 min) or 75 mg/kg (23.43 ± 1.99 min) when compared with seized mice. In addition, GABA content of mice hippocampus treated with GFC75 plus P400 showed an increase of 46.90% when compared with seized mice. In aspartate, glutamine and glutamate levels detected a decrease of 5.21%, 13.55% and 21.80%, respectively in mice hippocampus treated with GFC75 plus P400 when compared with seized mice. Hippocampus mice treated with GFC75 plus P400 showed an increase in AChE activity (63.30%) when compared with seized mice. The results indicate that GFC can exert anticonvulsant activity and reduce the frequency of installation of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, as demonstrated by increase in latency to first seizure and decrease in mortality rate of animals. In conclusion, our data suggest that GFC may influence in epileptogenesis and promote anticonvulsant actions in pilocarpine model by modulating the GABA and glutamate contents and of AChE activity in seized mice hippocampus. This compound may be useful to produce neuronal protection and it can be considered as an anticonvulsant agent. PMID:24911645

  4. Comparing the OPI and the OPIc: The Effect of Test Method on Oral Proficiency Scores and Student Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Cox, Troy L.; Knapp, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    While studies have been done to rate the validity and reliability of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and Oral Proficiency Interview-Computer (OPIc) independently, a limited amount of research has analyzed the interexam reliability of these tests, and studies have yet to be conducted comparing the results of Spanish language learners who take…

  5. The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

  6. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Satyawan G.; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. Results: The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Conclusion: Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health. PMID:25374836

  7. Comparing the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone on behaviors by undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joan S; Dawkins, Denise; Molhook, Lori; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E

    2014-09-01

    Complex healthcare, less resources, high-level medical equipment, and fewer available clinical settings have led many health professionals to use simulation as a method to further augment educational experiences for nursing students. While debriefing is recommended in the literature as a key component of simulation, the optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. This pre- and posttest two-group randomized quasi-experimental design compared the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing (VAOD) and oral debriefing alone (ODA) on behaviors of 48 undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Further, this study examined whether roles (e.g., team leader, medication nurse), type of scenarios (i.e., pulmonary and cardiac scenarios), and student simulation team membership (i.e., VAOD and ODA groups) influenced these behaviors. Behaviors observed in this study related to patient safety, communication among team members, basic- and problem-focused assessment, prioritization of care, appropriate interventions, and delegation to healthcare team members. Both human patient simulator practice and guidance using video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone appeared to be comparable regarding behaviors, regardless of roles, type of scenarios, and student simulation team membership. These findings suggest that nurse educators may use either video-assisted oral debriefing or oral debriefing alone to debrief undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. PMID:24929548

  8. Comparative pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral direct thrombin and factor xa inhibitors in development.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bengt I; Quinlan, Daniel J; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2009-01-01

    For the past five decades, there has been little progress in the development of oral anticoagulants, with the choices being limited to the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The situation is changing with the development of orally active small molecules that directly target thrombin or activated factor X (FXa). The two agents in the most advanced stages of development are dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban, which inhibit thrombin and FXa, respectively. Both are approved in the EU and Canada for venous thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective hip- or knee-replacement surgery. Other agents in the early stages of development include several FXa inhibitors (apixaban, DU 176b, LY 517717, YM 150, betrixaban, eribaxaban [PD 0348292] and TAK 442) and one thrombin inhibitor (AZD 0837). With a predictable anticoagulant response and low potential for drug-drug interactions, these new agents can be given in fixed doses without coagulation monitoring. This renders them more convenient than VKAs. While the anticoagulant effect of the new thrombin and FXa inhibitors is similar, differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters may influence their use in clinical practice. Here, we compare the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of these new oral agents. PMID:19071881

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines. PMID:26102179

  10. Use of different oral hygiene strategies in children with cerebral palsy: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Ashwini; Shetty, Y. Rajmohan; Rai, Kavita; Padmanabhan, Vivek; Hegde, Amitha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is described as a group of conditions usually occurring in childhood, where children have motor dysfunction and are unable to adequately master the necessary techniques of plaque control, which ultimately leads to dental caries and periodontal problems. Aims: The objective of this study was to educate the parents/caretakers/institution staff and children with CP about the different preventive home care measures and to evaluate the oral hygiene and gingival health status of these children before and after the institution of different preventive home care measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 individuals with CP, aged between 6 and 18 years, were examined for their oral hygiene and gingival health status, after which the parents/caretakers received a health education program. The children were then randomly divided into four groups. Each group was administered a specific preventive home care measure (mechanical and chemotherapeutic) to be followed for a period of 6 weeks, and the oral hygiene and the gingival health status were recorded at the end of 1 week, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In the sample of 64 children diagnosed with CP, the mean OHI(S) score among the groups of children who were given different preventive home care measures was compared at baseline, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Group 4 showed a marked reduction in the OHI(S) score measured from baseline to 6 weeks, when compared to the other three groups which wa statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) The mean MGI score was compared at baseline, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks home, Group 4 showed a marked reduction in the MGI score measured from baseline to 6 weeks, when compared to the other three groups. When the mean MGI score was compared from baseline to 6 weeks, there was a gradual decrease in the MGI score, which was statistically highly significant between baseline and 1 week (P < 0.05) and

  11. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  12. Variations in elemental compositions of rat hippocampal formation between acute and latent phases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Appel, K; Setkowicz, Z

    2012-06-01

    There is growing experimental evidence that tracing the elements involved in brain hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity, and/or subsequent neurodegeneration could be a valuable source of data on the molecular mechanisms triggering or promoting further development of epilepsy. The most frequently used experimental model of the temporal lobe epilepsy observed in clinical practice is the one based on pilocarpine-induced seizures. In the frame of this study, the elemental anomalies occurring for the rat hippocampal tissue in acute and silent periods after injection of pilocarpine in rats were compared. X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for the topographic and quantitative elemental analysis. The differences in the levels of elements such as P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn between the rats 3 days (SE72) and 6 h (SE6) after pilocarpine injection as well as naive controls were examined. Comparison of SE72 and control groups showed, for specific areas of the hippocampal formation, lower levels of P, K, Cu, and Zn, and an increase in Ca accumulation. These results as well as further analysis of the differences between the SE72 and SE6 groups confirmed that seizure-induced excitotoxicity as well as mossy fiber sprouting are the mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative processes which may finally lead to spontaneous seizures in the chronic period of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, in the light of the results obtained, Cu seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in this animal model. For all areas analyzed, the levels of this element recorded in the latent period were not only lower than those for controls but were even lower than the levels found in the acute period. The decreased hippocampal accumulation of Cu in the phase of behavior and EEG stabilization, a possible inhibitory effect of this element on excitatory amino acid receptors, and enhanced seizure susceptibility in Menkes disease (an inherited Cu transport disorder leading to Cu

  13. Triheptanoin partially restores levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hadera, Mussie G; Smeland, Olav B; McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2014-04-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anticonvulsant in various epilepsy models. It is thought to improve energy metabolism in the epileptic brain by re-filling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with C4-intermediates (anaplerosis). Here, we injected mice with [1,2-(13) C]glucose 3.5-4 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) fed either a control or triheptanoin diet. Amounts of metabolites and incorporations of (13) C were determined in extracts of cerebral cortices and hippocampal formation and enzyme activity and mRNA expression were quantified. The percentage enrichment with two (13) C atoms in malate, citrate, succinate, and GABA was reduced in hippocampal formation of control-fed SE compared with control mice. Except for succinate, these reductions were not found in triheptanoin-fed SE mice, indicating that triheptanoin prevented a decrease of TCA cycle capacity. Compared to those on control diet, triheptanoin-fed SE mice showed few changes in most other metabolite levels and their (13) C labeling. Reduced pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in forebrains and decreased [2,3-(13) C]aspartate amounts in cortex suggest a pyruvate carboxylation independent source of C-4 TCA cycle intermediates. Most likely anaplerosis was kept unchanged by carboxylation of propionyl-CoA derived from heptanoate. Further studies are proposed to fully understand triheptanoin's effects on neuroglial metabolism and interaction. PMID:24236946

  14. Molecular analysis of acute and chronic reactive astrocytes in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Morel, Lydie; Barrios-Camacho, Camila M; Chiang, Ming Sum R; Zhang, Jinhua; Iyer, Lakshmanan; Haydon, Philip G; Yang, Yongjie

    2016-07-01

    Astroglia, the most abundant glial cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), are considered an emerging key player in seizure induction and progression. Although astrocytes undergo reactive gliosis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with dramatic morphological and molecular changes, specific astrocyte targets/molecular pathways that contribute to the induction and progression of seizure remain largely unknown. By combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP) with the pilocarpine model of TLE in BAC aldh1l1 TRAP mice, we profiled translating mRNAs from hippocampal or cortical astrocytes at different phases (3days, 30days, and 60days post-pilocarpine injections) of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy models. Our results found that hippocampal (but not cortical) astrocytes undergo early and unique molecular changes at 3days post-pilocarpine injections. These changes indicate a potentially primary pathogenic role of hippocampal astrocytes in seizure induction and progression and provide new insights about the involvement of specific astrocytic pathways/targets in epilepsy. In particular, we validated expression changes of ocrl and aeg1 in pilocarpine models. Follow-up studies on these genes may reveal new roles of hippocampal astrocytes in TLE. PMID:27060558

  15. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27276670

  16. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27334829

  17. The Inhibitory Effects of Npas4 on Seizures in Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiamei; Yang, Guang; Long, Xianghua; Hu, Rong; Shen, Wenjing; Wang, Xuefeng; Zeng, Kebin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effects of neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 4 (Npas4) on seizures in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats, Npas4 expression was detected by double-label immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting in the brains of pilocarpine-induced epileptic model rats at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d, and 60 d after status epilepticus. Npas4 was localized primarily in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of neurons. The Npas4 protein levels increased in the acute phase of seizures (between 6 h and 72 h) and decreased in the chronic phases (between 7 d and 60 d) in the rat model. Npas4 expression was knocked down by specific siRNA interference. Then, the animals were treated with pilocarpine, and the effects on seizures were evaluated on the 7th day. The onset latencies of pilocarpine-induced seizures were decreased, while the seizure frequency, duration and attack rate increased in these rats. Our study indicates that Npas4 inhibits seizure attacks in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. PMID:25536221

  18. Comparative study of detection of bacteremia after different oral surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Tabishur; Ahmed, Syed S.; Khan, Harris M.; Hashmi, Ghulam S.; Rahman, Sajjad A.; Ansari, Kalim M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of culture methods in detecting microorganisms appearing in the bloodstream after various oral surgical procedures and effect of preoperative antibiotics and antiseptic rinses on bacteremia. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of bacteremia at various intervals of time (pre- and post-surgical) was studied in three different groups presenting with indications to surgical intervention. Two of the groups were given presurgical prophylaxis (systemic antibiotic and antiseptic rinse) while, in one group, no prophylactic measure was adopted. Blood samples were withdrawn from the subjects at specific pre- and post-surgical time intervals, and microbiological analysis was done. The findings were compared with a control group involving healthy individuals and a group involved in maxillofacial trauma where the breach of oral mucosal integrity was not surgically planned. Results: The presence of bacteremia was not observed in all five groups at baseline while postsurgery (30 min, 60 min, and 90 min) in only three groups (preoperative antibiotic, without prophylaxis, and 1% Povidone iodine rinse). At all postsurgery periods (30 min, 60 min and 90 min), the presence of bacteremia was evident highest in without prophylaxis group followed by 1% Povidone iodine rinse and preoperative antibiotic the least. PMID:26321844

  19. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID:22783715

  20. Comparative Efficacy of Oil Pulling and Chlorhexidine on Oral Malodor: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Devi M, Aruna; Narang, Ridhi; V, Swathi; Makkar, Diljot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral malodor affects a large section of population. Traditional Indian folk remedy, oil pulling not only reduces it but can also bring down the cost of treatment. Aims: To compare the efficacy of oil pulling and chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes. Materials and Methods: Three week randomized controlled trial was conducted among 60 students of three hostels of Maharani College of science and arts and commerce and Smt V.H.D.College of Home Science. The hostels were randomized into two intervention groups namely chlorhexidine group, sesame oil and one control (placebo) group. Twenty girls were selected from each hostel based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The parameters recorded at the baseline (day 0) and post intervention on day 22 were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), objective (ORG1) and subjective (ORG2) organoleptic scores and anaerobic bacterial colony (ABC) count. Intra and inter group comparisons were made using Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxan sign rank test, ANOVA and student t-test. Results: There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters within sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Among the groups significant difference was observed in objective and subjective organoleptic scores. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean organoleptic scores of sesame oil and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between sesame oil and chlorhexidine group. Conclusion: Oil pulling with sesame oil is equally efficacious as chlorhexidine in reducing oral malodor and microbes causing it. It should be promoted as a preventive home care therapy. PMID:25584309

  1. The oral microbiome of patients with axial spondyloarthritis compared to healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Suppiah, Praema; Thomson, W. Murray; Milne, Trudy; Yeoh, Nigel; Nolan, Anita; Ettinger, Grace; Reid, Gregor; Gloor, Gregory B.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Cullinan, Mary P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A loss of mucosal tolerance to the resident microbiome has been postulated in the aetiopathogenesis of spondyloarthritis, thus the purpose of these studies was to investigate microbial communities that colonise the oral cavity of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) and to compare these with microbial profiles of a matched healthy population. Methods. Thirty-nine participants, 17 patients with AxSpA and 22 age and gender-matched disease-free controls were recruited to the study. For patients with AxSpA, disease activity was assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). All participants underwent a detailed dental examination to assess oral health, including the presence of periodontal disease assessed using probing pocket depth (PPD). Plaque samples were obtained and their bacterial populations were profiled using Ion Torrent sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Results.Patients with AxSpA had active disease (BASDAI 4.1 ± 2.1 [mean ± SD]), and a significantly greater prevalence of periodontitis (PPD ≥ 4 mm at ≥4 sites) than controls. Bacterial communities did not differ between the two groups with multiple metrics of α and β diversity considered. Analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and higher levels of taxonomic assignment did not provide strong evidence of any single taxa associated with AxSpA in the subgingival plaque. Discussion. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not identify specific bacterial profiles associated with AxSpA, there remains the potential for the microbiota to exert functional and metabolic influences in the oral cavity which could be involved in the pathogenesis of AxSpA. PMID:27330858

  2. Evaluation of the Association between Oral Lichen Planus and Hypothyroidism: a Retrospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lavaee, Fatemeh; Majd, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. There are some reports of thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, to have association with OLP in some studies. Purpose Based on the controversial results of former studies in other populations about the association of hypothyroidism and OLP, the current study aimed to evaluate this association in a sample of Iranian population. Materials and Method This retrospective comparative study evaluated 523 patients with OLP referring to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Shiraz Dental Faculty as the test group and 523 age- and sex-matched patients as the control group. Those participants with oral lichenoid reactions and other mucosal lesions were excluded. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of OLP and thyroid diseases were estimated by logistic regression adjusted for the matched age and sex. Results In the test group, 74% (n=387) and in the control group 73.8% of the patients were female (n=386). In the test group, 26% (n=136) and in the control group 26.2% of the samples were male (n=137). A total of 4% of the patients in the control group (n=21) and 6.7% in the case group (n=35) had a history of hypothyroidism. The reported OR for association of thyroid disease and OLP was 1.714 (CI=0.984-2.987). Conclusion The results of this study showed no significant association between hypothyroidism and OLP in comparison with the age- and sex-matched control group. PMID:26966707

  3. A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xin, Hongliang; Xu, Qunwei

    2013-10-15

    Poor corneal penetration and short preocular retention of a clinical hydrophilic drug, pilocarpine nitrate (PN), for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, limit its ocular application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for ocular delivery of PN. LCNPs were developed by a top-down method using glyceryl monoolein (GMO) and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS). The size of LCNP is 202.28±19.32 nm and the encapsulation efficiency reached 61.03%. The in vitro release profiles indicated that PN could keep sustained release from PN-loaded LCNPs for 8h. An ex vivo corneal permeation study revealed that the apparent permeability coefficient of PN-loaded LCNPs was 2.05-fold higher than that of commercial eye drops. In addition, the topical administration test showed that PN-loaded LCNPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) of rabbits compared with commercial drug and physiological saline. In conclusion, LCNPs had been demonstrated to be potential for controlled-release ocular drug delivery. PMID:23916822

  4. Nanoparticle cross-linked collagen shields for sustained delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Agban, Yosra; Lian, Jiaxin; Prabakar, Sujay; Seyfoddin, Ali; Rupenthal, Ilva D

    2016-03-30

    Glaucoma is a common progressive eye disorder which remains the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current therapy involves frequent administration of eye drops which often results in poor patient adherence and therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations by developing a novel nanoparticle cross-linked collagen shield for sustained delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride (PHCl). Three metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs); titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped zinc oxide (ZnO/PVP), were evaluated for their cytotoxicity as well as shield transparency before selecting ZnO/PVP NPs as the ideal candidate. Cross-linked collagen shields were then characterized for their mechanical strength, swelling capacity and bioadhesive properties, with ZnO/PVP NP cross-linked shields showing the most favorable characteristics compared to plain films. The shield with the best properties was then loaded with PHCl and in vitro release of zinc ions as well as PHCl was measured without and with further cross-linking by ultraviolet irradiation. The concentration of zinc ions released was well below the IC50 rendering them safe for ocular use. Moreover, collagen shields cross-linked with ZnO/PVP NPs released PHCl over a period of 14 days offering a promising sustained release treatment option for glaucoma. PMID:26828672

  5. Decreased neuron loss and memory dysfunction in pilocarpine-treated rats pre-exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Do Val-da Silva, Raquel Araujo; Peixoto-Santos, José Eduardo; Scandiuzzi, Renata Caldo; Balista, Priscila Alves; Bassi, Mirian; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo Neves; Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth; Leite, João Pereira

    2016-09-22

    Preconditioning can induce a cascade of cellular events leading to neuroprotection against subsequent brain insults. In this study, we investigated the chronic effects of hypoxic preconditioning on spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), neuronal death, and spatial memory performance in rats subjected to pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced status epilepticus (SE). Rats underwent a short hypoxic episode (7% O2+93% N2; 30min on two consecutive days) preceding a 4-h SE (HSE group). Control groups were rats submitted to SE only (SE), rats subjected to hypoxia only (H) or normoxia-saline (C). Animals were monitored for the occurrence of SRS, and spatial memory performance was evaluated in the radial-arm maze. Hippocampal sections were analyzed for cell death and mossy fiber sprouting at 1 or 60days after SE. Compared to SE group, HSE had increased SE latency, reduced number of rats with SRS, reduced mossy fiber sprouting at 60days, and reduced cell death in the hilus and the CA3 region 1 and 60days after SE. Additionally, HSE rats had better spatial memory performance than SE rats. Our findings indicated that short hypoxic preconditioning preceding SE promotes long-lasting protective effects on neuron survival and spatial memory. PMID:27373771

  6. [Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França

    2003-06-01

    High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.). Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in immature striatum. PMID:12894279

  7. Pilocarpine-induced convulsive activity is limited by multidrug transporters at the rodent blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Römermann, K; Bankstahl, J P; Löscher, W; Bankstahl, M

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the growing availability of genetically engineered mouse lines, the pilocarpine post-status epilepticus (SE) model of temporal lobe epilepsy is increasingly used in mice. A discrepancy in pilocarpine sensitivity in FVB/N wild-type versus P-glycoprotein (PGP)-deficient mice precipitated the investigation of the interaction between pilocarpine and two major multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Doses of pilocarpine necessary for SE induction were determined in male and female wild-type and PGP-deficient mice. Brain and plasma concentrations were measured following low (30-50 mg⋅kg(-1) i.p.) and/or high (200 mg⋅kg(-1) i.p.) doses of pilocarpine in wild-type mice, and mice lacking PGP, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), or both transporters, as well as in rats with or without pretreatment with lithium chloride or tariquidar. Concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETA) were performed using cells overexpressing murine PGP or BCRP. Lower pilocarpine doses were necessary for SE induction in PGP-deficient mice. Brain-plasma ratios were higher in mice lacking PGP or PGP and BCRP, which was also observed after pretreatment with tariquidar in mice and in rats. Lithium chloride did not change brain penetration of pilocarpine. CETA confirmed transport of pilocarpine by PGP and BCRP. Pilocarpine is a substrate of PGP and BCRP at the rodent blood-brain barrier, which restricts its convulsive action. Future studies to reveal whether strain differences in pilocarpine sensitivity derive from differences in multidrug transporter expression levels are warranted. PMID:25755207

  8. Comparative study of a portable prothrombin time monitor employing three different systems in oral anticoagulant units.

    PubMed

    Vacas, M; Fernández, M A; Martínez-Brotons, F; Lafuente, P J; Ripoll, F; Alvarez, C; Iriarte, J A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the portable coagulometer CoaguChek (Roche Diagnostics) as a prothrombin time (PT) monitor, and to correlate capillary blood results with those of three different routine methods used for monitoring oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT): capillary, plasma and whole blood samples. Three hospitals participated in the study with a total of 235 patients on OAT. The international normalized ratio (INR) results obtained with CoaguChek were compared with those obtained using each of the routine methods. The study presents a good correlation between the PT monitor and the three methods studied: r = 0.9745 (hospital A), r = 0.9283 (hospital B), r = 0.9136 (hospital C). A simplified concordance test of the methods results in a nine-field comparison table showing concordances of 87.2, 85.7 and 68.4%, respectively. The absolute difference (mean +/- SD) between laboratory A and CoaguChek INRs was 0.0571 +/- 0.2042, with values of 0.04286 +/- 0.3906 for laboratory B and 0.6986 +/- 0.6170 for laboratory C. These results confirm that CoaguChek could be used as a new method for oral anticoagulant monitoring, and is in best agreement with the capillary blood PT system. PMID:11408745

  9. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  10. Enhanced oral bioavailability of nevirapine within micellar nanocarriers compared with Viramune(®).

    PubMed

    Moretton, Marcela A; Cohen, Laura; Lepera, Leandro; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Taira, Carlos; Höcht, Christian; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2014-10-01

    In this work, Nevirapine (NVP) was encapsulated within three derivatives of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers (Tetronic(®) 904, 1107 and Pluronic(®) F127) with and without the addition of three pharmaceutical cosolvents (glycerin, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400) over a wider range of concentrations (0-40% v/v). Also, we evaluated the effect of addition of the cosolvents on the micellar size as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solubilization capacity of the systems was investigated by UV-spectrophotometry (282nm) and the systems stability was evaluated for 1 month at 25°C. Finally, oral bioavailability of the NVP-loaded micellar systems (2mg/mL) was assessed in male Wistar rats (8mg/kg) and compared with a pediatric commercially available formulation (Viramune(®)). The present study demonstrates that PEO-PPO-PEO polymeric micelles were able to enhance apparent aqueous solubility of NVP with the addition of cosolvents. Moreover, micellar nanocarriers significantly (p<0.05) improved the oral bioavailability of the drug versus Viramune(®). Overall results support the suitability of the strategy toward the development of an optimized NVP aqueous formulation to prevent HIV/AIDS mother-to-child transmission. PMID:25016545

  11. Cytotoxicity of pilocarpine to human corneal stromal cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Wen, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the cytotoxic effect of pilocarpine, an anti-glaucoma drug, on human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected HCS cells. METHODS After HCS cells were treated with pilocarpine at a concentration from 0.15625 g/L to 20.0 g/L, their morphology and viability were detected by light microscopy and MTT assay. The membrane permeability, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructure were examined by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double-staining. DNA electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cell cycle, phosphatidylserine (PS) orientation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). And the activation of caspases was checked by ELISA. RESULTS Morphology observations and viability assay showed that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and time-dependent morphological abnormality and viability decline of HCS cells. AO/EB double-staining, DNA electrophoresis and TEM noted that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and/or time-dependent membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of the cells. Moreover, FCM and ELISA assays revealed that 2.5 g/L pilocarpine also induced S phase arrest, PS externalization, MTP disruption, and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation of the cells. CONCLUSION Pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L (1/32 of its clinical therapeutic dosage) has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing apoptosis in these cells, which is most probably regulated by a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:27162720

  12. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpyrifos versus its Major Metabolites Following Oral Administration in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Campbell, James A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Barr, Dana; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-31

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used diethylphosphorothionate organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) are products of in vivo metabolism and environmental degradation of CPF and are routinely measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure. Hence, urinary biomonitoring of TCPy, DEP and DETP may be reflective of an individual’s contact with both the parent pesticide and exposure to these metabolites. In the current study, simultaneous dosing of 13C- or 2H- isotopically labeled CPF (13Clabeled CPF, 5 13C on the TCPy ring; or 2H-labeled CPF, diethyl-D10 (deuterium labeled) on the side chain) were exploited to directly compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of CPF with TCPy, and DETP. Individual metabolites were co-administered (oral gavage) with the parent compound at equal molar doses (14 μmol/kg; ~5mg/kg CPF). The key objective in the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites relative to their formation following a dose of CPF. Major differences in the pharmacokinetics between CPF and metabolites doses were observed within the first 3 h of exposure, due to the required metabolism of CPF to initially form TCPy and DETP. Nonetheless, once a substantial amount of CPF has been metabolized (≥ 3 h post-dosing) pharmacokinetics for both treatment groups and metabolites were very comparable. Urinary excretion rates for orally administered TCPy and DETP relative to 13C-CPF or 2H-CPF derived 13C-TCPy and 2H-DETP were consistent with blood pharmacokinetics, and the urinary clearance of metabolite dosed groups were comparable with the results for the 13C- and 2H-CPF groups. Since the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites were not modified by co-exposure to 3 CPF; it suggests that environmental exposure to low dose mixtures of pesticides and metabolites will not impact the pharmacokinetics of either.

  13. Disruption, but not overexpression of urate oxidase alters susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Thyrion, Lisa; Portelli, Jeanelle; Raedt, Robrecht; Glorieux, Griet; Larsen, Lars E; Sprengers, Mathieu; Van Lysebettens, Wouter; Carrette, Evelien; Delbeke, Jean; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-07-01

    There is a continuous drive to find new, improved therapies that have a different mechanism of action in order to help diminish the sizable percentage of persons with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Uric acid is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathophysiology of multiple disorders, and there are indications that uric acid might play a role in epileptic mechanisms. Nevertheless, studies that directly investigate its involvement are lacking. In this study we assessed the susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice with genetically altered uric acid levels by targeting urate oxidase, which is the enzyme responsible for uric acid breakdown. We found that although disruption of urate oxidase resulted in a decreased susceptibility to all behavioral end points in both seizure models, overexpression did not result in any alterations when compared to their wild-type littermates. Our results suggest that a chronic increase in uric acid levels may result in decreased brain excitability. PMID:27158916

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β)) and mean residence time (MRT) were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot) in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1) was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1). Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax) was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax) of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el)) at a significant slower rate (3.94 h) in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h). The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks. PMID:24707439

  15. A comparative study of oral single dose of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and ornidazole in bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Thulkar, Jyoti; Kriplani, Alka; Agarwal, Nutan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cure rates of oral single dose of metronidazole (2 g), tinidazole (2 g), secnidazole (2 g), and ornidazole (1.5 g) in cases of bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial on 344 Indian women (86 women in each group) who attended a gynecology outpatient department with complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge or who had abnormal vaginal discharge on Gynecological examination but they did not complaint of it. For diagnosis and cure rate of bacterial vaginosis, Amsel's criteria were used. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test of proportions. The cure rate was compared considering metronidazole cure rate as gold standard. Results: At 1 week, the cure rate of tinidazole and ornidazole was 100% and at 4 weeks, it was 97.7% for both drugs (P<0.001). Secnidazole had cure rate of 80.2% at 4 weeks (P=NS). Metronidazole showed a cure rate of 77.9% at 4 weeks, which is the lowest of all four drugs. Conclusion: Tinidazole and ornidazole have better cure rate as compared to metronidazole in cases of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:22529484

  16. Comparative Study of Pineapple Juice as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using Pineapple Juice (PJ) or ranitidine as negative oral contrast agents and no agent. Materials and Methods: MRCP images of patients administered PJ (n = 117) or Ranitidine (n = 110) at random, and patients without an agent (n = 50) were evaluated. The subjective image quality of the overall, extra hepatic bile duct and pancreatic duct and the degree of elimination of gastrointestinal fluid were scored by two blinded radiologists. Results were compared using Mann-Whitney’s U-test. Results: The degrees of elimination of gastro duodenal fluid of PJ and ranitidine were significantly better than those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The subjective image quality of PJ of the overall and extra hepatic bile duct were significantly better, although no significant differences for ranitidine were observed compared with those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p =0.23, p = 0.025 and p = 0.18). There were no significant differences for the pancreatic duct (p = 0.13 and p = 0.20), nor were there any significant differences in the evaluations between PJ and ranitidine (p = 0.21 and p = 0.96). Conclusion: PJ showed better performance compared to that of conventional ranitidine in terms of pancreatic and biliary depiction and safety. PMID:25738055

  17. Comparative acid tolerances and inhibitor sensitivities of isolated F-ATPases of oral lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sturr, M G; Marquis, R E

    1992-01-01

    pH activity profiles and inhibitor sensitivities were compared for membrane ATPases isolated from three oral lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, Streptococcus mutans GS-5, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904, with, respectively, high, moderate, and low levels of acid tolerance. Membranes containing F1F0 ATPases were isolated by means of salt lysis of cells treated with muralytic enzymes. Membrane-free F1F0 complexes were then isolated from membranes by detergent extraction with Triton X-100 or octylglucoside. Finally, F1 complexes free of the proton-conducting F0 sector were obtained by washing membranes with buffers of low ionic strength. The pH activity profiles of the membrane-associated enzymes reflected the general acid tolerances of the organisms from which they were isolated; for example, pH optima were approximately 5.5, 6.0, and 7.0, respectively, for enzymes from L. casei, S. mutans, and S. sanguis. Roughly similar profiles were found for membrane-free F1F0 complexes, which were stabilized by phospholipids against loss of activity during storage. However, profiles for F1 enzymes were distinctly narrower, indicating that association with F0 and possibly other membrane components enhanced tolerance to both acid and alkaline media. All of the enzymes were found to have similar sensitivities to Al-F complexes, but only F1F0 enzymes were highly sensitive to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The procedures described for isolation of membrane-free F1F0 forms of the enzymes from oral lactic acid bacteria will be of use in future studies of the characteristics of the enzymes, especially in studies with liposomes. PMID:1386211

  18. Neuroethological study of status epilepticus induced by systemic pilocarpine in Wistar audiogenic rats (WAR strain).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Rossetti, Franco; Oliveira, José A C; Furtado, Marcio de A

    2004-08-01

    The administration of pilocarpine (PILO) is widely recognized as resulting in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy; it is characterized by induction of status epilepticus (SE) and spontaneous recurrent seizures after a latent period. We provide in this work a neuroethological description of the SE induced by PILO. Behavioral evaluations were made in Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WARs) and Wistar resistant (R) animals. The experimental group (R) and WARs were pretreated with methyl scopolamine (1mg/kg ip) and injected with PILO (R animals, 340-380 mg/kg ip; WARs, 240-280 mg/kg ip). Among R animals, 36% developed SE, and among WARs, 53%. The control group (R animals and WARs) was injected only with methyl scopolamine plus saline. The ETHOMATIC method was used for evaluation of seizures. Sequences included in the analysis were chosen using (1) fixed observation windows and (2) behavioral triggers. The R group showed that the threshold for seizure is variable, so seizure onset and behavioral evolution were better described using behavioral triggers than fixed observation windows. The observation windows selected in similar duration intervals do not characterize the seizures. Sequential analysis in the WAR group showed high mortality after SE and greater susceptibility to PILO, compared with R animals. We conclude that with neuroethological tools it is possible to better map the sequence and evolution of SE induced by PILO compared to only using behavioral and arbitrary seizure severity scales. This sequence is faster and stronger in severity when WARs are compared with R animals. Although the WARs underwent an evolution of SE in some way equivalent to that of R animals, some rats presented tonic-clonic convulsions after PILO injection, very similar to acute audiogenic seizures, a brainstem-dependent model. The current data also point to the PILO-plus-WAR combination as a suitable protocol to study the genetic-epilepsy connection in experimental temporal lobe

  19. Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso e Almendra Ibiapina; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Satyal, Prabodh; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-12

    Nimodipine has been shown to have an inhibitory action on seizures and brain damage in rodents. However, the pharmaceutical applicability of this drug is limited by its low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and high first-pass effect in the liver, which leads to low bioavailability. These difficulties can be overcome through the use of liposomes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine (NMD-Lipo) on pilocarpine-induced seizures. NMD-Lipo was prepared using the lipid-film hydration method. Central nervous system toxicity of NMD-Lipo was assessed by Hippocratic screening. Systemic toxicity was evaluated by analyses of biochemical and hematological parameters and by observing possible signs of toxicity. The possible anticonvulsant activity was tested by the pilocarpine model. The administration of the NMD-Lipo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg caused no toxicity in animals. Furthermore, NMD-Lipo prevented the installation of 100% of the pilocarpine-induced seizures and prevented the death of 100% of the mice treated with pilocarpine. These data shown that NMD-Lipo has an anticonvulsant activity significantly superior to free NMD, suggesting that the liposomes promoted a drug controlled release by improving its bioavailability and consequently increasing its pharmacological activity. PMID:25445375

  20. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  1. Comparing Discussion and Lecture Pedagogy When Teaching Oral Communication in Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Yao

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, oral communication skills are increasingly important for business graduates who will start their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the best method to help business students enhance their oral communication skills during their college years. This research also helps professors to make their…

  2. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  3. Studying Urban History through Oral History and Q Methodology: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rebecca S.

