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1

Randomized controlled trial of pilocarpine hydrochloride for the moderation of oral mucositis during autologous blood stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilocarpine hydrochloride has been reported to increase salivation and decrease oral mucositis in patients receiving head and neck radiotherapy, but there is only one report of its use in a cancer chemotherapy patient population. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy of pilocarpine for the moderation of oral mucositis during autologous blood stem cell transplantation.

P B Lockhart; M T Brennan; M L Kent; C H Packman; H J Norton; P C Fox; G Frenette

2005-01-01

2

A new transdermal delivery system for pilocarpine in glaucoma treatment.  

PubMed

We studied the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect and the side effects of a new transdermal delivery system (TDS) containing pilocarpine. After giving their written informed consent, patients were randomly assigned to receive a pilocarpine TDS or a placebo TDS. Two patches, each containing 30 mg of pilocarpine or placebo, were applied to the supraclavicular skin of 24 patients. The IOP was recorded before and at +12, 16, and 20 h after application. Plasma samples were analyzed for pilocarpine before treatment and 12 and 20 h later via high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of drug remaining on the dermal patches was analyzed at 20 h. The mean IOP recorded before application was 22.7 +/- 5.8 mmHg. As compared with the placebo TDS, the pilocarpine TDS did not significantly reduce IOP at 12, 16, or 20 h after application (P = 0.42). The mean plasma concentrations were 2.9 ng/ml at 12 h and 1.3 ng/ml at 20 h. The verum TDS showed a residual mean drug concentration of 35.3 mg pilocarpine on the TDS. A substantial amount of pilocarpine was released from the TDS to the dermis, causing detectable plasma levels of pilocarpine at 12 and 20 h after administration. The pilocarpine TDS is a new nonocular pharmaceutical device that should avoid the side effects well known in glaucoma treatment when conventional eye drops are used. PMID:8911949

Dinslage, S; Diestelhorst, M; Hille, T; Otto, K

1996-09-01

3

Differential changes in mGlu2 and mGlu3 gene expression following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: A comparative real-time PCR analysis  

PubMed Central

Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu II) receptors subtype 2 and 3 (mGlu2 and mGlu3) are subtle regulators of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. In recent years, researchers have investigated the potential neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of compounds acting on mGlu II receptors. However, abnormal expression and function of mGlu2 and mGlu3 have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy, a phenomena that may limit the therapeutic effectiveness of these potentially new antiepileptic drugs. Here, we investigated seizure-induced changes in mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNA following pilocarpine-inducted status epilepticus (SE) and subsequent epileptogenesis. Relative changes in gene expression were assessed by comparative analysis of quantitative real-time PCR (qrtPCR) by the delta-delta CT method. Pilocarpine-treated and control rats were sacrificed at different periods (24h, 10 days, one month and more than two months) following SE. Total RNA was isolated from microdissected dentate gyrus and processed for RT-PCR and qrtPCR using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an endogenous control gene. Analysis of relative quantification (RQ) ratios of mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNA expression revealed a significant down-regulation of both targets at 24h after SE. Gene expression partially recovered at 10 days following SE reaching control levels at one month after SE. Two month after SE, mGlu2 mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated to ~41% of control expression whereas mGlu3 mRNA was comparable to control levels. Our data indicate that mGlu2 and mGlu3 expression is dynamically down-regulated or selectively enhanced during critical periods of epileptogenesis. Seizure-induced differential dysregulation of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors may affect the availability of these molecular targets for therapeutic compounds in epilepsy.

Ermolinsky, Boris; Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Zarei, Masoud; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

2008-01-01

4

200890_pilocarpine_Clinical_PREA  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 2. Prevention of postoperative elevated IOP associated ... for pilocarpine induced intraocular pressure reduction is ... 2) a corneal ulcer, ocular infection ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

5

Pilocarpine Disposition and Salivary Flow Responses Following Intravenous Administration to Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral doses of pilocarpine increase salivary flow rates in patients afflicted with xerostomia (dry mouth). This study examined the pharmacokinetics of and a pharmacodynamic response (salivation) to intravenous pilocarpine nitrate administration in dogs. Disposition was linear over a dose range of 225–600 µg\\/kg; plasma concentrations were 10–120 µg\\/L. Elimination was rapid and generally biphasic, with a terminal elimination half-life of

Margaret L. Weaver; Jason M. Tanzer; Paul A. Kramer

1992-01-01

6

Comparative gastrointestinal safety of weekly oral bisphosphonates  

PubMed Central

Summary Weekly bisphosphonates are the primary agents used to treat osteoporosis. Although these agents are generally well tolerated, serious gastrointestinal adverse events, including hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleed, may arise. We compared the gastrointestinal safety between weekly alendronate and weekly risedronate and found no important difference between new users of these agents. Introduction Weekly bisphosphonates are the primary agents prescribed for osteoporosis. We examined the comparative gastrointestinal safety between weekly bisphosphonates. Methods We studied new users of weekly alendronate and weekly risedronate from June 2002 to August 2005 among enrollees in a state-wide pharmaceutical benefit program for seniors. Our primary outcome was hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal bleed. Secondary outcomes included outpatient diagnoses for upper gastrointestinal disease, symptoms, endoscopic procedures, use of gastroprotective agents, and switching between therapies. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compare outcomes between agents within 120 days of treatment initiation, adjusting for propensity score quintiles. We also examined composite safety outcomes and stratified results by age and prior gastrointestinal history. Results A total of 10,420 new users were studied, mean age=79 years (SD, 6.9), and 95% women. We observed 31 hospitalizations for upper gastrointestinal bleed (0.91 per 100 person-years) within 120 days of treatment initiation. Adjusting for covariates, there was no difference in hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal bleed among those treated with risedronate compared with alendronate (HR, 1.12; 95%CI, 0.55 to 2.28). Risedronate switching rates were lower; otherwise, no differences were observed for secondary or composite outcomes. Conclusions We found no important difference in gastrointestinal safety between weekly oral bisphosphonates.

Katz, J. N.; Brookhart, M. A.; Sturmer, T.; Stedman, M. R.; Levin, R.; Solomon, D. H.

2012-01-01

7

Does Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy in Adult Rats Require Status epilepticus?  

PubMed Central

Pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats provide a widely animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Some evidences reported in the literature suggest that at least 1 h of status epilepticus (SE) is required to produce subsequent chronic phase, due to the SE-related acute neuronal damage. However, recent data seems to indicate that neuro-inflammation plays a crucial role in epileptogenesis, modulating secondarily a neuronal insult. For this reason, we decided to test the following hypotheses: a) whether pilocarpine-injected rats that did not develop SE can exhibit long-term chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and b) whether acute neurodegeneration is mandatory to obtain chronic epilepsy. Therefore, we compared animals injected with the same dose of pilocarpine that developed or did not SE, and saline treated rats. We used telemetric acquisition of EEG as long-term monitoring system to evaluate the occurrence of seizures in non-SE pilocarpineinjected animals. Furthermore, histology and MRI analysis were applied in order to detect neuronal injury and neuropathological signs. Our observations indicate that non-SE rats exhibit SRS almost 8 (+/22) months after pilocarpine-injection, independently to the absence of initial acute neuronal injury. This is the first time reported that pilocarpine injected rats without developing SE, can experience SRS after a long latency period resembling human pathology. Thus, we strongly emphasize the important meaning of including these animals to model human epileptogenesis in pilocarpine induced epilepsy.

Navarro Mora, Graciela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Chakir, Asmaa; Nicolato, Elena; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

2009-01-01

8

Pilocarpine  

MedlinePLUS

... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people with ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a day. ...

9

Inhibition of Grooming by Pilocarpine Differs in High and Low-Yawning Sublines of Sprague–Dawley Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the effect of pilocarpine, a muscarinic receptor agonist, on grooming, scored during 45 min via a time-sampling procedure, was carried out on two sublines of male rats selectively bred for high-(HY) and low-yawning (LY) frequency. In one condition, we introduced rats in a novel cage and observed them immediately after receiving an IP injection of pilocarpine

J. R. EGUIBAR; A. MOYAHO

1997-01-01

10

Does salivary gland scintigraphy predict response to pilocarpine in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This study was undertaken to determine whether standard salivary gland scintigraphy may be used for the objective assessment\\u000a of salivary gland sialogogues, in particular oral pilocarpine, in the treatment of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Nine patients,\\u000a with xerostomia following radiotherapy to the head and neck region underwent salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium-99m\\u000a pertechnetate (40 MBq) both before and following 1 month of

Rachel A. Cooper; Richard A. Cowan; Susan E. Owens; Stephen P. Jeans; Jacqueline K. Roberts; Philip G. Hillel; Nicholas J. Slevin; Ernest Allan; Nirmal K. Gupta; Conor D. Collins

1999-01-01

11

Development and disappearance of subsensitivity to pilocarpine following a single administration of the irreversible anticholinesterase angent, DFP.  

PubMed

The present study examined the possibility that subsensitivity to pilocarpine might occur following a single injection of the irreversible anticholinesterase agent, DFP. In one experiment male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to drink from experimental drinking chambers for 1/2 h per day. After establishment of baselines, pilocarpine hydrochloride (8 mg/kg) was injected i.p. 5 min before the drinking session. One week later DFP or the arachis oil vehicle (1 mg/kg) was injected intramuscularly and injections of pilocarpine were given at varying times thereafter. The suppression of water intake by this dose of pilocarpine was unaffected by pretreatment with arachis oil, but was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with DFP. This subsensitivity was first observed on the second day but had largely disappeared by the 14th day. DFP was found to have comparable effects on water intake and brain acetylcholinesterase activity when the injections were separated by 20 days. In a second experiment the hypothermic effects of pilocarpine were found to be reduced in rats acutely treated with DFP. These data establish that subsensitivity to pilocarpine occurs following a single administration of DFP. This subsensitivity could reflect a reduced sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors to acetylcholine, which may partially account for the behavioural recovery of the rats while acetylcholinesterase activity is still markedly depressed. PMID:406629

Overstreet, D H; Helps, S C; Prescott, A M; Schiller, G D

1977-05-01

12

Seizure susceptibility in intact and ovariectomized female rats treated with the convulsant pilocarpine  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous neuroendocrinological studies of seizures, the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures and epilepsy remains unclear. This may be due to the fact that previous studies have not systematically compared distinct endocrine conditions and included all relevant controls. The goal of the present study was to conduct such a study using pilocarpine as chemoconvulsant. Thus, age and weight-matched, intact or ovariectomized rats were tested to determine incidence of status epilepticus and to study events leading to status. Intact female rats were sampled at each cycle stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus 2). Convulsant was administered at the same time of day, 10:00–10:30 a.m. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significantly lower incidence of status on the morning of estrus, but differences were attenuated in older animals. Ovariectomized rats were distinct in their rapid progression to status. These results show that the incidence of status in female rats following pilocarpine injection, and the progression to pilocarpine-induced status, are influenced by reproductive state as well as age. The hormonal milieu present specifically on the morning of estrus appears to decrease susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced status, particularly at young ages. In contrast, the chronic absence of reproductive steroids that characterizes the ovariectomized rat leads to a more rapid progression to status. This dissociation between incidence vs. progression provides new insight into the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures.

Scharfman, Helen E.; Goodman, Jeffrey H.; Rigoulot, Marie-Aude; Berger, Russell E.; Walling, Susan G.; Mercurio, Thomas C.; Stormes, Kerry; Maclusky, Neil J.