    Oral history and Q methodology (a social science technique designed to document objectively and numerically the reactions of individuals to selected issues) were used to investigate urban renewal in Waco, Texas. Nineteen persons directly involved in the city's relocation and rehabilitation projects granted interviews. From these oral histories, 70…

  4. Antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 increase hippocampal pyramidal neuron spine volume in vivo and protect against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Engel, Tobias; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Reynolds, James; Reschke, Cristina R; Conroy, Ronan M; McKiernan, Ross C; deFelipe, Javier; Henshall, David C

    2015-07-01

    Emerging data support roles for microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of various neurologic disorders including epilepsy. MicroRNA-134 (miR-134) is enriched in dendrites of hippocampal neurons, where it negatively regulates spine volume. Recent work identified upregulation of miR-134 in experimental and human epilepsy. Targeting miR-134 in vivo using antagomirs had potent anticonvulsant effects against kainic acid-induced seizures and was associated with a reduction in dendritic spine number. In the present study, we measured dendritic spine volume in mice injected with miR-134-targeting antagomirs and tested effects of the antagomirs on status epilepticus triggered by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine. Morphometric analysis of over 6,400 dendritic spines in Lucifer yellow-injected CA3 pyramidal neurons revealed increased spine volume in mice given antagomirs compared to controls that received a scrambled sequence. Treatment of mice with miR-134 antagomirs did not alter performance in a behavioral test (novel object location). Status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine was associated with upregulation of miR-134 within the hippocampus of mice. Pretreatment of mice with miR-134 antagomirs reduced the proportion of animals that developed status epilepticus following pilocarpine and increased animal survival. In antagomir-treated mice that did develop status epilepticus, seizure onset was delayed and total seizure power was reduced. These studies provide in vivo evidence that miR-134 regulates spine volume in the hippocampus and validation of the seizure-suppressive effects of miR-134 antagomirs in a model with a different triggering mechanism, indicating broad conservation of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24874920

  5. Expression pattern of NMDA receptors reveals antiepileptic potential of apigenin 8-C-glucoside and chlorogenic acid in pilocarpine induced epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Suryakala, U; Doulethunisha; Sundaram, S; Bose, P Chandra; Sivasudha, T

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of apigenin 8-C-glucoside (Vitexin) and chlorogenic acid on epileptic mice induced by pilocarpine and explored its possible mechanisms. Intraperitonial administration of pilocarpine (85mg/kg) induced seizure in mice was assessed by behavior observations, which is significantly (p>0.05) reduced by apigenin 8-C-glucoside (AP8CG) (10mg/kg) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (5mg/kg), similar to diazepam. Seizure was accompanied by an imbalance in the levels of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in the pilocarpine administered group. Moreover, convulsion along with reduced acetylcholinesterase, increased monoamine oxidase and oxidative stress was observed in epileptic mice brain. AP8CG and CA significantly restored back to normal levels even at lower doses. Further, increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite content was also significantly attenuated by AP8CG and CA. However, CA was found to be more effective when compared to AP8CG. In addition, the mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), mGluR1 and mGlu5 was significantly (P≤0.05) inhibited by AP8CG and CA in a lower dose. The mRNA expression of GRIK1 did not differ significantly in any of the group and showed a similar pattern of expression. Our result shows that AP8CG and CA selectively inhibit NMDAR, mGluR1 and mGlu5 expression. Modification in the provoked NMDAR calcium response coupled with neuronal death. Hence, these findings underline that the polyphenolics, AP8CG and CA have exerted antiepileptic and neuroprotective activity by suppressing glutamate receptors. PMID:27470339

  6. Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 μg/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (p<0.05, significant) but statistical difference between efficacy of topical Permethrin and oral Ivermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

  7. Comparative efficacy of subcutaneous versus oral methotrexate in active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Haq, S A; Islam, M N; Azad, A K; Islam, M A; Barua, R; Hasan, M M; Mahmood, M; Safiuddin, M; Rahman, M M; Osmany, M F; Bari, N; Rumki, R S; Rashid, F B

    2013-07-01

    This prospective study was conducted in rheumatology clinic under the department of medicine of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from December 2004 to December 2005 to asses the efficacy, safety and compliance of subcutaneous methotrexate (MTX) in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 92 active rheumatoid arthritis patients according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were recruited for the trial for six months. Among them 46 cases belonged to injectable MTX group and 46 cases belonged to oral MTX group. Mean±SD age of patients was 45.54±12.42 vs. 44.63±13.99 years in subcutaneous group and oral group respectively. In the subcutaneous group 41 were female and 5 male; in the oral group 34 were female and 12 male. Mean duration of the disease was 49.74 months in subcutaneous group and 49 months in oral group. RA test was positive in 35 cases in both groups whereas Rose Waaler test was positive in 19 patients in subcutaneous group and 14 patients in oral group. At 24 week, response rate of ACR 20 was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than oral MTX group (93% vs. 80%, p=0.02). Similarly ACR 50 response was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than in oral group (89% vs. 72%, p=0.03). ACR 70 response was not significantly higher in SCMTX group then oral group (11% vs. 9 %, p=0.72). Adverse effects were relatively less in subcutaneous MTX and most common side effects were nausea (37% vs. 63%), vomiting (11% vs. 30%), dyspepsia (29% vs. 48%), dizziness (4l% vs. 52%) and alopecia (72% vs. 85%). The results of the study demonstrated that subcutaneous MTX was significantly more effective than oral MTX at the same dosage in active Rheumatoid arthritis patients with no increase in side effects. PMID:23982537

  8. A comparative study of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Dunson, T R; McLaurin, V L; Israngkura, B; Leelapattana, B; Mukherjee, R; Perez-Palacios, G; Saleh, A A

    1993-08-01

    A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate. PMID:8403908

  9. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity: comparative study of its clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.

    PubMed

    Epivatianos, Apostolos; Antoniades, Demetrios; Zaraboukas, Thomas; Zairi, Eleni; Poulopoulos, Athanasios; Kiziridou, Athina; Iordanidis, Savas

    2005-07-01

    There are two histological types of pyogenic granuloma (PG) of the oral cavity: the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) and non-LCH type. The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the clinical features, etiological factors, diameter of vascular elements and immunohistochemical features of LCH and non-LCH histological types of PG to determine whether they are two distinct entities. Thirty cases of LCH and 26 cases of non-LCH PG were retrieved and retrospectively studied. Clinically, LCH PG occurred more frequently (66.4%) as sessile lesion whereas non-LCH PG occurred as pedunculated (77%). Non-LCH PG was associated more frequently (86.4%) with etiological factors. The lobular area of the LCH PG contained a greater number of blood vessels with small luminal diameter than did the central area of non-LCH PG. In the central area of non-LCH PG a significantly greater number of vessels with perivascular mesenchymal cells non-reactive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and muscle-specific actin was present than in the lobular area of LCH PG. The differences found in the present study suggest that the two histological types of PG represent distinct entities. PMID:15982213

  10. Oral Health Status of Children Attending a Mobile Dental Clinic--A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Enciso, Reyes; Sundaresan, Santosh; Yekikian, Matthew; Mulligan, Roseann

    2015-11-01

    Periodicity of dental visits for children is based on age and disease susceptibility. Frequently mobile dental clinics are unable to provide follow-up care at recommended intervals. This study compared the oral health of children attending the mobile clinic (MC) twice with matched children by age, gender, race, and ZIP code attending for the first time. Dental charts (n=888) were reviewed and scored for decayed and filled surfaces. Seventy-eight children (mean age 9.6 years; 98.7% Hispanic) attended the clinic twice over a mean interval between visits of 1.5 years. These children had statistically significant lower rates of decay in deciduous and permanent tooth surfaces than matched children visiting the clinic for the first time (p<.05; p<.001), and significantly less decay in their deciduous and permanent teeth than at the first visit (p<.001; p<.05). Mobile clinics can be effective in decreasing the decay in teeth, even when the interval between visits is longer than current recommendations. PMID:26548689

  11. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  12. Impairment of exploratory behavior and spatial memory in adolescent rats in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kalemenev, S V; Zubareva, O E; Frolova, E V; Sizov, V V; Lavrentyeva, V V; Lukomskaya, N Ya; Kim, K Kh; Zaitsev, A V; Magazanik, L G

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in six-week -old rats has been studied in the lithium-pilocarpine model of adolescent temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The pilocarpine-treated rats (n =21) exhibited (a) a decreased exploratory activity in comparison with control rats (n = 20) in the open field (OP) test and (b) a slower extinction of exploratory behavior in repeated OP tests. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test showed that the effect of training was less pronounced in the pilocarpine-treated rats, which demonstrated disruption of predominantly short-term memory. Therefore, our study has shown that lithium-pilocarpine seizures induce substantial changes in exploratory behavior and spatial memory in adolescent rats. OP and MWM tests can be used in the search of drugs reducing cognitive impairments associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26335964

  13. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneypenny, Dianne Burke; Aldrich, Rosalie S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students' oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students' previous second language…

  14. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Goutham, Bala Subramanya; Manchanda, Kavita; Sarkar, Avishek De; Prakash, Ravi; Jha, Kunal; Mohammed, Shafaat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to be useful adjuncts to daily oral home care in the control of plaque and gingivitis. The objective of the study was to evaluate effect of two oral rinses; Chlorohexidine and Listerine on Plaque and Gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A doubled blind study was done on 150 patients visiting OPD of oxford general hospital for 2 months to compare the efficiency of two commercially available mouth rinses i.e. chlorohexdine (0.2%) & Listerine on plaque & gingivitis, along with a Placebo. Results: At the end of 28 weeks chlorohexdine & listerine significantly reduced plaque growth & gingivitis compared to a Placebo however chlorohexdine was more effective than Listerine. Conclusion: Chlorehexidine (0.2%) and a phenolic mouth rinse significantly reduced plaque growth and gingival inflammation compared to a placebo mouthrinse, however chlorhexidine rinse was more effective against plaque regrowth than the phenolic rinse. How to cite this article: Goutham BS, Manchanda K, Sarkar AD, Prakash R, Jha K, Mohammed S. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):56-61. PMID:24155621

  15. A Comparative Study of Two ESL Writing Environments: A Computer-Assisted Classroom and a Traditional Oral Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nancy; Pratt, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Compares students in two English-as-a-Second-Language writing environments: a networked computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom. Results indicate that while the writing environment has no effect on attitudes toward writing with computers or writing apprehension, writing quality improves in the computer-assisted classroom and…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

  17. Pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of mammalian hearts by activating a cardiac M3 receptor and a K+ current

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huizhen; Shi, Hong; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    Pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is widely used for treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It can also cause many other cellular responses by activating different subtypes of mAChRs in different tissues. However, the potential role of pilocarpine in modulating cardiac function remained unstudied.We found that pilocarpine produced concentration-dependent (0.1–10 μM) decrease in sinus rhythm and action potential duration, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential in guinea-pig hearts. The effects were nearly completely reversed by 1 μM atropine or 2 nM 4DAMP methiodide (an M3-selective antagonist).Patch-clamp recordings in dispersed myocytes from guinea-pig and canine atria revealed that pilocarpine induces a novel K+ current with delayed rectifying properties. The current was suppressed by low concentrations of M3-selective antagonists 4DAMP methiodide (2–10 nM), 4DAMP mustard (4–20 nM, an ackylating agent) and p-F-HHSiD (20–200 nM). Antagonists towards other subtypes (M1, M2 or M4) all failed to alter the current.The affinity of pilocarpine (KD) at mAChRs derived from displacement binding of [3H]-NMS in the homogenates from dog atria was 2.2 μM (65% of the total binding) and that of 4DAMP methiodide was 2.8 nM (70% of total binding), consistent with the concentration of pilocarpine needed for the current induction and for the modulation of the cardiac electrical activity and the concentration of 4DAMP to block pilocarpine effects.Our data indicate, for the first time, that pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of the hearts, likely by activating a K+ current mediated by M3 receptors. PMID:10372814

  18. Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas, R; Escriva, E; Jane, J; Fernandez, F; Fava, P; Garau, J

    1986-01-01

    A single-intramuscular-dose immunization regimen with a penicillin G-streptomycin combination was compared with three oral-dose amoxicillin regimens for the capacity to prevent Streptococcus sanguis infections of experimentally induced valvular heart lesions in rabbits. Challenge doses of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) CFU of a strain of S. sanguis equally susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin were used in this study. Measured by recovery of test organisms from endocardial lesions, the lowest concentration of these inocula was infective for 60% of the recipients; the two higher-concentration inocula were infective for all recipients. The penicillin G-streptomycin combination provided complete protection against infection with inocula of all sizes. A single-oral-dose amoxicillin regimen (50 mg/kg of body weight) prevented endocarditis when rabbits were challenged with 10(4) CFU, but protection diminished with increasing inoculum concentrations. Similar results were achieved when five oral doses of amoxicillin (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) added at 8-h intervals were included in the single-oral-dose regimen. In contrast, when rabbits received two oral doses of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg of body weight) with a 10-h interval between doses, prophylaxis was fully effective with even the highest inoculum concentration. PMID:3729348

  19. Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E.

    2013-11-20

    Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

  20. Comparative bioavailability study of two cefixime formulations administered orally in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Islambulchilar, Ziba

    2008-01-01

    The bioavailability of a new cefixime ((6R,7R)-7-[(Z)-2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-(carboxymethoxyimino) acetamido]-8-oxo-3-vinyl-5-thia-1-azabicyclo-[4,2,0]-oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, CAS 79350-37-1) tablet preparation (Loprax) was compared with that of a reference preparation of the drug in 24 healthy male volunteers. The trial was designed as an open, randomized, single-blind, two-sequence, two-period crossover study. Under fasting conditions, each subject received a single oral dose of 400 mg cefixime tablet as a test or reference formulation on 2 treatment days. The treatment periods were separated by a one-week washout period. The plasma concentrations of the drug were analyzed by a rapid and sensitive HPLC method with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters included AUC0-24h, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, t1/2, and Ke. The mean AUC0-infinity of cefixime was 45008.7 +/- 10989.9 and 45221.3 +/- 2155.7 n x h/ml for the test and reference formulation, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of cefixime was on average 4746.9 +/- 1284 ng/ml for the test and 4726.3 +/- 1206.9 ng/ml for the reference product. No statistical differences were observed for Cmax and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve for test and reference tablets. The calculated 90% confidence intervals based on the ANOVA analysis for the mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-infinity and AUC0-24h of cefixime were in the bioequivalence range (94%-112%). Therefore, the two formulations were considered to be bioequivalent. PMID:18412024

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of fast dissolving film and oral solution of ondansetron in rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dhagla R; Patel, Vishnu A; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Patel, Harsha V; Kundawala, Aliasgar J

    2013-12-01

    Ondansetron, selective serotonin (5-HT3) receptor blocker, is used in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Mouth dissolving films containing ondansetron were developed to have better onset and patient compliances. The drug content of prepared films was within 85%-115%. The films were found to be stable for 4 months when stored at 40 %°C and 75% RH. In-vitro dissolution studies suggested a rapid disintegration, in which most of ondansetron was released (91.5±3.4%) within 90 sec. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulated films with oral administration of pure drug solution. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between the two groups in which AUC0-t (ng h/ml), AUC0-∞ (ng h/ml), Cmax (ng/ml), Tmax (min), Kel (h(-1)) and t1/2 (h) of reference was 109.091±15.73, 130.32±18.56, 28.5±4.053, 60, 0.1860±0.0226, and 3.771±0.498 respectively; and for formulated film 113.663±16.64, 151.79±16.54, 30±3.51, 60, 0.1521±0.0310 and 4.755±0.653 respectively. These results suggest that the fast dissolving film containing ondansetron is likely to become one of the choices to treat chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. PMID:23755722

  2. Medical intelligence in Sweden. Vitamin B12: oral compared with parenteral?

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, M; Norberg, B; Hultdin, J; Sandstrom, H; Westman, G; Lokk, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sweden is the only country in which oral high dose vitamin B12 has gained widespread use in the treatment of deficiency states. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe prescribing patterns and sales statistics of vitamin B12 tablets and injections in Sweden 1990–2000. Design, setting, and sources: Official statistics of cobalamin prescriptions and sales were used. Results: The use of vitamin B12 increased in Sweden 1990–2000, mainly because of an increase in the use of oral high dose vitamin B12 therapy. The experience, in statistical terms a "total investigation", comprised 1 000 000 patient years for tablets and 750 000 patient years for injections. During 2000, 13% of residents aged 70 and over were treated with vitamin B12, two of three with the tablet preparation. Most patients in Sweden requiring vitamin B12 therapy have transferred from parenteral to oral high dose vitamin B12 since 1964, when the oral preparation was introduced. Conclusion: The findings suggest that many patients in other post-industrial societies may also be suitable for oral vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:15749797

  3. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  4. Comparative metabolism studies of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers in male rats following a single oral dose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively 42% of dose for alpha-HBCD,...

  5. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

  6. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

  7. Xenograft of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly as a potential therapy for rat pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Yu; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Tseng, Yi-jhan; Ko, Tsui-Ling; Fu, Yu-Show; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of intra-hippocampal transplantation of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) on pilocarpine-treated rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: (1) a normal group of rats receiving only PBS, (2) a status epilepticus (SE) group of rats with pilocarpine-induced SE and PBS injected into the hippocampi, and (3) a SE+HUMSC group of SE rats with HUMSC transplantation. Spontaneous recurrent motor seizures (SRMS) were monitored using simultaneous video and electroencephalographic recordings at two to four weeks after SE induction. The results showed that the number of SRMS within two to four weeks after SE was significantly decreased in SE+HUMSCs rats compared with SE rats. All of the rats were sacrificed on Day 29 after SE. Hippocampal morphology and volume were evaluated using Nissl staining and magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that the volume of the dorsal hippocampus was smaller in SE rats compared with normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. The pyramidal neuron loss in CA1 and CA3 regions was more severe in the SE rats than in normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. No significant differences were found in the hippocampal neuronal loss or in the number of dentate GABAergic neurons between normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. Compared with the SE rats, the SE+HUMSCs rats exhibited a suppression of astrocyte activity and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. Implanted HUMSCs survived in the hippocampus and released cytokines, including FGF-6, amphiregulin, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factors receptor (GITR), MIP-3β, and osteoprotegerin. In an in vitro study, exposure of cortical neurons to glutamate showed a significant decrease in cell viability, which was preventable by co-culturing with HUMSCs. Above all, the expression of human osteoprotegerin and amphiregulin were significantly increased in the media of the co-culture of neurons and HUMSCs. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of HUMSC transplantation for

  8. Decomposition of pilocarpine eye drops assessed by a highly efficient high pressure liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Kuks, P F; Weekers, L E; Goldhoorn, P B

    1990-10-19

    A rapid high-resolution high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed for assaying pilocarpine. Pilocarpine in ophthalmic solutions decomposes fairly rapidly to give isopilocarpine, pilocarpic acid and isopilocarpic acid. The quality of an ophthalmic solution can be assessed by assaying these decomposition products. Existing high pressure liquid chromatographic methods suffer from long analysis times and poor resolution. The new method uses as the mobile phase 6 ml/l of triethylamine in water (pH 2.3, adjusted with 85% phosphoric acid) at a flow of 1.5 ml/min and as the stationary phase a C18-silica 125 x 4.6 mm column. 2-Amino-1-phenyl-1,3-propanediol is used as an internal standard. Complete separation was obtained within 8 min. Pilocarpine eye drops were stored under different conditions and then analysed for decomposition products. During heat treatment, decomposition to isopilocarpine predominated over decomposition to pilocarpic or isopilocarpic acid. However, when stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator, formation of pilocarpic acid clearly prevailed. Thus, from assessment of decomposition products, the cause of decomposition can be established. PMID:2255589

  9. A comparative study of efficacy of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and locally injectable steroid for the treatment of plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Chaitali; Pal, Anirban; Acharya, Amita

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and locally injectable steroid (methylprednisolone) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis were recruited and randomly allocated to two study groups. Group I (NSAIDs group) (n=60) received oral tablet diclofenac (50 mg) and paracetamol (500 mg) twice a day (BD) along with tab. ranitidine 150 mg BD. Group II (injectable steroid group) (n=60) received injection of 1 ml of methylprednisolone (Depomedrol) (40 mg) and 2 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine into the inflammed plantar fascia. Pain intensity was measured using 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects were evaluated clinically before, and 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks (2 months) after the initiation of treatment in both the groups. The outcome was assessed in terms of VAS score and recurrence of the heel pain. Statistical Analysis Used: “Z” test and Chi-square test were used wherever applicable. Results: Pain relief was significant after steroid injection (P<0.001) and the improvement was sustained. The recurrence of heel pain was significantly higher in the oral NSAIDS group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Local injection of steroid is more effective in the treatment of plantar fasciitis than oral NSAIDs. PMID:25885380

  10. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  11. Comparative study of ultrasonography and oral cholecystography in evaluation of gallbladder and biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Paul, Y; Sarin, N K; Dhiman, D S; Kaushik, N K

    1991-07-01

    50 cases, aged between 14-60 years, clinically suspected of gall-bladder and biliary tract diseases were evaluated by ultrasonography and oral cholecystography. Ultrasound with a preliminary radiograph of gallbladder region, proved to be more sensitive and reliable procedure than oral cholecystography. Besides providing ancillary information regarding adjacent anatomic structures, it also guided the surgeon to decide preoperatively about the mode of surgery to be employed. Further, from the present study it can be fairly concluded that ultrasound should be used as the primary screening technique for evaluating gallbladder and biliary tract diseases, after plain skiagram of the gallbladder region, since it is non-invasive, more sensitive than OCG and is devoid of use of contrast media and its toxicity. PMID:1797657

  12. Early metabolic responses to lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Imran, Imran; Hillert, Markus H; Klein, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus is a well-known animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We combined this model with in vivo microdialysis to investigate energy metabolites and acute cellular membrane damage during seizure development. Rats were implanted with dialysis probes and pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, they received pilocarpine (30 mg/kg s.c.) which initiated seizures within 30 min. In the dialysate from rat hippocampus, we observed a transient increase in glucose and a prominent, five-fold increase in lactate during seizures. Lactate release was because of neuronal activation as it was strongly reduced by infusion of tetrodotoxin, administration of atropine or when seizures were terminated by diazepam or ketamine. In ex vivo assays, mitochondrial function as measured by respirometry was not affected by 90 min of seizures. Extracellular levels of choline, however, increased two-fold and glycerol levels 10-fold, which indicate cellular phospholipid breakdown during seizures. Within 60 min of pilocarpine administration, hydroxylation of salicylate increased two-fold and formation of isoprostanes 20-fold, revealing significant oxidative stress in hippocampal tissue. Increases in lactate, glycerol and isoprostanes were abrogated, and increases in choline were completely prevented, when hippocampal probes were perfused with calcium-free solution. Similarly, administration of pregabalin (100 mg/kg i.p.), a calcium channel ligand, 15 min prior to pilocarpine strongly attenuated parameters of membrane damage and oxidative stress. We conclude that seizure development in a rat model of status epilepticus is accompanied by increases in extracellular lactate, choline and glycerol, and by oxidative stress, while mitochondrial function remains intact for at least 90 min. Membrane damage depends on calcium influx and can be prevented by treatment with pregabalin. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in rats by

  13. [A comparative study of the incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis in users of IUD and oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Aleixo Neto, A; Peixoto, M L; Cabral, A C

    1987-07-01

    Leukorrhea constitutes one of the most frequent complaints by women visiting out-patient gynecological clinics. The most common etiological agents are Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Candida albicans. Some authors have been able to verify an increased presence of certain pathogenic germs in the vaginal flora for users of contraceptive methods, e.g., for users of IUD, Kivijarvi et al. demonstrated a significantly increased presence of Gardnerella vaginalis considered responsible for a large number of inflammatory diseases of the pelvis in woman. In order to establish the frequency of colpo-cervicitis in users of contraceptive methods a study was initiated of women attending the Family Planning Clinic of the Department of Medicine at UFMG during the period January-December 1986. 305 cytological smears obtained from 111 users of oral hormonal contraceptives and from 194 users of IUD were studied by using the Papanicolaou staining method. A microscopic examination enabling the detection of cells that indicate the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, trichomonas, Candida, papilloma, and dysplastic cells was performed. The results are listed in two tables. In 34.5% of cases a significant association was established between users of IUD and cells indicating the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis. For users of oral contraceptives that figure was lower, 28.8%. This circumstance has been attributed to probable epithelial lesions caused by incorrect insertion of the IUD and more abundant menstrual flux provoked b the IUD in combination with the hemophilic characteristics of Gardnerella vaginalis. A significant prevalence of papilloma and trichomonas was also noted for women using IUD as opposed to those oral contraceptives. The results demonstrate the necessity of frequent clinical attendance and laboratory tests for women using contraceptive methods, particularly the IUD. PMID:12282423

  14. Bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets compared to reference tablets and an oral solution.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, Rossen; Lauschner, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of three levothyroxine sodium (CAS 51-48-9) formulations, i.e. a test and a reference tablet and an oral solution. A bioequivalence study was carried out in 25 healthy volunteers, who were administered a single dose of 600 microg levothyroxine in the form of the test formulation (levothyroxine sodium tablets 200 microg; Eferox), the originator product, and an oral solution. The trial was performed in one study center according to an open, randomized, three-way cross-over design with wash-out periods of 35 days between administration. Blood samples were taken up to 48 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay with I125 labeling method. The levothyroxine mean Cmax were 112.0+/-17.3 ng/ml, 113.4+/-18.5 ng/ ml and 111.3+/-15.1 ng/ml, while the mean AUC0-24 were 2263.7+/-332.8 ng x h/ ml, 2307.3+/-351.3 ng x h/ml and 2286.1+/-331.0 ng x h/ml for the test and reference tablets as well as for the oral solution, respectively. No significant differences were found of principal pharmacokinetic parameters between the studied formulations. The 90%-confidence interval for the primary target parameters, intra-individual ratios of AUC0-24 and Cmax of levothyroxine were within the acceptance ranges for bioequivalence trials, i.e. AUC0-24 0.954-1.016 and 0.966-1.011 as well as Cmax 0.948-1.027 and 0.968-1.032 for test tablets versus reference tablets and the oral solution, respectively. Similar results were observed for triiodothyronine. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the levothyroxine test tablet is bioequivalent to the reference formulation in respect of extent and rate of absorption. The results of the present trial confirm the findings of a previous study, performed under steady-state conditions with Eferox tablets 100 microg in patients without thyroid function. PMID:15553108

  15. Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

    1986-01-01

    Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ifosfamide/mesna/methylene blue therapy.

    PubMed

    Aeschlimann, C; Küpfer, A; Schefer, H; Cerny, T

    1998-09-01

    Oral treatment with ifosfamide results in dose-limiting encephalopathy. Methylene blue is effective in reversal and prophylaxis of this side effect. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide after iv and po therapy in combination with prophylactic administration of methylene blue were investigated. Nine patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer were treated by a combination of ifosfamide (3 days), sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (4 days), and etoposide (8 days). Cycles were repeated every 28 days. Ifosfamide was administered orally, with the exception of one of the first two cycles, when it was administered as a short infusion (randomly assigned). The patients received methylene blue in doses of 50 mg po 3 times daily; an initial dose of 50 mg was given the evening before chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected over the entire treatment period, and concentrations of ifosfamide and its major metabolite, 2-chloroethylamine, were measured by gas liquid chromatography. By the same technique, 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide were determined in plasma and urine. Overall alkylating activity in urine was assayed by reaction of the alkylating metabolites with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. The chemotherapeutic regimen was well-tolerated by all of the patients studied. There was no evidence of a shift in the metabolic pattern dependent on the route of administration. From the data, we conclude that methylene blue has a neuroprotective effect and that the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide are not influenced by its comedication. PMID:9733667

  17. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Randomized Trial Comparing Oral Uracil and Tegafur and Oral Leucovorin Vs. Intravenous 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, Alejandro de la Garcia-Berrocal, Maria Isabel; Arias, Fernando; Marino, Alfonso; Valcarcel, Francisco; Magallon, Rosa; Regueiro, Carlos A.; Romero, Jesus; Zapata, Irma; Fuente, Cristina de la; Fernandez-Lizarbe, Eva; Vergara, Gloria; Belinchon, Belen; Veiras, Maria; Moleron, Rafael; Millan, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a randomized trial, 5-fluorouracil (FU) plus leucovorin (LV) (FU+LV) vs. oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus LV (UFT+LV) given concomitantly with preoperative irradiation in patients with cT3-4 or N+ rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients were entered onto the trial. Patients received pelvic radiotherapy (4500-5,040 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks) and chemotherapy consisting of two 5-day courses of 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d LV and 350 mg/m{sup 2}/d FU in the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy (77 patients) or one course of 25 mg/d oral LV and 300 mg/m{sup 2}/d UFT for 4 weeks beginning in the second week of radiotherapy (78 patients). The primary endpoints were pathologic complete response (pCR) and resectability rate. Secondary endpoints included downstaging rate, toxicity, and survival. Results: Grade 3-5 acute hematologic toxicity occurred only with FU+LV (leukopenia 9%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in resectability rates (92.1% vs. 93.4%; p = 0.82). The pCR rate was 13.2% in both arms. Tumor downstaging was more frequent with UFT+LV (59.2% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.04). Three-year overall survival was 87% with FU+LV and 74% with UFT+LV (p = 0.37). The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence were 7.5% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.619; relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval 0.32-6.55). Conclusion: Although this study lacked statistical power to exclude clinically significant differences between both groups, the outcome of patients treated with UFT+LV did not differ significantly from that of patients treated with FU+LV, and hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in the experimental arm.

  18. A comparative study of normal inspection, autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced PPIX fluorescence for oral cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Betz, Christian S; Stepp, Herbert; Janda, Philip; Arbogast, Susanne; Grevers, Gerhard; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Leunig, Andreas

    2002-01-10

    Fluorescence diagnosis aims to improve the management of oral cancer via early detection of the malignant lesions and better delimitation of the tumor margins. This paper presents a comparative study of normal inspection, combined fluorescence diagnosis (CFD) and its 2 main components, autofluorescence and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence. Biopsy-controlled fluorescence imaging and spectral analysis were performed on a total of 85 patients with suspected or histologically proven oral carcinoma both before and after topical administration of 5-ALA (200 mg 5-ALA dissolved in 50 ml of H(2)0). Fluorescence excitation was accomplished using filtered light of a xenon short arc lamp (lambda = 375-440 nm). As for CFD, a "streetlight" contrast (red to green) was readily found between malignant and healthy tissue on the acquired images. In terms of tumor localization and delimitation properties, CFD was clearly favorable over either normal inspection or its 2 components in fluorescence imaging. The performance of CFD was found to be impeded by tumor keratinization but to be independent of either tumor staging, grading or localization. In spectral analysis, cancerous tissue showed significantly higher PPIX fluorescence intensities and lower autofluorescence intensities than normal mucosa. There is a great potential for CFD in early detection of oral neoplasms and exact delimitation of the tumors' superficial margins and an advantage over white light inspection and each of its 2 main components. The method is noninvasive, safe and easily reproducible. PMID:11774271

  19. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  20. Role of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Rat Hippocampal Neuronal Death After Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Yulin; Ge, Xinjie; Wang, Menglu

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is reportedly involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and many neurological diseases. However, the role of the MCU in epilepsy remains unknown. In this study, we found that the MCU inhibitor Ru360 significantly attenuated neuronal death and exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on rat hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), while the MCU activator spermine increased seizure-induced neuronal death and apoptosis. In addition, Ru360 decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampi. Moreover, Ru360 restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c (CytC) release in epileptic hippocampi. However, spermine treatment exerted an opposite effect on seizure-induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and CytC release compared with Ru360 treatment. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that MCU inhibition exerts a neuroprotective effect on seizure-induced brain injury possibly through the mitochondria/ROS/CytC pathway. PMID:26148531

  1. Lithium/pilocarpine status epilepticus-induced neuropathology of piriform cortex and adjoining structures in rats is age-dependent.

    PubMed

    Druga, R; Kubová, H; Suchomelová, L; Haugvicová, R

    2003-01-01

    Distribution of LiCl/pilocarpine status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage was studied in the piriform cortex and in adjoining structures in 12-day-old, 25-day-old and adult rats. No distinct structural and neuronal alterations were detected in the basal telencephalon in 12-day-old rats surviving status epilepticus (SE) for one week or two months. In 25-day-old rats a decrease in Nissl staining was evident. There was also cell loss and gliosis in the caudal 2/3 of the piriform cortex, in the superficial amygdaloid nuclei, in the dorsal and ventral endopiriform nucleus and in the rostrolateral part of the entorhinal cortical area. In adult animals, the topography of neuropathological changes in the basal telencephalon was comparable to those in 25-day-old rats. The damage in the caudal 2/3 or caudal half of the piriform cortex in adult rats with survival times one week or two months was characterized by a marked loss of neurons and striking glial infiltration. The thickness of the piriform cortex and superficial amygdaloid nuclei was significantly reduced. In 25-day-old and in adult animals the sublayer IIb and layer III of the piriform cortex was more affected, while sublayer IIa was less damaged. Parvalbumin (PV) immunocytochemistry revealed a significant decrease in the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the rostral piriform cortex and in the dorsal claustrum in animals surviving for two months. PMID:12678669

  2. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  3. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  4. Comparative effects of parenteral and oral administration of selected dithiocarbamates on body burdens and organ distribution of cadmium in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), N-methyl-N-dithiocarboxyglucamine (MDCG), and 4-carboxamidopiperidine-N-dithiocarboxylate (CAP-N-DTC) were compared at equimolar doses administered by the ip and po routes for effectiveness in mobilizing metallothionein (MT)-bound cadmium (Cd) using 109Cd in mice. DDTC was highly effective by both routes in lowering hepatic, renal, and splenic Cd levels, but enhanced redistribution of Cd to testes and brain. While MDCG and CAP-N-DTC were much less active by the oral route, each effected a significant reduction of renal Cd levels, and MDCG reduced the testicular Cd burden. Neither analog lowered hepatic Cd levels impressively when given po.

  5. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  6. The influence of pilocarpine and atropine on pentobarbital-induced nystagmus in the New Zealand white rabbit.