2008-01-01

13

Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and oral antidiabetic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated their role on renal outcomes by using a national Veterans Administration database to assemble a retrospective cohort of 93,577 diabetic patients who filled an incident oral antidiabetic drug prescription for metformin, sulfonylurea, or rosiglitazone, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60?ml/min or better. The primary composite outcome was a persistent decline in eGFR from baseline of 25% or more (eGFR event) or a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was an eGFR event, ESRD, or death. Sensitivity analyses included using a more stringent definition of the eGFR event requiring an eGFR <60?ml/min per 1.73?m2 in addition to the 25% or more decline; controlling for baseline proteinuria thereby restricting data to 15,065 patients; and not requiring persistent treatment with the initial oral antidiabetic drug. Compared to patients using metformin, sulfonylurea users had an increased risk for both the primary and the secondary outcome, each with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.20. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. The risk associated with rosiglitazone was similar to metformin for both outcomes. Thus, compared to metformin, oral antidiabetic drug treatment with sulfonylureas increased the risk of a decline in eGFR, ESRD, or death.

Hung, Adriana M; Roumie, Christianne L; Greevy, Robert A; Liu, Xulei; Grijalva, Carlos G; Murff, Harvey J; Ikizler, T Alp; Griffin, Marie R

2012-01-01

14

Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and oral antidiabetic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated their role on renal outcomes by using a national Veterans Administration database to assemble a retrospective cohort of 93,577 diabetic patients who filled an incident oral antidiabetic drug prescription for metformin, sulfonylurea, or rosiglitazone, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60?ml/min or better. The primary composite outcome was a persistent decline in eGFR from baseline of 25% or more (eGFR event) or a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was an eGFR event, ESRD, or death. Sensitivity analyses included using a more stringent definition of the eGFR event requiring an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in addition to the 25% or more decline; controlling for baseline proteinuria thereby restricting data to 15,065 patients; and not requiring persistent treatment with the initial oral antidiabetic drug. Compared to patients using metformin, sulfonylurea users had an increased risk for both the primary and the secondary outcome, each with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.20. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. The risk associated with rosiglitazone was similar to metformin for both outcomes. Thus, compared to metformin, oral antidiabetic drug treatment with sulfonylureas increased the risk of a decline in eGFR, ESRD, or death. PMID:22258320

Hung, Adriana M; Roumie, Christianne L; Greevy, Robert A; Liu, Xulei; Grijalva, Carlos G; Murff, Harvey J; Ikizler, T Alp; Griffin, Marie R

2012-01-18

15

Nonlinear Dynamics of EEG in Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background: Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model shows stereotypic EEG changes and behavioral char - acteristics. Although neuronal damages and therapeutic responses are also dependent on SE stages, the dynamical aspect of underlying neuronal interaction according to the SE stages has not been studied. We applied nonlinear analy - sis to the EEG recorded from pilocarpine-induced SE model to characterize

Ki-Young Jung; Jae-Moon Kim; Tae-Woo Kim; Hee-Dong Park; Dong-Wook Kim

2003-01-01

16

Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia  

PubMed Central

Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ?0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated.

Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

2011-01-01

17

Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats Involves Ischemic and Excitotoxic Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The neuron loss characteristic of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy patients is thought to be the result of excitotoxic, rather than ischemic, injury. In this study, we assessed changes in vascular structure, gene expression, and the time course of neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex during the acute period after onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Immediately after 2 hr SE, the subgranular layers of somatosensory cortex exhibited a reduced vascular perfusion indicative of ischemia, whereas the immediately adjacent supragranular layers exhibited increased perfusion. Subgranular layers exhibited necrotic pathology, whereas the supergranular layers were characterized by a delayed (24 h after SE) degeneration apparently via programmed cell death. These results indicate that both excitotoxic and ischemic injuries occur during pilocarpine-induced SE. Both of these degenerative pathways, as well as the widespread and severe brain damage observed, should be considered when animal model-based data are compared to human pathology.

Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Merigo, Flavia; Galie, Mirco; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Farace, Paolo; Nicolato, Elena; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea

2007-01-01

18

Comparative study of adverse effects of oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Several general comments are offered regarding the detailed comparison of clinical and metabolic effects of combined-type oral contraceptives made by Dr. W.G. McBride et al. The findings are compared with the results of these researchers. The use of the term "19-nortestosterone" or "derived from testosterone" to describe certain progestogens is disliked for the following reasons: norethisterone, lynestrenol, ethynodiol diacetate, norethynodrel and norgestrel are not manufactured from testosterone or 19-testosterone and have endocrine properties dissimilar to these compounds. The first 4 progestogens are estranes, and norgestrel is a gonane. This terminology is much preferred. Women in McBride's group received products containing 2 different estrogens, and it is felt that grouping together OCs containing 2 different estrogens at several different dose levels, in combination with many different progestogens, makes for too heterogeneous a group. In the research of these 2 commenters the attempt has been made wherever possible to use women as their own controls by comparing results before and during treatment. Using this method ethynyloestradiol or mestranol were given alone to healthy young volunteers and then the same daily of estrogen was administered for a second 21-day course, but this time in combination with various progestogens. Clinical and biochemical data have also been accumulated from women taking most commerically available OCs. The metabolic results are contrasted with McBride's who compared untreated controls with women receiving a variety of different products. A significant fall was seen in serum cholesterol level in women changed to the low estrogen OC Nordette from other products after only 1 cycle of treatment. McBride reported a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with products containing "19-nortestosterone" progestogens. It is doubtful whether this small increase in AST is biologically meaningful. The day-to-day variation in serum AST for healthy women was found to be much greater than reported by McBride, using the same method. PMID:4444620

Briggs, M; Briggs, M

1974-11-01

19

Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities are reduced in rat striatum and frontal cortex after pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated the alterations on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in rat striatum and frontal cortex caused by pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group), with the association of 0.9% saline (i.p.) plus pilocarpine (400mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min before of administration of saline (pilocarpine group). After the treatments all groups were observed for 1h. The ChAT and AChE activities were measured using spectrophotometric methods and the results compared to values obtained from saline-treated animals. In pilocarpine group was observed a significantly decreases in ChAT and AChE activities in striatum and frontal cortex of adult rats, when compared to control group. Results showed that during acute phase of seizures striatal and frontal cortex ChAT and AChE activities are diminished. Our findings suggest that seizures caused cognitive dysfunction and decreases of ChAT and AChE activities that might be related, at least in part, to the neurological problems presented by epileptic patients. PMID:19932735

Sales, I M S; Freitas, R L M; Saldanha, G B; Souza, G F; Freitas, R M

2009-11-22

20

Comparative bioavailability of two oral formulations of omeprazole.  

PubMed

Omeprazole is a very widely used proton-pump inhibitor. Currently, there are several branches available in Mexico, however, limited information about their bioavailabilities is available. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability of two of them, Losec and Omelcid. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study that was carried out following the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. Subjects read the protocol that was approved by the institutional research and ethics committees and gave written consent for participation. After an overnight fast, volunteers received an oral dose of 20 mg omeprazole (formulation A or B) and blood samples were obtained at selected times during 8 hours. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation and stored frozen until analyzed by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis and values (+/- s.e.m.) obtained were as follows: Cmax 354.28 +/- 51.57 and 308.95 +/- 44.42 ng/ml, t(max) 2.26 +/- 0.22 and 2.63 +/- 0.24 h and AUC(8h) 701.01 +/- 109.34 and 774.13 +/- 132.84 ngh/ml for formulations A and B respectively. Log transformed Cmax and AUC(8h) were compared by analysis of variance and 90% confidence limits of the parameters ratios (B/A) were 72.73-106.34% and 90.32-124.96%, for Cmax and AUC(8h) respectively. As confidence intervals did not exceed the 70-142.9% limits for Cmax and 80-125% for AUC(8h), it is concluded that the formulations tested are bioequivalent. PMID:22128412

Flores-Murrieta, Francisco J; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam del C; Reyes-García, Gerardo; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Herrera, Jorge E

2009-01-01

21

Comparative efficacy of oral dexamethasone versus oral prednisone in acute pediatric asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to determine whether 2 days of oral dexamethasone (DEX) is more effective than 5 days of oral prednisone\\/prednisolone (PRED) in improving symptoms and preventing relapse in children with acute asthma. Study design: This was a prospective randomized trial of children (2 to 18 years old) who presented to the emergency department with acute asthma. PRED 2

Faiqa Qureshi; Arno Zaritsky; Michael P. Poirier

2001-01-01

22

Acute and chronic responses to the convulsant pilocarpine in DBA/2J and A/J mice.  

PubMed

Characterizing the responses of different mouse strains to experimentally-induced seizures can provide clues to the genes that are responsible for seizure susceptibility, and factors that contribute to epilepsy. This approach is optimal when sequenced mouse strains are available. Therefore, we compared two sequenced strains, DBA/2J (DBA) and A/J. These strains were compared using the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine, because pilocarpine induces status epilepticus, a state of severe, prolonged seizures. In addition, pilocarpine-induced status is followed by changes in the brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Therefore, pilocarpine can be used to address susceptibility to severe seizures, as well as genes that could be relevant to TLE. A/J mice had a higher incidence of status, but a longer latency to status than DBA mice. DBA mice exhibited more hippocampal pyramidal cell damage. DBA mice developed more ectopic granule cells in the hilus, a result of aberrant migration of granule cells born after status. DBA mice experienced sudden death in the weeks following status, while A/J mice exhibited the most sudden death in the initial hour after pilocarpine administration. The results support previous studies of strain differences based on responses to convulsants. They suggest caution in studies of seizure susceptibility that are based only on incidence or latency. In addition, the results provide new insight into the strain-specific characteristics of DBA and A/J mice. A/J mice provide a potential resource to examine the progression to status. The DBA mouse may be valuable to clarify genes regulating other seizure-associated phenomena, such as seizure-induced neurogenesis and sudden death. PMID:17904758

Winawer, M R; Makarenko, N; McCloskey, D P; Hintz, T M; Nair, N; Palmer, A A; Scharfman, H E

2007-09-29

23

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

24

New oral anticoagulants: comparative pharmacology with vitamin K antagonists.  

PubMed

New oral anticoagulants (OACs) that directly inhibit Factor Xa (FXa) or thrombin have been developed for the long-term prevention of thromboembolic disorders. These novel agents provide numerous benefits over older vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) due to major pharmacological differences. VKAs are economical and very well characterized, but have important limitations that can outweigh these advantages, such as slow onset of action, narrow therapeutic window and unpredictable anticoagulant effect. VKA-associated dietary precautions, monitoring and dosing adjustments to maintain international normalized ratio (INR) within therapeutic range, and bridging therapy, are inconvenient for patients, expensive, and may result in inappropriate use of VKA therapy. This may lead to increased bleeding risk or reduced anticoagulation and increased risk of thrombotic events. The new OACs have rapid onset of action, low potential for food and drug interactions, and predictable anticoagulant effect that removes the need for routine monitoring. FXa inhibitors, e.g. rivaroxaban and apixaban, are potent, oral direct inhibitors of prothrombinase-bound, clot-associated or free FXa. Both agents have a rapid onset of action, a wide therapeutic window, little or no interaction with food and other drugs, minimal inter-patient variability, and display similar pharmacokinetics in different patient populations. Since both are substrates, co-administration of rivaroxaban and apixaban with strong cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors and inducers can result in substantial changes in plasma concentrations due to altered clearance rates; consequently, their concomitant use is contraindicated and caution is required when used concomitantly with strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inducers. Although parenteral oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs), such as argatroban and bivalirudin, have been on the market for years, DTIs such as dabigatran are novel synthetic thrombin antagonists. Dabigatran etexilate is a low-molecular-weight non-active pro-drug that is administered orally and converted rapidly to its active form, dabigatran--a potent, competitive and reversible DTI. Dabigatran has an advantage over the indirect thrombin inhibitors, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, in that it inhibits free and fibrin-bound thrombin. The reversible binding of dabigatran may provide safer and more predictable anticoagulant treatment than seen with irreversible, non-covalent thrombin inhibitors, e.g. hirudin. Dabigatran shows a very low potential for drug-drug interactions. However, co-administration of dabigatran etexilate with other anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents can increase the bleeding risk. Although the new agents are pharmacologically better than VKAs--particularly in terms of fixed dosing, rapid onset of action, no INR monitoring and lower risk of drug interactions--there are some differences between them: the bioavailability of dabigatran is lower than rivaroxaban and apixaban, and so the dabigatran dosage required is higher; lower protein binding of dabigatran reduces the variability related to albuminaemia. The risk of metabolic drug-drug interactions also appears to differ between OACs: VKAs > rivaroxaban > apixaban > dabigatran. The convenience of the new OACs has translated into improvements in efficacy and safety as shown in phase III randomized trials. The new anticoagulants so far offer the greatest promise and opportunity for the replacement of VKAs. PMID:23292752

Scaglione, Francesco

2013-02-01

25

The Use of Dilute Calogen ®as a Fat Density Oral Contrast Medium in Upper Abdominal Computed Tomography, Compared with the Use of Water and Positive Oral Contrast Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion

Duncan W. Ramsay; Derrian H. Markham; Bruno Morgan; Peter M. Rodgers; Amanda J. Liddicoat

2001-01-01

26

Women's satisfaction with Norplant as compared with oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

In Wisconsin, 115 Norplant users and 148 oral contraceptive (OC) users, all of whom attended the university-administered family medicine residency training clinic in Eau Claire between May, 1991, and February, 1993, returned questionnaires as part of a study to examine satisfaction with their chosen contraceptive and its benefits and side effects. Most women were satisfied with their contraceptive method (60% for Norplant users and 72% for OC users). OC users were more likely to use their method again than were Norplant users (88% vs. 63%; p .001). Even though most women would recommend their method to a friend, OC users were more likely to do so than Norplant users (97% vs. 74%; p .001). Irregular bleeding was more common among Norplant users than among OC users (73% vs. 34%; p .001). OC users were more likely to feel that OCs caused less bleeding and less cramping than did Norplant users (72% vs. 30% and 60% vs. 30%, respectively; p .001). They were less likely to complain of acne (7% vs. 29%; p .001), weight gain (33% vs. 49%; p .04), and bleeding irregularities (8% vs. 60%; p .001) than Norplant users. Overall, both Norplant and OC users were satisfied with their current contraceptive method, but satisfaction was lower and side effects were more common among Norplant users. PMID:8195734

Eilers, G M; Swanson, T K

1994-06-01

27

New insights from the use of pilocarpine and kainate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local or systemic administration of pilocarpine and kainate in rodents leads to a pattern of repetitive limbic seizures and status epilepticus, which can last for several hours. A latent period follows status epilepticus and precedes a chronic phase, which is characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous limbic seizures. These distinct features, in a single animal preparation, of an acute damage

J. P Leite; N Garcia-Cairasco; E. A Cavalheiro

2002-01-01

28

Comparative trials of low-dose combined oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

2 studies were conducted to assess the rate of side effects among women using combined oral contraceptives (OCs). In the 1st study, women were randomly assigned to Norinyl, Norlestrin, or Ovral for 3 cycles and then switched to 1 of the other 2 OCs or stayed on the same OC. For all 3 OCs, the rates of most side effects declined significantly with the increasing duration of OC use. Cycle control appeared best for women using Ovral. There were some adverse effects due to switching from 1 OC to another. Generally, women who switched to Ovral experienced a decrease in the rate of breakthrough bleeding and those who switched from Ovral experienced an increase in the rate of breakthrough bleeding. Discontinuation rates were similar for users of all 3 OCs. In the 2nd study, women who had used Norinyl or Ovral for at least 3 cycles were randomly assigned to either Brevicon or Lo-Ovral for 6 cycles. The most noticeable effect was a large increase in the proportions of women with breakthrough bleeding; this rate remained above the preswitchover rate even after 6 cycles of either drug. In the initial cycle after crossover, there was an increase in the rate of some side effects. By the completion of the 6th cycle, the rates of side effects were generally lower than those before crossover, with the exception of breakthrough bleeding. Discontinuation rates were similar for users of Brevicon and Lo-Ovral. The results of the study indicate that although women on low-dose OCs report lower rates of certain side effects, breakthrough bleeding occurs more frequently and might adversely affect continuation rates. PMID:6854550

Edelman, D A; Kothenbeutel, R; Levinski, M J; Kelly, S E

1983-03-01

29

Randomised controlled trial comparing oral and intravenous rehydration therapy in children with diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the effectiveness of oral rehydration in children with moderate dehydration caused by gastroenteritis, and to compare the complications of oral and intravenous treatment. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Emergency department and infectious diseases ward in a large urban teaching hospital. PATIENTS--111 children aged 3-36 months who had been previously healthy, had had diarrhoea for seven days or less, had clinical

A Mackenzie; G Barnes

1991-01-01

30

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute.Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies.Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received 200 ?g\\/kg

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

31

Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8?±?10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2?±?95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180?±?520?mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3?±?1.7?mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9?±?1.2?mg/dL at after 1 month after, P?=?0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5?±?1.2?kg at baseline vs. 2.4?±?1.1?kg at 1 month after the switch, P?=?0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

2013-10-01

32

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

33

The Uses of Literacy in Studying Computer Games: Comparing Students' Oral and Visual Representations of Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper compares the oral and visual representations which 12 to 13-year-old students produced in studying computer games as part of an English and Media course. It presents the arguments for studying multimodal texts as part of a literacy curriculum and then provides an overview of the games course devised by teachers and researchers. The…

Pelletier, Caroline

2005-01-01

34

Reduction in delayed mortality and subtle improvement in retrograde memory performance in pilocarpine-treated mice with conditional neuronal deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 gene  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose Pilocarpine induces prolonged status epilepticus (SE) in rodents that results in neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits, both commonly observed to be associated with human temporal lobe epilepsy. The multifunctional neuronal modulator, cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2 or COX-2), is rapidly induced after SE, mainly in principal neurons of the hippocampal formation and cortex. We used mice in which COX-2 is conditionally ablated in principal forebrain neurons to investigate the involvement of neuron-derived COX-2 in delayed mortality and performance in the Barnes maze. Methods Using the COX-2 conditional knockout mouse (nCOX-2 cKO) and their littermate wildtype controls, we compared motor behavior and performance in the Barnes maze before and three weeks after the induction of SE by pilocarpine. Mortality rate was also measured during SE and in the week following SE. Key Findings nCOX-2 cKO mice showed less delayed mortality than wildtype mice in the week after SE. Although motor behavior and most cognitive measures were not different in the nCOX-2 cKO, upon re-exposure to the maze three weeks after pilocarpine the latency to find the previously-learned target hole was significantly shorter in the nCOX-2 cKO than their wildtype littermate controls. By this measure pilocarpine-treated nCOX-2 cKO mice were identical to mice that had not experienced SE. Significance Results point to a role for neuronal COX-2 in delayed mortality in mice during the week following SE and suggest that neuronal COX-2 contributes to selected cognitive deficits observed after SE. Taking into consideration our previous findings that neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation after SE are reduced in the nCOX-2 cKO, and opening of the blood-brain barrier after pilocarpine is prevented, we conclude that neuronal COX-2 induction is an early step in many of the deleterious consequences of SE.

Levin, Jamie R; Serrano, Geidy; Dingledine, Raymond

2012-01-01

35

A comparative evaluation of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of oral neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a comparative evaluation of in vivo fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of oral neoplasia. The study carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, involved 26 healthy volunteers and 138 patients being screened for neoplasm of oral cavity. Spectral measurements were taken from multiple sites of abnormal as well as apparently uninvolved contra-lateral regions of the oral cavity in each patient. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to one of the four histopathology categories: 1) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2) oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF), 3) leukoplakia (LP) and 4) normal squamous tissue. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm utilizing nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature for feature extraction and Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression for classification was developed for direct multi-class classification in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation mode. The results reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is considerably superior to that of fluorescence in stratifying the oral tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be 90%, 93%, 94%, and 89% for SCC, SMF, leukoplakia, and normal oral tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, with an overall accuracy of 91%. However, when a binary classification was employed to distinguish spectra from all the SCC, SMF and leukoplakik tissue sites together from normal, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy were seen to have almost comparable performances with Raman yielding marginally better classification accuracy of 98.5% as compared to 94% of fluorescence.

Majumder, S. K.; Krishna, H.; Sidramesh, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Gupta, P. K.

2010-12-01

36

Clinical utility of oral valacyclovir compared with oral acyclovir for the prevention of herpes simplex virus mucositis following autologous bone marrow transplantation or stem cell rescue therapy.  

PubMed

Oral acyclovir has been demonstrated to prevent reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections when administered prophylactically to autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients or patients undergoing stem cell rescue therapy. Oral valacyclovir, which is converted in the body to acyclovir, has greater oral bioavailability than oral acyclovir and compared with oral acyclovir yields similar acyclovir plasma concentrations with less frequent (twice-daily) dosing. This study compared the efficacy of oral valacyclovir with that of oral acyclovir at preventing HSV mucositis in BMT recipients. A total of 60 HSV-1-positive patients scheduled for BMT or stem cell rescue therapy were treated prophylactically with valacyclovir 500 mg twice daily until resolution of neutropenia. Data from these patients were compared with those of a historical control group of 60 patients who had received acyclovir 600 mg every 6 h until resolution of neutropenia or acyclovir 125 mg/m(2) intravenously every 6 h. The results show that none of the patients developed oral or oropharyngeal HSV infection while receiving either treatment. Of the 60 patients receiving valacyclovir, 38 (63%) completed treatment without the need for intravenous acyclovir compared with 12 of 60 (20%) patients in the acyclovir group. Additionally, the total number of doses of drug administered to the valacyclovir group was significantly less than the number received by patients in the acyclovir group. No serious adverse events occurred in either group of patients. This study demonstrates that oral valacyclovir and acyclovir are comparably effective and safe in preventing reactivation of HSV infections in autologous BMT and stem cell recipients. The less frequent dosing schedule with valacyclovir compared with acyclovir offers a potential advantage for patients undergoing BMT who frequently suffer with severe mucositis and have difficulty taking oral medications. PMID:12621507

Eisen, D; Essell, J; Broun, E R; Sigmund, D; DeVoe, M

2003-01-01

37

Oxidative stress in rat hippocampus caused by pilocarpine-induced seizures is reversed by buspirone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of epilepsy in humans. Oxidative stress is a mechanism of cell death induced by seizures. Buspirone presents anxyolitic and antidepressant effects due to their ability to stimulate 5-HT1A receptor. We studied the buspirone effects on oxidative stress in rat hippocampus after seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine. In pilocarpine group

Rizângela Lyne Mendes de Freitas; Ítala Mônica de Sales Santos; Geane Felix de Souza; Adriana da Rocha Tomé; Gláucio Barros Saldanha; Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2010-01-01

38

Role of the medial septal area on pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion and water intake.  