    PubMed

    Kairys, D J; Smith, M B

    1979-12-01

    Nystagmus, induced by intravenous pentobarbital in rabbits, increased in frequency and amplitude as a result of intravenous pilocarpine administration. In seven of nine animals anesthetized with pentobarbital but not showing eye movements, pilocarpine injection elicited nystagmus. In all rabbits, nystagmus was terminated by subsequent intravenous administration of atropine, indicating that the parasympathetic nervous system contributes to nystagmus observed in barbiturate treated animals. The results reported here are of value in their implication for an understanding of the physiologic mechanisms which underlie eye movement disorders commonly observed in barbituarate intoxicated individuals. PMID:521585

  7. Effect of a gel containing pilocarpine on vaginal atrophy in castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa-Lages, Cristina A.; de Deus-Lages, Lívio P.; de Sousa, Gabriela V.; de Moura-Leal, Adinaide C.; Conde, Airton Mendes; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Borges, Carine Soares; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Sampaio, Fabiane A.; Cunha-Nunes, Lívio C.; da-Silva, Benedito B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of Carbopol gel formulations containing pilocarpine on the morphology and morphometry of the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. METHODS: Thirty-one female Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control Groups I (n=7, rats in persistent estrus; positive controls) and II (n=7, castrated rats, negative controls) and the experimental Groups, III (n=8) and IV (n=9). Persistent estrus (Group I) was achieved with a subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate on the second postnatal day. At 90 days postnatal, rats in Groups II, III and IV were castrated and treated vaginally for 14 days with Carbopol gel (vehicle alone) or Carbopol gel containing 5% and 15% pilocarpine, respectively. Next, all of the animals were euthanized and their vaginas were removed for histological evaluation. A non-parametric test with a weighted linear regression model was used for data analysis (p<0.05). RESULTS: The morphological evaluation showed maturation of the vaginal epithelium with keratinization in Group I, whereas signs of vaginal atrophy were present in the rats of the other groups. Morphometric examinations showed mean thickness values of the vaginal epithelium of 195.10±12.23 μm, 30.90±1.14 μm, 28.16±2.98 μm and 29.84±2.30 μm in Groups I, II, III and IV, respectively, with statistically significant differences between Group I and the other three groups (p<0.0001) and no differences between Groups II, III and IV (p=0.0809). CONCLUSION: Topical gel formulations containing pilocarpine had no effect on atrophy of the vaginal epithelium in the castrated female rats. PMID:27276400

  8. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions. PMID:25053835

  9. 2D NMR Methods for Structural Delineation of Copper(II) Complexes of Penicillin and Pilocarpine

    PubMed Central

    Gaggelli, Elena; Gaggelli, Nicola

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed for delineating the structure of paramagnetic metal complexes. The selective disappearance of cross-peaks in proton-carbon shift correlated 2D NMR maps was shown to uniquely depend upon the scalar and/or dipolar interaction between ligand nuclei and the unpaired electron(s), thus providing a means of identifying binding sites. Copper(II) was shown to form metal complexes with both Penicillin (PNC) and Pilocarpine (PLC) and the structure of the two 1:2 complexes in water solution at physiological pH were determined. PMID:18476239

  10. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  11. Novel combinations of phenotypic biomarkers predict development of epilepsy in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The discovery and validation of biomarkers in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is an important challenge for early diagnosis of disease and for the development of therapeutics. Epilepsy is often a consequence of brain insults such as traumatic brain injury or stroke, but as yet no biomarker exists to predict the development of epilepsy in patients at risk. Given the complexity of epilepsy, it is unlikely that a single biomarker is sufficient for this purpose, but a combinatorial approach may be needed to overcome the challenge of individual variability and disease heterogeneity. The goal of the present prospective study in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats was to determine the discriminative utility of combinations of phenotypic biomarkers by examining their ability to predict epilepsy. For this purpose, we used a recent model refinement that allows comparing rats that will or will not develop spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Potential biomarkers included in our study were seizure threshold and seizure severity in response to timed i.v. infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and behavioral alterations determined by a battery of tests during the three weeks following SE. Three months after SE, video/EEG monitoring was used to determine which rats had developed SRS. To determine whether a biomarker or combination of biomarkers performed better than chance at predicting epilepsy after SE, derived data underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. When comparing rats with and without SRS and sham controls, the best intergroup discrimination was obtained by combining all measurements, resulting in a ROC area under curve (AUC) of 0.9592 (P<0.01), indicating an almost perfect discrimination or accuracy to predict development of SRS. These data indicate that a combinatorial biomarker approach may overcome the challenge of individual variability in the prediction of epilepsy

  12. Comparative Metabolism Studies of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Diastereomers in Male Rats Following a Single Oral Dose.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur

    2016-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively accounting for 42% of dose for α-HBCD, 59% for ß-HBCD, and 53% for γ-HBCD. Urine was also an important route of HBCD excretion, accounting for 13% of dose for α-HBCD, 30% for ß-HBCD, and 21% for γ-HBCD. Total metabolism of HBCD diastereomers followed the rank order ß > γ > α, and was >65% of that administered. The metabolites formed were distinct in male rats: α-HBCD did not debrominate or stereoisomerize, but formed two hydroxylated metabolites; ß- and γ-HBCD were both extensively metabolized via pathways of stereoisomerization, oxidation, dehydrogenation, reductive debromination, and ring opening. ß-HBCD was biotransformed to two mercapturic acid pathway metabolites. The metabolites of ß- and γ-HBCD were largely distinct, and could possibly be used as markers of exposure. These isomer-specific data suggest that α-HBCD would be the most dominant HBCD diastereomer in biological tissues because it was metabolized to the lowest degree and also accumulated from the stereoisomerization of the β- and γ- diastereomers. PMID:26629593

  13. Cd34 and Mast Cell Analysis in Normal Oral Mucosa and Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kathuriya, Pargatsingh T; Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Narang, Bindiya R; Patil, Swati S; Pawar, Rasika B

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) remains a serious health problem worldwide. Prognosis of OSCC is poor and long term survival rate still remains below 50%. Angiogenesis or neovascularisation plays an important role in tumour progression and metastasis. Mast cells have been implicated in promoting tumour angiogenesis, especially of digestive tract, little is known in OSCC. Aim & Objective To study the correlation between blood vessel density (BVD) and mast cell density (MCD) in different grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods Methods: Thirty eight paraffin blocks of different grades of OSCC were retrieved from the department and sections were stained with CD34 followed by counterstaining with toluidine blue. The slides were then analysed using Leica Software (Version 4.5). Results Mean BVD and MCD were found to be increased in OSCC as compared to normal mucosa. Increase in BVD with co-current increase in MCD was also observed in different grades of OSCC Conclusion From our study, it was concluded that, mast cells play a major role in promoting tumour angiogenesis. But, as the grade of the tumour increases, other angiogenic factors may play a more significant role than mast cells in tumour progression. PMID:26417554

  14. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J.; Harris, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. PMID:26568374

  15. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B versus Oral Minocycline in Treatment of Unstable Vitiligo: A Prospective Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Amir Hossein; Zeinali, Naser; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jamshidi, Kioumars; Khosravani, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Background. We have compared NB-UVB and oral minocycline in stabilizing vitiligo for the first time. Subjects and Methods. 42 patients were divided equally into two groups: the NB-UVB and minocycline groups. Phototherapy was administered twice a week on nonconsecutive days. In the minocycline group, patients were advised to take minocycline 100 mg once daily. The treatment period was 3 months. Vitiligo disease activity (VIDA) score was noted every 4 weeks for 12 months. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and monthly intervals. Results. Before the therapy, disease activity was present in 100% of the patients, which was reduced to 23.8% and 66.1% by the end of therapy in the NB-UVB and minocycline groups retrospectively (P < 0.05). 16 of the 21 (76/1%) patients with unstable disease in the NB-UVB group achieved stability, whereas this was the case for only 7 of the 21 (33.3%) in the minocycline group (P < 0.001). The diameter changes were statistically significant at the end of treatment in the NB-UVB group compared to the minocycline group (P = 0.031). Side effects in both groups were mild. Conclusion. NB-UVB was statistically more advantageous than oral minocycline in unstable vitiligo in terms of efficacy and the resulting stability. PMID:25221600

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J; Harris, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. PMID:26568374

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Oral vs. Podcasting Reviewing Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Misty L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of podcasts to traditional delivery of information in classrooms. Four podcasts were created on the topics of asthma, diabetes, seizure disorders, and acute infections to aid students in reviewing for quizzes. Knowledge retained of students using podcasts was compared to the knowledge retained of…

  18. Comparative study of the effects of combined oral contraceptives in hemostatic variables: an observational preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F; Franceschini, Silvio A; Martinez, Edson Z; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Toloi, Maria Regina T

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30 μg) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30 μg) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30 kg/m², not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1 + 2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  19. An 18-week home-use study comparing the oral hygiene and gingival health benefits of triclosan and fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Owens, J; Addy, M; Faulkner, J

    1997-09-01

    Several triclosan and stannous fluoride toothpastes have been shown to have plaque inhibitory and more particularly gingival health benefits when compared to minus active controls. There have been relatively few studies to compare such products with conventional fluoride toothpastes in home use. The aim of this study was to compare the relative gingival health benefits of a triclosan/zinc citrate, triclosan/copolymer, stannous fluoride and conventional fluoride toothpastes in a home use study. The study was a double blind, parallel design with a total 143 healthy dentate volunteers (41 male, 102 female) who toothbrushed 2x daily with 1 of 4 toothpastes over an 18 week period. At the beginning of the trial, each volunteer was scored for plaque and gingivitis and then received a thorough prophylaxis. Each volunteer was allocated a toothpaste according to a predetermined randomisation scheme. The volunteers were then re-examined after 6, 12 and 18 weeks. No other oral hygiene products were used during this period. The results showed no statistically significant treatment differences between products for the gingival index throughout the 18 week-trial. No statistically significant treatment effects between products for plaque index were found at 6 or 18 weeks. However, a small but statistically significant treatment effect for plaque index was seen at 12 weeks in favour of the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste compared to the stannous fluoride and conventional fluoride toothpastes, this difference had disappeared by the 18 week examination. All volunteers oral hygiene and gingivitis scores improved after the baseline examination, and this improvement continued throughout the trial. This is a feature of nearly all toothbrushing studies and can be attributed to the initial prophylaxis and the Hawthorne phenomenon. Such phenomena, noted in home use clinical trials, may mask the efficacy of proven antiplaque formulations. PMID:9378833

  20. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy – comparison with human epileptic samples

    PubMed Central

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  1. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy--comparison with human epileptic samples.

    PubMed

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  2. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-02-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability. Our results showed that pilocarpine rats suffered persisting cognitive impairment during epileptogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Mozart music exposure can significantly enhance cognitive ability in epileptic rats, and music intervention may be more effective for improving cognitive function during the early stages after Status epilepticus. These findings strongly suggest that Mozart music may help to promote the recovery of cognitive damage due to seizure activities, which provides a novel intervention strategy to diminish cognitive deficits in TLE patients. PMID:26834859

  3. Minocycline inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Mi, X; Gao, B; Gu, J; Wang, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, X

    2015-02-26

    Mounting evidence suggests that brain inflammation mediated by glial cells may contribute to epileptogenesis. Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline and has potent antiinflammatory effects independent of its antimicrobial action. The present study aimed to investigate whether minocycline could exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal patterns of microglial and astrocytic activation were examined in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings displayed that SE caused acute and persistent activation of microglia and astrocytes. Based on these findings, Minocycline was administered once daily at 45 mg/kg for 14 days following SE. Six weeks after termination of minocycline treatment, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were recorded by continuous video monitoring. Minocycline inhibited the SE-induced microglial activation and the increased production of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampal CA1 and the adjacent cortex, without affecting astrocytic activation. In addition, Minocycline prevented the SE-induced neuronal loss in the brain regions examined. Moreover, minocycline significantly reduced the frequency, duration, and severity of SRS during the two weeks monitoring period. These results demonstrated that minocycline could mitigate SE-induced brain inflammation and might exert disease-modifying effects in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. These findings offer new insights into deciphering the molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis and exploring a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention of epilepsy. PMID:25541249

  4. Cell suspension as a tool to study the biosynthesis of pilocarpine in Jaborandi.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I N; Andreazza, N L; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Mazzafera, P

    2007-11-01

    Jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus) is a species that naturally occurs in the North and Northeast of Brazil, whose leaves produce pilocarpine (an imidazole alkaloid that has been used to treat glaucoma and xerostomy), the biosynthesis of which is still uncertain. The aim of this work was to establish cell lineages and select them according to an alkaloid profile similar to the one from Jaborandi leaves. The induction of callus was done in different culture media and growth regulators. Calluses from primary cultures or those subcultured several times were used as explants for the obtainment of six cell lineages. Alkaloids content analyses and growth curves showed that lines obtained from primary cultures produced more alkaloids and a better development. Cell lines from 12 subcultures presented a decrease in pilocarpine and pilosine production. After 24 subcultures, the production of alkaloids remained constant. ESI-MS analysis showed that cell culture extracts have the same alkaloid composition as extracts made from leaves. The results indicate that cell suspensions can be used as a model to study the biosynthesis of the imidazole alkaloid in P. microphyllus. PMID:17682964

  5. A Pharmacokinetic Study Comparing Eslicarbazepine Acetate Administered Orally as a Crushed or Intact Tablet in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Kharidia, Jahnavi; Schutz, Ralph; Blum, David; Cheng, Hailong

    2016-07-01

    The relative bioequivalence of crushed versus intact eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) tablets (800 mg) administered orally in healthy adults was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study with a 5-day washout between treatments. Sample blood levels of eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine were determined; pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for eslicarbazepine. Bioequivalence was established if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean treatment ratios of eslicarbazepine AUC(0-∞) and Cmax were within the prespecified 80%-125% range. Twenty-seven subjects in the intent-to-treat population (n = 28) completed both treatment periods. Eslicarbazepine exposure measures were similar for crushed versus intact ESL tablets: average Cmax , 11 700 versus 11 500 ng/mL; AUC(0-∞) , 225 000 versus 234 000 ng·h/mL; AUC(0-last) , 222 000 versus 231 000 ng·h/mL, respectively. Geometric least squares mean ratios (90%CIs) comparing eslicarbazepine exposure measures were within the 80%-125% range (Cmax , 102.63% [97.07%-108.51%]; AUC(0-∞) , 96.72% [94.36%-99.13%]; AUC0-last , 96.69% [94.24%-99.21%]). In conclusion, ESL administered orally as a crushed tablet sprinkled on applesauce, or intact were bioequivalent in healthy subjects. Eslicarbazepine bioavailability was not significantly altered by crushing, indicating that ESL tablets can be administered intact or crushed. PMID:27249205

  6. Evaluation of analgesic effect of skin-to-skin contact compared to oral glucose in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Freire, Nájala Borges de Sousa; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho

    2008-09-30

    Nonpharmacological interventions are important alternatives for pain relief during minor procedures in preterm neonates. Skin-to-skin contact or kangaroo mother care is a human and efficient way of caring for low-weight preterm neonates. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of kangaroo care compared to oral glucose on the response of healthy preterm neonates to a low-intensity acute painful stimulus. Ninety-five preterm neonates with a postmenstrual age of 28-36 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups in a single-blind manner. In group 1 (isolette, n=33), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette during heel lancing and did not receive analgesia. In group 2 (kangaroo method, n=31), the neonate was held in skin-to-skin contact for 10 min before and during the heel-lancing procedure. In group 3 (glucose, n=31), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette and received oral glucose (1 ml, 25%) 2 min before heel lancing. A smaller variation in heart rate (p=0.0001) and oxygen saturation (p=0.0012), a shorter duration of facial activity (brow bulge, eye squeeze and nasolabial furrowing) (p=0.0001), and a lower PIPP (Premature Infant Pain Profile) score (p=0.0001) were observed in group 2. In conclusion, skin-to-skin contact produced an analgesic effect in preterm newborns during heel lancing. PMID:18434021

  7. Costs and effects of long-acting risperidone compared with oral atypical and conventional depot formulations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Laux, Gerd; Heeg, Bart; van Hout, Ben A; Mehnert, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric conditions because of high direct and indirect costs associated with the nature of the illness, its resistance to treatment and the consequences of relapse. Long-acting risperidone is a new formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug that also offers the improvements in compliance associated with haloperidol depot. The aim of this simulation study was to compare the benefits and costs of three pharmacological treatment strategies comprising first-line treatment with long-acting risperidone injection, a haloperidol depot or an oral atypical antipsychotic agent, over a 5-year period in Germany. A discrete event simulation model was developed to compare three treatment scenarios from the perspective of major third-party payers (sickness funds and social security 'Sozialversicherung'). The scenarios comprised first-line treatment with haloperidol depot (scenario 1), long-acting risperidone (scenario 2) and oral olanzapine (scenario 3). Switches to second or third-line options were allowed when side-effects occurred or a patient suffered more than a fixed number of relapses. The model accounted for fixed patient characteristics, and on the basis of these, simulated patient histories according to several time-dependent variables. The time horizon for this model was limited to 5 years, and in accordance with German guidelines, costs and effects were discounted by between 3 and 10%. Direct costs included medication, type of physician visits and treatment location. Indirect costs were not included. Information on treatment alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and healthcare utilization were derived from the literature and an expert panel. Outcomes were expressed in terms of the number and duration of psychotic episodes, cumulative symptom scores, costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out, as were subgroup analyses based on disease severity and

  8. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  9. Indian Education: Causal Comparative Research of Oral Reading Fluency for Native American First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redgrave, Crystal J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the reading research over the past forty years, there is a dearth of research in early literacy skills for Native American students. More specifically, there is a shortage of quantitative research for this population. The purpose of this quantitative causal comparative study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the oral…

  10. Detrimental effect of post Status Epilepticus treatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kourdougli, Nazim; Varpula, Saara; Chazal, Genevieve; Rivera, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults where 20-30% of the patients are refractory to currently available anti-epileptic drugs. The RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway activation has been involved in inflammatory responses, neurite outgrowth and neuronal death under pathological conditions such as epileptic insults. Acute preventive administration of ROCK inhibitor has been reported to have beneficial outcomes in Status Epilepticus (SE) epilepsy. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of chronic post SE treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. We used chronic i.p. injections of Y-27632 for 5 days in 6 week old control rats or rats subjected to pilocarpine treatment as a model of TLE. Surprisingly, our findings demonstrate that a systemic administration of Y-27632 in pilocarpine-treated rats increases neuronal death in the CA3 region and ectopic recurrent mossy fiber sprouting (rMFS) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Interestingly, we found that chronic treatment with Y-27632 exacerbates the down-regulation and pathological distribution of the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, thus providing a putative mechanism for post SE induced neuronal death. The involvement of astrogliosis in this mechanism appears to be intricate as ROCK inhibition reduces reactive astrogliosis in pilocarpine rats. Conversely, in control rats, chronic Y-27632 treatment increases astrogliosis. Together, our findings suggest that Y-27632 has a detrimental effect when chronically used post SE in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. PMID:26557054

  11. Detrimental effect of post Status Epilepticus treatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kourdougli, Nazim; Varpula, Saara; Chazal, Genevieve; Rivera, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults where 20–30% of the patients are refractory to currently available anti-epileptic drugs. The RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway activation has been involved in inflammatory responses, neurite outgrowth and neuronal death under pathological conditions such as epileptic insults. Acute preventive administration of ROCK inhibitor has been reported to have beneficial outcomes in Status Epilepticus (SE) epilepsy. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of chronic post SE treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. We used chronic i.p. injections of Y-27632 for 5 days in 6 week old control rats or rats subjected to pilocarpine treatment as a model of TLE. Surprisingly, our findings demonstrate that a systemic administration of Y-27632 in pilocarpine-treated rats increases neuronal death in the CA3 region and ectopic recurrent mossy fiber sprouting (rMFS) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Interestingly, we found that chronic treatment with Y-27632 exacerbates the down-regulation and pathological distribution of the K+-Cl− cotransporter KCC2, thus providing a putative mechanism for post SE induced neuronal death. The involvement of astrogliosis in this mechanism appears to be intricate as ROCK inhibition reduces reactive astrogliosis in pilocarpine rats. Conversely, in control rats, chronic Y-27632 treatment increases astrogliosis. Together, our findings suggest that Y-27632 has a detrimental effect when chronically used post SE in a rat pilocarpine model of TLE. PMID:26557054

  12. Bioavailability of a new oral formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with the standard formulation: a single dose randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, M; Brunsgaard, N; Jakobsen, P; Edwards, D M; Strolin-Benedetti, M

    1993-08-01

    Twenty-six female patients with breast cancer participated in an open, randomized, cross-over study comparing single dose bioavailability of a recently developed oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) formulation (200 mg sachet where MPA is loaded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked polymer, MPA/PVP) with the standard formulation (500 mg tablet). Blood tests were performed under standardized conditions for 120 h in all patients and MPA plasma concentrations determined by means of HPLC. Dose-normalized AUC(0-tz), AUC (0-infinity) and Cmax were all significantly higher for the MPA/PVP formulation than for the standard formulation. The relative bioavailability of the MPA/PVP formulation was on average three times superior to that of the standard formulation. This new MPA formulation might have important clinical implications for the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer. PMID:8400345

  13. Comparative clinical trials and the changing marketplace for oral care: innovation, evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Robert W; Biesbrock, Aaron R

    2002-09-01

    The development of a trayless bleaching system (Crest Whitestrips) and a novel battery-powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) has fueled growth in the bleaching and power toothbrush markets. Beyond offering convenient, low-cost options for patients, the effectiveness of each product is supported by a robust clinical program. New comparative research involving these products expands evidence on the clinical meaningfulness of the benefits of this whitening system and powered toothbrush for patient care. PMID:12512984

  14. Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in North Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yixin H; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F; O'Neill, Scott L; Beebe, Nigel W; McGraw, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

  15. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  16. Comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is found worldwide among people of all groups and ages. It is curable with scabicide medications. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. In total, 148 patients with scabies were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 sg/kg body weight, and the second was treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between applications. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 60.8% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.1% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications oflindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 47.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 72.9% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow-up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against the parasite at all stages in the life cycle. PMID:25632646

  17. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  18. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Konomos, Dorothy K.; Gravanis, Iordanis; Dewey, Stephen L.; Aguzzi, Adriano; Heppner, Frank L.; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2010-01-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 hours prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 hours prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation. PMID:20382223

  19. Comparing written and oral measures of comprehension of cancer information by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer; Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-09-01

    The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension among ESL Chinese immigrant women to Canada. Performances on colon cancer-specific measures were compared to a general measure of health literacy (S-TOFHLA). On the S-TOFHLA, Cloze, and Teach Back, respectively, the following percentage of participants had adequate comprehension: 62.1%, 14.8%, and 89.7%. Correlation between performance on the Cloze and Teach Back was significant albeit weakly so (r = 0.38, p = 0.04); performances on the S-TOFHLA and Teach Back were not correlated. Measures of health literacy skill that require written English language skills may not be appropriate for measuring understanding of health information for ESL populations. PMID:21445682

  20. Persistent impairment of mitochondrial and tissue redox status during lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Waldbaum, Simon; Liang, Li-Ping; Patel, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are known to occur following acute seizure activity but their contribution during epileptogenesis is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress, changes to redox status, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage during epileptogenesis in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, changes in tissue and mitochondrial redox status, and mtDNA damage were assessed in the hippocampus and neocortex of Sprague–Dawley rats at time points (24 h to 3 months) following lithium-pilocarpine administration. A time-dependent increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production coincident with increased mtDNA lesion frequency in the hippocampus was observed during epileptogenesis. Acute increases (24–48 h) in H2O2 production and mtDNA lesion frequency were dependent on the severity of convulsive seizure activity during initial status epilepticus. Tissue levels of GSH, GSH/GSSG, coenzyme A (CoASH), and CoASH/CoASSG were persistently impaired at all measured time points throughout epileptogenesis, that is, acutely (24–48 h), during the ‘latent period’ (48 h to 7 days), and chronic epilepsy (21 days to 3 months). Together with our previous work, these results demonstrate the model independence of mitochondrial oxidative stress, genomic instability, and persistent impairment of mitochondrial specific redox status during epileptogenesis. Lasting impairment of mitochondrial and tissue redox status during the latent period, in addition to the acute and chronic phases of epileptogenesis, suggests that redox-dependent processes may contribute to the progression of epileptogenesis in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:21219330

  1. Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy study of the rat hippocampal formation after pilocarpine-evoked seizures.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Dumas, P; Eichert, D; Dudala, J; Setkowicz, Z

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SRFTIR) micro-spectroscopy and imaging were used for topographic and semi-quantitative biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue in cases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The tissue samples were analyzed with a beam defined by small apertures and spatial resolution steps of 10 microm which allowed us to probe the selected cellular layers of hippocampal formation. Raster scanning of the samples has generated 2D chemical cartographies revealing the distribution of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Spectral analysis has shown changes in the saturation level of phospholipids and relative secondary structure of proteins. Special interest was put in the analysis of two areas of the hippocampal formation (sector 3 of the Ammon's horn, CA3 and dentate gyrus, DG) in which elemental abnormalities were observed during our previous studies. Statistically significant increase in the saturation level of phospholipids (increased ratio of the absorption intensities at around 2921 and 2958 cm(-1)) as well as conformational changes of proteins (beta-type structure discrepancies as shown by the increased ratio of the absorbance intensities at around 1631 and 1657 cm(-1) as well as the ratio of the absorbance at 1548 and 1657 cm(-1)) were detected in pyramidal cells of CA3 area as well as in the multiform and molecular layers of DG. The findings presented here suggest that abnormalities in the protein secondary structure and increases in the level of phospholipid saturation could be involved in mechanisms of neurodegenerative changes following the oxidative stress evoked in brain areas affected by pilocarpine-induced seizures. PMID:20362662

  2. A comparative study of oral health amongst trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 caries, malocclusion, trauma

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a genetic disorder stemming from a chromosomal abnormality and characterized by general and mental retardation. Depending on the population, T21 is known to affect 1 in every 600–2000 live births. The current literature provides a mixed view on the oral health status of T21 individuals. Aim To establish the prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma amongst children with T21 compared with non-T21 children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited non-T21 and T21 children between the ages of 7–15 years who were studying at the Saut Society. After informed consent was obtained from parents and both groups were matched by age and gender, trained examiners screened children at the dental clinic of King Saud University to record the presence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma in both groups. Results While there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (2.66 for T21 versus 3.11 for controls), T21 children had a higher prevalence of incisal fractures compared to the control group (24.73% versus 4.95%, respectively) and that was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were also highly significant group differences concerning the prevalence of malocclusion. Therein, 45% of T21 children had a Class III incisor relationship compared with 8% of control children, and 50% of T21 children had a Class III molar relationship compared with 8% of control children. Conclusions While there was no significant difference in the incidence of caries between children with and without T21, practitioners should be aware of the disparities in malocclusion and trauma in this vulnerable population. PMID:26644758

  3. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  4. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  5. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower lid of your eye with your index finger to form a pocket. Hold the dropper (tip ... as possible without touching it. Brace the remaining fingers of that hand against your face. While looking ...

  6. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenoside Rg3 and Ginsenoside Rh2 after Oral Administration of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Normal and Walker 256 Tumor-bearing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, He; Xiao-ling, Sun; Yaliu, Su; Ming-ming, Lu; Xue, Feng; Xian-sheng, Meng; Li, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ginseng is Chinese traditional herbal medicine, and the ginsenoside Rg3 is the main bioactive ingredient for the anti-tumor effect. However, there is no study on pharmacokinetics (PKs) of ginsenoside Rg3 and its main metabolite after oral ginsenoside Rg3 in tumor-bearing plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the PK profiles of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 after oral administration of pure ginsenoside Rg3 were administered, and compare the difference of the PK profiles between normal and Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Materials and Methods: The concentrations of two ginsenosides in plasma were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (Walker 256 tumor-bearing and normal groups). Each group received oral administration of 50 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg3. Results: The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, possibly as a glycosylation hydrolysis product of ginsenoside Rg3, were found in plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3 to rats. Ginsenoside Rg3 had shown better absorption than ginsenoside Rh2, whether the oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3, normal rats showed better absorption than tumor-bearing rats. Discussion and Conclusion: The PKs properties of the ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 differed between tumor-bearing rats and normal rats, including area under the plasma level/time curve and concentration maximum (P < 0.05). SUMMARY Ginsenoside Rh2 was found in plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3 to ratsHPLC could be used to determine simultaneously, the concentration of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 in rat plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3Normal rats showed better absorption than tumor-bearing rats after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3.0. PMID:27019557

  7. Comparative evaluation of proliposomes and self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of nisoldipine.

    PubMed

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Rueda, Javier; Wang, Zhijun; Betageri, Guru V

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was to develop proliposomal formulation and self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for a poorly bioavailable drug, nisoldipine and to compare their in vivo pharmacokinetics. Proliposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using different lipids such as Soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Hydrogenated Soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol sodium (DMPG), Distearyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), and Cholesterol in various ratios. SMEDDS formulations were prepared using varying concentrations of Capmul MCM, Labrasol, Cremophor EL and Tween 80. Both proliposomes and SMEDDS were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability and in vivo pharmacokinetics. In vitro drug release was carried out in purified water using USP type II dissolution apparatus. In vitro drug permeation was studied using parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) and everted rat intestinal perfusion techniques. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Among the different formulations, proliposomes with drug:DMPC:cholesterol in the ratio of 1:2:0.5 and SMEDDS with Capmul MCM (13.04% w/w), Labrasol (36.96% w/w), Cremophor EL (34.78% w/w) and Tween 80 (15.22% w/w) demonstrated the desired particle size and zeta potential. Enhanced drug release was observed with proliposomes and SMEDDS compared to pure nisoldipine in purified water after 1h. Nisoldipine permeability across PAMPA and everted rat intestinal perfusion models was significantly higher with proliposomes and SMEDDS. Following single oral administration of proliposomes and SMEDDS, a relative bioavailability of 301.11% and 239.87% respectively, was achieved compared to pure nisoldipine suspension. PMID:27041124

  8. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of mangiferin after oral administration of pure mangiferin and US patented polyherbal formulation to rats.

    PubMed

    Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Inampudi, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

    2015-04-01

    The US patented polyherbal formulation for the prevention and management of type II diabetes and its vascular complications was used for the present study. The xanthone glycoside mangiferin is one of the major effector constituents in the Salacia species with potential anti-diabetic activity. The pharmacokinetic differences of mangiferin following oral administration of pure mangiferin and polyherbal formulation containing Salacia species were studied with approximately the same dose 30 mg/kg mangiferin and its distribution among the major tissue in Wistar rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,440, 2,160, and 2880 min) and subsequently analyzed using a validated simple and rapid LC-MS method. Plasma concentration versus time profiles were explored by non-compartmental analysis. Mangiferin plasma exposure was significantly increased when administered from formulation compared to the standard mangiferin. Mangiferin resided significantly longer in the body (last mean residence time (MRTlast)) when given in the form of the formulation (3.65 h). Cmax values of formulation (44.16 μg/mL) administration were elevated when compared to equivalent dose of the pure mangiferin (15.23 μg/mL). Tissue distribution study of mangiferin from polyherbal formulation was also studied. In conclusion, the exposure of mangiferin is enhanced after formulation and administration and could result in superior efficacy of polyherbal formulation when compared to an equivalent dose of mangiferin. The results indicate that the reason which delays the elimination of mangiferin and enhances its bioavailability might the interactions of the some other constituents present in the polyherbal formulation. Distribution study results indicate that mangiferin was extensively bound to the various tissues like the small intestine, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver except brain tissue. PMID:25273025

  9. Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

  10. The Effect of Pimecrolimus Cream 1% Compared with Triamcinolone Acetonide Paste in Treatment of Atrophic-Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Delavarian, Zahra; Falaki, Farnaz; Khorashadizadeh, Mahboubeh; Saba, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive types of OLP often have symptoms of soreness, and require proper treatment. The main treatment for OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl cream (triamcinolone acetonide in orabase) with topical pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of erosive OLP. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with OLP were enrolled in a single blind clinical trial and assigned to either a pimecrolimus 1% cream group or an adcortyl 0.1% cream group. The medication was applied every day for 2 months and patients were assessed every 2 weeks. Results: The mean lesion size and mean pain and burning sensation scores did not differ between the pimecrolimus and adcortyl cream groups. The pimecrolimus cream was well tolerated. No clinical drug-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus cream may be recommended as a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of OLP. Pimecrolimus cream is as effective as adcortyl cream in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP. PMID:25938083

  11. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Akca, A Eralp; Akca, Gülçin; Topçu, Fulya Toksoy; Macit, Enis; Pikdöken, Levent; Özgen, I Şerif

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state. PMID:26949701

  12. Oral rehydration therapy: a community trial comparing the acceptability of homemade sucrose and cereal-based solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. M.; Karim, F.; Rohde, J. E.; Ahmed, J.; Abed, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    Sugar-based oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea is promoted in many countries of the world. One programme in Bangladesh has instructed more than 13 million mothers in the preparation of a sugar-salt solution in the home; despite very high rates of correct mixing and knowledge, subsequent application was found in only some 20% of all diarrhoea episodes. Since rice is far more available in rural homes (95%) than any type of sugar (30%) and rice gruel is a widely accepted food during illness, a field trial was conducted in three areas (total population, 68,345) to compare the acceptability and use of rice-based ORT with that of sugar-based ORT. Although the mothers unanimously agreed that the rice-based solutions "stopped" the diarrhoea more quickly, they used the sugar-based solutions twice as often (in 40% of severe watery episodes) as the rice-based solutions (in 18%), because the rice-ORT was much more time-consuming and difficult to prepare. The observed reduced utilization of home-made rice-ORT makes it a poor substitute for sugar-ORT at the community level in rural Bangladesh. PMID:1860151

  13. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Akca, Gülçin; Topçu, Fulya Toksoy; Macit, Enis; Pikdöken, Levent; Özgen, I. Şerif

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state. PMID:26949701

  14. COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

  15. Oral antihistamine or nasal steroid in hay fever: a double-blind double-dummy comparative study of once daily oral astemizole vs twice daily nasal beclomethasone dipropionate.