PubMed

Peripheral injection of pilocarpine, a cholinergic muscarinic agonist, induces salivation, water intake and hypertension. The medial septal area (MSA) is involved in cardiovascular control and fluid-electrolyte balance. Therefore, the effects of lesions or muscarinic cholinergic blockade in the MSA on the salivation, water intake and pressor responses induced by peripheral pilocarpine (4 micromol/kg of body weight) were investigated. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted in the MSA or submitted to electrolytic lesion of MSA were used. MSA lesion (1 day) reduced the salivation (262+/-45 vs. sham: 501+/-30 mg/7 min) and water intake (2.6+/-0.4 vs. sham: 4+/-0.4 ml/1 h) induced by intraperitoneal pilocarpine, whereas 15-day MSA lesion reduced only the pilocarpine-induced water intake (2.3+/-0.5 ml/1 h). Pre-treatment with the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine methyl bromide (4 nmol/0.5 microl) into MSA also reduced the pilocarpine-induced salivation (420+/-33 mg/7 min) and water intake (1.4+/-0.4 ml/1 h). Conversely, MSA lesions or the blockade of muscarinic receptors in the MSA did not change the pressor response induced by intravenous pilocarpine. The results show that MSA and its muscarinic receptors are part of the forebrain circuitry activated by peripheral pilocarpine that induce salivary secretion and water intake. Moreover, they suggest that different central mechanisms are involved in the salivatory, dipsogenic and cardiovascular effects of peripheral pilocarpine in rats. PMID:19728997

Paulin, Renata Fabris; Menani, José V; Colombari, Eduardo; De Paula, Patrícia Maria; Colombari, Débora Simões Almeida

2009-08-31

39

Comparable aciclovir exposures produced by oral valaciclovir and intravenous aciclovir in immunocompromised cancer patients.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparability of systemic aciclovir exposure at steady state in immunocompromised patients following oral valaciclovir 1000 mg tds and intravenous (iv) aciclovir 5 mg/kg tds. A two-centre, randomized, open label, two-way crossover study was undertaken. Patients aged 18-65 years who had undergone high-dose chemotherapy for cancer and were neutropenic (neutrophil count <0.5 x 109/mL) with normal renal function were recruited. The pharmacokinetic parameters of aciclovir after oral valaciclovir 1000 mg or iv aciclovir 5 mg/kg given as 1 h infusion, each administered every 8 h for seven doses, were compared. Fifteen patients were enrolled and 13 completed both treatments. The mean (s.d.) values for aciclovir after oral valaciclovir and iv aciclovir were: AUC0-8 76.3 (29.7) and 64.2 (20.0) microM x h; peak plasma concentration (Cmax) 26.6 (10.5) and 34.0 (11.9) microM; time to maximal plasma concentration (tmax) 2.01 (0.65) and 0.95 (0.19); and plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) 2.83 (0.91) and 2.44 (0.62) h, respectively. The mean absolute bioavailability of aciclovir from oral valaciclovir was 60 +/- 21%. Equivalent systemic exposure to aciclovir after oral valaciclovir 1000 mg and iv aciclovir 5 mg/kg was observed with AUC0-8 (oral/iv ratio = 1.16; 90% CI 0.98-1.39), whilst significantly reduced peak aciclovir concentrations were obtained with oral valaciclovir (ratio = 0.75; 90% CI 0.60-0.94). Oral valaciclovir offers a convenient, and possibly safer, alternative to iv aciclovir, delivering comparable systemic exposures with reduced peak levels. This may contribute to shorter hospitalization, reduced costs for healthcare providers and improved quality of life for patients. PMID:11389118

Höglund, M; Ljungman, P; Weller, S

2001-06-01

40

Comparability of tympanic and oral mercury thermometers at high ambient temperatures  

PubMed Central

Background Body temperature can be measured in seconds with tympanic thermometers as opposed to minutes with mercury ones. The aim of this study was to compare tympanic and oral mercury thermometer measurements under high ambient field temperatures. Results Tympanic temperature (measured thrice by 3 operators) was compared to oral temperature measured once with a mercury-in-glass thermometer in 201 patients (aged ?5?years), on the Thai-Myanmar border. Ambient temperature was measured with an electronic thermo-hygrometer. Participants had a mean [min-max] age of 27 [5–60] years and 42% (84) were febrile by oral thermometer. The mean difference in the mercury and tympanic temperature measurement for all observers/devices was 0.09 (95%CI 0.07-0.12)°C and intra-class correlation for repeat tympanic measurements was high (?0.97) for each observer. Deviations in tympanic temperatures were not related to ambient temperature. Conclusion Clinically significant differences were not observed between oral and tympanic temperature measurements at high ambient temperatures in a rural tropical setting.

2012-01-01

41

Inhibitory action of a calcium channel blocker (nimodipine) on seizures and brain damage induced by pilocarpine and lithium-pilocarpine in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studied the effect of a calcium channel blocker (nimodipine) on rat behavioural changes and brain lesions observed after seizures induced by high doses of pilocarpine (400 mg\\/kg, s.c.; P400), and the association of lithium (3 mEq\\/kg, i.p., daily during 7 days) plus pilocarpine (a single dose of 15 mg\\/kg, s.c.) administered 24 h after the last injection

M. M. F Marinho; V. M. S de Bruin; F. C. F de Sousa; L. M. V Aguiar; R. S. N de Pinho; G. S. B Viana

1997-01-01

42

Management of oral submucous fibrosis by two different drug regimens: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition of the oral mucosa. Existing treatments give only temporary symptomatic relief. Colchicine is an ancient drug with anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. We planned to study the effects of colchicine in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty OSF patients were divided randomly into two groups and treated for 12 weeks. Group 1-Patients were administered tablet colchicine orally, 0.5 mg twice daily and 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hyaluronidase 1,500 IU into each buccal mucosa once a week. Group 2-Patients were administered 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hyaluronidase 1,500 IU and 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hydrocortisone acetate 25 mg/ml in each buccal mucosa once a week alternatively. Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare pre and post treatment results. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Thirty-three percent in group 1 got relief from burning sensation in the second week. Inter group comparisons of increase in mouth opening and reduction in histological parameters indicated that group 1 patients responded better than group 2. Conclusion: These encouraging results should prompt further clinical trials with colchicine alone on a larger sample size to broaden the therapeutic usefulness of the drug in the management of OSF.

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Khan, Mubeen

2013-01-01

43

Comparative clinical efficacy of single oral doses of cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin in uncomplicated gonococcal infections.  

PubMed

Cefuroxime axetil (1.5 g) was compared with amoxicillin (3 g), both given as a single oral dose combined with probenecid (1 g) for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Of 60 evaluable patients receiving amoxicillin, 55 (91.7%) were cured, whereas 55 (96.5%) of the 57 patients receiving cefuroxime axetil were cured (P greater than 0.1). Both drugs were well tolerated. PMID:3094443

Fong, I W; Linton, W; Simbul, M; Hinton, N A

1986-08-01

44

UVB-induced inflammatory cytokine release, DNA damage and apoptosis of human oral compared with skin tissue equivalents.  

PubMed

People can get oral cancers from UV (290-400 nm) exposures. Besides high outdoor UV exposures, high indoor UV exposures to oral tissues can occur when consumers use UV-emitting tanning devices to either tan or whiten their teeth. We compared the carcinogenic risks of skin to oral tissue cells after UVB (290-320 nm) exposures using commercially available 3D-engineered models for human skin (EpiDerm™), gingival (EpiGing™) and oral (EpiOral™) tissues. To compare the relative carcinogenic risks, we investigated the release of cytokines, initial DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), repair of CPDs and apoptotic cell numbers. We measured cytokine release using cytometric beads with flow cytometry and previously developed a fluorescent immunohistochemical assay to quantify simultaneously CPD repair rates and apoptotic cell numbers. We found that interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and the initial CPDs are significantly higher, whereas the CPD repair rates and apoptotic cell numbers are significantly lower for oral compared with skin tissue cells. Thus, the increased release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-8 along with inefficient CPD repair and decreased death rates for oral compared with skin tissue cells suggests that mutations are accumulating in the surviving population of oral cells increasing people's risks for getting oral cancers. PMID:23253030

Breger, Joyce; Baeva, Larissa; Agrawal, Anant; Shindell, Eli; Godar, Dianne E

2013-01-29

45

A comparative study for selectivity of micronuclei in oral exfoliated epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Micronucleus (MN) represents small, additional nuclei formed by the exclusion of chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes lagging at mitosis. MN rates, therefore, indirectly reflect chromosome breakage or impairment of the mitotic apparatus. During the last few decades, micronuclei (“MNi”) in oral exfoliated epithelial cells are widely used as biomarkers of chromosomal damage, genome instability and cancer risk in humans. However, until now only little attention has been given to the effect of different staining procedures on the results of these MN assays. Aim: To compare the MNi frequencies in oral exfoliated epithelial cells using three different stains, i.e.,Feulgen stain, Papanicolaou stain (Pap) and hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). Materials and Methods: Oral exfoliated cells from 45 cases of potentially malignant disorders (15 oral submucous fibrosis, 15 lichen planus and 15 leukoplakia) and 15 controls with healthy mucosa, were taken and MNi frequencies (No. of MNi/1000 cells) were compared using three different stains. Results: Mean MNi frequency in cases was found to be 3.8 with Feulgen stain, 16.8 with PAP and 25.9 with H and E. In controls, mean MNi frequency was 1.6 with Feulgen stain, 7.7 with PAP and 9.6 with H and E stain. Statistically significant value (P < 0.01) were observed when the three stains were compared together using Kruskal Walli's ANOVA test. Conclusion: Feulgen being a DNA-specific stain gave the least counts, although statistically significant results from the comparison of MNi frequency between cases and controls were obtained with all the three stains.

Grover, S; Mujib, ABR; Jahagirdar, A; Telagi, N; Kulkarni, PG

2012-01-01

46

The efficacy and safety of two oral moxifloxacin regimens compared to oral clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international multi-centre, randomized, prospective, double-blind study compared oral moxifloxacin (200 mg or 400 mg once daily for 10 days) with oral clarithromycin (500 mg, twice daily for 10 days) in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).The clinical success rate in the evaluable population at the primary efficacy assessment, 3–5 days after the end of study treatment, was 93·9% in

G. HOEFFKEN; H. P. MEYER; J. WINTER; L. VERHOEF

2001-01-01

47

Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.  

PubMed

This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice. PMID:24060558

Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Milán; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidán, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

2013-09-01

48

Caffeic acid effects on oxidative stress in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the caffeic acid (CA) effects against the oxidative stress (OS) observed during\\u000a seizures. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with either 0.9% saline (control), CA (4 mg\\/kg), pilocarpine (400 mg\\/kg,\\u000a pilocarpine group), or the association of CA (4 mg\\/kg) plus pilocarpine (400 mg\\/kg). The thiobarbituric-acid-reacting substances\\u000a and the hippocampal nitrite content were significantly increased (89 and 94%,

Ítala Mônica dos Santos Sales; Katia Gomes do Nascimento; Chistiane Mendes Feitosa; Gláucio Barros Saldanha; Dejiang Feng; Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

2011-01-01

49

Altered expression and function of small-conductance (SK) Ca2+-activated K+ channels in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Small conductance calcium (Ca2+) activated SK channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability in hippocampus. Accordingly, these channels are thought to play a key role in controlling neuronal activity in acute models of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate the expression and function of SK channels in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. For this purpose, protein expression was assessed using western blotting assays and gene expression was analyzed using TaqMan-based probes and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) comparative method delta-delta cycle threshold (??CT) in samples extracted from control and epileptic rats. In addition, the effect of SK channel antagonist UCL1684 and agonist NS309 on CA1 evoked population spikes was studied in hippocampal slices. Western blotting analysis showed a significant reduction in the expression of SK1 and SK2 channels at 10 days following status epilepticus (SE), but levels recovered at 1 month and at more than 2 months after SE. In contrast, a significant down-regulation of SK3 channels was detected after 10 days of SE. Analysis of gene expression by qPCR revealed a significant reduction of transcripts for SK2 (Kcnn1) and SK3 (Kcnn3) channels as early as 10 days following pilocarpine-induced SE and during the chronic phase of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, bath application of UCL1684 (100 nM for 15 min) induced a significant increase of the population spike amplitude and number of spikes in the hippocampal CA1 area of slices obtained control and chronic epileptic rats. This effect was obliterated by co-administration of UCL1684 with SK channel agonist NS309 (1 ?M). Application of NS309 failed to modify population spikes in the CA1 area of slices taken from control and epileptic rats. These data indicate an abnormal expression of SK channels and a possible dysfunction of these channels in experimental MTLE.