    PubMed

    Wood, S F

    1986-05-01

    Seventy-four patients with a well documented history of seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomly allocated to receive either astemizole 10 mg orally per day or beclomethasone 100 micrograms in each nostril twice daily on a double-blind double-dummy basis. The patients were studied in a general practice setting and were seen at entry, during the study and at the end of the study by a single observer, the author. Assessment was by diary card incorporating five 10 cm visual analogue scales related to the four symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhoea, blocked nose and itchy eyes and an overall assessment of hay fever symptoms. Patients were asked if the medication had upset them in any way at each observer assessment. Symptom severity, as recorded by the visual analogue scales, was not significantly different for sneezing, rhinorrhoea, blocked nose or overall between the two groups but the symptom scores for itchy eyes were significantly better for the astemizole group. Adverse effects were minimal and of a minor nature only. There was no real difference between the two groups regarding adverse effects. The study suggests that oral astemizole is at least as good as nasal beclomethasone in the maintenance treatment of hay fever and that it offers the additional advantage of improved control of eye symptoms. PMID:3087656

  16. Two long-term clinical studies comparing the plaque removal and gingivitis reduction efficacy of the Oral-B Advantage Plaque Remover to five manual toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Grossman, E; Dembling, W; Walley, D R

    1994-01-01

    Two long-term studies were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of five manual toothbrushes compared to the Oral-B Advantage Plaque Remover measuring plaque removal and gingivitis/bleeding reduction. Both studies were carried out under the same protocol and utilized the same examiners. In Study 1, the Oral-B Advantage Plaque Remover was compared to the Crest Complete and Colgate Precision toothbrushes. In Study 2, the Oral-B Advantage Plaque Remover was compared to the Reach Advanced Design, Colgate Plus and Jordan Exact toothbrushes. A total of 109 and 121 male and female subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria completed Study 1 and Study 2, respectively. Subjects were initially screened for dental plaque eligibility having abstained from oral hygiene for a prior 24-hour period. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the balanced groups and received a professional prophylaxis to reduce plaque scores. Subjects were then scheduled to return 4 weeks and 8 weeks later, having again abstained from all oral hygiene procedures for a prior period of 24 hours. At each visit, each subject was evaluated for plaque, gingivitis and bleeding. Upon completion of the study, the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results of both studies are summarized as follows: The Oral-B Advantage Plaque Remover was significantly more effective than the Crest Complete, Colgate Precision, Colgate Plus and Jordan Exact toothbrushes in whole mouth plaque removal (p < 0.05), and vs. all brushes tested in gingivitis reduction (p < 0.01) and in reducing gingival bleeding (p < 0.001). PMID:7999289

  17. Time-course changes of hippocalcin expression in the mouse hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Hippocalcin participates in the maintenance of neuronal calcium homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the time-course changes of neuronal degeneration and hippocalcin protein level in the mouse hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Marked neuronal degeneration was observed in the hippocampus after SE in a time-dependent manner, although neuronal degeneration differed according to the hippocampal subregions. Almost no hippocalcin immunoreactivity was detected in the pyramidal neurons of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region from 6 h after SE. However, many pyramidal neurons in the CA2 region showed hippocalcin immunoreactivity until 24 h after SE. In the CA3 region, only a few hippocalcin immunoreactive cells were observed at 12 h after SE, and almost no hippocalcin immunoreactivity was observed in the pyramidal neurons from 24 h after SE. Hippocalcin immunoreactivity in the polymorphic cells of the dentate gyrus was markedly decreased from 6 h after SE. In addition, hippocalcin protein level in the hippocampus began to decrease from 6 h after SE, and was significantly decreased at 24 h and 48 h after pilocarpine-induced SE. These results indicate that marked reduction of hippocalcin level may be closely related to neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:26435544

  18. Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporters following status epilepticus induced by intrahippocampal pilocarpine affects neurodegeneration process in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Melo, Igor S; Santos, Yngrid M O; Costa, Maísa A; Pacheco, Amanda L D; Silva, Nívea K G T; Cardoso-Sousa, L; Pereira, U P; Goulart, L R; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Gitaí, Daniel L G; Tilelli, Cristiane Q; Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Castro, Olagide W

    2016-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, starting from secondary functional disorders due to several insults, including self-sustaining continuous seizures identified as status epilepticus (SE). Although hypoglycemia has been associated with SE, the effect of inhibition of the Na(+)/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) on hippocampus during SE is still unknown. Here we evaluated the functional role of SGLT in the pattern of limbic seizures and neurodegeneration process after pilocarpine (PILO)-induced SE. Vehicle (VEH, 1μL) or phlorizin, a specific SGLT inhibitor (PZN, 1μL, 50μg/μL), was administered in the hippocampus of rats 30min before PILO (VEH+PILO or PZN+PILO, respectively). The limbic seizures were classified using the Racine's scale, and the amount of wet dog shakes (WDS) was quantified before and during SE. Neurodegeneration process was evaluated by Fluoro-Jade C (FJ-C), and FJ-C-positive neurons (FJ-C+) were counted 24h and 15days after SE. The PZN-treated rats showed higher (p<0.05) number of WDS when compared with VEH+PILO. There was no difference in seizure severity between PZN+PILO and VEH+PILO groups. However, the pattern of limbic seizures significantly changed in PZN+PILO. Indeed, the class 5 seizures repeated themselves more times (p<0.05) than the other classes in the PZN group at 50min after SE induction. The PZN+PILO animals had a higher (p<0.05) number of FJ-C+ cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), hilus, and CA3 and CA1 of hippocampus, when compared with VEH+PILO. The PZN+PILO animals had a decreased number (p<0.05) of FJ-C+ cells in CA1 compared with VEH+PILO 15days after SE induction. Taken together, our data suggest that SGLT inhibition with PZN increased the severity of limbic seizures during SE and increased neurodegeneration in hippocampus 24h after SE, suggesting that SGLT1 and SGLT2 could participate in the modulation of earlier stages of epileptogenic processes. PMID:27429292

  19. Pharmacokinetics of R 82913 in AIDS patients: a phase I dose-finding study of oral administration compared with intravenous infusion.

    PubMed Central

    De Wit, S; Hermans, P; Sommereijns, B; O'Doherty, E; Westenborghs, R; van de Velde, V; Cauwenbergh, G F; Clumeck, N

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oral administration of R 82913, or tetrahydroimidazol [4,5,1-jk]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one or -thione (TIBO), was compared with those of intravenous administration in five AIDS patients. TIBO was administered as a single daily 1-h infusion of 100 mg for 29 days and orally as a single daily dose for 14 days with three consecutive regimens of 100, 200, and 100 mg with probenecid (1 g) daily. Each cycle was followed by a wash-out period. Oral bioavailability of TIBO appears to be low and is not improved by the adjunction of probenecid. Trough levels obtained with oral administration systematically remained far below the 90% inhibitory concentration of TIBO against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Tolerance of TIBO was excellent. No clinical efficacy could be demonstrated. p24 antigenemia decreased significantly in one patient under intravenous therapy. TIBO derivatives are promising anti-HIV-1 agents in vitro, but improvement of oral bioavailability is needed before implementation of long-term efficacy and tolerability studies. Moreover, rapid emergence of resistance, which has been recently documented, constitutes a major problem with most nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:1482134

  20. The comparative effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine and herbal oral rinse on dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Devaki; Jain, Sanjay; Kale, Rahul; Muglikar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as a gold standard of antimicrobial rinses. Various herbal oral rinses are available in the market. However, little is known of its effectiveness. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical changes after the usage of herbal oral rinse and 0.12% CHX. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis were assigned to Group I (Herbal Oral Rinse - Hiora®) and 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis to Group II (0.12% Chlorhexidine-Peridex®). Gingival index and Plaque index scores were recorded at baseline and 21 days after scaling. Results: Intragroup comparison in both groups showed that plaque index and gingival index scores were statistically significant after 21 days as compared to baseline. Intergroup comparison showed that plaque index scores and gingival index scores were statistically significant in Group II as compared to Group I. Conclusion: When herbal oral rinse was compared to 0.12% CHX, 0.12% CHX mouth rinse effectively reduced the clinical symptoms of plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:26392686

  1. Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-01-30

    A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for

  2. Comparative study on toxic effects induced by oral or intravascular administration of commonly used disinfectants and surfactants in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuying; Zhang, Shanshan; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Hieda, Yoko; Takeshita, Haruo

    2012-07-01

    Accidental ingestion or injection of household products sometimes occurs due to their accessibility, but the toxic manifestations have not been well characterized when they are internally administered. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects induced by ingestion or injection of different ionic surfactants and disinfectants in rats. The test drugs involved benzalkonium and benzethonium (BZK and BZT, both cationic surfactants used as disinfectants), alkyldiaminoethylglycine (AEG, an amphoteric surfactant used as a disinfectant), linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS, an anionic surfactant), polyoxyethylene cetylether (PEC, a nonionic surfactant), chlorhexidine (CHX, not a surfactant but a disinfectant) and saline (control). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered one of the test drugs orally (p.o.), intravenously (i.v.) or intraarterially (i.a.). The fatal effects appeared rapidly (<30 min) in i.v.-administered rats, while taking hours (>5 h) in i.a./p.o.-administered rats after a dose of around LD(50) , although the progress and degree of toxic effects varied among the drugs tested. In intravascular administration, BZK and BZT were fatal at doses of 15-20 mg kg(-1) . Higher concentrations in lung and kidney than in blood were determined. CHX showed a high toxic effect compared with cationic surfactants. The rats administered anionic (LAS) or amphoteric (AEG) surfactant died in less than 24 h at doses over 100 mg kg(-1) . In p.o. administration, the toxic effects were concentration/dose-dependent, and all rats administered high doses of surfactants except for PEC died at 5-20 h. The overall toxic ranks could be: cationic surfactant/CHX> anionic/amphoteric surfactant > nonionic surfactant. PMID:21387348

  3. Comparative plasma disposition, bioavailability and efficacy of ivermectin following oral and pour-on administrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aksit, Dilek; Durmaz, Murat; McKellar, Quintin A

    2010-05-28

    Pour-on formulations of endectocides decrease the risk of injury for both user and animal, and are particularly convenient for animal owners who can apply the product. This study was designed to investigate the plasma disposition and efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) following pour-on, per os and intravenous administrations. Eighteen female horses weighing 510-610 kg were used in this study. The animals were allocated into three groups (per os, pour-on and intravenous groups). The equine paste, bovine pour-on and bovine injectable formulations of IVM were administered orally, topically and intravenously at the dose rates of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, respectively. Heparinized blood samples and hair samples were collected at various times between 1h and 40 days. The samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Faecal strongyle egg counts (EPG) were performed by a modified McMaster's technique before and at weekly intervals during 10 weeks after treatment. The results indicated that the plasma concentration and systemic availability of IVM was lower but the plasma persistence was prolonged after pour-on administration compared with per os route. IVM (paste) reduced the EPG by >95% for 10 weeks, whereas the reduction in pour-on group varied from 82 to 97%. EPG reduction in pour-on group was lower than that of per os group. Degradation on the application site, cutaneous biotransformation, binding of IVM to the haircoat and/or sebum are probably responsible for the relatively lower bioavailability of IVM in horses after pour-on administration. In conclusion, the poor plasma availability observed after pour-on administration could result in subtherapeutic plasma concentrations, which may promote the development of drug resistance in parasites. PMID:20181429

  4. Gabapentin Administration Reduces Reactive Gliosis and Neurodegeneration after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alicia Raquel; Angelo, Maria Florencia; Villarreal, Alejandro; Lukin, Jerónimo; Ramos, Alberto Javier

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces in rodents several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy, by inducing an acute status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. It has been proposed that the neuronal network reorganization that occurs during latency determines the subsequent appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuronal and glial responses during the latency period that follows SE. Given the potential role of astrocytes in the post-SE network reorganization, through the secretion of synaptogenic molecules such as thrombospondins, we also studied the effect of treatment with the α2δ1 thrombospondin receptor antagonist gabapentin. Adult male Wistar rats received 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine. Once SE was achieved, seizures were stopped with 20 mg/kg diazepam. Animals then received 400 mg/kg/day gabapentin or saline for either 4 or 14 days. In vitro experiments were performed in dissociated mixed hippocampal cell culture exposed to glutamate, and subsequently treated with gabapentin or vehicle. During the latency period, the hippocampus and pyriform cortex of SE-animals presented a profuse reactive astrogliosis, with increased GFAP and nestin expression. Gliosis intensity was dependent on the Racine stage attained by the animals and peaked 15 days after SE. Microglia was also reactive after SE, and followed the same pattern. Neuronal degeneration was present in SE-animals, and also depended on the Racine stage and the SE duration. Polysialic-acid NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression was increased in hippocampal CA-1 and dentate gyrus of SE-animals. Gabapentin treatment was able to reduce reactive gliosis, decrease neuronal loss and normalize PSA-NCAM staining in hippocampal CA-1. In vitro, gabapentin treatment partially prevented the dendritic loss and reactive gliosis caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. Our results show that gabapentin treatment during the latency period after SE

  5. Comparing the effect of oral and vaginal isosorbide dinitrate in pre-induction cervical ripening in term pregnancy: A controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Ladan; Moukhah, Somayeh; Goshtasbi, Azita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical ripening for labor induction is one of the most important issues in midwifery. Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is one of the most important choices that have been proposed for cervical ripening, but still there are controversies regarding its prescription. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of vaginal and oral ISDN compared to the control group for pre-induction cervical ripening. Materials and Methods: In this non-blinded clinical trial, 149 nulliparous women with term or prolonged pregnancy were randomly selected and divided into three groups by block randomization. The intervention group included vaginal (50 subjects, 40 mg) and oral (49 subjects, 20 mg) ISDN groups. The third group was the control group (50 subjects) which did not receive any medication. The amount of ripening was given by Bishop score evaluated before taking medication and 24 h after taking it. Results: After 24 h, Bishop score in vaginal ISDN group significantly increased compared to the oral ISDN and control groups (P < 0.001 for both). Although the increase in Bishop score was lower in the oral ISDN group than in the vaginal group, it had a statistically significant increase in comparison to the control group (P = 0.001). All the three groups were matched regarding pregnancy termination and cesarean causes, and there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Prescribing vaginal ISDN for cervical ripening was effective, and it can be used with confidence. PMID:26284225

  6. Comparison of status epilepticus models induced by pilocarpine and nerve agents - a systematic review of the underlying aetiology and adopted therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tang, F R; Loke, W K; Ling, E A

    2011-01-01

    Among potential radiological, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, cholinergic nerve agents from chemical weapons remain a realistic terrorist threat due to its combination of high lethality, demonstrated use and relative abundance of un-destroyed stockpiles in various militaries around the world. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute poisoning, effective neuroprotection in the field remains a challenge amongst subjects with established status epilepticus following nerve agent intoxication. Due to ethical, safety and surety issues, extensive preclinical and clinical research on cholinergic nerve agents is not possible. This may have been a contributory factor for the slow progress in uncovering new neuroprotectants for nerve agent casualties with established status epilepticus. To overcome this challenge, comparative research with surrogate chemicals that produce similar hypercholinergic toxicity but with less security concerns would be a useful approach forward. In this paper, we will systemically compare the mechanism of seizure generation, propagation and the subsequent clinical, hematologic, and metabolic, biochemical, neuroinflammatory changes and current therapeutic approaches reported in pilocarpine, soman, and sarin models of seizures. This review will be an important first step in closing this knowledge gap among different closely related models of seizures and neurotoxicity. Hopefully, it will spur further efforts in using surrogate cholinergic models by the wider scientific community to expedite the development of a new generation of antidotes that are better able to protect against delayed neurological effects inflicted by nerve agents. PMID:21182477

  7. A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Vaginal vs Oral Prostaglandin E1 Analogue (Misoprostol) in Management of First Trimester Missed Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Supriya; Batra, Neera Parothi; Bhasin, Vidhu; Sarna, Veena; Kaur, Nirlep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Missed miscarriages, occurring in upto 15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies are a cause of concern for the patients. Though many researchers in the past have compared the surgical and medical approaches in management of such patients, only a few have executed an appraisal of two routes of misoprostol at equal dosages in treatment of first trimester missed miscarriages. Aim To compare the efficacy of misoprostol by vaginal and oral route, for the management of first trimester missed abortion; and to recognize the utility of misoprostol for cervical dilation prior to any surgical termination of pregnancy. Materials and Methods A randomized prospective trial, comparing the efficacy of misoprostol, by vaginal and oral routes, for termination of first trimester missed abortion was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Government Multi-Specialty Hospital, Chandigarh over one year. Hundred subjects satisfying the inclusion criteria from 213 consecutive women presenting to the institute with first trimester missed abortion were hospitalized. The study participants were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups, using sequentially numbered envelopes, to receive 400mcg misoprostol vaginally or orally to a maximum of three doses six hours apart, and outcome documented. Patients were followed up on Day 14 and 6 weeks after discharge. Primary outcome evaluated was drug-induced complete expulsion of Products of Conception (POCs). Secondary outcomes measured were induction expulsion interval, number of doses required, classification of failures, cervical canal permeability in women requiring surgical evacuation, side effects, hemoglobin drop, duration and amount of post-abortal bleeding, time of resumption of menses, experience with side effects, patient satisfaction and acceptability to treatment. Results Both routes were highly effective (vaginal=92%, oral= 74%, p=0.032), safe and acceptable with tolerable side effects. The

  8. Involvement of Thalamus in Initiation of Epileptic Seizures Induced by Pilocarpine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Hua; Li, Jia-Jia; Lu, Qin-Chi; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested that thalamus is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the role of thalamus is still unclear. We obtained local filed potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activities from CA1 of hippocampus and parafascicular nucleus of thalamus during the development of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice. Two measures, redundancy and directionality index, were used to analyze the electrophysiological characters of neuronal activities and the information flow between thalamus and hippocampus. We found that LFPs became more regular during the seizure in both hippocampus and thalamus, and in some cases LFPs showed a transient disorder at seizure onset. The variation tendency of the peak values of cross-correlation function between neurons matched the variation tendency of the redundancy of LFPs. The information tended to flow from thalamus to hippocampus during seizure initiation period no matter what the information flow direction was before the seizure. In some cases the information flow was symmetrically bidirectional, but none was found in which the information flowed from hippocampus to thalamus during the seizure initiation period. In addition, inactivation of thalamus by tetrodotoxin (TTX) resulted in a suppression of seizures. These results suggest that thalamus may play an important role in the initiation of epileptic seizures. PMID:24778885

  9. Therapeutic Efficacy of Oral Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Single Center Non-Comparative Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Young; Cho, Jin Min; Oh, Seak Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) therapy effectively induces clinical remission in Crohn's disease (CD). It remains unclear, however, whether partial enteral nutrition (PEN) can maintain remission. This study was performed to determine the abilities of oral EEN and oral PEN to induce and maintain clinical remission in pediatric patients with CD, respectively. Materials and Methods Pediatric patients with CD who received oral EEN at a single center in 2000–2014 were identified retrospectively. Remission rates of the EEN and PEN during the 2 years study period were determined. Risk factors for EEN and PEN failure were identified. Results Of the 66 patients who started EEN, 61 (92%) completed the course. Clinical remission was achieved in 88% (58/66) of the patients. All 58 patients with remission continued with PEN: 43 (74%) were treatment adherent. The cumulative remission rates at 1 and 2 years were 67% and 52%, respectively. Differing from EEN, limited therapeutic efficacy of PEN was shown in severe CD patients. Female gender associated significantly with non-adherence. Conclusion Oral EEN and PEN effectively induced and maintained remission in a pediatric population. Non-adherence was a limiting factor in the success of therapy. PMID:27401650

  10. Self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds in a Swedish County--A comparative study between 2004 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Ahlvin, Anna; Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg; Bågesund, Mats; Ordell, Sven

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Swedish dental professionals have collected clinical epidemiological data from the dental records. To supplement the epidemiology, Ostergötland County Council decided to examine patient perceptions of oral health: self-rated knowledge, self-perceived oral health, and opinions about oral health. The aim was to compare self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds to determine differences between genders, various municipalities and between 2004 and 2011. This study analysed the responses from two cross-sectional surveys of the entire population of 19-year-olds in Ostergötland County, Sweden, performed in 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,413 (53%) (50% men, 50% women) 19-year-olds who responded to the questionnaire in 2004 and the 3,803 (67%) (50% men, 50% women) in 2011, most 19-year-olds (88.1% [2004] and 87.5 % [2011]) reported satisfaction with their oral health. Around half of the respondents rated their knowledge on periodontitis as low. Boys rated their knowledge about avoiding periodontitis higher than girls (p < 0.05 in 2004 and p < 0.001 in 2011). In 2004, 84.7% reported shooting pain. In 2011 that figure was 83.7%.The respondents expressed some uncertainty about the benefits of fluoride toothpaste (7.5% in 2004 and 9.3% in 2011), especially the boys (10.3% in 2004 and 10.5% in 2011). Girls reported both a higher social impact and greater concern about aesthetics related to their oral health. They also reported headache (27.5%) nearly twice as often as boys (14.2%) (p > 0.001). Responses between the municipalities did not differ, with the exception of items regarding periodontitis. Thus, this study found indications that perceptions of oral health and knowledge in Ostergötland County complied with Swedish Dental Act. The study also found patient perceptions of oral health among 19-year-olds to be good. PMID:27464382

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate-Containing Mouthwash Against Oral-Biofilm Forming Organisms: An Invitro Microbial Study

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, Charuta Sadanand; Shah, Mona; Bajaj, Monika; Doshi, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pomegranate is considered “A pharmacy unto itself”. Hydrolysable tannins called punicalagins which have free scavenging properties are the most abundant polyphenols found in pomegranate-containing mouthwash. Aim To evaluate antimicrobial effect of pomegranate- containing mouthwash on oral biofilm-forming bacteria. Materials and Methods The mouthwashes used were divided into three groups- Group A: Chlorhexidine mouthwash (Hexidine); Group B: Herbal Mouthwash (Hiora) and Group C: Pomegranate-containing Mouthwash (Life-extension). Each mouthwash was diluted to five different concentrations. Reference strains of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus salivarius (S.salivarius) (ATCC 7073), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) (NCTC 9710) were selected as being colonizers in dental biofilm formation. On each culture plate, five wells of 5mm were prepared and mouthwashes with different concentrations were added, followed by incubation in a CO2 jar for 24 hours at 37°C. Inhibition zone diameters were measured using a digital caliper. Results Chlorhexidine (0.12%) presented a zone of inhibition between 38.46% to 96.15% for all the three organisms, while Hiora presented zone of inhibition ranging from 33.33% to 69.23% but was resistant at <10 ml of dilution. Pomegranate mouthwash presented a zone of inhibition ranging from 38.48 to 57.69%, but was resistant at <10ml for S.mutans, and <25ml for A.a and S.salivarius. ANOVA test was done to compare the dilution of mouthwashes for a particular organism and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests were done to find the exact difference. A significant difference was seen between all the three groups at 50ml and 75 ml of dilution. At 75 ml concentration, a statistical difference was found between Groups B & C and Groups A & B; and at 50 ml between Groups A&C. Conclusion All the three types of mouthwash exhibit anti-microbial activity against biofilm forming organisms but at varying

  12. Of humans and hamsters: a comparative evaluation of carcinogen activation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in oral cancer patients and hamster buccal pouch carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; A, Thangavelu; Cr, Ramachandran

    2009-06-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well characterized animal systems for analyzing the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignancy worldwide. HBP carcinomas that closely mimic human OSCC are useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. The present study is a comparative evaluation of markers of carcinogen activation, oxidative stress, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in human and hamster OSCCs. Enhanced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 isoforms in both human and hamster oral tumours was associated with significantly increased expression of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicating oxidative DNA damage. Analysis of markers of cell survival and proliferation revealed increased expression of PCNA, GST-P, and NF-kappaB with downregulation of p21, p53 and IkappaB in both human and hamster OSCCs. In addition, both human and hamster oral carcinomas displayed invasive, and angiogenic properties as revealed by dysregulated cytokeratin expression, downregulation of RECK, and increased expression of uPA, MMP-2 and-9, HIF-1alpha, and VEGF. The results reveal aberrant expression of multiple molecules in key signaling pathways in both human OSCCs and HBP carcinomas rendering the HBP model as an important tool for monitoring oral oncogenesis. PMID:19250857

  13. Hippocampal distribution of IL-1β and IL-1RI following lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Croda, Dulce-Mariely; Santiago-García, Juan; Medel-Matus, Jesús S; Martínez-Quiroz, Joel; Puig-Lagunes, Angel A; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; López-Meraz, María-Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to neuronal injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in the immature brain remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the hippocampal expression of IL-1β and its type 1 receptor (IL-1RI) following SE induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model in fourteen-days-old rat pups; control animals were given an equal volume of saline instead of the convulsant. IL-1β and IL-1RI mRNA hippocampal levels were assessed by qRT-PCR 6 and 24 h after SE or control conditions. IL-1β and IL-1RI expression was detected in the dorsal hippocampus by immunohistochemical procedures; Fluoro-Jade B staining was carried out in parallel sections in order to detect neuronal cell death. IL-1β mRNA expression was increased 6 h following SE, but not at 24 h; however IL-1RI mRNA expression was unaffected when comparing with the control group. IL-1β and IL-1RI immunoreactivity was not detected in control animals. IL-1β and IL-1RI were expressed in the CA1 pyramidal layer, the dentate gyrus granular layer and the hilus 6 h after SE, whereas injured cells were detected 24 h following seizures. Early expression of IL-1β and IL-1RI in the hippocampus could be associated with SE-induced neuronal cell death mechanisms in the developing rat. PMID:27168372

  14. Serotonin Depletion Does not Modify the Short-Term Brain Hypometabolism and Hippocampal Neurodegeneration Induced by the Lithium-Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus in Rats.

    PubMed

    García-García, Luis; Shiha, Ahmed Anis; Bascuñana, Pablo; de Cristóbal, Javier; Fernández de la Rosa, Rubén; Delgado, Mercedes; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that fluoxetine, a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, has neuroprotective properties in the lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus (SE) in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 5-HT depletion by short-term administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a specific tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, on the brain hypometabolism and neurodegeneration induced in the acute phase of this SE model. Our results show that 5-HT depletion did modify neither the brain basal metabolic activity nor the lithium-pilocarpine-induced hypometabolism when evaluated 3 days after the insult. In addition, hippocampal neurodegeneration and astrogliosis triggered by lithium-pilocarpine were not exacerbated by PCPA treatment. These findings point out that in the early latent phase of epileptogenesis, non-5-HT-mediated actions may contribute, at least in some extent, to the neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine in this model of SE. PMID:26208805

  15. Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25 mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors. PMID:25069786

  16. Loss of Microbiota-Mediated Colonization Resistance to Clostridium difficile Infection With Oral Vancomycin Compared With Metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brittany B; Buffie, Charlie G; Carter, Rebecca A; Leiner, Ingrid; Toussaint, Nora C; Miller, Liza C; Gobourne, Asia; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-11-15

    Antibiotic administration disrupts the intestinal microbiota, increasing susceptibility to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Metronidazole or oral vancomycin can cure C. difficile infection, and administration of these agents to prevent C. difficile infection in high-risk patients, although not sanctioned by Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines, has been considered. The relative impacts of metronidazole and vancomycin on the intestinal microbiota and colonization resistance are unknown. We investigated the effect of brief treatment with metronidazole and/or oral vancomycin on susceptibility to C. difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli infection in mice. Although metronidazole resulted in transient loss of colonization resistance, oral vancomycin markedly disrupted the microbiota, leading to prolonged loss of colonization resistance to C. difficile infection and dense colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli. Our results demonstrate that vancomycin, and to a lesser extent metronidazole, are associated with marked intestinal microbiota destruction and greater risk of colonization by nosocomial pathogens. PMID:25920320

  17. Interproximal access efficacy of Sonicare Plus and Braun Oral-B Ultra compared to a manual toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Yankell, S L; Emling, R C; Shi, X

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory testing method, which has previously been shown to correlate with in vivo plaque removal results, was used to test the interproximal access efficacy (IAE) of two powered toothbrushes (Sonicare Plus and Braun Oral-B Ultra), and a manual toothbrush. This method tests IAE by means of simulated interdental spaces covered with pressure-sensitive paper tightly apposed to the surface. Testing was performed under wet conditions using 70, 100 and 140 grams of brushing force. Brushing was done for 15 seconds. The pressure-sensitive papers were removed, dried, and the IAE was quantified by a blinded investigator who measured the markings on the papers with calipers. The Sonicare Plus interproximal access scores were significantly greater than both the Braun Oral-B Ultra and the manual toothbrush at all three brushing forces tested (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that in vitro methodology previously used for testing manual toothbrushes is also adaptable for testing powered brushes. While additional studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of the present study, these results demonstrate the superiority of interproximal access of the Sonicare Plus sonic toothbrush over the Braun Oral-B Ultra powered brush and a manual toothbrush using this method. PMID:9487842

  18. Randomized double-blind clinical trial comparing clobetasol and dexamethasone for the topical treatment of symptomatic oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Noce, Cesar W; Gomes, Alessandra; Shcaira, Vanessa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira P; Moreira, Maria Cláudia R; Silva Júnior, Arley; Gonçalves, Lúcio Souza; Garnica, Marcia; Maiolino, Angelo; Torres, Sandra R

    2014-08-01

    Patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation frequently develop an immunologic disease caused by the reactivation of the graft to the host tissues. This disease is called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and it is usually a systemic disorder. In a large proportion of cases, oral disorders that are related to a chronic phase of GVHD (cGVHD) occur, and their treatment involves the use of topical immunosuppressive drugs. Several medications have been studied for this purpose, but only a small number of clinical trials have been published. The present study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial that compares topical clobetasol and dexamethasone for the treatment of symptomatic oral cGVHD. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with clobetasol propionate .05% or dexamethasone .1 mg/mL for 28 days. In both arms, nystatin 100,000 IU/mL was administered with the corticosteroid. Oral lesions were evaluated by the modified oral mucositis rating scale (mOMRS) and symptoms were registered using a visual analogue scale. Thirty-five patients were recruited, and 32 patients were randomized into the study groups: 18 patients (56.3%) to the dexamethasone group and 14 patients (43.8%) to the clobetasol group. The use of clobetasol resulted in a significant reduction in mOMRS total score (P = .04) and in the score for ulcers (P = .03). In both groups, there was significant symptomatic improvement but the response was significantly greater in the clobetasol group (P = .02). In conclusion, clobetasol was significantly more effective than dexamethasone for the amelioration of symptoms and clinical aspects of oral lesions in cGVHD. PMID:24727333

  19. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus and olfactory bulb in lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    González-Reyes, Susana; Santillán-Cigales, Juan Jair; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra that has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. Recently, it was demonstrated that GL produced neuroprotective effects on the postischemic brain as well as on the kainic acid injury model in rats. In addition to this, GL also prevented excitotoxic effects on primary cultures. The aims of the present study were to evaluate GL scavenging properties and to investigate GL's effect on oxidative stress and inflammation in the lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizure model in two cerebral regions, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, at acute time intervals (3 or 24h) after status epilepticus (SE). Fluorometric methods showed that GL scavenged three reactive oxygen species: hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. In contrast, GL was unable to scavenge peroxynitrite, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals suggesting that GL is a weak scavenger. Additionally, administration of GL (50mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before pilocarpine administration significantly suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels were diminished and glutathione levels were maintained at control values in both cerebral regions at 3 and 24 after SE. At 24h after SE, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity increased in the hippocampus, while both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity were unchanged in the olfactory bulb at that time. In addition, GL suppressed the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in both cerebral regions evaluated. These results suggest that GL confers protection against pilocarpine damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27490898

  20. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  1. Generation and characterization of pilocarpine-sensitive C57BL/6 mice as a model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bankstahl, Marion; Müller, Christine J; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2012-04-21

    C57BL/6 (B6) is the most widely used inbred mouse strain, but its use in epilepsy research is compromised by low sensitivity to various convulsants, including pilocarpine. We recently identified a subline of B6NCrl mice in a barrier (#8) of a German vendor (Charles River) that was much more sensitive to status epilepticus (SE) induction than B6NCrl mice from four other barriers of the same vendor and other B6 substrains. Breeding experiments indicated that the observed differences have a genetic basis, thus offering a unique opportunity to identify the genes and pathways involved and contributing to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of seizure susceptibility. Since the pilocarpine-sensitive B6 subline (B6NCrl#8) is not further available from the breeder, we decided to generate a new highly pilocarpine-sensitive B6NCrl subline by crossing female B6NCrl#8 mice with male F1 hybrids. Further sister-brother mating of the resulting F2 generation generated a highly susceptible F3 generation. Similar to B6NCrl#8 mice, mice from the F3 generation were significantly more susceptible to SE induction than any other B6 substrain, including B6J (JAX) mice, which were particularly insensitive to seizure induction. In contrast to the marked inter-subline differences in susceptibility to induction of SE, B6 sublines did not differ in the long-term consequences of SE, i.e., development of spontaneous seizures and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, although hippocampal damage was much less severe than previously reported for other mouse strains. We have started to search for genetic loci underlying the high seizure susceptibility of B6NCrl#8 and filial generations obtained by cross-breeding with this B6 subline. Further characterization of the genetic variations underlying high susceptibility to convulsants such as pilocarpine will facilitate our understanding of the pathomechanisms involved in the evolution of single seizures to a self-sustained SE and

  2. Persistent Hyperactivity of Hippocampal Dentate Interneurons After a Silent Period in the Rat Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaochen; Song, Xinyu; Wu, Lin; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Profile of GABAergic interneuron activity after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was examined in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus by analyzing immediate early gene expression and recording spontaneous firing at near resting membrane potential (REM). SE for exact 2 h or more than 2 h was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. Expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) was examined at 1 h, 1 week, 2 weeks or more than 10 weeks after SE. For animals to be examined at 1 h after SE, SE lasted for exact 2 h was terminated by an intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Spontaneous firing at near the REM was recorded in interneurons located along the border between the granule cell layer and the hilus more than 10 weeks after SE. Results showed that both c-fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) in hilar GABAergic interneurons were up-regulated after SE in a biphasic manner; they were increased at 1 h and more than 2 weeks, but not at 1 week after SE. Ten weeks after SE, nearly 60% of hilar GABAergic cells expressed c-fos. With the exception of calretinin (CR)-positive cells, percentages of hilar neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, parvalbumin (PV)-, and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells with c-fos expression are significantly higher than those of controls more than 10 weeks after SE. Without the REM to be more depolarizing and changed threshold potential level in SE-induced rats, cell-attached recording revealed that nearly 90% of hilar interneurons fired spontaneously at near the REM while only 22% of the same cell population did so in the controls. In conclusion, pilocarpine-induced SE eventually leads to a state in which surviving dentate GABAergic interneurons become hyperactive with a subtype-dependent manner; this implies that a fragile balance between excitation and inhibition exists in the dentate gyrus and in addition, the activity-dependent up

  3. A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Saket J.; Mehta, Dimple S.; Shah, Hiral A.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Kikani, Kunjan M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Results: Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments. Conclusion: Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. PMID:24347774

  4. Status epilepticus triggers early mitochondrial fusion in the rat hippocampus in a lithium-pilocarpine model.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Carrera-Calvo, Dulce; Solís-Navarrete, Jael; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Agredano-Moreno, Lourdes Teresa; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-07-01

    Many reports investigating the hippocampus have demonstrated an increase in neuronal damage, cellular loss, oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage during status epilepticus (SE); however, information regarding alterations in mitochondrial fission and fusion events in SE is lacking. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible imbalance between mitochondrial fission and fusion in the hippocampus of male rats after acute seizure mediated by SE. In this study, we used ninety animals were randomly divided into control and SE groups and subjected to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained at 3, 24 and 72h after SE, and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial fractions of the cells were used to analyze changes in the Drp1 and Fis1 fission proteins and the Mfn1 and Opa1 fusion proteins by western blot analysis. Moreover, changes in the expression of fission and fusion mRNA transcripts were evaluated by real-time PCR. Mitochondrial morphology was also analyzed using standard transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the fission-related mRNA Drp1 was down-regulated rapidly after SE, while Fis1 did not show any significant changes in expression. Moreover, the mitochondrial fusion-associated proteins Mfn1 and Opa1 exhibited an increase in expression at 72h after SE. Electron microphotography revealed several morphological changes, such as swollen mitochondria and damage of the inner mitochondrial membrane, at 24h; at 72h elongation of some mitochondrial was also observed. Our results suggest that after the initiation of SE, the main regulator of the fission mRNA Drp1 is down-regulated, which in turn regulates mitochondrial fission and leads to an increase in the Mfn1 and Opa1 proteins to induce mitochondrial fusion, suggesting an imbalance of the fission and fusion processes. PMID:27045873