Oliveira, Mauro S.; Skinner, Frank; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Garcia, Ileana; Mello, Carlos F.; Knaus, Hans-Gunther; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

2010-01-01

50

A randomized, controlled trial comparing IV iron sucrose to oral iron in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, controlled trial comparing IV iron sucrose to oral iron in anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD.BackgroundAlthough iron deficiency frequently complicates anemia in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD (ND-CKD), the comparative treatment value of IV iron infusion and oral iron supplementation has not been established.MethodsIn a randomized, controlled multicenter trial, we compared the efficacy of iron sucrose, given as 1 g

David B. Van Wyck; MICHAEL ROPPOLO; Carlos O. Martinez; Richard M. Mazey; STEPHEN MCMURRAY

2005-01-01

51

Lower gastric ulcerogenic effect of suxibuzone compared to phenylbutazone when administered orally to horses.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare the gastrointestinal and general toxicity of suxibuzone (SBZ) to that of phenylbutazone (PBZ) when administered orally in horses. Fifteen healthy horses were allocated to three treatment groups. One group received a high dose of PBZ for two weeks; the second group was given an equimolecular dosage of SBZ; and a third group received placebo. Horses were daily monitored, and blood samples were collected before and during the study. On day 18, complete post-mortem examinations were performed. One horse treated with PBZ showed clinical signs of NSAID toxicosis. Small oral ulcers were also detected in other two horses from the PBZ group and in two horses from the SBZ group. There were no statistical differences in the blood parameters among groups. Ulcers in the stomach's glandular mucosa were observed in all horses of the PBZ group, while only two horses of the SBZ group showed ulcerations. PBZ horses had a significant higher ulcerated area, and gastric ulcers were significantly deeper than those in the SBZ and placebo groups. No other lesions were found in any other tissue. In conclusion, SBZ causes significantly lower gastric ulcerogenic effect than PBZ when administered orally at equimolecular doses in horses. PMID:14672858

Monreal, L; Sabaté, D; Segura, D; Mayós, I; Homedes, J

2004-04-01

52

Muscarinic receptor binding, plasma concentration and inhibition of salivation after oral administration of a novel antimuscarinic agent, solifenacin succinate in mice  

PubMed Central

A novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, solifenacin succinate, inhibited specific binding of [N-methyl-3H]-scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in the mouse bladder, submaxillary gland and heart in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was greatest in the submaxillary gland, followed by the bladder and heart. After oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1??mol?kg?1) or solifenacin (62.4, 208??mol?kg?1), a significant dose- and time-dependent increase in KD values for specific [3H]-NMS binding was seen in the bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart, colon and lung, compared with control values. The increase in KD induced by oxybutynin in each tissue reached a maximum 0.5?h after oral administration and then rapidly declined, while that induced by solifenacin was greatest 2?h after administration and was maintained for at least 6 or 12?h, depending on the dose. The muscarinic receptor binding of oral solifenacin was slower in onset and of a longer duration than that of oxybutynin. Plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and its active metabolite (N-desethyl-oxybutynin, DEOB) were maximum 0.5?h after its oral administration and then declined rapidly. Oral solifenacin persisted in the blood for longer than oxybutynin. Pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion in mice was significantly reduced by oral administration of solifenacin and was completely abolished 0.5?h after oral oxybutynin. Although the suppression induced by solifenacin was more persistent than that due to oxybutynin, the antagonistic effect of solifenacin on the dose–response curves to pilocarpine was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. It is concluded that oral solifenacin persistently binds to muscarinic receptors in tissues expressing the M3 subtype, such as the bladder.

Oki, Tomomi; Sato, Shuichi; Miyata, Keiji; Yamada, Shizuo

2005-01-01

53

The composition of human saliva secreted in response to a gustatory stimulus and to pilocarpine  

PubMed Central

1. The composition of human saliva secreted in response to sour lemon drops (S.L.D.), and pilocarpine, was studied. 2. At a given flow rate, pilocarpine-stimulated submandibular and parotid saliva contained less sodium and potassium and an equivalent amount of inorganic phosphate, and parotid saliva also contained more calcium and protein than did the corresponding types of S.L.D.-stimulated saliva. 3. Prolonged S.L.D. stimulation did not cause a depletion in the protein concentration of either parotid or submandibular saliva and neither this procedure nor pilocarpine stimulation altered the proportions of the different proteins secreted. 4. Pilocarpine was judged to be an inadequate substitute for more physiological, gustatory stimuli. ImagesPlate 1

Dawes, C.

1966-01-01

54

[Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel].  

PubMed

Colloidal aqueous dispersions of 2 to 5% (weight) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC 4000) yield pseudoplastic mucilages and gels. Rotational viscosimetry in the cone-plate arrangement enables rapid and reproducible evaluation of the transitional region between pseudoplastic and plastic deformation, characterized by Herschel-Bulkley equation. To the traditional Ostwald's two-parameter relationship it adds a third one, revealing a deviation from the beginning of the coordinates of the rheogram caused by the limiting yield stress. The obtained equations make it possible not only to estimate apparent and real viscosity, but also the area under the curve of the pseudoplastic rheogram. The actual precondition of integration, however, is the estimation of the limiting yield stress as the shear rate for the zero shear stress. Experimental estimation of the bottom margin for the integration of the area under the curve makes mutual comparability of rheograms possible. At a temperature of 32 degrees C, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant diminution of this area in the presence of about 2% of pilocarpinium chloride. PMID:12789773

Zatloukal, Z

2003-05-01

55

Salivary Flow Induction by Buccal Permucosal Pilocarpine in Anesthetized Beagle Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether permucosal delivery of pilocarpine nitrate could be used to elicit significant salivary secretion. Pilocarpine (pKa 6.6 at 37°C) was applied as solutions (pHs 5.6, 6.6, 7.6; 15 mg\\/mL) to the buccal mucosa (2.8 cm2) of 6 anesthetized dogs. Saliva was collected continuously from cannulated submandibular and parotid ducts and blood sampled during and after drug administration. Plasma

M. L. Weaver; J. M. Tanzer; P. A. Kramer

1992-01-01

56

EAAC1 glutamate transporter expression in the rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate excitotoxicity has been involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Normal functioning of glutamate transporters clears the synaptically released glutamate to prevent excitotoxic neuronal death. Using densitometric immunohistochemical analysis, we examined the temporal expression of the neuronal glutamate transporter (EAAC1) in the lithium-pilocarpine rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. During the acute period of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, EAAC1 transporter expression

Brigitte Voutsinos-Porche; Estelle Koning; Yann Clément; Hervé Kaplan; Arielle Ferrandon; Jacques Motte; Astrid Nehlig

2006-01-01

57

Design and evaluation of novel fast forming pilocarpine-loaded ocular hydrogels for sustained pharmacological response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast forming hydrogels prepared by crosslinking a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based copolymer containing multiple thiol (SH) groups were evaluated for the controlled ocular delivery of pilocarpine and subsequent pupillary constriction. Physical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using UV–Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometry, and swelling kinetics. Pilocarpine loading efficiency and release properties were measured in simulated tear fluid. The

SivaNaga S. Anumolu; Yashveer Singh; Dayuan Gao; Stanley Stein; Patrick J. Sinko

2009-01-01

58

Central moxonidine on salivary gland blood flow and cardiovascular responses to pilocarpine.  

PubMed

Peripheral treatment with the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine induces intense salivation that is inhibited by central injections of the alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist moxonidine. Salivary gland blood flow controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems may affect salivation. We investigated the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and in the vascular resistance in the submandibular/sublingual gland (SSG) artery, superior mesenteric (SM) artery and low abdominal aorta (hindlimb) in rats treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) pilocarpine alone or combined with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) moxonidine. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannula implanted into lateral ventricle (LV) and anesthetized with urethane were used. Pilocarpine (4 micromol/kg of body weight) i.p. reduced SSG vascular resistance (-50+/-13% vs. vehicle: 5+/-3%). Pilocarpine i.p. also increased mesenteric vascular resistance (15+/-5% vs. vehicle: 2+/-3%) and MAP (16+/-3 mmHg, vs. vehicle: 2+/-3 mmHg). Moxonidine (20 nmol) i.c.v. increased SSG vascular resistance (88+/-12% vs. vehicle: 7+/-4%). When injected 15 min following i.c.v. moxonidine, pilocarpine i.p. produced no change on SSG vascular resistance. Pilocarpine-induced pressor responses and increase in mesenteric vascular resistance were not modified by i.c.v. moxonidine. The treatments produced no change in heart rate (HR) and hindlimb vascular resistance. The results show that (1) i.p. pilocarpine increases mesenteric vascular resistance and MAP and reduces salivary gland vascular resistance and (2) central moxonidine increases salivary gland vascular resistance and impairs pilocarpine-induced salivary gland vasodilatation. Therefore, the increase in salivary gland vascular resistance may play a role in the anti-salivatory response to central moxonidine. PMID:14499959

Moreira, Thiago Santos; Takakura, Ana Carolina Thomaz; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Renzi, Antonio; Menani, José Vanderlei

2003-10-17

59

Reproducibility of measurements by laser scanning tomography in eyes before and after pilocarpine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the optic disc topography of ten eyes from ten normal, healthy volunteers before and 1 h after pilocarpine treatment, using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph. The mean age of the volunteers was 26.4 years, and the mean pupil diameter before and after pilocarpine treatment was 5.5 mm and 3.2 mm, respectively. We collected a series of five to ten

Goji Tomita; Kazuhiro Honbe; Yoshiaki Kitazawa

1994-01-01

60

Comparative absorption, distribution, and excretion of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration  

PubMed Central

Background The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated. Methods Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sample was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results TiO2 nanoparticles had extremely low absorption, while ZnO nanoparticles had higher absorption and a clear dose-response curve. Tissue distribution data showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were not significantly increased in sampled organs, even in the group receiving the highest dose (1041.5 mg/kg body weight). In contrast, Zn concentrations in the liver and kidney were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control. ZnO nanoparticles in the spleen and brain were minimally increased. Ti concentrations were not significantly increased in the urine, while Zn levels were significantly increased in the urine, again with a clear dose-response curve. Very high concentrations of Ti were detected in the feces, while much less Zn was detected in the feces. Conclusions Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated higher absorption and more extensive organ distribution when administered orally. The higher absorption of ZnO than TiO2 nanoparticles might be due to the higher dissolution rate in acidic gastric fluid, although more thorough studies are needed.

2013-01-01

61

Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.  

PubMed

A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID:22783715

Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

2011-12-01

62

Brain mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and glutamate level reduction in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice.  

PubMed

Although certain metabolic characteristics such as interictal glucose hypometabolism are well established for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of brain metabolism in a mouse model of TLE, induced by pilocarpine-status epilepticus (SE). To investigate glucose metabolism, we injected mice 3.5-4 weeks after SE with [1,2-(13)C]glucose before microwave fixation of the head. Using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantified metabolites and (13)C labeling in extracts of cortex and hippocampal formation (HF). Hippocampal levels of glutamate, glutathione and alanine were decreased in pilocarpine-SE mice compared with controls. Moreover, the contents of N-acetyl aspartate, succinate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) NAD(P)H were decreased in HF indicating impairment of mitochondrial function. In addition, the reduction in (13)C enrichment of hippocampal citrate and malate suggests decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover in this region. In cortex, we found reduced (13)C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate via the pyruvate carboxylation and pyruvate dehydrogenation pathways, suggesting slower turnover of these amino acids and/or the TCA cycle. In conclusion, mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and altered amino-acid metabolism is found in both cortex and HF in this epilepsy model. PMID:23611869

Smeland, Olav B; Hadera, Mussie G; McDonald, Tanya S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

2013-04-24

63

Protective but Not Anticonvulsant Effects of Ghrelin and JMV-1843 in the Pilocarpine Model of Status epilepticus.  