  5. Dual mechanisms of rapid expression of anxiety-related behavior in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shintaro; Ohkido, Taro; Itakura, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamori, Saori; Iida, Yuuki; Saito, Masanori; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masami

    2016-07-01

    A mouse model of epilepsy was generated by inducing status epilepticus (SE) for either 1.5 or 4.5h with pilocarpine to study anxiety-related behaviors, changes in the electroencephalogram of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and expression of hippocampal proteins. The viability and rate of success of SE induction were high in C57BL/6N mice but not in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6N mice were immotile during the first 2days after SE; however, by the third day, most mice were recovered and exhibited strong anxiety-related behaviors in response to the light/dark preference test and open field test. There was a striking difference in the temporal appearance of anxiety-related behavior between the two SE durations: 1.5h SE mice exhibited strong anxiety-related behavior 3days after SE that gradually attenuated over the next few weeks, whereas 4.5h SE mice exhibited strong anxiety-related behavior 3days after SE that persisted even at nearly 1year after SE. Mice receiving both SE durations exhibited generalized seizures (GS) after SE; however, there was a marked difference in the timing and duration of GS appearance. Mice in the 4.5h SE group exhibited spontaneous GS from 4days to at least 96days after SE. In contrast, mice in the 1.5h SE group exhibited GS only within the first several days after SE; however, epileptic spike clusters continuously appeared in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus for up to twelve days after SE. Among the hippocampal proteins tested, only brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exhibited altered expression in parallel with anxiety-related behavior. These results showed the possibility that BDNF expression in the hippocampus might cause anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. PMID:27132018

  6. A randomized comparative trial of a combined oral contraceptive and azelaic acid to assess their effect on sleep quality in adult female acne patients.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rachel Gimenes; da Rocha, Marco Alexandre Dias; Hirotsu, Camila; Hachul, Helena; Bagatin, Edileia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of adult female acne. This subtype of acne presents particular characteristics, and can be triggered by several factors such as smoking, stress, the use of oily cosmetics and even by poor sleep. Sleep quality is related to well-being and the maintenance of body homeostasis. In addition, several skin diseases present a bidirectional relationship with sleep, demonstrating an important connection between skin and the central nervous system. With this in mind, we aimed to compare the effect of two types of treatment for adult female acne (azelaic acid or a combined oral contraceptive) on sleep quality and on concentrations of stress hormones. Also, we proposed to assess the correlation of sleep and hormonal parameters with acne severity. In order to do this, 32 women underwent a clinical evaluation, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and had their blood collected for hormone assays. These procedures were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. At baseline there were no differences between the groups in terms of body mass index, age, acne severity and hormone concentrations. Results showed that both treatments demonstrated effectiveness but that women treated with azelaic acid presented a better sleep quality after the treatment compared to baseline and to the group treated with the combined oral contraceptive. The combined oral contraceptive group presented an increase in cortisol and a decrease in free testosterone concentration in relation to baseline. These data suggest that both azelaic acid and combined oral contraceptive are effective in the treatment of adult female acne but, azelaic acid seems to be a more suitable option for those women who may benefit from a better subjective sleep quality. PMID:26472098

  7. Oral Tranexamic Acid with Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Versus Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Alone in Melasma: An Open Labeled Randomized Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Pradhan, Swetalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation with no definitive therapy. Tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, has demonstrated depigmenting properties and combining this oral drug with other modalities of treatment has shown promising results. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of melasma of either sex attending to dermatology OPD were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply the cream only and Group B patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily and applied a triple combination cream containing fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, tretinoin 0.05%, and hydroquinone 2% once daily for 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using melasma area severity index (MASI) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results: 40 patients completed the study. The MASI scores at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks in group A were 15.425 + 1.09, 11.075 + 9.167 and 6.995 + 6.056 respectively and in group B 18.243 + 1.05, 6.135 + 4.94 and 2.19 + 3.38. Intergroup comparison showed a faster reduction in pigmentation in Group B as compared to Group A and the results were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P value 0.014) and 8 weeks (P value 0.000). The efficacy was maintained throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Addition of oral tranexamic acid to fluocinolone-based triple combination cream results in a faster and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma. PMID:26538719

  8. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail. PMID:23772453

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of catalpol and acteoside in normal and chronic kidney disease rats after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Qian, Dawei; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Su, Shu-lan; Duan, Jin-ao; Du, Leyue; Tao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a sensitive and robust ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with multiple-reaction monitoring mode was developed, validated, and applied to determine pharmacokinetics of catalpol and acteoside in normal and doxorubicin-induced chronic kidney disease rats after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa extract. The lower limits of quantification for catalpol and acteoside in rat plasma were 2.62 and 0.61 ng/mL, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ≥10. Precision and accuracy studies showed that catalpol and acteoside plasma concentrations were within the 10% range in all studies. The extraction recoveries of catalpol and acteoside were both >68.24% and the matrix effects ranged from 96.59 to 101.62%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of catalpol and acteoside after oral administration of RG extract to normal and model rats, respectively. This study might further support the traditional use of RG to treat kidney diseases clinically. PMID:26031219

  10. Evaluation of the effect of three supplementary oral hygiene measures on salivary mutans streptococci levels in children: A randomized comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Prathyusha, P.; Joseph, Elizabeth; Kaul, Rupali Borkar; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of tongue scraping, tongue brushing, and saturated saline on salivary MS levels. Materials and Methods: A single-blinded, randomized, parallel group clinical trial was conducted in children aged 9–12 years. Total sample of 45 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, that is, Group A, Group B, and Group C comprised of 15 each. Group A, Group B, and Group C were asked to do tongue scraping, tongue brushing and saturated saline rinsing twice daily, respectively for 21 days. Saliva samples, collected from the subjects on the baseline, 7th day and 21st day, were inoculated on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The mean streptococcal colony forming counts were enumerated. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon signed rank sum test for intragroup comparisons and Mann–Whitney U-test for intergroup comparisons. Results: Intragroup comparisons showed statistically significant reduction in MS levels (P < 0.01). However, the intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The oral hygiene measures evaluated proved equal efficacy in reducing the colony counts. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the importance of incorporating supplementary oral hygiene measures in daily oral care. PMID:26929682

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of paeoniflorin after oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, extract of Cortex Moutan and Shuang-Dan prescription to rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Zhu, Dongliang; Chai, Yifeng

    2009-09-25

    Shuang-Dan (SD) is a traditional Chinese prescription containing Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. Paeoniflorin is a main effective ingredient of Cortex Moutan and the pharmacokinetic differences of paeoniflorin following oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, Cortex Moutan extract and SD decoction to rats were studied with approximately the same dose of 30mg/kg paeoniflorin. At different time points (5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 210, 270, 360, 450min), plasma concentration of paeoniflorin was determined using a simple and rapid HPLC-MS method. Unpaired student's t-test was used for the statistical comparison. A bimodal phenomenon was observed in the plasma profile after oral administration of Cortex Moutan extract. Statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and MRT were obtained after oral administration of Cortex Moutan or SD decoction comparing with pure paeoniflorin. The investigation showed that among all calculated parameters, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), MRT, k(e) and T(1/2), there were no significant differences between the two decoctions. The results indicated that the reason which delay the elimination of paeoniflorin and enhance its bioavailability might be some ingredients in Cortex Moutan extract. PMID:19635542

  12. Isovaline attenuates generalized epileptiform activity in hippocampal and primary sensory cortices and seizure behavior in pilocarpine treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wilson; Smith, Autumn B; Pilitsis, Julie G; Shin, Damian S

    2015-07-10

    Anti-seizure drugs are the most commonly employed treatment option for epilepsy and these generally provide effective management of seizures. However, 30% of patients with epilepsy are not adequately treated with anti-seizure medications and are considered intractable. Recently we reported that isovaline, a unique amino acid, could attenuate seizure like events (SLEs) in two in vitro hippocampal seizure models by selectively increasing the activity of interneurons, but not pyramidal neurons. Isovaline also attenuated hippocampal epileptiform activity and behavioral seizures in vivo in rats administered 4 aminopyridine (4AP). Here, we investigate whether isovaline is efficacious in attenuating secondarily generalized epileptiform activity and behavioral seizures in rats administered pilocarpine. We found that 150 mg/kg isovaline administered intravenously abolished pilocarpine-induced epileptiform activity in the primary sensory cortex and hippocampus and attenuated generalized forebrain behavioral seizures. We are the first to demonstrate that isovaline may be a plausible anti-seizure drug for secondarily generalized seizures and this could potentially lead to the development of a novel class of anti-seizure drugs focused around the unique mechanism(s) of isovaline. PMID:26007701

  13. Reorganization of supramammillary-hippocampal pathways in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence for axon terminal sprouting.

    PubMed

    Soussi, Rabia; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Bassot, Emilie; Bras, Hélène; Coulon, Patrice; Chaudhry, Farrukh Abbas; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Ferhat, Lotfi; Esclapez, Monique

    2015-07-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), spontaneous seizures likely originate from a multi-structural epileptogenic zone, including several regions of the limbic system connected to the hippocampal formation. In this study, we investigate the structural connectivity between the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) and the dentate gyrus (DG) in the model of MTLE induced by pilocarpine in the rat. This hypothalamic nucleus, which provides major extracortical projections to the hippocampal formation, plays a key role in the regulation of several hippocampus-dependent activities, including theta rhythms, memory function and emotional behavior, such as stress and anxiety, functions that are known to be altered in MTLE. Our findings demonstrate a marked reorganization of DG afferents originating from the SuM in pilocarpine-treated rats. This reorganization, which starts during the latent period, is massive when animals become epileptic and continue to evolve during epilepsy. It is characterized by an aberrant distribution and an increased number of axon terminals from neurons of both lateral and medial regions of the SuM, invading the entire inner molecular layer of the DG. This reorganization, which reflects an axon terminal sprouting from SuM neurons, could contribute to trigger spontaneous seizures within an altered hippocampal intrinsic circuitry. PMID:24889162

  14. Interplay between interictal spikes and behavioral seizures in young, but not aged pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Bajorat, Rika; Goerss, Doreen; Brenndörfer, Linda; Schwabe, Lars; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Interictal spike activity is commonly observed in the EEG of patients with epilepsy, but the causal interrelationship between interictal spikes and behavioral seizures is poorly understood. We performed long-term video-EEG monitoring of 16 epileptic rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and five control animals. To quantify the interplay between periods of spikes and seizures, we calculated the time spent with spikes as well as the time spent with seizures for each animal. Within a given subject, we found a significant correlation between these two measures in 7/11 young epileptic rats (<400days); this correlation was positive in six cases and negative in one. By contrast, none of five aged pilocarpine-treated animals exhibited significant correlation coefficients between spike periods and seizures (>600days, P<0.05). Instead, aged epileptic rats showed a prominent predominance for either spike periods or seizures, which might explain the absence of significant correlation in this population. We found that there is a significant interplay between interictal periods of spikes and behavioral seizures in young epileptic animals, but this association is absent during aging. PMID:26926072

  15. Phototoxicity to sulphonamide-derived oral antidiabetics and diuretics: comparative in-vitro and in-vivo investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaag, Edgar; Anholt, Helle; Moan, Johan; Thune, Per

    1997-12-01

    Seven oral antidiabetics (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, glipizide, gliquidone, glymidine, tolazamide, and tolbutamide), and 14 diuretics (bemetizide, bendroflumethiazide, benzylhydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, butizide, chlortalidone, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, piretanide, polythiazide, trichlormethiazide, and xipamide) were investigated for potential phototoxicity in vitro using a cell culture model and in vivo in hairless mice. After exposure to broad band UVA, the majority of the substances tested in vitro yielded phototoxic action leading to loss of culture forming ability. In vivo, all tested substances induced edema or ulceration, and lead to a significant increase in skin fold thickness of the mouse skin. In all a number of substances not described to induce clinical photosensitivity nor phototoxicity in vitro or in vivo were detected in our testing. In determining potential photosensitizers, it seems important to utilize different test methods, as not all substances will exhibit action in a given assay.

  16. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples. PMID:27375172

  17. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required

  18. Recurrent Chromosomal Imbalances Detected in Biopsy Material from Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions by Combined Tissue Microdissection, Universal DNA Amplification, and Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ruthild G.; Scheer, Martin; Born, I. Antonio; Joos, Stefan; Cobbers, J. M. J. Ludwig; Hofele, Christof; Reifenberger, Guido; Zöller, Joachim E.; Lichter, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Biopsies routinely performed for the histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial lesions before treatment were screened for chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 12 oral premalignant lesions (OPLs; dysplasias and carcinomas in situ) and 14 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Eight biopsies displayed areas of different histopathological appearance, so that OPLs and OSCCs from the same patient were analyzed. To avoid contamination with nonneoplastic cells, defined cell populations were isolated by micromanipulation with a glass needle. Before comparative genomic hybridization analysis, universal DNA amplification was performed using the DOP-polymerase chain reaction protocol. In the 14 OSCCs examined, the average number of chromosomal imbalances was significantly higher than in the 12 OPLs (mean ± SEM: 11.9 ± 1.9 versus 3.2 ± 1.2; P = 0.003). The DNA copy number changes identified in more than one OPL were gains on 8q (3 of 12) and 16p (2 of 12), as well as losses on 3p (5 of 12); 5q (4 of 12); 13q (3 of 12); and 4q, 8p, and 9p (2 of 12 each). In more than 30% of OSCCs, gains of chromosomal material were identified on 20q (8 of 14); 8q, 11q, 22q (7 of 14 each); 3q, 15q, and 17p (6 of 14 each); and 14q, 17q, and 20p (5 of 14 each), and losses were identified on 3p and 4q (9 of 14 each), 5q (7 of 14), 13q (6 of 14), and 2q and 9p (5 of 14 each). These results were validated by positive and negative control comparative genomic hybridization experiments and microsatellite analysis for the detection of allelic loss. The vast majority of genomic alterations found in OPLs were again identified in OSCCs from the same biopsy, supporting the hypothesis that multiple lesions in the same patient are clonally related. In summary, we show that comprehensive information on the genomic alterations in oral epithelial lesions can be obtained from small biopsies. Such data may identify prognostic

  19. PI3Kγ deficiency enhances seizures severity and associated outcomes in a mouse model of convulsions induced by intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabel Vieira de Assis; Campos, Alline Cristina; Miranda, Aline Silva; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Amaral-Martins, Flávia; Vago, Juliana Priscila; Santos, Rebeca Priscila de Melo; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Vieira, Luciene Bruno; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Fiebich, Bernd L; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an enzyme involved in different pathophysiological processes, including neurological disorders. However, its role in seizures and postictal outcomes is still not fully understood. We investigated the role of PI3Kγ on seizures, production of neurotrophic and inflammatory mediators, expression of a marker for microglia, neuronal death and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice (WT and PI3Kγ(-/-)) subjected to intrahippocampal microinjection of pilocarpine. PI3Kγ(-/-) mice presented a more severe status epilepticus (SE) than WT mice. In hippocampal synaptosomes, genetic or pharmacological blockade of PI3Kγ enhanced the release of glutamate and the cytosolic calcium concentration induced by KCl. There was an enhanced neuronal death and a decrease in the doublecortin positive cells in the dentate gyrus of PI3Kγ(-/-) animals after the induction of SE. Levels of BDNF were significantly increased in the hippocampus of WT and PI3Kγ(-/-) mice, although in the prefrontal cortex, only PI3Kγ(-/-) animals showed significant increase in the levels of this neurotrophic factor. Pilocarpine increased hippocampal microglial immunolabeling in both groups, albeit in the prelimbic, medial and motor regions of the prefrontal cortex this increase was observed only in PI3Kγ(-/-) mice. Regarding the levels of inflammatory mediators, pilocarpine injection increased interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus of WT and PI3Kγ(-/-) animals and in the prefrontal cortex of PI3Kγ(-/-) animals 24h after the stimulus. Levels of TNFα were enhanced in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of only PI3Kγ(-/-) mice at this time point. On the other hand, PI3Kγ deletion impaired the increase in IL-10 in the hippocampus induced by pilocarpine. In conclusion, the lack of PI3Kγ revealed a deleterious effect in an animal model of convulsions induced by pilocarpine, suggesting that this enzyme may play a protective role in seizures and pathological outcomes associated

  20. Comparative effectiveness and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: propensity weighted nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Flemming; Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Kjældgaard, Jette Nordstrøm; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness and safety of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (novel oral anticoagulants, NOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban compared with warfarin in anticoagulant naïve patients with atrial fibrillation. Design Observational nationwide cohort study. Setting Three Danish nationwide databases, August 2011 to October 2015. Participants 61 678 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who were naïve to oral anticoagulants and had no previous indication for valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. The study population was distributed according to treatment type: warfarin (n=35 436, 57%), dabigatran 150 mg (n=12 701, 21%), rivaroxaban 20 mg (n=7192, 12%), and apixaban 5 mg (n=6349, 10%). Main outcome measures Effectiveness outcomes defined a priori were ischaemic stroke; a composite of ischaemic stroke or systemic embolism; death; and a composite of ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, or death. Safety outcomes were any bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and major bleeding. Results When the analysis was restricted to ischaemic stroke, NOACs were not significantly different from warfarin. During one year follow-up, rivaroxaban was associated with lower annual rates of ischaemic stroke or systemic embolism (3.0% v 3.3%, respectively) compared with warfarin: hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.99). The hazard ratios for dabigatran and apixaban (2.8% and 4.9% annually, respectively) were non-significant compared with warfarin. The annual risk of death was significantly lower with apixaban (5.2%) and dabigatran (2.7%) (0.65, 0.56 to 0.75 and 0.63, 0.48 to 0.82, respectively) compared with warfarin (8.5%), but not with rivaroxaban (7.7%). For the combined endpoint of any bleeding, annual rates for apixaban (3.3%) and dabigatran (2.4%) were significantly lower than for warfarin (5.0%) (0.62, 0.51 to 0.74). Warfarin and rivaroxaban had comparable annual bleeding rates (5

  1. A new era of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: comparing a new generation of oral anticoagulants with warfarin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but data from large, multinational, prospective, randomized studies suggest that novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be suitable alternatives. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. These data showed that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was more effective at preventing stroke than warfarin, with similar rates of major bleeding, while rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily was noninferior to warfarin, with no difference in major bleeding rates. In addition, apixaban 5 mg twice daily was shown to be superior to warfarin for preventing stroke, with lower bleeding rates. Currently, edoxaban is still in clinical trials. NOACs offer more predictable anticoagulant effects than warfarin and do not require regular monitoring; however, different NOACs are associated with varied drug interactions and limitations related to use in certain patient populations. Overall, the clinical data suggest that these novel agents will offer new options for stroke prevention in patients with AF. PMID:24171796

  2. [Comparative diagnostic value of echography and oral radiologic examination of the gallbladder in relation to surgical findings].

    PubMed

    Cervi, P M; Scutellari, P N; Calzolari, F; Pavani, F; Pelizzola, D; Pollinzi, V; Piffanelli, A; Tosi, S P

    1983-07-14

    For nearly 60 years, since it was introduced by Graham and Cole (1924), oral cholecystography (OCG) has been used as the imaging technique of choice in investigation of gallbladder disorders. Recently, the future of OCG has come into doubt, principally as a result of ultrasonography, with the advent of high-resolution real-time scanning. Stones are seen as echoes within the lumen of the gallbladder and are associated with an acoustic shadow, findings which are highly specific. On this basis, to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting cholelithiasis, the A. have performed by real-time cholecystosonography 60 patients with not diagnostic OCG in a group of 546 patients affected by gallbladder diseases. Our results have confirmed that sonography revealed 4 normal gallbladders, 51 gallstones and 1 primary gallbladder cancer, with 5 cases of false positive. The true false negative rate has been difficult to determine, as surgery is usually not performed after a negative study. The accuracy of cholecystosonography for gallstone diagnosis was found to be 88,1% for all three Crade's categories. PMID:6866302

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. PMID:26048667

  4. Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 μg levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 μg ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 μg EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 μg LNG/30 μg EE [Treatment 2] or 150 μg desogestrel [DSG]/30 μg EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [− 18.3 pmol/L] > − 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

  5. Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0

  6. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF

  7. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF

  8. Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-jun

    2014-01-01

    Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden. PMID:25419137

  9. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ► The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ► The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs

  10. A randomized study to compare oral fluconazole to amphotericin B in the prevention of fungal infections in patients with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg-Arska, M; Dekker, A W; Branger, J; Verhoef, J

    1991-03-01

    In a prospective randomized study the efficacy of fluconazole (50 mg in one single daily dose) was compared with oral amphotericin B in suspension and tablets (each 200 mg four times daily) for prevention of colonization and subsequent infection by yeasts in 50 patients undergoing remission induction treatment for acute leukaemia. All patients received ciprofloxacin for prevention of bacterial infections. Fluconazole was as effective as amphotericin B in preventing severe local and disseminated fungal disease (one documented and one highly suspected infection in each group of patients). Fluconazole effectively prevented yeast colonization of the oropharynx but was less effective than amphotericin B in preventing colonization of the lower alimentary tract. Fifty-two percent of patients receiving fluconazole had persistent positive stool cultures as compared to 4% in the amphotericin B group (P less than 0.01). Fluconazole was better tolerated than amphotericin B. One patient developed an extended rash leading to the termination of fluconazole. PMID:2037541

  11. Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide

    PubMed Central

    Pelaz, Alejandro; Gallego, Lorena; García-Consuegra, Luis; Junquera, Sonsoles; Gómez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Material and Methods: Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Results: Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bis-phosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. Conclusions: In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ. Key words:Osteonecrosis, oral bisphosphonate, treatment, teriparatide, plasma rich in growth factors. PMID:24608203

  12. Comparing Gene Expression during Cadmium Uptake and Distribution: Untreated versus Oral Cd-Treated Wild-Type and ZIP14 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jorge-Nebert, Lucia F.; Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Landero Figueroa, Julio; Somarathna, Maheshika; Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    The nonessential metal cadmium (Cd) is toxic only after entering the cell. Proteins possibly relevant to intracellular Cd accumulation include the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and all 14 zinc-like iron-like protein (ZIP) importers, 10 zinc transporter (ZnT) exporters, and metallothionein chaperones MT1 and MT2. Comparing oral Cd-treated ZIP14 knockout (KO) with wild-type (WT) mice, we predicted Cd uptake and distribution would be diminished in the KO—because ZIP14 is very highly expressed in GI tract and liver; this was indeed observed for Cd content in liver. However, the reverse was found in kidney and lung from 6 or 12 h through 10 days of Cd exposure; at these times, Cd accumulation was unexpectedly greater in KO than WT mice; mRNA levels of the 27 above-mentioned genes were thus examined in proximal small intestine (PSI) versus kidney to see if these paradoxical effects could be explained by substantial alterations in any of the other 26 genes. PSI genes highly expressed in untreated WT animals included seven ZIP and five ZnT transporters, DMT1, MT1, and MT2; kidney genes included 11 ZIP and 7 ZnT transporters, DMT1, MT1, and MT2. Over 10 days of oral Cd, a bimodal response was seen for Cd content in PSI and for various mRNAs; initially, acute effects caused by the toxic metal; subsequently, the up- or down-regulation of important genes presumably to combat the sustained adversity. These data underscore the complex interplay between the gastrointestinal tract and renal proteins that might be relevant to Cd uptake and distribution in animals exposed to oral Cd. PMID:25294218

  13. Comparative cost-effectiveness of 11 oral antipsychotics for relapse prevention in schizophrenia within Singapore using effectiveness estimates from a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Zhao, Ying J; Zhou, Hui J; Khoo, Ai L; Teng, Monica; Soh, Lay B; Lim, Boon P; Sim, Kang

    2016-03-01

    This study modelled the cost-effectiveness of 11 oral antipsychotics for relapse prevention among patients with remitted schizophrenia in Singapore. A network meta-analysis determined the relative efficacy and tolerability of 11 oral antipsychotics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sulpiride, trifluoperazine and ziprasidone). The clinical estimates were applied in a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years gained. Quality-of-life data were obtained from published literature. Resource utilization and cost data were retrieved from local hospital databases. The annual direct cost of healthcare services for a patient experiencing a relapse episode was three-fold that of a patient not in relapse of schizophrenia. The most favourable pharmacological treatment for relapse prevention was olanzapine with an annual probability of relapse of 0.24 (0.13-0.38) with placebo as a reference of 0.75 (0.73-0.78). Olanzapine emerged as the dominant treatment with the highest quality-adjusted life-years gained and lowest lifetime costs. Ziprasidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone incurred higher lifetime costs compared with no treatment. Probability and cost of relapse were key drivers of cost-effectiveness in sensitivity analyses. The data can help prescribers in choosing appropriate treatment and payers in allocating resources for the clinical management of this serious psychiatric disorder. PMID:26619182

  14. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I am bothered by the color of my gums”(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),“I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

  15. Cost-minimization study comparing annual infusion of zoledronic acid or weekly oral alendronate in women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro; Espinosa-Ortega, Fabricio

    2014-01-01

    Cost-minimization study to assess the annual direct costs of 2 antiresorptive strategies in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral densities (BMDs). Patients were randomly assigned to receive 70 mg of oral weekly alendronate or a 1-time 5mg of intravenous zoledronic acid. All medical and nonmedical direct costs were recorded for 1 yr. Student's t-test or the Chi-squared test was used. A total of 101 postmenopausal women were enrolled with a mean age of 58.3 ± 7.6 yr and a postmenopausal period of 13.5 ± 8.3 yr. A total of 50 patients completed 1 yr of alendronate and 51 patients received zoledronic acid. At baseline, no differences were seen between the 2 groups in anthropometric measures, comorbidities, and bone mineral density. The costs for medical attention for low bone mass were $81,532 (US Dollars) for the alendronate group and $69,251 for the zoledronic acid group; the cost per patient was $1631 in the alendronate group vs $1358 in the zoledronic acid group (p<0.0001). Therefore, zoledronic acid treatment provided an annual savings of 15% of the direct costs compared with oral alendronate treatment. Moreover, there was a significant increase in lumbar spine T-scores in the zoledronic acid group when compared with the alendronate group. Annual zoledronic acid infusion as an antiresorptive treatment in women with low BMD provides significant monetary savings when compared with weekly alendronate therapy for 1 yr. Zoledronic acid infusion is also linked to higher increase in BMD and compliance. PMID:24613450

  16. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:26473160

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  18. A Comparative Efficacy of Low-Dose Combined Oral Contraceptives Containing Desogestrel and Drospirenone in Premenstrual Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wichianpitaya, Jirath; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of low-dose COC containing desogestrel (DSG) with drospirenone (DRSP) in the changes of premenstrual symptoms. Methods. In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 90 women with premenstrual syndrome who required COC were randomly recruited and allocated equally to receive either 6 cycles of 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE)/150 micrograms DSG (DSG group) or 20 micrograms EE/3 mg DRSP (DRSP group) in 24/4 extended regimen. Analysis of covariance and repeated analysis of variance were used to determine the difference of mean Women's Health Assessment Questionnaire (WHAQ) scores changes between groups, within group, and in premenstrual, menstrual, and postmenstrual phases. Results. Baseline characteristics and WHAQ scores were comparable. At the ends of the 3rd and the 6th cycles, mean WHAQ scores of all the 3 phases in DRSP group showed significant reduction and were significantly lower than those in DSG group. DSG group showed significant reduction in both premenstrual and menstrual phases after the 6th cycle. Adverse effects were comparable in both groups. In conclusion, low-dose COC containing either DSG or DRSP reduced premenstrual symptoms, but the latter showed greater efficacy and earlier reduction. PMID:23577032

  19. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  20. Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

    2009-06-10

    The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively

  1. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species

  2. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

  3. A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed. PMID:23086987

  4. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  5. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice: A comparison of spectral analysis of electroencephalogram and behavioral grading using the Racine scale.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Kevin D; Shwe, U T; Williams, David K; Greenfield, L John; Zheng, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a widely used seizure model in mice, and the Racine scale has been used to index seizure intensity. The goal of this study was to analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) quantitatively using fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and statistically evaluate the correlation of electrographic seizures with convulsive behaviors. Simultaneous EEG and video recordings in male mice in a mixed genetic background were conducted and pilocarpine was administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. The videos were graded using the Racine scale and the root-mean-square (RMS) power analysis of EEG was performed with Sirenia Seizure Pro software. We found that the RMS power was very weakly correlated with convulsive behavior induced by pilocarpine. Convulsive behaviors appeared long before electrographic seizures and showed a strong negative correlation with theta frequency activity and a moderate positive correlation with gamma frequency activity. Racine scores showed moderate correlations with RMS power across multiple frequency bands during the transition from first electrographic seizure to SE. However, there was no correlation between Racine scores and RMS power during the SE phase except a weak correlation with RMS power in the theta frequency. Our analysis reveals limitations of the Racine scale as a primary index of seizure intensity in status epilepticus, and demonstrates a need for quantitative analysis of EEG for an accurate assessment of seizure onset and severity. PMID:26432759

  6. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  7. A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Side-Effects of Intravaginal Ring (Nuvaring®) With Combined Oral Hormonal Preparation in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Neelam B.; Narang, Yam; Suneja, Amita; Guleria, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) pills are being used in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding, especially adolescents and reproductive age women considering their need for contraception. It decreases the blood loss due to haemostatic effect of estrogen and also regularizes the cycle. Intravaginal route has been found to be effective and acceptable; Gastrointestinal absorption and hepatic first-pass metabolism is avoided and steady, uniform blood concentration is achieved. Bioavailability of estrogen and progestogen through oral and vaginal route are same. The convenience of once-a-month administration is another major advantage. Materials and Mathods Sixty women fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomised into 2 groups in 1:1 ratio. In one group (n=30), monthly insertion of Nuvaring®) was done for three consecutive months. Nuvaring® releases 15μg ethinyl estradiol and 120 μg etonogesterol daily. The other group (n=30) received COC pill containing 30μg EE and 150 μg levonorgestrel for three consecutive months. Primary outcome measures were change in menstrual cycle pattern and pictorial Blood Loss Assessment chart (PBAC) score. Other Parameters included side effects, change in haemoglobin and weight. Data was analyzed by statistical software SPSS 20. Results Both Nuvaring® and COC were found to significantly decrease blood loss in each cycle. Decrease in PBAC score was more in Nuvaring® group compared to COC, however difference was not significant. Ideal bleed (IB) was frequently higher for Nuvaring® group than COC in all 3 cycles, although no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p-value=0.286). Late withdrawl, intermenstural spotting was higher in COC group. Compliance was better and women were more satisfied in Nuvaring® group compared to COC group. Minor side effects like headache, mastalgia, nausea and mood changes were seen in both groups, which were not significant. Continuation rate was significantly

  8. Comparative effects of oral chlorpyrifos exposure on cholinesterase activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rat heart.

    PubMed

    Howard, Marcia D; Mirajkar, Nikita; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey N

    2007-09-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M(2) muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M(2) receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor-mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M(2) receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age-related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac cholinesterase (ChE) activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1x LD(10): neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1x LD(10), relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (approximately 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC(50) values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that

  9. Comparative Effects of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Cholinesterase Activity and Muscarinic Receptor Binding in Neonatal and Adult Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Marcia D.; Mirajkar, Nikita; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey N.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M2 muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M2 receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor–mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M2 receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac ChE activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1 × LD10: neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1 × LD10, relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (≈ 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC50 values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that differential A-esterase activity was not

  10. Efficacy of Benzocaine 20% Topical Anesthetic Compared to Placebo Prior to Administration of Local Anesthesia in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Freiras, Guilherme Camponogara; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha; Blaya, Diego Segatto; Moreira, Carlos Heitor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a topical anesthetic to a placebo on pain perception during administration of local anesthesia in 2 regions of the oral cavity. A split-mouth, double-blind, randomized clinical trial design was used. Thirty-eight subjects, ages 18–50 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, received 4 anesthetic injections each in regions corresponding to the posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSA) and greater palatine nerve (GPN), totaling 152 sites analyzed. The side of the mouth where the topical anesthetic (benzocaine 20%) or the placebo was to be applied was chosen by a flip of a coin. The needle used was 27G, and the anesthetic used for administration of local anesthesia was 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. After receiving the administration of local anesthesia, each patient reported pain perception on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 100-mm length. The results showed that the topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects: there was no statistically significant VAS difference between the PSA and the GPN pain ratings. A higher value on the VAS for the anesthesia of the GPN, relative to the PSA, was observed for both groups. Regarding gender, male patients had higher values on the VAS compared with female patients, but these differences were not meaningful. The topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects on pain perception for injection of local anesthesia for the PSA and GPN. PMID:26061572

  11. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. PMID:25716658

  12. Comparative effectiveness of different oral antibiotics regimens for treatment of urinary tract infection in outpatients: an analysis of national representative claims database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Tse Gabriel; Lee, Shih-Hao; Chang, Shy-Shin; Lee, Si-Huei; Lee, Matthew; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2014-12-01

    There are very limited data on the postmarketing outcome comparison of different guideline antibiotic regimens for patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We carried out a population-based comparative effectiveness study from year 2000 through 2009, using the administrative data of 2 million patients from the National Health Informatics Project of Taiwan. Treatment failure was defined as either hospitalization or emergency department visits for UTI. Odd ratios were computed using conditional logistic regression models matched on propensity score. We identified 73,675 individuals with UTI, of whom 54,796 (74.4%) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 4184 (5.7%) received ciprofloxacin, 3142 (4.3%) received levofloxacin, 5984 (8.1%) received ofloxacin, and 5569 (7.6%) received norfloxacin. Compared with TMP-SMX, the composite treatment failure was significantly lowered for norfloxacin in propensity score (PS) matching analyses (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99). Both norfloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98) and ofloxacin (PS-matched OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49-0.99) had significantly lowered composite treatment failure rate when compared with ciprofloxacin. Subgroup analysis suggested that both norfloxacin and ofloxacin were more effective in female patients without complications (W/O indwelling catheters, W/O bedridden status and W/O spinal cord injury), when compared with either TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin. Among outpatients receiving oral fluoroquinolone therapy for UTIs, there was evidence of superiority of norfloxacin or ofloxacin over ciprofloxacin or TMP-SMX in terms of treatment failure. Given the observational nature of this study and regional difference in antibiotic resistance patterns, more studies are required to validate our results. PMID:25526477

  13. A comparative study of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus: a randomized clinical controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hasan Hoseinpour; Falaki, Farnaz; Sanatkhani, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Meysam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-07-01

    Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as a new treatment option that is free from side effects for erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus (OLP). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (TB-PDT) with local corticosteroids on treatment of erosive-atrophic OLP. In this randomized clinical trial, 25 patients with keratotic-atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus were allocated randomly into two groups. Group 1 (experimental): topical application of toluidine blue with micropipette was applied, and after 10 min, the patients were treated with a 630-nm GaAlAs laser (power density: 10 mW/cm(2)) during two visits. Group 2 (control) used mouthwash diluted with dexamethasone (tab 0/5 in 5 ml water) for 5 min, and then, it was spat out, and after 30 min, the mouth was rinsed with 30 drops of nystatin 100,000 units for 5 min and again spat out. Demographic data, type, and severity of the lesions and pain were recorded before and after treatment and then at the 1-month follow-up visit. Response rate was defined based on changes in intensity of the lesions and pain. In the experimental and control groups, sign scores of changes significantly reduced after treatment respectively (p = 0.021) and (p = 0.002), but between the two groups, no significant difference was observed (p = 0.72). In the experimental (p = 0.005) and control groups (p = 0.001), the intensity of lesions significantly reduced after treatment and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.001). The mean amount of improvement in pain was significantly greater in the control group compared with the experimental group (p < 0.001) (α = 0.05). Our study showed that TB-PDT with laser was effective in the management of OLP. PMID:25487185

  14. Changes of AMPA receptor properties in the neocortex and hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Sergey L; Amakhin, Dmitry V; Veniaminova, Ekaterina A; Kim, Kira Kh; Zubareva, Olga E; Magazanik, Lev G; Zaitsev, Aleksey V

    2016-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in humans. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rodents reproduces some of the main features of human TLE. Three-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. The changes in AMPA receptor subunit composition were investigated in several brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the temporal cortex (TC), and the dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH) during the first week following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PILO-induced SE). In the hippocampus, GluA1 and GluA2 mRNA expression slightly decreased after PILO-induced SE and returned to the initial level on the seventh day. We did not detect any significant changes in mRNA expression of the GluA1 and GluA2 subunits in the TC, whereas in the mPFC we observed a significant increase of GluA1 mRNA expression on the third day and a decrease in GluA2 mRNA expression during the entire first week. Accordingly, the GluA1/GluA2 expression ratio increased in the mPFC, and the functional properties of the pyramidal cell excitatory synapses were disturbed. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we found that on the third day following PILO-induced SE, isolated mPFC pyramidal neurons showed an inwardly rectifying current-voltage relation of kainate-evoked currents, suggesting the presence of GluA2-lacking calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs). IEM-1460, a selective antagonist of CP-AMPARs, significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked EPSC in pyramidal neurons from mPFC slices on the first and third days, but not on the seventh day. The antagonist had no effects on EPSC amplitude in slices from control animals. Thus, our data demonstrate that PILO-induced SE affects subunit composition of AMPARs in different brain areas, including the mPFC. SE induces transient (up to few days) incorporation of CP-AMPARs in the excitatory synapses of mPFC pyramidal neurons, which may disrupt normal circuitry functions. PMID:27109923

  15. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise. PMID:25893979

  16. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  17. Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multi-center randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) to pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia (RIX). Methods and Materials Eligible patients were randomized to twice weekly 20 minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions over 12 weeks or PC (5mg, 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (mfr). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥ 20% reduction in overall RIX symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on CTCAE v.3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results 148 patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 mfr (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 mfr. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS/PC groups at 9 and 15 mfr were −0.53/−0.27 (P=0.45) and −0.6/−0.47 (P=0.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81%/72% (P=0.34) and 83%/63% (P=0.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of Grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized and statistical power was limited, since only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint -- the change in RIX symptom burden at 9 mfr, was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS. PMID:25841622

  18. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Raimond K.W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  20. Trends in Oral Antibiotic, Proton Pump Inhibitor, and Histamine 2 Receptor Blocker Prescription Patterns for Children Compared With Adults: Implications for Clostridium difficile Infection in the Community.

    PubMed

    Faden, Howard S; Ma, Chan-Xing

    2016-07-01

    The use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and histamine 2 receptor blocker (H2B) was compared between children and adults in the community from 2005 through 2011. Antibiotic prescription rates remained stable for children, but increased significantly for adults, P = .03. PPI prescription rates increased for children, P = .02 and for adults, P = .009. H2B prescription rates increased for children, P = .03, but not for adults. Antibiotic prescription rates were significantly higher in children than adults in all 7 years, P < .0001. In contrast, PPI prescription rates were significantly higher in adults than children in all 7 years, P < .0001. H2B prescription rates were significantly higher in adults than children 1 to 18 years old P < .0001; however, H2B prescription rates were highest in children <1 year old, P = .0001. The high use of oral antibiotics, PPI, and H2B among outpatients may be a contributing factor to the rise of Clostridium difficile infection in the community. PMID:26350427

  1. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  2. Variations of ATP and its metabolites in the hippocampus of rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doná, Flávia; Conceição, Isaltino Marcelo; Ulrich, Henning; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Freitas, Thalma Ariani; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahao; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José

    2016-06-01

    Although purinergic receptor activity has lately been associated with epilepsy, little is known about the exact role of purines in epileptogenesis. We have used a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine to study the dynamics of purine metabolism in the hippocampus during different times of status epilepticus (SE) and the chronic phase. Concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine in normal and epileptic rat hippocampus were determined by microdialysis in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extracellular ATP concentrations did not vary along 4 h of SE onset. However, AMP concentration was elevated during the second hour, whereas ADP and adenosine concentrations augmented during the third and fourth hour following SE. During chronic phase, extracellular ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations decreased, although these levels again increased significantly during spontaneous seizures. These results suggest that the increased turnover of ATP during the acute period is a compensatory mechanism able to reduce the excitatory role of ATP. Increased adenosine levels following 4 h of SE may contribute to block seizures. On the other hand, the reduction of purine levels in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats may result from metabolic changes and be part of the mechanisms involved in the onset of spontaneous seizures. This work provides further insights into purinergic signaling during establishment and chronic phase of epilepsy. PMID:26939579

  3. Pilocarpine-induced seizures trigger differential regulation of microRNA-stability related genes in rat hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Erika R.; Higa, Guilherme S. V.; Santos, Bianca A.; de Sousa, Erica; Damico, Marcio V.; Walter, Lais T.; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.; Kihara, Alexandre H.

    2016-01-01

    Epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe elicits regulation of gene expression and protein translation, leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. In this process, miRNAs were described as being regulated in a cell-specific manner, although mechanistics of miRNAs activity are poorly understood. The specificity of miRNAs on their target genes depends on their intracellular concentration, reflecting the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Herein, we confirmed that pilocarpine application promptly (<30 min) induces status epilepticus (SE) as revealed by changes in rat electrocorticogram particularly in fast-beta range (21–30 Hz). SE simultaneously upregulated XRN2 and downregulated PAPD4 gene expression in the hippocampus, two genes related to miRNA degradation and stability, respectively. Moreover, SE decreased the number of XRN2-positive cells in the hilus, while reduced the number of PAPD4-positive cells in CA1. XRN2 and PAPD4 levels did not change in calretinin- and CamKII-positive cells, although it was possible to determine that PAPD4, but not XRN2, was upregulated in parvalbumin-positive cells, revealing that SE induction unbalances the accumulation of these functional-opposed proteins in inhibitory interneurons that directly innervate distinct domains of pyramidal cells. Therefore, we were able to disclose a possible mechanism underlying the differential regulation of miRNAs in specific neurons during epileptogenesis. PMID:26869208

  4. Spatiotemporal profile of Map2 and microglial changes in the hippocampal CA1 region following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schartz, Nicole D.; Herr, Seth A.; Madsen, Lauren; Butts, Sarah J.; Torres, Ceidy; Mendez, Loyda B.; Brewster, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) triggers pathological changes to hippocampal dendrites that may promote epileptogenesis. The microtubule associated protein 2 (Map2) helps stabilize microtubules of the dendritic cytoskeleton. Recently, we reported a substantial decline in Map2 that coincided with robust microglia accumulation in the CA1 hippocampal region after an episode of SE. A spatial correlation between Map2 loss and reactive microglia was also reported in human cortex from refractory epilepsy. New evidence supports that microglia modulate dendritic structures. Thus, to identify a potential association between SE-induced Map2 and microglial changes, a spatiotemporal profile of these events is necessary. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of Map2 and the microglia marker IBA1 in the hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced SE from 4 hrs to 35 days. We found a decline in Map2 immunoreactivity in the CA1 area that reached minimal levels at 14 days post-SE and partially increased thereafter. In contrast, maximal microglia accumulation occurred in the CA1 area at 14 days post-SE. Our data indicate that SE-induced Map2 and microglial changes parallel each other’s spatiotemporal profiles. These findings may lay the foundation for future mechanistic studies to help identify potential roles for microglia in the dendritic pathology associated with SE and epilepsy. PMID:27143585

  5. Time course of neuronal damage in the hippocampus following lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus in 12-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Druga, Rastislav; Mares, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2010-10-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) leads to serious damage in hippocampus of the adult brain. Much less is known about immature brain where neuronal degeneration may have different localization and time course. Lithium-pilocarpine SE was induced in 12-day-old male Wistar rats. Six different intervals after SE (from 4 h to 1 week) were studied using Fluoro-Jade B staining. Three to four animals were used for every interval. Severity of damage in individual parts of hippocampal formation was semi-quantified. A consistent neuronal damage occurred in all hippocampal fields (CA 1, CA 3, dentate gyrus) at all survival intervals. Hippocampal fields CA 1 and CA 3 exhibited degeneration of interneurons located mainly in stratum oriens and pyramidale at shorter intervals (4-12h). Massive degeneration of pyramidal cells started at 24h in CA 1 and at 48 h in CA 3. Dentate gyrus exhibited degenerating neurons in granular layer with a peak at short intervals (4-8 h), and molecular layer was spared. The lower blade of dentate gyrus was more affected than the upper blade. Damage of hilar neurons was negligible. Our results demonstrate that SE elicited in immature rats causes acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Time course of this degeneration is different for individual parts of hippocampal formation and for individual cell types. PMID:20673826

  6. Epigenetic Suppression of GADs Expression is Involved in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Pilocarpine-Induced Mice Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Gang; Cai, Qing; Zheng, Jun; Dong, Yu-Shu; Li, Jin-Jiang; Li, Jing-Chen; Hao, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ju-Lei

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that histone acetylation is involved with the regulation of enzyme glutamate decarboxylases (GADs), including GAD67 and GAD65. Here, we investigated the histone acetylation modifications of GADs in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and explored the therapeutic effect of a novel second-generation histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) JNJ-26481585 in epilepsy animals. We revealed the suppression of GADs protein and mRNA level, and histone hypoacetylation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and pilocarpine-induced epilepsy mice model. Double-immunofluorescence also indicated that the hypoacetyl-H3 was located in hippocampal GAD67/GAD65 positive neurons in epilepsy mice. JNJ-26481585 significantly reversed the decrease of the GAD67/GAD65 both protein and mRNA levels, and the histone hypoacetylation of GABAergic neurons in epilepsy mice. Meanwhile, single-cell real-time PCR performed in GFP-GAD67/GAD65 transgenic mice demonstrated that JNJ-26481585 induced increase of GAD67/GAD65 mRNA level in GABAergic neurons. Furthermore, JNJ-26481585 significantly alleviated the epileptic seizures in mice model. Together, our findings demonstrate inhibition of GADs gene via histone acetylation plays an important role in the pathgenesis of epilepsy, and suggest JNJ-26481585 as a promising therapeutic strategy for epilepsy. PMID:27220336

  7. Oral health for older people.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Compared with previous generations, more older people have retained some or all of their teeth, but more than 40% of community-dwelling older people aged 75 and over have unmet oral health needs. However, the importance of oral health can be undervalued by healthcare professionals and older people. Three studies relating to oral health for older people are summarised. PMID:27573957

  8. Identification of RAB2A and PRDX1 as the potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Pal, Ipsita; Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Rajput, Shashi; Parekh, Aditya; Parida, Sheetal; Halder, Priyanka; Kulavi, Indranil; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a major health burden. Protein biomarker discovery for early detection will help to improve patient survival rate in OSCC. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as an excellent approach for detection of protein biomarkers in various types of cancers. In the current study, we have used 4-Plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues. The high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis resulted in identifying 2,074 proteins, among which 288 proteins were differentially expressed. Further, it was noticed that 162 proteins were upregulated, while 125 proteins were downregulated in OSCC-derived cancer tissue samples as compared to the adjacent normal tissues. We identified some of the known molecules which were reported earlier in OSCC such as MMP-9 (8.4-fold), ZNF142 (5.6-fold), and S100A7 (3.5-fold). Apart from this, we have also identified some novel signature proteins which have not been reported earlier in OSCC including ras-related protein Rab-2A isoform, RAB2A (4.6-fold), and peroxiredoxin-1, PRDX1 (2.2-fold). The immunohistochemistry-based validation using tissue microarray slides in OSCC revealed overexpression of the RAB2A and PRDX1 gene in 80 and 68 % of the tested clinical cases, respectively. This study will not only serve as a resource of candidate biomarkers but will contribute towards the existing knowledge on the role of the candidate molecules towards disease progression and therapeutic potential. PMID:26159854

  9. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  10. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  11. Results of a randomized trial comparing sequential intravenous/oral treatment with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole to imipenem/cilastatin for intra-abdominal infections. The Intra-Abdominal Infection Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Solomkin, J S; Reinhart, H H; Dellinger, E P; Bohnen, J M; Rotstein, O D; Vogel, S B; Simms, H H; Hill, C S; Bjornson, H S; Haverstock, D C; Coulter, H O; Echols, R M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was compared with imipenem/cilastatin for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. A secondary objective was to demonstrate the ability to switch responding patients from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Intra-abdominal infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Antimicrobial therapy often includes a 7- to 10-day intravenous course. The use of oral antimicrobials is a recent advance due to the availability of agents with good tissue pharmacokinetics and potent aerobic gram-negative activity. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously (CIP/MTZ IV) or imipenem intravenously (IMI IV) throughout their treatment course, or ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously and treatment with oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole when oral feeding was resumed (CIP/MTZ IV/PO). RESULTS: Among 671 patients who constituted the intent-to-treat population, overall success rates were as follows: 82% for the group treated with CIP/MTZ IV; 84% for the CIP/MTZ IV/PO group; and 82% for the IMI IV group. For 330 valid patients, treatment success occurred in 84% of patients treated with CIP/MTZ IV, 86% of those treated with CIP/MTZ IV/PO, and 81% of the patients treated with IMI IV. Analysis of microbiology in the 30 patients undergoing intervention after treatment failure suggested that persistence of gram-negative organisms was more common in the IMI IV-treated patients who subsequently failed. Of 46 CIP/MTZ IV/PO patients (active oral arm), treatment success occurred in 96%, compared with 89% for those treated with CIP/MTZ IV and 89% for those receiving IMI IV. Patients who received intravenous/oral therapy were treated, overall, for an average of 8.6 +/- 3.6 days, with an average of 4.0 +/- 3.0 days of oral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate statistical equivalence

  12. Comparative evaluation of serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid as sample material for PRRSV diagnostics by RT-qPCR in a small-scale experimental study.

    PubMed

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Wodak, Eveline; Schmoll, Friedrich; Sattler, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research into alternative sample materials, such as oral fluid or filter-dried blood has been intensified, in order to facilitate cost-effective and animal-friendly sampling of individuals or groups of pigs for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-RNA detection by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid sampled from individual pigs. Ten PRRSV negative pigs were injected with an EU-type PRRSV live vaccine. Blood and oral fluid samples were taken from each pig before, and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination. All samples were then analyzed by PRRSV RT-qPCR. In serum, eight often pigs tested RT-qPCR positive at different time points post infection. Absolute quantification showed low serum PRRSV-RNA loads in most samples. In comparison to serum, sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection was strongly reduced in matched FTA filter-dried blood and in oral fluid from the same pigs. These results indicate that with low PRRSV-RNA loads the diagnostic sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection by RT-qPCR achieved with serum is currently unmatched by either FTA filter-dried blood or oral fluid. PMID:24881272

  13. Characterization, Localization and Patterning of Lymphatics and Blood Vessels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Using D2-40 and CD-34 IHC Marker

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Deshant; Bajpai, Manas; Gupta, Shailendra; Mathur, Nikunj; Vanaki, S S; Puranik, R S; Mittal, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lymphatic metastasis has always been regarded as a major prognostic indicator for disease progression and as a guide for therapeutic strategies to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Differentiating lymphatic vessels from blood vessels is difficult, partly due to lack of specific method for identifying lymphatics. A new lymphatic vessel reactive antibody D2-40 has been introduced recently. Here we examined immunohistochemical localization of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels using D2-40 and CD-34 respectively in different histological grades of OSCC. Their expression in intra-tumoural and peri-tumoural region was also compared. Materials and Methods: Forty two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of excised specimens of OSCC were immunohistochemically evaluated using D2-40 and CD-34 antibodies. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) (D2-40 positivity) and micro vessel density (MVD) (CD34 positivity) in both intratumoural and peritumoural areas were assessed by hot spot method. Results: Regardless of histopathological differentiation, LVD–– and MVD in peritumoural areas were found greater than intratumoural areas (p>0.05). Interestingly, other than lymphatic vessels, D2-40 positivity was also detected in tumour cells as well as in basal layer of epithelium adjacent to OSCC. Two patterns of distribution of CD34 positive vessel - circumscribing type and penetrating type were also observed in the cancer nest area. Conclusion: D2-40 can be used as a marker to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. Lymphatic and blood vessel proliferation might be much more extensive in the peritumoural area. D2-40 expression in epithelium adjacent to tumour indicates its role in the process of differentiation. Further, its expression in potential malignant disorder may provide better insight in predicting prognosis and pathogenesis of these lesions. PMID:25478456

  14. Mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets versus venlafaxine extended release: a double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing the onset of antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Benkert, Otto; Szegedi, Armin; Philipp, Michael; Kohnen, Ralf; Heinrich, Claus; Heukels, Anja; van der Vegte-Senden, Monique; Baker, Ross A; Simmons, John H; Schutte, Albert-Jan

    2006-02-01

    This randomized, multicenter, double-blind study was designed to compare specifically the onset of antidepressant action of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) with venlafaxine extended-release (XR) formulation in outpatients with major depression. Both treatments were administered in a rapidly escalating dosing regimen. Target doses (mirtazapine ODT, 45 mg OD; venlafaxine XR, 225 mg OD) were reached by day 6 of treatment. On the primary efficacy parameter [the average of the change in HAM-D (17-item) total score on days 5, 8, 11, and 15], mirtazapine ODT was significantly superior to venlafaxine XR (P = 0.008). In addition, calculating the HAM-D score without the sleep items resulted in significant reductions in favor of mirtazapine ODT on days 8 (P = 0.006) and 11 (P = 0.037). The proportion of responders (HAM-D decrease of > or =50% from baseline) was higher in the mirtazapine ODT group on all assessment days, being significant on days 8 (P = 0.002), 11 (P = 0.004), and 22 (P = 0.027). More patients in the mirtazapine ODT group achieved remission (HAM-D total score of < or =7) up to day 29, and the difference was statistically significant on day 15 (P = 0.016). Significant differences in favor of mirtazapine ODT were evident in the CGI of change on days 8 (P = 0.019), 11 (P = 0.004), and 15 (P = 0.031), and the CGI of severity on days 8 (P = 0.014) and 11 (P = 0.033). Both treatments were well tolerated. These results indicate that mirtazapine ODT has a faster onset of antidepressant efficacy than venlafaxine XR in patients with major depressive disorder, and that this effect is independent of its sleep-improving properties. PMID:16415711

  15. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE). Methods In a randomised, open-label study, 121 healthy women, 18-50 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 for all indices. Results All parameters were similar at baseline between the two groups. Over six cycles, NOMAC/E2 had less effect on most haemostatic indices than LNG/EE. Lipids were essentially unchanged with NOMAC/E2, whereas with LNG/EE high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides slightly increased. NOMAC/E2 induced negligible changes in glucose and insulin parameters, in contrast to LNG/EE. A much smaller increase in CRP was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. Conclusions The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE. PMID:22066891

  16. Comparative evaluation of pressure generated on a simulated maxillary oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different spacer designs: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sakshi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Literature reveals that masticatory load on denture bearing tissues through complete dentures should be maximum on primary stress bearing areas and least on relief area in accordance with the histology of underlying tissues. A study to validate the existing beliefs was planned to compare the pressure on mucosa using selective pressure technique and minimal pressure technique, with the incorporation of two different impression materials utilizing the pressure sensors during secondary impression procedure. Materials and Methods: The study was performed using a maxillary analog. Three pressure sensors were imbedded in the oral analog, one in the mid palatine area and the other two in the right and left ridge crest. Custom trays of two different configurations were fabricated. The two impression materials tested were light body and zinc oxide eugenol. A total of 40 impressions were made. A constant weight of 1 kg was placed, and the pressure was recorded as initial and end pressures. Results: A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (P < 0.001). Light body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly lesser pressure than zinc oxide eugenol impression materials. The presence of relief did affect the magnitude of pressure at various locations. Conclusion: All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification is an important factor in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used also had a significant role to play on the pressures acting on the tissues during impression procedure. Clinical Implication: Light body VPS impression material may be recommended to achieve minimal pressure on the denture bearing tissues in both selective as well as minimal pressure techniques. PMID:27041902

  17. Comparative toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic study of rubber antioxidants, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and its methyl substituted derivatives, by repeated oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakemi, Kazue; Ito, Rieno; Umemura, Takashi; Ohno, Yasuo; Tsuda, Mitsuhiro

    2002-12-01

    2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI), a rubber antioxidant, is known to exhibit potent thyroid toxicity in rats, whereas its methylated derivatives are much less toxic. To characterize this methyl-substituent effect on the thyroid toxicity of MBI, comparative toxicokinetic analyses have been conducted in the present study. MBI and the MMBIs [4-methylated MBI (4-MMBI) and 5-methylated MBI (5-MMBI), and a 1:1 mixture of these 4- and 5-methylated isomers (MMBI mix)] suspended in corn oil were repeatedly administered (at 0.3-0.6 mmol/kg) to male Wistar rats by gavage once daily for 2 weeks. After the first and last administrations, blood and urine samples were collected, and the levels of unchanged compounds and their desulfurated metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. After repeated oral administration (roa), the C(max) and area under concentration-time curve (AUC) of MBI were markedly increased, while the MMBIs essentially were cleared from the blood within 10 h. After roa, the C(max) and AUC of 4-MMBI decreased markedly, suggesting metabolic enzyme induction. However, the toxicokinetic parameters of 5-MMBI were not markedly altered by roa. The inhibitory potencies (IC(50)) against lactoperoxidase of MBI, 4-MMBI, and 5-MMBI were 20.6 micro M, 45.6 micro M and 31.6 micro M, respectively. Thus, we suggest that the marked decrease of thyroid toxicity by methyl substitution of MBI is caused mainly by a decrease in systemic exposure to the compounds and partly by a decrease in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis. PMID:12451444

  18. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

  19. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces the convulsive expression and amino acid release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Santana-Gómez, César E; Alcántara-González, David; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Besio, Walter; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus under basal conditions and during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were previously implanted with a guide cannula attached to a bipolar electrode into the right ventral hippocampus and a concentric ring electrode placed on the skull surface. The first microdialysis experiment was designed to determine, under basal conditions, the effects of TFS (300 Hz, 200 μs biphasic square pulses, for 30 min) on afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and the release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. The results obtained indicate that at low current intensities (<2800 μA), TFS enhances and decreases the basal extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate, respectively. However, TFS did not modify the ADT. During the second microdialysis experiment, a group of animals was subjected to SE induced by pilocarpine administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.; SE group). The SE was associated with a significant rise of GABA and glutamate release (up to 120 and 182% respectively, 5h after pilocarpine injection) and the prevalence of high-voltage rhythmic spikes and increased spectral potency of delta, gamma, and theta bands. A group of animals (SE-TFS group) received TFS continuously during 2h at 100 μA, 5 min after the establishment of SE. This group showed a significant decrease in the expression of the convulsive activity and spectral potency in gamma and theta bands. The extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus remained at basal conditions. These results suggest that TFS induces anticonvulsant effects when applied during the SE, an effect associated with lower amino acid release. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26006058

  20. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated control of pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements is Parkinson's disease-associated GPR37 receptor-dependent.

    PubMed

    Gandía, Jorge; Morató, Xavier; Stagljar, Igor; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2015-07-15

    GPR37, also known as parkin associated endothelin-like receptor (Pael-R), is an orphan GPCR that aggregates intracellularly in a juvenile form of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the function of this orphan receptor. Here, using a model for parkisonian tremor, the pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements (TJMs), we show that the deletion of GPR37 attenuated the TJMs in response to this cholinomimetic. Interestingly, the control that adenosine A2A receptor exerted over TJMs was lost in the absence of GPR37, thus pointing to a pivotal role of this orphan receptor in the adenosinergic control of parkinsonian tremor. PMID:25862943

  1. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day 28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)- methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups. PMID:22091463

  2. Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Gaussem, Pascale; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Remones, Veronique; Ali, Fouad Dali; Aiach, Martine; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2011-03-01

    Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. NOMAC/E2 is a new monophasic OC that combines nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a highly selective progestogen, with 17β-estradiol (E2). The study objective was to compare the effects on markers of haemostasis of NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) versus the second-generation OC, levonorgestrel (LNG)/EE (100 μg/20 μg). Healthy women (age 18-38 years) received once-daily treatment for three consecutive 28-day cycles in a double-blind, randomised study: either NOMAC/E2 for 24 days with a four-day placebo interval (n=45) or LNG/EE for 21 days with a seven-day placebo interval (n=45) per cycle. Mean changes from baseline to end-of-treatment in coagulation markers, including prothrombin fragment 1+2 (primary endpoint), fibrinolysis markers and platelet functions were assessed. Mean prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels (primary endpoint) did not increase with NOMAC/E2 compared with LNG/EE ( -0.02 vs. +0.08 nM, p<0.01). Other significant differences between NOMAC/E2 and LNG/EE were mean changes in antithrombin (+0.3% vs. -4.4%, p<0.001), activated protein C resistance - normalised ratio (+0.20 vs. +0.46, p<0.01), D-dimer ( -53 vs. +43 ng/ml, p<0.001), plasminogen (+6% vs. +30%, p<0.0001) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( -3.1 vs. -8.0 ng/ml, p<0.001). There was no effect of either treatment on platelet aggregation. The NOMAC/E2 pill regimen has fewer adverse effects on blood biological coagulation and fibrinolysis markers than LNG/EE. This suggests that NOMAC/E2 could have a more favourable venous thromboembolism risk profile than LNG/EE; further epidemiological data are required to confirm this. PMID:21225090

  3. Long-Term Population-Based Cerebral Ischemic Event and Cognitive Outcomes of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Warfarin Among Long-term Anticoagulated Patients for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Victoria; May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Crandall, Brian G; Cutler, Michael J; Day, John D; Mallender, Charles; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Stevens, Scott M; Weiss, J Peter; Woller, Scott C; Bunch, T Jared

    2016-07-15

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been used in clinical practice in the United States for the last 4 to 6 years. Although DOACs may be an attractive alternative to warfarin in many patients, long-term outcomes of use of these medications are unknown. We performed a propensity-matched analysis to report patient important outcomes of death, stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), bleeding, major bleeding, and dementia in patients taking a DOAC or warfarin. Patients receiving long-term anticoagulation from June 2010 to December 2014 for thromboembolism prevention with either warfarin or a DOAC were matched 1:1 by index date and propensity score. Multivariable Cox hazard regression was performed to determine the risk of death, stroke/TIA, major bleed, and dementia by the anticoagulant therapy received. A total of 5,254 patients were studied (2,627 per group). Average age was 72.4 ± 10.9 years, and 59.0% were men. Most patients were receiving long-term anticoagulation for AF management (warfarin: 96.5% vs DOAC: 92.7%, p <0.0001). Rivaroxaban (55.3%) was the most commonly used DOAC, followed by apixaban (22.5%) and dabigatran (22.2%). The use of DOACs compared with warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of long-term adverse outcomes: death (p = 0.09), stroke/TIA (p <0.0001), major bleed (p <0.0001), and bleed (p = 0.14). No significant outcome variance was noted in DOAC-type comparison. In the AF multivariable model patients taking DOAC were 43% less likely to develop stroke/TIA/dementia (hazard ratio 0.57 [CI 0.17, 1.97], p = 0.38) than those taking warfarin. Our community-based results suggest better long-term efficacy and safety of DOACs compared with warfarin. DOAC use was associated with a lower risk of cerebral ischemic events and new-onset dementia. PMID:27236255

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration. PMID:24325541

  5. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. Results: The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Conclusion: Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children. PMID:26942117

  6. Morphometric studies of secretory granule formation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Dissecting the early structural changes following pilocarpine injection

    PubMed Central

    HAMMEL, ILAN; SHOR-HAZAN, OSNAT; ELDAR, TORA; AMIHAI, DINA; LEW, SYLVIA

    1999-01-01

    Secretory granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells is known to involve massive membrane flow. In previous studies we have undertaken morphometry of the regranulation mechanism in these cells and in mast cells as a model for cellular membrane movement. In our current work, electron micrographs of pancreatic acinar cells from ICR mice were taken at several time points after extensive degranulation induced by pilocarpine injection in order to investigate the volume changes of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), nucleus, mitochondria and autophagosomes. At 2–4 h after stimulation, when the pancreatic cells demonstrated a complete loss of granules, this was accompanied by an increased proportion of autophagosomal activity. This change primarily reflected a greatly increased proportion of profiles retaining autophagic vacuoles containing recognisable cytoplasmic structures such as mitochondria, granule profiles and fragments of RER. The mitochondrial structures reached a significant maximal size 4 h following injection (before degranulation 0.178±0.028 μm3; at 4 h peak value, 0.535±0.109 μm3). Nucleus size showed an early volume increase approaching a maximum value 2 h following degranulation. The regranulation span was thus divided into 3 stages. The first was the membrane remodelling stage (0–2 h). During this period the volume of the RER and secretory granules was greatly decreased. At the intermediate stage (2–4 h) a significant increase of the synthesis zone was observed within the nucleus. The volume of the mitochondria was increasing. At the last step, the major finding was a significant granule accumulation in parallel with an active Golgi zone. PMID:10227666

  7. Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Yao; Jaw, Thomas; Tseng, Huan-Chin; Chen, I-Chun; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assay the effect of lovastatin on the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and collapsin responsive mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) signaling pathway and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in epileptic rats. MFS in the dentate gyrus (DG) is an important feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is highly related to the severity and the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures. However, the molecular mechanism of MFS is mostly unknown. GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are the genes responsible for axonal growth and neuronal polarity in the hippocampus, therefore this pathway is a potential target to investigate MFS. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus animal model was taken as our researching material. Western blot, histological and electrophysiological techniques were used as the studying tools. The results showed that the expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 were elevated after seizure induction, and the administration of lovastatin reversed this effect and significantly reduced the extent of MFS in both DG and CA3 region in the hippocampus. The alteration of expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 after seizure induction proposes that GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are crucial for MFS and epiletogenesis. The fact that lovastatin reversed the expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 indicated that GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are possible to be a novel mechanism of lovatstain to suppress MFS and revealed a new therapeutic target and researching direction for studying the mechanism of MFS and epileptogenesis. PMID:22761705

  8. The effect of STAT3 inhibition on status epilepticus and subsequent spontaneous seizures in the pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Grabenstatter, H L; Del Angel, Y Cruz; Carlsen, J; Wempe, M F; White, A M; Cogswell, M; Russek, S J; Brooks-Kayal, A R

    2014-02-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), which results in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, activates the JAK/STAT pathway. In the current study, we evaluate whether brief exposure to a selective inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway (WP1066) early after the onset of SE affects the severity of SE or reduces later spontaneous seizure frequency via inhibition of STAT3-regulated gene transcription. Rats that received systemic WP1066 or vehicle at the onset of SE were continuously video-EEG monitored during SE and for one month to assess seizure frequency over time. Protein and/or mRNA levels for pSTAT3, and STAT3-regulated genes including: ICER, Gabra1, c-myc, mcl-1, cyclin D1, and bcl-xl were evaluated in WP1066 and vehicle-treated rats during stages of epileptogenesis to determine the acute effects of WP1066 administration on SE and chronic epilepsy. WP1066 (two 50mg/kg doses) administered within the first hour after onset of SE results in transient inhibition of pSTAT3 and long-term reduction in spontaneous seizure frequency. WP1066 alters the severity of chronic epilepsy without affecting SE or cell death. Early WP1066 administration reduces known downstream targets of STAT3 transcription 24h after SE including cyclin D1 and mcl-1 levels, known for their roles in cell-cycle progression and cell survival, respectively. These findings uncover a potential effect of the JAK/STAT pathway after brain injury that is physiologically important and may provide a new therapeutic target that can be harnessed for the prevention of epilepsy development and/or progression. PMID:24051278

  9. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  10. Evaluation of comparative performance of orally inhaled drug products in view of the classical bioequivalence paradigms: an analysis of the current scientific and regulatory dilemmas of inhaler evaluation.