PubMed

In models of status epilepticus ghrelin displays neuroprotective effects mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). This activity may be explained by anticonvulsant properties that, however, are controversial. We further investigated neuroprotection and the effects on seizures by comparing ghrelin with a more effective GHS-R1a agonist, JMV-1843. Rats were treated either with ghrelin, JMV-1843 or saline 10 min before pilocarpine, which was used to induce status epilepticus. Status epilepticus, developed in all rats, was attenuated by diazepam. No differences were observed among the various groups in the characteristics of pilocarpine-induced seizures. In saline group the area of lesion, characterized by lack of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, was of 0.45±0.07 mm(2) in the hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and was accompanied by upregulation of laminin immunostaining, and by increased endothelin-1 expression. Both ghrelin (P<0.05) and JMV-1843 (P<0.01) were able to reduce the area of loss in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining. In addition, JMV-1843 counteracted (P<0.05) the changes in laminin and endothelin-1 expression, both increased in ghrelin-treated rats. JMV-1843 was able to ameliorate neuronal survival in the hilus of dentate gyrus and medial entorhinal cortex layer III (P<0.05 vs saline and ghrelin groups). These results demonstrate diverse protective effects of growth hormone secretagogues in rats exposed to status epilepticus. PMID:24015271

Lucchi, Chiara; Curia, Giulia; Vinet, Jonathan; Gualtieri, Fabio; Bresciani, Elena; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Biagini, Giuseppe

2013-08-28

64

Lipoic acid blocks seizures induced by pilocarpine via increases in ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase and Na +, K +ATPase activity in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the effects of lipoic acid (LA) on ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase (?-ALA-D) and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rat brain after seizures induction by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group), lipoic acid (10mg\\/kg, i.p., LA group), pilocarpine (400mg\\/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group), or the combination of LA (10mg\\/kg, i.p.) with pilocarpine (400mg\\/kg, i.p.),

Ítala Mônica de Sales Santos; Adriana da Rocha Tomé; Chistiane Mendes Feitosa; Geane Felix de Souza; Dejiang Feng; Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas; Joaquín Jordán

2010-01-01

65

[Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].  

PubMed

In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

Bedeni?, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gveri?, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kaleni?, Smilja

66

COMPARING EXAMINEE ATTITUDES TOWARD COMPUTER ASSISTED AND OTHER ORAL PROFICIENCY ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a study of examinee attitudinal reactions to taking different formats of oral proficiency assessments across three languages: Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese. All 55 students in the study were administered both the tape-mediated Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) and a new Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI). In addition, the 24 students participating in the Spanish

Dorry M. Kenyon; Valerie Malabonga

2001-01-01

67

Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Oral Reading Practices: Round-Robin Reading and the Shared Book Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of two oral reading practices on second graders' reading growth: shared book reading and round-robin reading. The results indicated that the Shared Book Experience was superior to round-robin reading in reducing young children's oral reading errors, improving their reading fluency, increasing their vocabulary acquisition, and improving their reading comprehension. An analysis of the primary-grade basal

J. Lloyd Eldredge; D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1996-01-01

68

Interactions of b-Lactamases with Sanfetrinem (GV 104326) Compared to Those with Imipenem and with Oral b-Lactams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanfetrinem is a trinem b-lactam which can be administered orally as a hexatil ester. We examined whether its b-lactamase interactions resembled those of the available carbapenems, i.e., stable to AmpC and extended- spectrum b-lactamases but labile to class B and functional group 2f enzymes. The comparator drugs were imipenem, oral cephalosporins, and amoxicillin. MICs were determined for b-lactamase expression variants,

GIOIA S. BABINI; MEIFANG YUAN; DAVID M. LIVERMORE

1998-01-01

69

A comparative study of oral single dose of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and ornidazole in bacterial vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the cure rates of oral single dose of metronidazole (2 g), tinidazole (2 g), secnidazole (2 g), and ornidazole (1.5 g) in cases of bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial on 344 Indian women (86 women in each group) who attended a gynecology outpatient department with complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge or who had abnormal vaginal discharge on Gynecological examination but they did not complaint of it. For diagnosis and cure rate of bacterial vaginosis, Amsel's criteria were used. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test of proportions. The cure rate was compared considering metronidazole cure rate as gold standard. Results: At 1 week, the cure rate of tinidazole and ornidazole was 100% and at 4 weeks, it was 97.7% for both drugs (P<0.001). Secnidazole had cure rate of 80.2% at 4 weeks (P=NS). Metronidazole showed a cure rate of 77.9% at 4 weeks, which is the lowest of all four drugs. Conclusion: Tinidazole and ornidazole have better cure rate as compared to metronidazole in cases of bacterial vaginosis.

Thulkar, Jyoti; Kriplani, Alka; Agarwal, Nutan

2012-01-01

70

Morpho-physiological Characteristics of Dorsal Subicular Network in Mice after Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine morpho-physiological changes in the dorsal subiculum network in the mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy using extracellular recording, juxtacellular and immunofluorescence double labeling, and anterograde tracing methods. A significant loss of total dorsal subicular neurons, particularly calbindin, parvalbumin (PV), and immunopositive interneurons, was found at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). However, the sprouting of axons from lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt) was observed to contact with surviving subicular neurons. These neurons had two predominant discharge patterns: bursting and fast irregular discharges. The bursting neurons were mainly pyramidal cells, and their dendritic spine density and bursting discharge rates were increased significantly in SE mice compared to the control group. Fast irregular discharge neurons were PV-immunopositive interneurons, and had less dendritic spines in SE mice when compared to control mice. When LEnt was stimulated, bursting and fast irregular discharge neurons had much shorter latency and stronger excitatory response in SE mice compared to the control group. Our results illustrate that morpho-physiological changes in the dorsal subiculum could be part of a multilevel pathological network that occurs simultaneously in many brain areas to contribute to the generation of epileptiform activity.

He, De Fu; Ma, Dong Liang; Tang, Yong Cheng; Engel, Jerome; Bragin, Anatol; Tang, Feng Ru

2010-01-01

71

Variations in elemental compositions of rat hippocampal formation between acute and latent phases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.  

PubMed

There is growing experimental evidence that tracing the elements involved in brain hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity, and/or subsequent neurodegeneration could be a valuable source of data on the molecular mechanisms triggering or promoting further development of epilepsy. The most frequently used experimental model of the temporal lobe epilepsy observed in clinical practice is the one based on pilocarpine-induced seizures. In the frame of this study, the elemental anomalies occurring for the rat hippocampal tissue in acute and silent periods after injection of pilocarpine in rats were compared. X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for the topographic and quantitative elemental analysis. The differences in the levels of elements such as P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn between the rats 3 days (SE72) and 6 h (SE6) after pilocarpine injection as well as naive controls were examined. Comparison of SE72 and control groups showed, for specific areas of the hippocampal formation, lower levels of P, K, Cu, and Zn, and an increase in Ca accumulation. These results as well as further analysis of the differences between the SE72 and SE6 groups confirmed that seizure-induced excitotoxicity as well as mossy fiber sprouting are the mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative processes which may finally lead to spontaneous seizures in the chronic period of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, in the light of the results obtained, Cu seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in this animal model. For all areas analyzed, the levels of this element recorded in the latent period were not only lower than those for controls but were even lower than the levels found in the acute period. The decreased hippocampal accumulation of Cu in the phase of behavior and EEG stabilization, a possible inhibitory effect of this element on excitatory amino acid receptors, and enhanced seizure susceptibility in Menkes disease (an inherited Cu transport disorder leading to Cu deficiency in the brain) suggest a neuroprotective role rather than neurodegenerative and proconvulsive roles of Cu in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. PMID:22447169

Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Appel, K; Setkowicz, Z

2012-03-24

72

Cycle control on low-dose oral contraceptives: a comparative trial.  

PubMed

Cycle control was studied comparing the monophasic oral contraceptive Loestrin with three low-dose phasic preparations (Triphasil, Ortho 10/11 and Ortho 7/7/7) in 391 women of whom 300 completed 6 cycles. Loestrin subjects had a rate of occurrence (31% of cycles) for intermenstrual bleeding (IMB) comparable to the rates for subjects on the phasic preparations (36%, 37% and 37%, respectively). Triphasil subjects had lower rates than the Ortho 10/11 and Ortho 7/7/7 subjects (p less than 0.01) in cycle one when all subjects were analyzed and in pre-study users when continuing menstrual flow (CMF) episodes were not included as IMB. IMB was a cause for dropping out of the study in 7% of subjects who were evenly distributed between groups. There were no differences between groups for BTB when perceived by subjects as a side effect. Spotting was perceived as a side effect more often with Ortho 10/11 and Ortho 7/7/7 use than with Triphasil (p less than 0.01). Loestrin, Ortho 10/11 and Ortho 7/7/7 subjects were more likely to report amenorrhea (p less than 0.001) and less likely to report leg cramps (p less than 0.01) compared to those on Triphasil. Triphasil subjects were less likely to report acne than subjects on Ortho 7/7/7 (p less than 0.01). PMID:2289388

Percival-Smith, R K; Yuzpe, A A; Desrosiers, J A; Rioux, J E; Guilbert, E

1990-09-01

73

Continuous Compared With Cyclic Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether continuous OCP (oral contraceptive pills) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCP, which induces withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms. Material and Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21/7 OCP regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) over the period of 6 months. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by VAS declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after one month (mean difference: -27.3; 95% CI: (-40.5,-14.2); p<0.001) and 3 months (mean difference: -17.8; 95% CI: (-33.4,-2.1); p=0.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 6 months, there was an increase in weight and decrease in systolic blood pressure in continuous compared with the cyclic group. Conclusions Both regimens of OCP are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Continuous OCP outperforms cyclic OCP in the short term, but this difference is lost after 6 months.

Dmitrovic, Romana; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

2013-01-01

74

Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey.

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

2006-01-01

75

Acute induction of epileptiform discharges by pilocarpine in the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain requires enhancement of blood–brain barrier permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic application of the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine, is commonly utilized to induce an acute status epilepticus that evolves into a chronic epileptic condition characterized by spontaneous seizures. Recent findings suggest that the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine may be triggered by changes in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. We tested the role of the BBB in an acute pilocarpine model

L. Uva; L. Librizzi; N. Marchi; F. Noe; R. Bongiovanni; A. Vezzani; D. Janigro; M. de Curtis

2008-01-01

76

The anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of baicalin on pilocarpine-induced epileptic model in rats.  

PubMed

Baicalin, a flavonoid compound purified from plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to possess a wide variety of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective properties. Oxidative stress can dramatically alter neuronal function and has been linked to status epilepticus (SE). However, the neuroprotective effect of baicalin on epilepsy is unclear. In this study we investigated whether Baicalin could exert anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in the pilocarpine-induced epileptic model in rats. To this end, we recorded the latency to first limbic seizure and SE and observed the incidence of SE and mortality. The changes of oxidative stress were measured 24 h after pilocarpine-induced SE. Nissl staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and Fluoro-Jade B staining were performed to detect the neuronal loss, apoptosis and degeneration in hippocampus 72 h after pilocarpine-induced seizure. Pretreatment with baicalin significantly delayed the onset of the first limbic seizures and SE, reduced the mortality rate, and attenuated the changes in the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitrite content and reduced glutathione in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats. Furthermore, we also found that baicalin attenuated the neuronal cell loss, apoptosis, and degeneration caused by pilocarpine-induced seizures in rat hippocampus. Collectively, these results indicated remarkable anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of baicalin and should encourage further studies to investigate baicalin as an adjuvant in epilepsy both to prevent seizures and to protect against seizure induced brain injury. PMID:22528832

Liu, Yang-Feng; Gao, Fei; Li, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Rui-Hua; Meng, Xian-Dong; Zhao, Rui; Jing, Yun-Yun; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Wen

2012-04-17

77

Comparative oral dose toxicokinetics of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium accumulator plants.  