    PubMed

    Horhota, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, there has been a continuous evolution in scientific understanding regarding bioequivalence (BE) of oral dosage forms, intermittently punctuated by some breakthrough research findings and conceptual advances. The accumulated knowledge from this body of research has been translated into a sophisticated risk management framework of regulations and guidelines supported by an extensive set of tools and decision rules. This has permitted us to arrive at a state that now allows, in the majority of cases, not only the unrestricted substitution of a generic product for the innovator version, but also unquestioned substitution between different generic manufacturers. This framework has been successfully extended or adapted to go beyond oral dosage forms to include, for example, topical semisolid applications and nasal sprays. In the case of orally inhaled locally acting drug products (OIP), a similar level of success has yet to be realized. For OIP's, the risk management toolbox is incompletely outfitted due to missing science, knowledge, and experience in some key areas. This article presents a gap analysis of the situation highlighting unresolved residual risks. Assessment of the residual risks by US and EU medicines authorities has interestingly led to different regulatory positions with respect to BE for this class of drug products in these two regions. A parallel comparison with the history for BE of oral dosage forms shows that resolution for inhaled products will come eventually with the final outcome and timeframe, depending as much on science as it does on economics and the degree to which legislators intervene. PMID:25237840

  11. Oral liquid L-thyroxine (L-t4) may be better absorbed compared to L-T4 tablets following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Pirola, Ilenia; Formenti, Anna M; Gandossi, Elena; Mittempergher, Francesco; Casella, Claudio; Agosti, Barbara; Cappelli, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Drug malabsorption is a potential concern after bariatric surgery. We present four case reports of hypothyroid patients who were well replaced with thyroxine tablets to euthyroid thyrotropin (TSH) levels prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. These patients developed elevated TSH levels after the surgery, the TSH responded reversibly to switching from treatment with oral tablets to a liquid formulation. PMID:23824980

  12. A randomized trial of amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer combined with oral terbinafine compared with terbinafine alone in the treatment of dermatophytic toenail onychomycoses affecting the matrix region.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Feuilhade, M; Combernale, P; Datry, A; Goettmann, S; Pietrini, P; Viguie, C; Badillet, G; Larnier, C; Czernielewski, J

    2000-06-01

    In view of recent advances in the development of antifungal agents, this study examined the possible synergy of two new antifungal agents, terbinafine and amorolfine. The study compared two different courses of terbinafine treatment combined with amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer. Terbinafine was given orally for 6 (AT6 group) or 12 weeks (AT12 group) and amorolfine nail lacquer applied weekly for 15 months. A control group received terbinafine alone for 12 weeks. This was a randomized, prospective, open study of severe dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis with matrix region involvement. Nail samples were taken before the start of the study, at inclusion and at the visits at 6 weeks, 3, 9, 15 and 18 months. To assess the value of such combined therapy we chose an early parameter as the principal outcome variable, which was the result of mycological examination, including direct microscopy and culture, at 3 months (allowing a margin of 15 days). The secondary parameters of success were the mycological results at the later visits, clinical evaluation and a combined mycological-clinical response. Safety and tolerance were also assessed. Adverse events were recorded and liver function tests were performed monthly during the terbinafine treatment. Of the 147 patients included in the trial, 121 attended the 3-month visit, within a time limit of 15 days of 3 months after the beginning of treatment: 40 in the AT6 group, 40 in the AT12 group and 41 in the control group. In all, 32 of 121 patients (26. 4%) had negative mycological results on direct microscopy and culture: 14 of 40 (35.0%) in the AT6 group, 11 of 40 (27.5%) in the AT12 group and seven of 41 (17.1%) in the control group. The cure rate for the global (mycological and clinical cure) response measured at 18 months in 145 patients was 44.0% (22 patients) in the AT6 group, 72.3% (34 patients) in the AT12 group and 37.5% (18 patients) in the terbinafine group. These results suggest that the combination of amorolfine

  13. AVP-825 Breath-Powered Intranasal Delivery System Containing 22 mg Sumatriptan Powder vs 100 mg Oral Sumatriptan in the Acute Treatment of Migraines (The COMPASS Study): A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial Across Multiple Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Stewart J; Cady, Roger K; Silberstein, Stephen; Messina, John; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Shin, Paul; Siffert, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of AVP-825, an investigational bi-directional breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing low-dose (22 mg) sumatriptan powder, vs 100 mg oral sumatriptan for acute treatment of migraine in a double-dummy, randomized comparative efficacy clinical trial allowing treatment across multiple migraine attacks. Background In phases 2 and 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, AVP-825 provided early and sustained relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults, with a low incidence of triptan-related adverse effects. Methods This was a randomized, active-comparator, double-dummy, cross-over, multi-attack study (COMPASS; NCT01667679) with two ≤12-week double-blind periods. Subjects experiencing 2-8 migraines/month in the past year were randomized 1:1 using computer-generated sequences to AVP-825 plus oral placebo tablet or an identical placebo delivery system plus 100 mg oral sumatriptan tablet for the first period; patients switched treatment for the second period in this controlled comparative design. Subjects treated ≤5 qualifying migraines per period within 1 hour of onset, even if pain was mild. The primary end-point was the mean value of the summed pain intensity differences through 30 minutes post-dose (SPID-30) using Headache Severity scores. Secondary outcomes included pain relief, pain freedom, pain reduction, consistency of response across multiple migraines, migraine-associated symptoms, and atypical sensations. Safety was also assessed. Results A total of 275 adults were randomized, 174 (63.3%) completed the study (ie, completed the second treatment period), and 185 (67.3%) treated at least one migraine in both periods (1531 migraines assessed). There was significantly greater reduction in migraine pain intensity with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan in the first 30 minutes post-dose (least squares mean SPID-30 = 10.80 vs 7.41, adjusted mean

  14. Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Naderi, Nima; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal and sometimes severe behavioral and molecular symptoms are usually observed in epileptic humans and animals. To address this issue, we examined the behavioral and molecular aspects of seizure evoked by pilocarpine. Autophagy can promote both cell survival and death, but there are controversial reports about the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects of autophagy in seizure. Cannabidiol has anticonvulsant properties in some animal models when used as a pretreatment. In this study, we investigated alteration of seizure scores, autophagy pathway proteins, and antioxidant status in hippocampal cells during the chronic phase of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy after treatment with cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (100 ng, intracerebroventricular injection) delayed the chronic phase of epilepsy. Single administration of cannabidiol during the chronic phase of seizure significantly diminished seizure scores such as mouth clonus, head nodding, monolateral and bilateral forelimb clonus and increased the activity of catalase enzyme and reduced glutathione content. Such a protective effect in the behavioral scores of epileptic rats was also observed after repeated administrations of cannabidiol at the onset of the silent phase. Moreover, the amount of Atg7, conjugation of Atg5/12, Atg12, and LC3II/LC3I ratio increased significantly in epileptic rats treated with repeated injections of cannabidiol. In short, our results suggest that post-treatment of Cannabidiol could enhance the induction of autophagy pathway and antioxidant defense in the chronic phase of epilepsy, which could be considered as the protective mechanisms of cannabidiol in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. PMID:26738731

  15. Luteal support with micronized progesterone following in-vitro fertilization using a down-regulation protocol with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist: a comparative study between vaginal and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Friedler, S; Raziel, A; Schachter, M; Strassburger, D; Bukovsky, I; Ron-El, R

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of micronized progesterone administered as luteal support following ovulation induction for in-vitro fertilization (IVF)- embryo transfer in cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, either orally (200 mgx4/day) or vaginally (100 mgx2/day) and to characterize the luteal phase hormonal profile during such treatments. A total of 64 high responder patients requiring intracytoplasmic sperm injection due to male factor infertility were prospectively randomized into two treatment groups. Patients treated orally or vaginally were comparable in age (31.9 +/- 6.1 versus 30.6 +/- 5.2; mean +/- SD), number of oocytes retrieved (17 +/- 8.2 versus 18 +/- 7.0), and number of embryos transferred (3.1 +/- 1.2 versus 2.7 +/- 0.9) per cycle. Following low dose vaginal treatment, a significantly higher implantation rate (30.7 versus 10.7%, P < 0.01), but similar clinical pregnancy rate (47.0 versus 33.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rate (41.1 versus 20.0%) was observed, compared with oral treatment. In conception cycles, luteal serum progesterone and oestrogen concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. In non-conception cycles, late luteal progesterone concentrations were significantly lower following vaginal treatment. As low dose micronized progesterone administered vaginally is simple, easy and well tolerated, it could be recommended as the method of choice for luteal support, especially for high responder patients at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:10438404

  16. Oral heparins.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Linda M

    2002-01-01

    The antithrombotic drug heparin is administered parenterally and believed not effective orally. Oral heparin would be most suitable for long term administration, often required for the prevention of thrombosis. Following parenteral administration, heparin is taken up by endothelial cells. Our laboratory has shown that heparin is similarly taken up by endothelium following oral administration, despite low plasma heparin concentrations. In a twenty-four hour period, endothelial heparin concentrations are greatest within 15 minutes of oral dosing although plasma levels never exceed one percent of dose. Endothelial uptake accounts for a considerable amount of absorption if the total body endothelium is considered. In support of oral heparin absorption, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in thrombosis incidence in a rat jugular vein model following single oral doses of unfractionated heparins (bovine and porcine) or low molecular weight heparins (reviparin, logiparin and ardeparin). Low molecular weight heparins were effective at lower doses than unfractionated heparins where a fifty percent reduction in thrombosis was observed with 0.025 mg/kg reviparin, 0.1 mg/kg logiparin, versus 7.5 mg/kg bovine unfractionated heparin. These studies support the work of others demonstrating measurable systemic changes following oral heparin administration and suggest that heparin may be effective when administered by the oral route. It also indicates that the presence of heparin in plasma likely reflects a much greater amount associated with endothelium. PMID:11934211

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  18. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  19. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  20. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  1. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–∞ (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  2. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhaohui; Xie, Yuanyuan; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC0-∞ (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic "herb pair" has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  3. RMP-02/MTN-006: A Phase 1 Rectal Safety, Acceptability, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Study of Tenofovir 1% Gel Compared with Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Cranston, Ross D.; Kashuba, Angela; Hendrix, Craig W.; Bumpus, Namandjé N.; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Elliott, Julie; Janocko, Laura; Khanukhova, Elena; Dennis, Robert; Cumberland, William G.; Ju, Chuan; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Mauck, Christine; McGowan, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to assess the safety, acceptability, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic (PD) responses to rectal administration of tenofovir (TFV) 1% vaginally formulated gel and oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). This study was designed as a phase 1, randomized, two-site (United States), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sexually abstinent men and women. Eighteen participants received a single 300-mg exposure of oral TDF and were then randomized 2:1 to receive a single and then seven daily exposures of rectal TFV or hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) placebo gel. Safety endpoints included clinical adverse events (AEs) and mucosal safety parameters. Blood and colonic biopsies were collected for PK analyses and ex vivo HIV-1 challenge. No serious AEs were reported. However, AEs were significantly increased with 7-day TFV gel use, most prominently with gastrointestinal AEs (p=0.002). Only 25% of participants liked the TFV gel. Likelihood of use “if somewhat protective” was ∼75% in both groups. Indices of mucosal damage showed minimal changes. Tissue TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP) Cmax 30 min after single rectal exposure was 6–10 times greater than single oral exposure; tissue TFV-DP was 5.7 times greater following 7-day versus single rectal exposure. In vivo exposure correlated with significant ex vivo tissue infectibility suppression [single-rectal: p=0.12, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) p=0.006; 7-day rectal: p=0.02, ANCOVA p=0.005]. Tissue PK–PD was significantly correlated (p=0.002). We conclude that rectal dosing with TFV 1% gel resulted in greater TFV-DP tissue detection than oral dosing with reduced ex vivo biopsy infectibility, enabling PK–PD correlations. On the basis of increased gastrointestinal AEs, rectally applied, vaginally formulated TFV was not entirely safe or acceptable, suggesting the need for alternative rectal-specific formulations. PMID:22943559

  4. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  5. Comparative analysis of oral health indicators among young children in Hawai'i, the Republic of Palau and Territory of Guam, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Greer, Mark H K; Larson, Keith; Sison, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries prevalence data were collected in Hawai'i, Palau and Guam and analyzed for dft, DMFT, unmet treatment needs, sealant utilization and various caries patterns. Data sets include examinations of 24,752 children ages 5 through 9 years of age in Hawai'i, 558 children in Palau and 1,518 children in Guam. Dental disease in early childhood is truly endemic throughout the Pacific basin. The findings of this report quantify in a standardized manner and contrast, basic oral health / oral disease indicators from each jurisdiction. While children from all three jurisdictions demonstrated dental disease prevalence rates which far exceed those found on the U.S. mainland, overall, children in Guam were found to be the poorest oral health indicators, followed by Palau and Hawai'i. Overall, young children at all sites exhibited excessively high caries prevalence and unmet treatment needs rates. Significant progress has been made at Palau in the past decade, however, at all three sites presented, more work is necessary if early childhood caries is to be brought under control. Findings also include an apparent negative correlation between dental sealants and DMFT rates. PMID:16276935

  6. In a high-dose melphalan setting, palifermin compared with placebo had no effect on oral mucositis or related patient's burden.

    PubMed

    Blijlevens, N; de Château, M; Krivan, G; Rabitsch, W; Szomor, A; Pytlik, R; Lissmats, A; Johnsen, H E; de Witte, T; Einsele, H; Ruutu, T; Niederwieser, D

    2013-07-01

    This randomized-controlled trial studied the efficacy of palifermin in a chemotherapy-only, high-dose Melphalan (HDM) transplant setting, to reduce oral mucositis (OM) and its sequelae measured by patient-reported outcomes (PRO) and medical resource use. Palifermin, relative to placebo was given either pre-/post-HDM or pre-HDM in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing auto-SCT at 39 European centers. Oral cavity assessment (WHO) and PRO questionnaires (oral mucositis daily questionnaire (OMDQ) and EQ 5D) were used in 281 patients (mean age 56, ± s.d.=8 years). 57 patients received placebo. One hundred and fifteen subjects were randomized to pre-/post-HDM receiving palifermin on 3 consecutive days before HDM and after auto-SCT and 109 patients were randomized to pre-HDM, receiving palifermin (60 μg/kg/day) i.v. for 3 consecutive days before HDM. There was no statistically significant difference in maximum OM severity. Severe OM occurred in 37% (placebo), 38% (pre-/post-HDM) and 24% (pre-HDM) of patients. No significant difference was observed with respect to PRO assessments or medical resource use, but more infections and fever during neutropenia were reported in pre-/post-HDM vs placebo (for example, 51 and 26%). To conclude, palifermin was unable to reduce OM or OM-related patient's burden in MM transplant patients. PMID:23241739

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  8. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  9. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  11. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  12. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  13. Dexamethasone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  14. Hydrocortisone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  15. HPLC method for comparative study on tissue distribution in rat after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Fu, Gang; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, Hui; Liu, Ai-Hua; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Guo, De-An

    2007-10-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to determine the prototype of salvianolic acid B and the metabolites of phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and ferulic acid) in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids and salvianolic acid B extracted from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, respectively. The tissue samples were treated with a simple liquid-liquid extraction prior to HPLC. Analysis of the extract was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.05% trifluoracetic acid. The calibration curves for the four phenolic acids were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations in the measurement of quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range of 88-115%. The average recoveries of all the tissues ranged from 78.0 to 111.8%. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the distribution of the four phenolic acids in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids of Salvia miltiorrhiza or salvianolic acid B and the possible metabolic pathway was illustrated. PMID:17549679

  16. Scheduling GnRH antagonist cycles by a short course of oral estradiol administration during early follicular phase: a comparative study with non-scheduled cycles.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kiper; Avci, Berrin; Uncu, Gurkan; Saribal, Seda; Ata, Baris

    2015-06-01

    This hypothesis generating study investigated whether GnRH antagonist cycles can be scheduled by a short course of oral estradiol administration during the follicular phase without impairing treatment outcome. Thirty-five women who underwent follicular phase estrogen scheduling (ES) of GnRH antagonist cycles were retrospectively matched for age and number of prior failed cycles with 35 women who underwent unscheduled GnRH antagonist cycles. ES group was given 6 mg/day estradiol orally from cycle day 2 until (including) one day before the scheduled start of stimulation. Gonadotropins were started on cycle days 2-3 in the control group. Flexible GnRH antagonist protocol was employed in both groups. ES group received estradiol for a median of 5 days. Total gonadotropin consumption was similar but one more GnRH antagonist injection was required in the ES group. Endometrial thickness on the day of hCG injection was increased in the ES group (12 versus 10 mm, p < 0.01). Number of oocytes, metaphase II oocytes and transferred embryos were similar. Embryo implantation rates were 44.8% versus 34.4% (p = 0.3), and clinical pregnancy rates were 48.6% versus 37.1%, (p = 0.33) in the ES and control groups, respectively. All women in the ES group had oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer within the desired period. PMID:25982362

  17. A comparative study between the efficacy of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shanehsaz, Siavash M; Ishkhanian, Silva

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major world health problem, which is increasing in incidence. Pentavalent antimonials have been considered as standard treatment for leishmaniasis. Many studies are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for patients with CL. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) with standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL. This study was, to our knowledge, the first to show the effect of combination therapy oral cimetidine and MA in the treatment of CL all over the world. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 patients with suspected CL were referred to the Aleppo University Hospital Clinic; 90 of these patients with the clinical and parasitological diagnosis of CL were recruited and were randomly divided into three treatment groups of 30 subjects each. Group A was treated with MA 60 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo. Groups B and C received MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral cimetidine 1200 mg/d, MA 30 mg/kg/d IM and oral placebo, respectively. The duration of treatment was three weeks for all groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was classified in three levels as complete response, partial response, and no response. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using KI square, Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Mayer, and ANOVA tests. At the end of the study (12 weeks), the rate of complete response was 91.11% in the first group, and 84.66% and 78.33% in groups B and C, respectively (P < 0.05). The highest response rate was for the group treated with a standard dose of systemic MA and placebo. Our results showed that although oral cimetidine and low-dose systemic MA had less efficacy in comparison to a standard dose of systemic MA in the treatment of CL, it still can be considered as a replacement therapy in high-risk patients (such as patients with heart, kidney, and/or liver disease) under close supervision of physicians. PMID:26108265

  18. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  19. Bleeding patterns of women using Lunelle monthly contraceptive injections (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) compared with those of women using Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) or other oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Garceau, R J; Wajszczuk, C J; Kaunitz, A M

    2000-12-01

    Persistent and/or unpredictable bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of hormonal contraceptive methods. An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of the new, highly efficacious monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) (MPA/E(2)C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of the frequently used norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). This report directly compares the bleeding patterns of women on MPA/E(2)C to those of women on NET/EE and untreated women. Overall, breakthrough bleeding occurred less frequently in women using MPA/E(2)C than in women using NET/EE (p < or =0.01). However, more women using MPA/E(2)C experienced amenorrhea/missed periods than those on NET/EE (p < or =0.01). In addition, the percentage of women experiencing breakthrough bleeding or amenorrhea while using other oral contraceptives is compared to that of women using MPA/E(2)C. A rapidly reversible method, MPA/E(2)C, combines the high contraceptive efficacy of surgical sterilization with the convenience of monthly administration. These data suggest that, for a large proportion of women, MPA/E(2)C offers predictability in bleeding patterns comparable to or greater than that experienced by ovulatory untreated women or those using combination oral contraceptives. PMID:11239615

  20. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus”) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus”) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement

  1. Immediate and delayed treatment with gabapentin, carbamazepine and CNQX have almost similar impact on cognitive functions and behavior in the lithium-pilocarpine model in rats.

    PubMed

    Gulec Suyen, Guldal; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, Naciye; Kahveci, Nevzat; Sengun, Ece; Ozluk, Kasim

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of immediate and delayed treatment with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) gabapentin (GBP), carbamazepine (CBZ) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) on learning and memory, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rats with lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). SE was induced by intraperitoneal injections of 3mEq/kg LiCl followed by 45mg/kg pilocarpine 24h later. In the first series of experiments, rats were divided into four groups three hours after the onset of SE and received GBP (100μg/10μl, two times a day; i.c.v.), CBZ (200μg/10μl; i.c.v.), CNQX (25nmol/10μl; i.c.v.) or saline (10μl; i.c.v.) for 7days. Six weeks after SE, cognitive and behavioral performances were evaluated by Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, and open field tests. In the second series, rats received no treatment for six weeks following SE. On the seventh week the same treatment with the previous rats was given and six weeks later the cognitive and behavioral tests were applied. SE significantly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze. GBP treatment improved the acqusition and memory performance. CNQX worsened the acqusition but improved the memory performance, while CBZ worsened both parameters. In the elevated plus maze, epileptic rats which received saline showed significantly lower anxiety levels with respect to the naive rats. Only CBZ led to further anxiolysis, while the other drugs had no effect. Locomotor activity significantly increased due to SE, which was augmented by GBP and CNQX. The impact of immediate and delayed treatment with these drugs on cognition and behavior seems to be quite similar. PMID:27426469

  2. The inhibition of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 contributed to neuroprotection via inflammatory reaction in pilocarpine-induced rats with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Q; Xiao, Q; Yu, W; Gu, M; Zhao, N; Lü, Y

    2016-06-14

    Recently, more and more studies support that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Although TGFβ signaling is involved in epileptogenesis, whether TGFβ-associated neuroinflammation is sufficient to regulate epilepsy remains unknown to date. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which are the key elements of TGFβ-associated inflammation, is still unclear in epilepsy. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the role of TRAF6 and TAK1 in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rat model. Firstly, the gene levels and protein expression of TRAF6 and TAK1 were detected in different time points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). 5z-7-oxozeaenol treatment (TAK1 antagonist) was then performed; the changes in TRAF6, TAK1, phosphorylated-TAK1 (P-TAK1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, neuronal survival and apoptosis, and seizure activity were detected. Our results showed that expressions of TRAF6 were increased after SE, reached the peak in 7day, maintained at the high level to 30days, and the TAK1, P-TAK1 levels were increased after SE following time. After 5z-7-oxozeaenol treatment in epileptic rats, TRAF6-TAK1-P-TAK1 signaling protein expressions were reduced, inflammatory cytokine IL-1β expression was decreased, neuron survival index was improved, the neuron apoptosis index was decreased and seizure durations were alleviated. In conclusion, the expression of TRAF6 and TAK1 are related to the progression of epilepsy. TAK1 might be a potential intervention target for the treatment of epilepsy via neuroprotection. PMID:27012613

  3. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

  4. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  5. Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 – Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 – oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain. PMID:26538690

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of active alkaloids after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract and Wuji Wan formulas in rat using a UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Yuejie; Wang, Yajie; Yang, Qing; Dong, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yiwei; Gong, Zipeng; Zhang, Ruijie

    2015-03-01

    Wuji Wan (WJW), containing Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian in Chinese, HL), Frutus Evodiae Rutaecarpae (Wuzhuyu, WZY) and Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, BS), is a classical traditional Chinese medical formula employed in treating intestinal disorders. Berberine (BBR) and palmatine (PMT) are the major active alkaloids in HL and have analgesic and anti-microbial effects. A sensitive, specific and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of BBR and PMT in rat plasma and in situ intestinal perfusion solution. In comparison with the pharmacokinetic parameters of BBR and PMT, t(1/2), C(max), T(max), AUC, CL and MRT after intragastric (i.g.) administration with HL extract alone, those remarkably changed after i.g. administration with WJW formulas 1 and 2 (herb proportions are 12:2:3 and 12:1:12). Particularly, the oral bioavailability of PMT in WJW formula 1 was significantly increased. In rat intestinal perfusion experiments, the apparent permeability coefficient value of PMT was (1.45 ± 0.72) × 10(-5) cm/s when perfusion with HL was performed, and the value was significantly increased to (3.92 ± 0.52) × 10(-5) cm/s on perfusion with WJW formula 1. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetic parameters and absorption of BBR and PMT are affected by the other herbs or ingredients from WJW formulas. PMID:24577954

  7. A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Myrislignan by UHPLC-MS After Oral Administration of a Monomer and Myristica fragrans Extract to Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Yang, Shu; Zhao, Waiou; Li, Rui; Zhao, Chengliang

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method was developed and validated to quantify myrislignan in rat plasma using podophyllotoxin as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of myrislignan and IS was performed on a 3.0 µm Hypersil C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm) with methanol and water containing 0.1% acetic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. An electrospray ionization was used in the positive selective-ion monitoring mode for the target ions at m/z 397 and m/z 437 for the quantification of myrislignan and IS. The total run time was 3.6 min for each run. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.75-300 ng/mL (r> 0.995) with the lower limit of quantitation at 0.75 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision was below 11.49%, and the mean accuracy ranged from -9.75 to 7.45%. The proposed method was successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan after oral administration of the myrislignan monomer and Myristica fragrans extract in rats. Statistical analyses indicate that the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan in rats have significant differences between two groups. PMID:26774114

  8. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  9. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  11. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  12. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  13. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  14. [Tobacco, snuff and oral health].

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Meurman, Jukka H; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause 6.3 million deaths annually worldwide. The use of snuff, differing from smoking, has significantly increased especially among the adolescents. Snuff powder contains 20-fold more nicotine compared to cigarettes, leading to strong nicotine addiction. In addition to cancer development, both smoking and snuff use exert other risks for oral health. Compared with non-smokers, smokers are at a 10-fold risk for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. Snuff causes oral mucosal changes, gingival recessions and root surface caries. Smoking induces systemic low-grade inflammation, which weakens defensive immune responses in oral mucosa, gingiva, gingival crevicular fluid and saliva. PMID:26677547

  15. Oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: comparative pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Solange; Zimmermann, Stefan; Adjei, Alex A

    2014-09-01

    The development of orally active small molecule inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has led to new treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with activating mutations of the EGFR gene show sensitivity to, and clinical benefit from, treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKls). First generation reversible ATP-competitive EGFR-TKls, gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first, second-line or maintenance therapy. Despite initial benefit, most patients develop resistance within a year, 50-60% of cases being related to the appearance of a T790M gatekeeper mutation. Newer, irreversible EGFR-TKls - afatinib and dacomitinib - covalently bind to and inhibit multiple receptors in the ErbB family (EGFR, HER2 and HER4). These agents have been mainly evaluated for first-line treatment but also in the setting of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKls. Afatinib is the first ErbB family blocker approved for patients with NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations; dacomitinib is in late stage clinical development. Mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors (AZD9291, CO-1686, HM61713) that specifically target the T790M resistance mutation are in early development. The EGFR-TKIs differ in their spectrum of target kinases, reversibility of binding to EGFR receptor, pharmacokinetics and potential for drug-drug interactions, as discussed in this review. For the clinician, these differences are relevant in the setting of polymedicated patients with NSCLC, as well as from the perspective of innovative anticancer drug combination strategies. PMID:25027951

  16. Comparative bioavailability of two oral L-thyroxine formulations after multiple dose administration in patients with hypothyroidism and its relation with therapeutic endpoints and dissolution profiles.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, M; Spina, L D; Eksterman, L F; dos Santos, M J; Lima, J S; Volpato, N M; da Silva, R L; de Brito, A P; Noël, F

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of the two most commonly prescribed L-thyroxine (monsodium L-thyroxine hydrate, CAS 25416-65-3) formulations in Brazil in patients treated for hypothyroidism. Twenty-four patients received 100 micrograms L-thyroxine daily of either Puran T4 (test) or the Brazilian reference formulation (reference) during 42 days, in a two-period crossover design. Serum samples obtained over a 24-h interval were analyzed for their total T4 concentration by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Content and uniformity of the tablets and dissolution studies were also assessed according to USP 24 monograph using an isocratic HPLC-UV system and a rotating-paddle method. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters for total T4, expressed as geometric means (CV), for the test and reference were, respectively: Cmax (microgram/dl) 9.8 (14.3%) and 10.8 (14.9%); AUC0-24 h (microgram/dl.h) 206.8 (13.9%) and 230.4 (14.9%). Median values (90% CI) for Tmax (h) were 3 (2-3) and 2 (2-4) for the test and reference, respectively. 90% CI for ratios of LogCmax and LogAUC0-24 h were 86.6-94.9 and 86.3-93.4, respectively. Although the test exhibited values of Cmax and AUC0-24 h around 10% lower than the reference, these formulations must be considered bioequivalent since the 90% CI for both Cmax and AUC0-24 h mean ratio were within the 80-125% interval as proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration and the Brazilian legislation. TSH dosages within the normal range further support therapeutic equivalence between the two formulations. Dissolution data were roughly in agreement with in vivo results since both formulations comply with the USP dissolution criteria although the test tablets had a slower dissolution rate than the reference tablets. As a conclusion, the two oral formulations of L-thyroxine are both bioequivalent and therapeutically equivalent although presenting a small difference in their extent of absorption

  17. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4-8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months-<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  19. Evaluation of p16 hypermethylation in oral submucous fibrosis: A quantitative and comparative analysis in buccal cells and saliva using real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyaperumal, Subadra; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the hypermethylation of p16 gene in buccal cells and saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients using real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare the values of two methods. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 samples were taken from 60 subjects selected for this study, of which 30 were controls and 30 patients were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with OSMF. In both groups, two sets of samples were collected, one directly from the buccal cells through cytobrush technique and the other through salivary rinse. We analyzed the samples for the presence of p16 hypermethylation using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In OSMF, the hypermethylation status of p16 in buccal cells was very high (93.3%) and in salivary samples, it was partially methylated (50%). However, no hypermethylation was found in controls suggesting that significant quantity of p16 hypermethylation was present in buccal cells and saliva in OSMF. Conclusions: This study indicates that buccal cell sampling may be a better method for evaluation than the salivary samples. It signifies that hypermethylation of p16 is an important factor to be considered in epigenetic alterations of normal cells to oral precancer, i.e. OSMF. PMID:27275454

  20. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. PMID:26096889

  1. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  2. Comparative in vitro activity of oral antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Kresken, M; Körber-Irrgang, B; Biedenbach, D J; Batista, N; Besard, V; Cantón, R; García-Castillo, M; Kalka-Moll, W; Pascual, A; Schwarz, R; Van Meensel, B; Wisplinghoff, H; Seifert, H

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae causing community-acquired urinary tract infections were examined in selected outpatient clinics and hospitals in Belgium, Germany and Spain using EUCAST breakpoints for susceptibility. A total of 1190 isolates were collected. Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (28.1%), ciprofloxacin (23.4%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21.4%) compared with fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin (each, <1.5%). Ceftibuten (MIC50/90 0.25/0.5 mg/L) and ceftriaxone activity (MIC50/90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was comparable. Ceftibuten (MIC90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was also active against Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes were 7.1% for E. coli, 5.6% for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 0.4% for P. mirabilis. Resistance was common among men and elderly women. PMID:26321667

  3. An Open Randomized Trial Comparing the Effects of Oral NSAIDs Versus Steroid Intra-Articular Infiltration in Congestive Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Dieu-Donné, Ouédraogo; Théodore, Ouédraogo; Joëlle, Zabsonré/Tiendrébéogo; Pierre, Dionou; Smaïla, Ouédraogo; Christian, Compaoré; Fulgence, Kaboré; Joseph, Drabo Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy on pain and joint function of NSAIDs versus steroid intra-articular infiltration in congestive knee osteoarthritis. Patients and Methods: Open randomized study comparing a series of patients treated with NSAIDs for 21 days and another who received steroid intra-articular infiltration (SIAI) spaced at every 7 days. The visual analog scale was used for the weekly assessment of spontaneous pain and pain when walking. Lequesne functional pain scale was used to assess the functional impact of knee osteoarthritis. Results: Seventy patients were enrolled, including 35 in the NSAID arm and 35 in SIAI arm. Forty-nine (70%) had stage III of Kellgren and Lawrance scale. On admission, the average pain intensity was 50.46 ± 30.93 in the NSAID arm and 60.92 ± 30 in SIAI arm (p = 0.0189). At the end of follow-up, pain intensity was 6.72 ± 13 in NSAIDs patients and 17.80 ± 21 in SIAI one (p = 0.001). The average intensity of pain on walking was 64.41 ± 22.61. It was 53.33 ± 22.31 in NSAID’s against 74.85 ± 17.55 in SIAI patients (P <0.0001). At the end of the treatment, they were respectively 19.11 ± 11.37, and 35 ± 30.69 (P = 0.0085). Conclusion: Corticosteroid injections have a short efficacy compared to NSAIDs. Prescribing NSAIDs should consider the cons-indications, comorbidities and their deleterious digestive, renal, and cardiovascular effect. PMID:27006727

  4. Comparative genomics of oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans by in silico genome subtraction does not reveal accessory DNA associated with severe early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Argimón, Silvia; Konganti, Kranti; Chen, Hao; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Brown, Stuart; Caufield, Page W

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genomics is a popular method for the identification of microbial virulence determinants, especially since the sequencing of a large number of whole bacterial genomes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains has become relatively inexpensive. The bioinformatics pipelines for comparative genomics usually include gene prediction and annotation and can require significant computer power. To circumvent this, we developed a rapid method for genome-scale in silico subtractive hybridization, based on blastn and independent of feature identification and annotation. Whole genome comparisons by in silico genome subtraction were performed to identify genetic loci specific to Streptococcus mutans strains associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), compared to strains isolated from caries-free (CF) children. The genome similarity of the 20 S. mutans strains included in this study, calculated by Simrank k-mer sharing, ranged from 79.5% to 90.9%, confirming this is a genetically heterogeneous group of strains. We identified strain-specific genetic elements in 19 strains, with sizes ranging from 200 to 39 kb. These elements contained protein-coding regions with functions mostly associated with mobile DNA. We did not, however, identify any genetic loci consistently associated with dental caries, i.e., shared by all the S-ECC strains and absent in the CF strains. Conversely, we did not identify any genetic loci specific with the healthy group. Comparison of previously published genomes from pathogenic and carriage strains of Neisseria meningitidis with our in silico genome subtraction yielded the same set of genes specific to the pathogenic strains, thus validating our method. Our results suggest that S. mutans strains derived from caries active or caries free dentitions cannot be differentiated based on the presence or absence of specific genetic elements. Our in silico genome subtraction method is available as the Microbial Genome Comparison (MGC) tool

  5. A comparative evaluation of plaque-removing efficacy of air polishing and rubber-cup, bristle brush with paste polishing on oral hygiene status: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Saurabh S.; Rakhewar, Purshottam S.; Limaye, Priyanka S.; Chaudhari, Niraj P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Over the years, professional dental prophylaxis has involved the use of rubber-cup, bristle brush, and abrasive paste for coronal polishing. Although air polishing is an excellent alternative for removal of tooth stain and dental plaque, very few studies have compared their efficacy in vivo. The present study attempts to evaluate and compare the efficacy of air polishing (test) alone versus rubber-cup polishing (control). Materials and Methods: A total of 35 individuals having generalized mild to moderate gingivitis were enrolled as the study population after obtaining their informed consent. Before commencement of the study, all subjects underwent scaling to remove calculus deposits (if any), following which the ipsilateral quadrant of the patient's mouth was randomly assigned as the test side and the contralateral quadrant of the same arch was assigned as the control side for polishing procedures. Time employed for both methods of polishing was held constant at 5 min for each technique. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after polishing and again after 15 days following treatment, for plaque and gingival status along with gingival bleeding. Results: Overall, the results of the intra-group comparison of both the polishing procedure sites indicated similar but significant plaque and gingival status changes, whereas the inter-group comparison showed no significant difference between the efficacies of both the groups. Conclusions: Air polishing and the rubber-cup, bristle brush with paste polishing demonstrated equivalent efficacy regarding removal of supragingival plaque and in reducing gingival inflammation. PMID:26759798

  6. A new co-micronized composite containing palmitoylethanolamide and polydatin shows superior oral efficacy compared to their association in a rat paw model of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Esposito, E; D, Impellizzeri; G, Bruschetta; M, Cordaro; R, Siracusa; E, Gugliandolo; R, Crupi; S, Cuzzocrea