PubMed

Consumption of Se accumulator plants by livestock can result in Se intoxication. Recent research indicates that the Se forms most common in Se accumulator plants are selenate and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). In this study the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics of Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with a single oral dose of (1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Se/kg BW) of sodium selenate or MeSeCys were determined. The Se concentrations in serum and whole blood for both chemical forms of Se followed simple dose-dependent relationships. Se-methylselenocysteine was absorbed more quickly and to a greater extent in whole blood than sodium selenate, as observed by a greater peak Se concentration (Cmax; P < 0.0001), and faster time to peak concentration (Tmax; P < 0.0001) and rate of absorption (P < 0.0001). The rate of absorption and Tmax were also faster (P < 0.0001) in serum of lambs dosed with MeSeCys compared with those dosed sodium selenate at equimolar doses; however, Cmax in serum was greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with sodium selenate compared with those dosed MeSeCys at equimolar doses. The MeSeCys was absorbed 4 to 5 times faster into serum and 9 to 14 times faster into whole blood at equimolar Se doses. There were dose-dependent increases in the area under the curve (AUC) for Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with both sodium selenate and MeSeCys. In whole blood the MeSeCys was approximately twice as bioavailable as sodium selenate at equimolar doses as observed by the AUC, whereas in serum there were no differences (P > 0.05) in AUC at the same doses. At 168 h postdosing the Se concentration in whole blood remained much greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with MeSeCys as compared with lambs dosed with sodium selenate; however, the serum Se concentrations were not different between treatments at the same time point. The results presented in this study demonstrate that there are differences between the kinetics of different selenocompounds when orally dosed to sheep. Therefore, in cases of acute selenosis, it is important to understand the chemical form to which an intoxicated animal was exposed when determining the importance and meaning of Se concentration in serum or whole blood obtained at various times postexposure. PMID:23825349

Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Welch, K D; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Hall, J O

2013-07-03

78

Evaluation of the clinical performance of three triphasic oral contraceptives: a multicenter, randomized comparative trial.  

PubMed

Three hundred thirteen women participated in an open, multicenter comparison of the incidence of intermenstrual bleeding (breakthrough bleeding and or spotting) associated with the use of three triphasic oral contraceptives. Triphasil (n = 107), containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol, and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (n = 97) and Tri-Norinyl (n = 109), both of which contain norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, were administered over four cycles for a total of 1141 cycles. The total incidence of intermenstrual bleeding was significantly lower with Triphasil (17.2%) than with Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (39.5%) or Tri-Norinyl (49.0%). The pattern remained the same when findings were analyzed cycle by cycle and for breakthrough bleeding and spotting separately. The incidence of other side effects was comparable for all regimens. Results of this study demonstrate superior cycle control with Triphasil compared with Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 and Tri-Norinyl during the first four cycles of use. PMID:2655451

Schilling, L H; Bolding, O T; Chenault, C B; Chong, A P; Fleury, F; Forrest, K; Glick, H I; Hasson, H M; Heil, C G; London, R S

1989-05-01

79

Comparative evaluation of two structurally related flavonoids, isoliquiritigenin and liquiritigenin, for their oral infection therapeutic potential.  

PubMed

Isoliquiritigenin (1) and liquiritigenin (2) are structurally related flavonoids found in a variety of plants. The purpose of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of biological properties of these compounds in regard to their therapeutic potential for oral infections. Compound 1 demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against three major periodontopathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia. In contrast, 2 exerted less pronounced effects on the above bacterial species. Neither compound was effective against cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus). Furthermore, 1 exhibited a stronger inhibitory activity than 2 toward P. gingivalis collagenase and human matrix metalloproteinase 9. Finally, the capacity of 1 to attenuate the inflammatory response of macrophages induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was much higher when compared to 2. The activation of transcriptional factors nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and activator protein-1 (AP-1) associated with the LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages was inhibited strongly by 1, but less affected by 2. PMID:21866899

Feldman, Mark; Santos, Juliana; Grenier, Daniel

2011-08-25

80

Genomic Profiling of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs) with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs), and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs). Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

Yoshioka, Shunichi; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hijiya, Naoki; Nakada, Chisato; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsuura, Keiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Seto, Masao; Kawano, Kenji; Moriyama, Masatsugu

2013-01-01

81

The mechanism of action of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – compared with other anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results of some phase III clinical trials of new oral anticoagulants are now known, it is important to understand the mechanisms of their actions. These new agents exert their anticoagulant effect via direct inhibition of a single Factor within the coagulation cascade (such as Factor Xa or thrombin). Rivaroxaban – the first oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – is

Meyer Michel Samama

2011-01-01

82

Studying Urban History through Oral History and Q Methodology: A Comparative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Oral history and Q methodology (a social science technique designed to document objectively and numerically the reactions of individuals to selected issues) were used to investigate urban renewal in Waco, Texas. Nineteen persons directly involved in the city's relocation and rehabilitation projects granted interviews. From these oral histories,…

Jimenez, Rebecca S.

83

Comparative analysis of oral treponemes associated with periodontal health and disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Periodontal diseases, such as periodontitis, are chronic inflammatory infections affecting the gingivae (gums), underlying connective tissues and bone that support the teeth. Oral treponemes (genus Treponema) are widely-considered to play important roles in periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis; however, precise relationships remain to be fully established. METHODS: A 16S rRNA clone library-based approach was used to comprehensively characterize and compare the diversity of treponeme taxa present in subgingival plaque sampled from periodontitis patients (n = 10) versus periodontitis-free controls (n = 10). 16S rRNA gene sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a 99% identity cut-off A variety of taxonomy (OTU) and phylogeny-based statistical approaches were used to compare populations of treponeme OTUs present in both subject groups. RESULTS: A total of 615 plasmid clones containing ca. 1500 bp Treponema 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained; 365 from periodontitis subjects, 250 from periodontitis-free controls. These were assigned to 110 treponeme OTUs. 93 OTUs were detected in the periodontitis subjects (mean 9.3 +/- 5.2 OTUs per subject; range 9--26), and 43 OTUs were detected in controls (mean 4.3 +/- 5.9 OTUs per subject; range 3--20). OTUs belonging to oral treponeme phylogroups 1--7 were detected in both subject sets. Phylogroup 1 treponemes had the highest levels of OTU richness (diversity) and clonal abundance within both subject groups. Levels of OTU richness and clonal abundance of phylogroup 2 treponemes were significantly higher in the periodontitis subjects (Mann Whitney U-test, p < 0.001). Both OTU-based and phylogeny-based analyses clearly indicated that there were significant differences in the composition of treponeme communities present in periodontitis versus control subjects. The detection frequency of five OTUs showed a statistically-significant correlation with disease status. The OTU (8P47) that corresponded to the type strain of Treponema denticola had the strongest association with periodontitis (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of treponeme taxon richness and clonal abundance were associated with periodontitis. However, our results clearly indicated that subjects free from clinical symptoms of periodontal disease also contained highly diverse populations of treponeme bacteria within their subgingival microbiota. Our data supports the hypothesis that specific treponeme taxa are associated with periodontal disease. PMID:23578286

You, Meng; Mo, Sisu; Leung, W Keung; Watt, Rory M

2013-04-11

84

Comparative analysis of oral treponemes associated with periodontal health and disease  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontal diseases, such as periodontitis, are chronic inflammatory infections affecting the gingivae (gums), underlying connective tissues and bone that support the teeth. Oral treponemes (genus Treponema) are widely-considered to play important roles in periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis; however, precise relationships remain to be fully established. Methods A 16S rRNA clone library-based approach was used to comprehensively characterize and compare the diversity of treponeme taxa present in subgingival plaque sampled from periodontitis patients (n?=?10) versus periodontitis-free controls (n?=?10). 16S rRNA gene sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a 99% identity cut-off A variety of taxonomy (OTU) and phylogeny-based statistical approaches were used to compare populations of treponeme OTUs present in both subject groups. Results A total of 615 plasmid clones containing ca. 1500 bp Treponema 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained; 365 from periodontitis subjects, 250 from periodontitis-free controls. These were assigned to 110 treponeme OTUs. 93 OTUs were detected in the periodontitis subjects (mean 9.3?±?5.2 OTUs per subject; range 9–26), and 43 OTUs were detected in controls (mean 4.3?±?5.9 OTUs per subject; range 3–20). OTUs belonging to oral treponeme phylogroups 1–7 were detected in both subject sets. Phylogroup 1 treponemes had the highest levels of OTU richness (diversity) and clonal abundance within both subject groups. Levels of OTU richness and clonal abundance of phylogroup 2 treponemes were significantly higher in the periodontitis subjects (Mann Whitney U-test, p?

2013-01-01

85

Interactions of ?-Lactamases with Sanfetrinem (GV 104326) Compared to Those with Imipenem and with Oral ?-Lactams  

PubMed Central

Sanfetrinem is a trinem ?-lactam which can be administered orally as a hexatil ester. We examined whether its ?-lactamase interactions resembled those of the available carbapenems, i.e., stable to AmpC and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases but labile to class B and functional group 2f enzymes. The comparator drugs were imipenem, oral cephalosporins, and amoxicillin. MICs were determined for ?-lactamase expression variants, and hydrolysis was examined directly with representative enzymes. Sanfetrinem was a weak inducer of AmpC ?-lactamases below the MIC and had slight lability, with a kcat of 0.00033 s?1 for the Enterobacter cloacae enzyme. Its MICs for AmpC-derepressed E. cloacae and Citrobacter freundii were 4 to 8 ?g/ml, compared with MICs of 0.12 to 2 ?g/ml for AmpC-inducible and -basal strains; MICs for AmpC-derepressed Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii were not raised. Cefixime and cefpodoxime were more labile than sanfetrinem to the E. cloacae AmpC enzyme, and AmpC-derepressed mutants showed much greater resistance; imipenem was more stable and retained full activity against derepressed mutants. Like imipenem, sanfetrinem was stable to TEM-1 and TEM-10 enzymes and retained full activity against isolates and transconjugants with various extended-spectrum TEM and SHV enzymes, whereas these organisms were resistant to cefixime and cefpodoxime. Sanfetrinem, like imipenem and cefixime but unlike cefpodoxime, also retained activity against Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella oxytoca strains that hyperproduced potent chromosomal class A ?-lactamases. Functional group 2f enzymes, including Sme-1, NMC-A, and an unnamed enzyme from Acinetobacter spp., increased the sanfetrinem MICs by up to 64-fold. These enzymes also compromised the activities of imipenem and amoxicillin but not those of the cephalosporins. The hydrolysis of sanfetrinem was examined with a purified Sme-1 enzyme, and biphasic kinetics were found. Finally, zinc ?-lactamases, including IMP-1 and the L1 enzyme of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, conferred resistance to sanfetrinem and all other ?-lactams tested, and hydrolysis was confirmed with the IMP-1 enzyme. We conclude that sanfetrinem has ?-lactamase interactions similar to those of the available carbapenems except that it is a weaker inducer of AmpC types, with some tendency to select derepressed mutants, unlike imipenem and meropenem.

Babini, Gioia S.; Yuan, Meifang; Livermore, David M.