    2016-07-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a special food for medical purposes, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, PEA lacks direct ability to prevent free radical formation. Polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol, has antioxidant activity. The combination of PEA and PLD could have beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by inflammatory processes. In the present study, we compared the effects of micronized PEA (PEA-m) and PLD association (PEA-m+PLD) with a new co-micronized composite containing PEA and PLD (m(PEA/PLD)) in the rat paw model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced acute inflammation. Intraplantar injection of CAR led to a time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, in terms of paw edema, cytokine release in paw exudates, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. m(PEA/PLD) reduced all measured parameters. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were also markedly reduced. At the spinal cord level, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was found to be nitrated and subsequently deactivated. Further, m(PEA/PLD) treatment increased spinal MnSOD expression, prevented IkB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB translocation, suggesting a possible role on central sensitization. m(PEA/PLD) showed more robust anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects compared to the simple association of PEA-m and PLD. This composite formulation approach opens a new therapeutic strategy for the development of novel non-narcotic anti-hyperalgesic agents. PMID:27095683

  7. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  8. A comparative pilot study of the effects of a dentifrice containing green tea bioflavonoids, sanguinarine or triclosan on oral bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, L E; Cuomo, J; Quesada, K; Bato, T; Camargo, P M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a green tea bioflavonoid/zinc ascorbate-containing dentifrice (Natural Antioxidant Toothpaste) on bacterial plaque biofilm accumulation. Plaque biofilms were formed and observed on saliva-conditioned synthetic hydroxyapatite disks (HA) over 4 days. Two test treatments were performed daily over a 4-day experimental period for a total of 8 treatments. Four test dentifrices were evaluated: a 0.1% bioflavonoid/0.2% zinc ascorbate; a non-active control test dentifrice; a 0.075% sanguinarine/2.0% zinc chloride dentifrice; and a 0.3% triclosan dentifrice. The repeated treatment of the HA with the green tea bioflavonoid/zinc ascorbate, the sanguinarine/zinc chloride, or the triclosan dentifrice resulted in significant reductions in total viable plaque biomass when compared to a non-active placebo control dentifrice. PMID:11460284

  9. A randomised clinical trial comparing the flexible fibrescope and the Pentax Airway Scope (AWS)(®) for awake oral tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, C; Mesbah, A; Velayudhan, A; Danha, R

    2016-08-01

    We compared awake fibreoptic intubation with awake intubation using the Pentax Airway Scope(®) in 40 adult patients. Sedation was achieved using a target-controlled remifentanil infusion of 1-5 ng.ml(-1) and midazolam. The airway was anaesthetised with lidocaine spray and gargle. The total procedure time - a composite of sedation time, topical anaesthesia time and intubation time - was recorded. The operator's impression of the ease of the procedure and the patients' reported comfort were recorded on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale. The median (IQR [range]) for total procedure time was 900 (739-1059 [616-1215]) s with the fibrescope and 651 (601-720 [498-900]) s with the Pentax Airway Scope (p = 0.0001). The median (IQR [range]) intubation time was 420 (283-480 [120-608]) s with the fibrescope and 183 (144-220 [107-420]) s with the Pentax Airway Scope (p = 0.0002). The median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores for the operator's ease of intubation for the fibrescope and Pentax Airway Scope were 83.6 (72.0-98.0 [49.0-100.0]) and 86.8 (84.0-91.0 [61.0-100.0]), respectively (p = 0.3507). The median (IQR [range]) visual analogue score for patient comfort was 85.5 (81.0-97.0 [69.0-100.0]) and 79.4 (74.0-85.0 [59.0-100.0]) for the fibrescope and Pentax Airway Scope, respectively (p = 0.06). Total procedure time was significantly shorter with the Pentax Airway Scope compared with the fibrescope, with no difference in procedure difficulty or patient discomfort. PMID:27228959

  10. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  11. The Predictability of Preoperative Pilocarpine-Induced Lens Shift on the Outcomes of Accommodating Intraocular Lenses Implanted in Senile Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Chen, Qi; Lin, Zhibo; Leng, Lin; Huang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the predictability of lens shift induced by pilocarpine (LSPilo) on the outcomes of accommodating intraocular lens (Acc-IOL) implantation. Methods. Twenty-four eyes of 24 senile cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and Acc-IOL implantation were enrolled. LSPilo was evaluated with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). At 3 months postoperatively, the best corrected distance visual acuities (BCDVA), distance-corrected near visual acuities (DCNVA), and subjective and objective accommodations were measured. IOL shifts under accommodation stimulus (IOLSAcc) were evaluated with AS-OCT. Results. The mean LSPilo was 112.29 ± 30.72 µm. LSPilo was not associated with any preoperative parameters. The mean IOLSAcc was 130.46 ± 42.71 µm. The mean subjective and objective accommodation were 1.54 ± 0.39 D and 1.27 ± 0.41 D, respectively. The mean postoperative BCDVA and DCNVA (log MAR value) were 0.22 ± 0.11 and 0.24 ± 0.12, respectively. LSPilo positively correlated with IOLSAcc (r = 0.541; P = 0.006), subjective accommodation (r = 0.412; P = 0.022), and objective accommodation (r = 0.466; P = 0.045), respectively. Conclusion. LSPilo is an independent preoperative parameter associated with the postoperative Acc-IOL mobility and pseudophakic accommodation. It may offer valuable information for ophthalmologists in determining the suitable candidates for Acc-IOL implantation. PMID:27516899

  12. Long-term decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is associated with nitration of its alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Pereira, Letícia Meier; de Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2014-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy with about one third of TLE patients being refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity is fundamental to the discovery of new drug targets. Brain Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity is associated with changes in the alpha subunit phosphorylation and/or redox state. Activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase decreased in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice 60 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In addition, the Michaelis-Menten constant for ATP of α2/3 isoforms increased at the same time point. Nitration of the α subunit may underlie decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, however no changes in expression or phosphorylation state at Ser(943) were found. Further studies are necessary define the potential of nitrated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a new therapeutic target for seizure disorders. PMID:25311690

  13. Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

  14. Antagonist Targeting microRNA-155 Protects against Lithium-Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in C57BL/6 Mice by Activating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengxu; Li, Song; Li, Sheng; Song, Fan; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Guanhua; Li, Tianbai; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Sui, Hua; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155) could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and Western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study. PMID:27303295

  15. The Effects of Quinacrine, Proglumide, and Pentoxifylline on Seizure Activity, Cognitive Deficit, and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lithium-Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M.; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E.; Ajarem, Jamaan S.

    2014-01-01

    The present data indicate that status epilepticus (SE) induced in adult rats is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and cerebral oxidative stress (OS). This has been demonstrated using lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of SE. OS occurring in hippocampus and striatum of mature brain following SE is apparently due to both the increased free radicals production and the limited antioxidant defense. Pronounced alterations were noticed in the enzymatic, glutathione-S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as in the nonenzymatic; thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GST), indices of OS in the hippocampus and striatum of SE induced animals. Quinacrine (Qcn), proglumide (Pgm), and pentoxifylline (Ptx) administered to animals before inducing SE, were significantly effective in ameliorating the seizure activities, cognitive dysfunctions, and cerebral OS. The findings suggest that all the drugs were effective in the order of Ptx < Pgm < Qcn indicating that these drugs are potentially antiepileptic as well as antioxidant; however, further studies are needed to establish this fact. It can be assumed that these antiepileptic substances with antioxidant properties combined with conventional therapies might provide a beneficial effect in treatment of epilepsy through ameliorating the cerebral OS. PMID:25478062

  16. Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations. PMID:24187486

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of magnolol and honokiol after oral administration of Magnolia officinalis cortex extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Gongjun; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD) is one of the famous antidepressant Chinese formulas and is composed of Magnolia officinalis cortex (HP), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (ZZ) and Citrus aurantium L. (ZS). Magnolol (MN) and honokiol (HN) from HP are the major active ingredients responsible for the therapeutic effects of ZZHPD. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics and rat brain distribution of MN and HN after oral administration of HP extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in ZZHPD by HPLC-FLD. Compared with the HP group, Tmax (time to reach peak drug concentration in plasma) and AUC(0-τ) significantly increased in the ZZHPD and HP-ZZ groups. There was little change in the HP-ZS group in comparison with the HP group, which indicated that ZZ promotes absorption extent and defers the absorption rate of MN. The different compatibility of ZZHPD had a different degree of impact on the concentration of MN and HN in brain. The concentration of MN significantly increased in the HP-ZZ group while it decreased in the HP-ZS group compared with the HP group, which explained the concentration of compounds being slightly greater in the ZZHPD group than in the HP group. HP mixed with other medicines resulted in a decrease in HN concentration in the brain, particularly HP compatible with ZS. The results could be helpful for revealing the compatibility mechanism and providing clinical medication guidance for ZZHPD. PMID:26173910

  18. NWP06, an Extended-Release Oral Suspension of Methylphenidate, Improved Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Compared with Placebo in a Laboratory Classroom Study

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Belden, Heidi W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NWP06, a novel extended-release (ER) liquid formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), compared with placebo in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a laboratory school. Methods A total of 45 subjects ages 6–12 years were enrolled in this dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study. Following open-label dose optimization, subjects received 2 weeks of double-blind treatment (1 week of NWP06 and 1 week of placebo). The treatment sequence (NWP06/placebo or placebo/NWP06) was randomly assigned with the last day of each week-long treatment occurring on the laboratory school test day. Efficacy measures included Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) mathematics tests measured at pre-dose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dose on each laboratory classroom day. Safety assessments included physical examination, screening electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event measures, and assessment of suicidality with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results NWP06 resulted in significant (p<0.0001) improvements in the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dose (mean=7.12) as compared with placebo (mean=19.58) in the completers (n=39). Significant separation from placebo occurred at each time point tested (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours), with onset of action of NWP06 at 45 minutes post-dose and duration of efficacy extending to 12 hours post-dose. Adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs following NWP06 treatment were generally mild and consistent with the known safety profile of MPH. The most common AEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (55.6%), upper abdominal pain (42.2%), affect lability (26.7%), initial insomnia (22.2%), insomnia (17.8%), and headache (17

  19. A comparative evaluation of the effect of diclofenac sodium with and without per-orally administered methylprednisolone on the sequelae of impacted mandibular third molar removal: A cohort randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prashar, Deepti V.; Pahwa, Deepti; Kalia, Vimal; Jindal, Govind; Kaur, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of oral methylprednisolone and diclofenac sodium on post-operative sequelae after third molar surgery. Settings and Design: A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted (with institutional and university approval for dissertation) to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone with diclofenac sodium (group A) as compared with diclofenac sodium and placebo (group B) on three variables: Pain, swelling and trismus, after third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive consenting patients for surgical removal of mandibular impacted third molar were randomly placed into two groups of 15 each (groups A and B). Pain, swelling and trismus were observed by visual analog scale, facial measurements and inter-incisal opening. Scores were recorded after 24 and 72 h and on the seventh post-operative day. Results were subjected to the Chi-square test and independent sample t-test (P = 0.05). Results: Mean difference in pain experienced between the two groups was statistically significant at 24 h (P = 0.015) and 72 h (P = 0.001) and on the seventh day (P = 0.005). Difference in inter-incisal distance was insignificant (P = 0.239) pre-operatively, but significant after 24 h (P = 0.014) and 72 h (P = 0.001) and on the seventh post-operative day (P = 0.001). Mean difference in swelling was highly significant after 24 h (P = 0.001) and 72 h (P = 0.0001) and on the seventh post-operative day (P = 0.047). Conclusions: The combination of oral dose of methylprednisolone (a corticosteroid) diclofenac sodium (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) was found to be more effective than diclofenac sodium alone on the sequelae of surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. PMID:27134449

  20. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  1. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion. A high incidence of survivin protein expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26457223

  2. Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412

  3. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  4. Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Bowler, J.; Nolan, J.; Wright, E.G.; Lorimore, S.A.; Adams, G.E. )

    1991-07-01

    RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H/He mice was 80 mg/kg (0.38 mmol/kg) ip but 320 mg/kg (1.5 mmol/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg/kg (0.94 mmol/kg) ip and 1 g/kg (2.67 mmol/kg) po. Toxicity of RSU 1069 toward bone marrow stem cells was also less after po administration than after ip administration; 0.1 mmol/kg ip RSU 1069 and 0.38 mmol/kg po RSU 1069 both reduced the surviving fraction of clonogenic CFU-A cells by 50%. Oral administration of RSU 1069 resulted in lower spermatogenic toxicity. No loss of intestinal crypts was detected after ip or po administration of RSU 1069. Some nephrotoxicity was observed in half of the mice given the highest po dose of 1.5 mmol/kg of RSU 1069; this was not observed following the highest ip dose of drug. For RSU 1069 and RB 6145, administered by either route, the maximum hypoxic cell radiosensitization in murine KHT sarcomas, occurred when the drugs were given 45-60 min before 10 Gy of X rays. The degree of radiosensitization produced by a particular dose of either compound was largely independent of the route of administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, using 3H-RSU 1069, suggested that anti-tumor efficacy correlated with peak blood level of label and concentration in the tumor at the time of irradiation, which were not reduced by po compared with ip administration. Normal tissue toxicity tended to correlate with total exposure over time, which was reduced approximately two-fold by po administration. Oral administration of RSU 1069 or RB 6145, as well as being convenient, may give therapeutic benefit since dose-limiting toxicity in mice was reduced compared with parenteral administration, whereas radiosensitizing activity was less affected.

  5. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions. PMID:26632800

  6. Pluronic P85-coated poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles overcome phenytoin resistance in P-glycoprotein overexpressing rats with lithium-pilocarpine-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ziyan; Chen, Shuda; Qin, Jiaming; Chen, Bao; Ni, Guanzhong; Chen, Ziyi; Zhou, Jueqian; Li, Ze; Ning, Yuping; Wu, Chuanbin; Zhou, Liemin

    2016-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression in the blood brain barrier (BBB) is hypothesized to lower brain drug concentrations and thus inhibit anticonvulsant effects in drug-resistant epilepsy. Recently, the poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticle system was shown to overcome the obstacle of the BBB to deliver drugs into the brain. To determine whether pluronic P85-coated phenytoin poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs) target PHT to the brain, PHT-resistant rats overexpressing Pgp in the BBB were screened by response to PHT treatment after chronic temporal lobe epilepsy induced by lithium-pilocarpine, followed by direct verification of PHT transport via measurement of brain PHT concentrations using microdialysis. Thereafter, the PHT-resistant rats were divided into three groups, which were treated with PHT, PHT + tariquidar (TQD), or P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs. PHT + TQD and P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs showed anticonvulsant activity in the PHT-resistant rats and increased the ratio of the area under the curve of the PHT concentrations in the brain/plasma in comparison with that observed in animals subjected to PHT treatment. However, the ratios of the PHT concentrations in the liver/plasma and kidney/plasma following P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs treatment were much lower than those measured following PHT + TQD treatment. Thus, Pgp overexpression decreases therapeutic drug concentrations in the brains of subjects with drug-resistant epilepsy and P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs could increase these drug concentrations. PMID:27162079

  7. Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

  8. Acute administration of a small molecule p75NTR ligand does not prevent hippocampal neuron loss nor development of spontaneous seizures after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Grabenstatter, H.L.; Carlsen, J.; Raol, Y.H.; Yang, T.; Hund, D.; Del Angel, Y. Cruz; White, A.M.; Gonzalez, M.I.; Longo, F.M.; Russek, S.J.; Brooks-Kayal, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are initially expressed in a precursor form (e.g., proBDNF) and cleaved to form mature BDNF (mBDNF). Following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), increases in neurotrophins regulate a wide variety of cell signaling pathways including pro-survival and cell-death machinery in a receptor-specific manner. ProBDNF preferentially binds to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), while mBDNF is the major ligand of the tropomyosin related kinase receptor (TrkB). To elucidate a potential role of p75NTR in acute stages of epileptogenesis, rats were injected prior to and at onset of SE with LM11A-31, a small molecule ligand that binds to p75NTR to promote survival signaling and inhibit neuronal cell death. Modulation of early p75NTR signaling and its effects on (1) electrographic SE, (2) SE-induced neurodegeneration, and (3) subsequent spontaneous seizures were examined following LM11A-31 administration. Despite an established neuroprotective effect of LM11A-31 in several animal models of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury), high-dose LM11A-31 administration prior to and at onset of SE did not reduce the intensity of electrographic SE, prevent SE-induced neuronal cell injury, nor inhibit the progression of epileptogenesis. Further studies are required to understand the role of p75NTR activation during epileptogenesis and in seizure-induced cell injury in the hippocampus among other potential cellular pathologies contributing to the onset of spontaneous seizures. Additional studies utilizing more prolonged treatment with LM11A-31 are required to reach a definite conclusion on its potential neuroprotective role in epilepsy. PMID:24801281

  9. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  10. Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic). Lunelle Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M; Garceau, R J; Cromie, M A

    1999-10-01

    An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). At study enrollment, women chose either the injections or the oral contraceptive. A higher proportion of women in the NET/EE group (65.1%) than in the MPA/E2C group (48.7%) had used hormonal contraception during the month before the study (p < 0.01). Overall, 55.5% (434/782) of MPA/E2C users and 67.6% (217/321) of NET/EE users completed the 60-week trial. One-year contraceptive efficacy (13 cycles of 28 days) for MPA/E2C and NET/EE was based on 8008 and 3434 woman-cycles of use, respectively. During the first year, one pregnancy occurred in an NET/EE user for a life table rate of 0.3; no pregnancies occurred in users of MPA/E2C. One additional pregnancy in the NET/EE group occurred during the 15th treatment cycle. After the first treatment cycle, women in both groups experienced regular menses, with an average cycle length of 28 days in MPA/E2C users and 27 days in NET/EE users. Although MPA/E2C users were more likely to experience bleeding irregularities, only 2.5% (19/775) cited metrorrhagia as a reason for discontinuing treatment. The adverse events reported in both treatment groups are consistent with those expected with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives. Overall, the results of this first Phase III US clinical trial of MPA/E2C confirm this method's high contraceptive efficacy and safety, as shown in previous studies by the World Health Organization. These results suggest that a monthly combination injectable would represent a welcome new contraceptive option for women in the US. PMID:10640164

  11. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  12. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  13. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  14. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ≤ 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  15. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-μm-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  16. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-μm-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  17. Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

  18. Adherence to a flexible extended regimen for oral hormonal contraception provided in blister packaging compared with an adherence-supporting digital tablet dispenser: historical comparison of data from two clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Elliesen, Jörg; Trummer, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Background The Clyk™ digital pill dispenser helps ensure correct and consistent administration of a flexible extended regimen of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/drospirenone ; YAZ® Flex Flex), guiding users through the intake cycle and 4-day pill break and providing visible and acoustic daily reminders when pill intake is due. A study showed that the audible alarm function of the dispenser could help reduce the number of missed pills, but it lacked an appropriate “non-dispenser” group for a meaningful assessment of the impact of the dispenser on adherence. This study indirectly assessed the overall effect of the digital dispenser on adherence by comparing data from a treatment with standard blister packaging. Materials and methods One-year adherence data were compared from two similarly designed, Phase III, open-label, randomized trials of EE/drospirenoneFlex. In study 1, women used diary cards to record adherence with EE/drospirenoneFlex dispensed in blister packs (n=640), and in study 2 the dispenser was used with the alarm activated (n=250) or deactivated (n=248) in addition to using diary cards. Results A mean (±SD) of 4.3 (±4.24) missed pills over 1 year were recorded in diary cards among women who dispensed their pills from the blister packages (study 1) compared with 1.0 (±2.4) recorded by the alarm-activated dispenser (study 2). In study 2, a mean of 1.9 (±4.2) missed pills were reported in the diaries over 1 year compared with 4.4 (±9.1) from automatic recording by the dispenser (both arms of study 2), indicating underreporting of missed pills in diary cards vs the digital dispenser. Adjusting for this rate of underreporting, an estimated mean of ten pills were missed over 1 year by women using EE/drospirenoneFlex in blister packs, or ten times more than with the digital dispenser with activated acoustic alarm. Conclusion The digital dispenser helps reduce the number of missed pills and

  19. Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  20. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  1. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  2. Oral health and older adults.

    PubMed

    DeBiase, Christina B; Austin, Shari L

    2003-01-01

    The population of individuals aged 65 and older is growing dramatically and is expected to increase 126% by 2011, compared to only a 42% rise in the population of the United States as a whole. The fastest growing segment of the older adult population is persons aged 85 and older (Figure 1). Although many members of this generation lead healthy independent lives, the challenge faced by oral health care professionals is providing care to the chronically ill and/or homebound or institutionalized older adult, particularly the oldest old and those with limited finances. Effective communication skills are essential when dealing with older adults and their families. Collaboration between medical/allied health professionals and oral health care professionals is also critical in order to accurately assess and manage the oral health needs of the aging patient. A preventive approach to oral health with sensitivity to the physical, mental, and social status of the patient is the focus of this course. Marketing strategies to alleviate common barriers to seeking oral health care among this age group are provided. PMID:12861793

  3. Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  4. Oral insulin delivery: how far are we?

    PubMed

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The mainbarriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  5. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  6. The Uptake of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes by Means of Glycated Hemoglobin versus the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among 18 to 60-Year-Old People of South Asian Origin: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vlaar, Everlina M. A.; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct comparisons of the effect of a glycated haemoglobin measurement or an oral glucose tolerance test on the uptake and yield of screening in people of South Asian origin have not been made. We evaluated this in 18 to 60-year-old South Asian Surinamese. Materials and Methods We invited 3173 South Asian Surinamese for an oral glucose tolerance test between June 18th 2009- December 31st 2009 and 2012 for a glycated hemoglobin measurement between April 19th 2010-November 11th, 2010. Participants were selected from 48 general practices in The Hague, The Netherlands. We used mixed models regression to analyse differences in response and participation between the groups. We described differences in characteristics of participants and calculated the yield as the percentage of all cases identified, if all invitees had been offered screening with the specified method. Results The response and participation in the glycated hemoglobin group was higher than in the group offered an oral glucose tolerance test (participation 23.9 vs. 19.3; OR: 1.30, 95%-confidence interval1.01–1.69). After adjustment for age and sex, characteristics of participants were similar for both groups. Overall, glycated hemoglobin identified a similar percentage of type 2 diabetes cases but a higher percentage of prediabetes cases, in the population than the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion We found that glycated hemoglobin and the oral glucose tolerance test may be equally efficient for identification of type 2 diabetes in populations of South Asian origin. However, for programs aimed at identifying people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (i.e. with prediabetes), the oral glucose tolerance test may be a less efficient choice than glycated hemoglobin. PMID:26317417

  7. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  8. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  9. Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections. PMID:22236342

  10. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  11. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  12. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  14. Drug testing in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-08-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  15. Rats with Malformations of Cortical Development Exhibit Decreased Length of AIS and Hypersensitivity to Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yelan; Sun, Danni; Yue, Zongwei; Tang, Weiting; Xiao, Bo; Feng, Li

    2016-09-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are critical brain development disorders associated with varied abnormalities in both anatomic structures and neural functioning. It is also a very common etiology to the epilepsy, in which the alteration on excitability of cortical neurons is hypothesized as one of important causes to the epileptic seizures. Due to the key role in regulating neuron firing properties, the plasticity of axon initial segment (AIS) was investigated in present study to further determine the relation between MCD and epilepsy. Our results showed a prolonged decrease in the length of AIS occurred in MCD animal models. Besides, the AIS was also found greatly shortened in MCD models during the acute, but not chronic phase of status epileptics compared with intact controls. Our findings of identification of AIS plasticity in MCD animal models and its hypersensitivity to status epilepsy are significant in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this disorder. PMID:27286680

  16. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

  17. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  18. Brain mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and glutamate level reduction in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smeland, Olav B; Hadera, Mussie G; McDonald, Tanya S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Although certain metabolic characteristics such as interictal glucose hypometabolism are well established for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of brain metabolism in a mouse model of TLE, induced by pilocarpine–status epilepticus (SE). To investigate glucose metabolism, we injected mice 3.5–4 weeks after SE with [1,2-13C]glucose before microwave fixation of the head. Using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantified metabolites and 13C labeling in extracts of cortex and hippocampal formation (HF). Hippocampal levels of glutamate, glutathione and alanine were decreased in pilocarpine–SE mice compared with controls. Moreover, the contents of N-acetyl aspartate, succinate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) NAD(P)H were decreased in HF indicating impairment of mitochondrial function. In addition, the reduction in 13C enrichment of hippocampal citrate and malate suggests decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover in this region. In cortex, we found reduced 13C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate via the pyruvate carboxylation and pyruvate dehydrogenation pathways, suggesting slower turnover of these amino acids and/or the TCA cycle. In conclusion, mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and altered amino-acid metabolism is found in both cortex and HF in this epilepsy model. PMID:23611869

  19. Comparative effects of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) on lipid profiles. Investigators from the Lunelle Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cromie, M A; Maile, M H; Wajszczuk, C P

    2000-01-01

    As part of a 60-week, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a monthly contraceptive injection containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 25 mg and estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) 5 mg (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum(R) 7/7/7), a longitudinal examination of lipid profiles was conducted. Lipid parameters were assessed at screening and at weeks 20, 40, and 60 (or the final visit) in 114 women using MPA/E(2)C and 93 using NET/EE (lipid analysis population). Extra blood samples were obtained at weeks 21, 22, and 23 in 61 MPA/E(2)C users and 51 NET/EE users (index-cycle analysis population) to investigate lipid changes during one cycle of use. In the index-cycle population, median changes from screening to week 60 showed a decrease in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo A-II in both groups. MPA/E(2)C users had a decrease in total cholesterol (C), total triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with maintenance of the total C/HDL-C ratio. NET/EE users showed an increase in total C and LDL-C, with no change in HDL-C or the total C/HDL-C ratio. Within the index cycle (weeks 20 to 23), median changes in lipid values in both MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE users were generally greatest during the first week after the injection or the start of the pill pack. The results of this first longitudinal examination of serum lipids in US women using MPA/E(2)C confirm earlier findings in women in other countries. However, a direct comparison of the effects of MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE on lipid profiles was not possible in this study because of its design and because of the baseline and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic differences between the two contraceptive groups. The results of this analysis showed that, although overall lipid values decreased, including a significant decrease in HDL

  20. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15 years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in

  1. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  2. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  3. Anticancer oral therapy: emerging related issues.

    PubMed

    Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; Collovà, Elena; Gebbia, Vittorio; Lipari, Helga; Giuffrida, Pietro; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Condorelli, Rosaria; Buscarino, Calogero; Tralongo, Paolo; Ferraù, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The use of oral anticancer drugs has shown a steady increase. Most patients prefer anticancer oral therapy to intravenous treatment primarily for the convenience of a home-based therapy, although they require that the efficacy of oral therapy must be equivalent and toxicity not superior than those expected with the intravenous treatment. A better patient compliance, drug tolerability, convenience and possible better efficacy for oral therapy as compared to intravenous emerge as the major reasons to use oral anticancer agents among oncologists. Inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variations in the bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs may be more relevant than for intravenous agents. Compliance is particularly important for oral therapy because it determines the dose-intensity of the treatment and ultimately treatment efficacy and toxicity. Patient stands as the most important determinant of compliance. Possible measures for an active and safe administration of oral therapy include a careful preliminary medical evaluation and selection of patients based on possible barriers to an adequate compliance, pharmacologic issues, patient-focused education, an improvement of the accessibility to healthcare service, as well as the development of home-care nursing symptom-focused interventions. Current evidences show similar quality of life profile between oral and intravenous treatments, although anticancer oral therapy seems to be more convenient in terms of administration and reduced time lost for work or other activities. Regarding cost-effectiveness, current evidences are in favor of oral therapy, mainly due to reduced need of visits and/or day in hospital for the administration of the drug and/or the management of adverse events. PMID:20570443

  4. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  5. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  6. Validation and Impact of Caregivers’ Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior on Children’s Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Campagna, Elizabeth; Braun, Patricia A; Henderson, William G; Bryant, Lucinda L; Batliner, Terrence S; Quissell, David O; Albino, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to validate oral health knowledge and behavior measures from the Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, developed to capture specific themes contributing to children’s oral health outcomes and influence of caregivers. Methods Data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial (N=992) aimed at reducing dental caries in young children. Participants were American Indian/Alaska Native caregivers with a child aged three to five years enrolled in a Navajo Nation Head Start Center. Caregivers completed the questionnaire at enrollment with concomitant evaluation of children for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Oral health knowledge and behavior outcomes were compared with convergent measures (participant sociodemographic characteristics, oral health attitudes, indicators of oral health status). Results Caregiver oral health knowledge was significantly associated with education, income, oral health behavior, and all but one of the oral health attitude measures. Behavior was significantly associated with several measures of oral health attitudes and all but one measure of oral health status. As the behavior score improved, dmfs declined, child/caregiver overall oral health status improved, and pediatric oral health quality of life improved. Conclusions Questionnaire measures were valid for predicting specific caregiver factors potentially contributing to children’s oral health status. PMID:26892215

  7. New issues in oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphisms in CYP2C9, a critical cytochrome P-450 enzyme in the metabolism of warfarin, alters its clearance and affects dosing. CYP*1 has higher activity than either the *2 or *3 variants, and patients with the *2 or *3 variants require a lower dose. VKORC1 is the enzyme inhibited by warfarin, and its levels are affected by several polymorphisms that can be divided into high or low level haplotypes, and patients with high level haplotypes require higher warfarin doses. The use of algorithms for dosing that incorporate pharmacogenomic information perform better than those using clinical data alone. Considerable effort is ongoing to develop new oral anticoagulants as alternatives to warfarin, and three agents are in advanced development. Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been compared with enoxaparin for prevention of VTE following hip or knee replacement. Based on non-inferiority results in European trials, it has now been approved for marketing in Europe. Phase III trials with a new oral Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, have been completed in hip or knee replacement, and rivaroxaban was superior to enoxaparin in prevention of VTE with no increase in bleeding complications. Phase III studies with apixaban, another oral Xa inhibitor, are in progress. These agents are also being evaluated in large studies for prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation and for VTE treatment. PMID:19074093

  8. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  9. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  10. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  11. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  12. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  13. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  14. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  15. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

  16. Oral-systemic health during pregnancy: exploring prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and behavioral skills.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse. PMID:25366104

  17. Oral Health in Elders with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Campos, Camila Heitor; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate objectively and subjectively the oral health of elders with Parkinson's disease (PD), using clinical oral assessments and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Subjects included 37 removable prosthesis wearers, 17 with PD (mean age 69.59±5.09 years) and 20 without PD (mean age 72.00±5.69 years). The objective assessment included an evaluation of oral characteristics, including the number of remaining teeth, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), visible plaque index (VPI), salivary flow rate and removable prosthesis conditions. The subjective assessment included self-perception of oral health collected using the GOHAI index. The number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI, salivary flow rate and GOHAI data were compared between the groups using t-tests. Removable prosthesis conditions were analyzed using χ2 tests (p<0.05). There were no group differences in the number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI or salivary flow rate (p>0.05). Greater maxillary prosthesis defects were observed in the control group (p=0.037). GOHAI scores were low for the PD group and moderate for controls, yielding a group difference (p=0.04). In conclusion, elders with PD have similar oral health to controls. Although all elders had few remaining teeth, high DMFT and high VPI, PD elders had more negative self-perceptions of their oral health than did the controls. PMID:27224571

  18. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe Dos Santos; Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa de; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-03-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  19. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  1. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  2. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  3. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  4. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted diseases.Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat ... your doctor.Oral contraceptives come in many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different ...

  5. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  6. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  7. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  8. Personality traits in patients with oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toshiko; Yamakura, Daiki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kameyama, Atsushi; Morinaga, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2014-01-01

    Many patients presenting at oral malodor clinics have psychological halitosis, which is characterized as being obsessive about having oral malodor or being distressed from a keen awareness of oral odor. We used the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG) to evaluate personality traits in patients presenting at the oral malodor clinic of this institute. The incidence of each TEG personality type was compared between a total of 600 patients presenting at the clinic and a cohort of healthy individuals. Differences were found between the malodor patient and healthy groups. Nurturing Parent (NP)-dominant, Adult (A)-dominant, inverse N (NP low, Free Child high), showed a significant decrease of 6.7, 11.3, and 3.6%, respectively; whereas N (A low) and N (NP high, Free Child low) showed a significant increase of 3.3 and 6.4%, respectively (p < 0.01). PMID:25477041

  9. No Mental Health without Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve

    2016-05-01

    The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802

  10. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  11. The effect of chlorhexidine in reducing oral colonisation in geriatric patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885

  12. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small. PMID:12278397

  13. Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.

    2012-10-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

  14. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  15. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  16. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder. PMID:26617710

  17. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  18. [FEATURES MORPHOLOGICAL PICTURE FACIES ORAL LIQUID IN PREGNANT].

    PubMed

    Iakovets, O V

    2015-01-01

    The features of morphological picture facies oral fluid of pregnant women with intact periodontal inflammatory diseases periodontal tissues. Results of the study were compared with the clinical picture. The features of morphological picture of the oral liquid with a healthy non-pregnant and periodontal inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. Revealed signs of inflammation markers in oral fluid facies in inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues. PMID:27089718

  19. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  20. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  1. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  2. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient There are many types of oral hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on ...

  3. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  4. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  5. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  6. Oral Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

    2014-09-01

    'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  7. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  8. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  9. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  10. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  11. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  12. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  13. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  14. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  15. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  16. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  17. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  18. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  19. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  20. Novel nanocarrier for oral Hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Amit K; Bhat, Madhusudan; Srivastava, Sandeep; Kottarath, Sarat K; Prashant, Chandravilas K

    2016-06-01

    Oral vaccination is a safe, cost effective and non-invasive method suitable for mass immunization. We fabricated nanoparticle (NP) with 14kd polycaprolactone (PCL) entrapping hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) stabilized with Pluronics® F127 and used it as oral delivery vehicle. We evaluated its efficacy for specific antibody production and compared with parenteral routes of immunization in mice. We found a superior antibody response with a higher titer of anti-HBsAg antibody till 2 months following single oral administration compared to other routes of immunization and conventional alum-based HBsAg vaccine. The NPs with the antigen were found in the macrophages in small intestinal villi, peripheral lymph nodes and other reticulo-endothelial organs 2 months after oral administration. This study suggests the efficacy of the current nanocarrier system for efficient antigen presentation disseminated in peripheral lymphoid tissues following oral administration with a prolonged antibody response, which can minimize the requirement of booster dose. PMID:27156634

  1. Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli

    2016-01-01

    Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion hi