1998-01-01

86

Development and characterization of pilocarpine loaded Eudragit nanosuspensions for ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

With aim of improving the availability of drug at intraocular level and to reduce the frequency of drug administration, pilocarpine nitrate nanosuspensions were made from inert polymer resin (Eudragit RL 100) with varying drug to polymer ratios using Lutrol F68 solution in various concentration. Nanosuspensions were successfully prepared by solvent displacement method. Size of nanoparticles varied between 121.5 +/- 2.28 to 291.5 +/- 1.28 nm, a polydispersity index ranging from 0.218 +/- 0.003 to 0.658 +/- 0.035 with zeta potential ranging +14.1 +/- 0.7 to +19.8 +/- 2.3 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies clearly suggest the compatibility of the drug with the polymer used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape having a smooth surface and the drug is molecularly dispersed uniformly throughout the whole polymer matrix. PRL4 was successfully able to sustain the drug release for 24 hr as compared to other batches of formulated nanosuspensions. No significant change in average particle size and zeta potential were observed after conducting stability studies. Results of the studies clearly suggest the suitability of Eudragit RL 100 as a promising potential drug delivery adjuvant for ocular drug administration. PMID:23627075

Khan, Mohammed S; Vishakante, Gowda D; Bathool, Afifa

2013-01-01

87

A comparative study of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter trial.  

PubMed

A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate. PMID:8403908

Dunson, T R; McLaurin, V L; Israngkura, B; Leelapattana, B; Mukherjee, R; Perez-Palacios, G; Saleh, A A

1993-08-01

88

CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

2001-04-01

89

Comparative bioavailability of oral sugar-coated and plain formulation of chloroquine phosphate marketed in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of chloroquine from a single oral dose (10 mg/kg body weight) of a sugar-coated (Dawaquin) and a plain formulation (Shellyquine) of chloroquine phosphate were compared in two groups of 10 volunteers each, following an overnight fast. Whole blood chloroquine concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and bioavailability was determined by measuring area under the blood chloroquine concentration curve (AUC ng mL(-1) h) and the peak blood chloroquine concentration (Cpmax ng/mL). The AUC and Cpmax for Shellyquine were 4396.3 +/- 833 ng mL(-1) h and 162 +/- 14 ng/mL, respectively. The AUC and Cpmax for Dawaquin were 2060 +/- 339 ng mL(-1) h and 56.6 +/- 5.2 ng/mL, respectively. Shellyquine was significantly more bioavailable than Dawaquin (P<0.001). Although the Cpmax for Dawaquin was higher than the required therapeutic level for sensitive Plasmodium falciparum of 30 ng/mL, its blood levels may not guarantee a rapid clearance of parasites. The differences between the two formulations point to a problem in the quality of pharmaceuticals marketed in this country, whose extent need to be ascertained further. Failure of chloroquine phosphate in this country has already been declared by the Ministry of Health, and the potential contribution of poorly formulated products remains a subject of debate. PMID:11991015

Rimoy, G H; Moshi, M J; Massele, A Y

2002-01-01

90

Altered expression and function of small-conductance (SK) Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Small conductance calcium (Ca(2+)) activated SK channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability in hippocampus. Accordingly, these channels are thought to play a key role in controlling neuronal activity in acute models of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate the expression and function of SK channels in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. For this purpose, protein expression was assessed using western blotting assays and gene expression was analyzed using TaqMan-based probes and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) comparative method delta-delta cycle threshold ( big up tri, open big up tri, openCT) in samples extracted from control and epileptic rats. In addition, the effect of SK channel antagonist UCL1684 and agonist NS309 on CA1 evoked population spikes was studied in hippocampal slices. Western blotting analysis showed a significant reduction in the expression of SK1 and SK2 channels at 10days following status epilepticus (SE), but levels recovered at 1month and at more than 2months after SE. In contrast, a significant down-regulation of SK3 channels was detected after 10days of SE. Analysis of gene expression by qPCR revealed a significant reduction of transcripts for SK2 (Kcnn1) and SK3 (Kcnn3) channels as early as 10days following pilocarpine-induced SE and during the chronic phase of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, bath application of UCL1684 (100nM for 15min) induced a significant increase of the population spike amplitude and number of spikes in the hippocampal CA1 area of slices obtained control and chronic epileptic rats. This effect was obliterated by co-administration of UCL1684 with SK channel agonist NS309 (1microM). Application of NS309 failed to modify population spikes in the CA1 area of slices taken from control and epileptic rats. These data indicate an abnormal expression of SK channels and a possible dysfunction of these channels in experimental MTLE. PMID:20553876

Oliveira, Mauro S; Skinner, Frank; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Garcia, Ileana; Mello, Carlos F; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Otalora, Luis F Pacheco; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

2010-06-08

91

A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

Wei, Ming

2011-01-01

92

Comparative Study of a Portable Monitor for Prothrombin Time Determination, Coaguchek®, with Three Systems for Control of Oral Anticoagulant Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-testing of oral anticoagulation is a new possibility related to the development of portable capillary whole blood prothrombin time monitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate one of this monitors, Coaguchek®, with respect to its comparability with our routine prothrombin time determination system, as well as with the reference manual technique and two thromboplastins of high sensitivity, Manchester

M. Vacas; P. J. Lafuente; S. Cuesta; J. A. Iriarte

1998-01-01

93

Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC ®) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC®; Actiq®) is a drug delivery formulation used for management of breakthrough cancer pain. Previous studies with open-label comparisons indicated OTFC was more effective than patients’ usual opioid for breakthrough pain. The objective of this study was to compare OTFC and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR®) for management of breakthrough pain in patients receiving a fixed

Paul H Coluzzi; Lee Schwartzberg; John D Conroy; Steve Charapata; Mason Gay; Michael A Busch; Jana Chavez; Jeri Ashley; Dixie Lebo; Maureen McCracken; Russell K Portenoy

2001-01-01

94

Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to be useful adjuncts to daily oral home care in the control of plaque and gingivitis. The objective of the study was to evaluate effect of two oral rinses; Chlorohexidine and Listerine on Plaque and Gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A doubled blind study was done on 150 patients visiting OPD of oxford general hospital for 2 months to compare the efficiency of two commercially available mouth rinses i.e. chlorohexdine (0.2%) & Listerine on plaque & gingivitis, along with a Placebo. Results: At the end of 28 weeks chlorohexdine & listerine significantly reduced plaque growth & gingivitis compared to a Placebo however chlorohexdine was more effective than Listerine. Conclusion: Chlorehexidine (0.2%) and a phenolic mouth rinse significantly reduced plaque growth and gingival inflammation compared to a placebo mouthrinse, however chlorhexidine rinse was more effective against plaque regrowth than the phenolic rinse. How to cite this article: Goutham BS, Manchanda K, Sarkar AD, Prakash R, Jha K, Mohammed S. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):56-61.

Goutham, Bala Subramanya; Manchanda, Kavita; Sarkar, Avishek De; Prakash, Ravi; Jha, Kunal; Mohammed, Shafaat

2013-01-01

95

A Comparative Study of the Oral Proficiency of Chinese Learners of English across Task Functions: A Discourse Marker Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of discourse markers (DMs) by college learners of English in China. It compared the use of DMs for four discourse functions by students at different proficiency levels. An audio-video instrument called Video Oral Communication Instrument was conducted to elicit ratable speech samples. Fraser's (1999) taxonomy was…

Wei, Ming

2011-01-01

96

Comparative study between the Hybrid Capture II test and PCR based assay for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Oral malignancy is a major global health problem. Besides the main risk factors of tobacco, smoking and alcohol, infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic alterations are likely to play an important role in these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of HC-II assay and PCR for the detection of specific HPV type (HPV 16 E6) in OSMF and OSCC cases as well as find out the prevalence of the high risk HPV (HR-HPV) in these lesions. Methods and materials Four hundred and thirty patients of the potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were taken from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India from Sept 2007-March 2010. Of which 208 cases were oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 222 cases were oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The HC-II assay and PCR were used for the detection of HR-HPV DNA. Result The overall prevalence of HR-HPV 16 E6 DNA positivity was nearly 26% by PCR and 27.4% by the HC-II assay in case of potentially malignant disorder of the oral lesions such as OSMF. However, in case of malignant oral lesions such as OSCC, 32.4% HPV 16 E6 positive by PCR and 31.4% by the HC-II assay. In case of OSMF, the two test gave concordant result for 42 positive samples and 154 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 85.4% (Cohen's kappa = 66.83%, 95% CI 0.553-0.783). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 73.7% and 92.05% (p < 0.00). In case of OSCC, the two test gave concordant result for 61 positive samples and 152 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 88.3% (Cohen's kappa = 79.29, 95% CI 0.769-0.939) and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 87.14% and 92.76% (p < 0.00). Conclusion This study concluded that slight difference was found between the positivity rate of HR-HPV infection detected by the HC-II and PCR assay in OSMF and OSCC cases and the HC II assay seemed to have better sensitivity in case of OSCC.

2010-01-01

97

Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean OHI-S (2.52±1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (p<0.05). The highest and lowest mean number of healthy sextants were found among those with only lower limb disability (4.53±2.05) and among those with both upper and lower limb disability (0.77±1.39), respectively (p<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictor for oral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. Conclusion: The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research. Key words:Poliomyelitis, upper limb disability, lower limb disability, oral hygiene, periodontal status.

Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

2012-01-01

98

Zinc Chelation Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

99

The sensitivity and specificity of computerized brush biopsy and scalpel biopsy in diagnosing oral premalignant lesions: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: The diagnosis of oral malignancy and epithelial dysplasia has traditionally been based upon histopathological evaluation of full thickness biopsy from lesional tissue. As many studies had shown that incisional biopsy could cause progression of the tumors, many alternative methods of collection of samples had been tested. Oral brush biopsy is a transepithelial biopsy where it collects cells from basal cell layer noninvasively. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of brush biopsy when compared to histopathology in a group of patients with features of potentially malignancy. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 60 cases of clinically diagnosed leukoplakia are selected and subjected to histopathology and brush biopsy. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that of 16 dysplasia cases confirmed by histopathology, only 12 were positively reported in oral brush biopsy. In 44 cases, the reports are same for histopathology and brush biopsy. The sensitivity of oral brush biopsy is 43.5% and specificity is 81.25% with a positive predictive value of 58.3%. Oral brush biopsy with molecular markers like tenascin and keratins can be an accurate diagnostic test.

Reddy, Sridhar G; Kanala, Surekha; Chigurupati, Anuradha; Kumar, Shamala Ravi; Poosarla, Chandhra Sekhar; Reddy, B Venkata Ramana

2012-01-01

100

Comparative bioavailability study of two ibuprofen preparations after oral administration in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of a new ibuprofen (2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid, CAS 15687-27-1) preparation was compared with a reference preparation of the drug in 23 healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 27. A single dose of 400 mg was given orally in the fasted state, using a randomized two-way crossover study. A washout period of two weeks separated both treatment periods. Ibuprofen plasma levels were determined by means of a validated HPLC method (UV detector). Values of 154.48 +/- 53.27 microg x h/ml (95 % confidence interval CI: 133.50-177.03) for the test, and 140.86 +/- 44.82 microg x h/ml (95% CI: 122.53-159.16) for the reference preparation AUC(0-infinity) demonstrate a nearly identical extent of drug absorption. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax of 39.53 +/- 7.11 microg/ml (95 % CI: 35.97-41.78) and 37.71 +/- 8.67 microg/ml (95% CI: 33.37-40.46) achieved for the test and reference preparations did not differ significantly. AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax ratios (90% CI) were within the 80-125% interval required for bioequivalence as stipulated in the current international regulations of the European Agency for the Evalution of Medicinal Products and the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore it is concluded that the new ibuprofen preparation is therapeutically equivalent to the reference preparation for both, the extent and the rate of absorption, after single dose administration in healthy volunteers. PMID:17063640

Bienert, Agnieszka; Szkutnik-Fiedler, Danuta; Dyderski, Stanis?aw; Grze?kowiak, Edmund; Drobnik, Leon; Wolc, Anna; Slawi?iska, Urszula

2006-01-01

101

Comparative study of rice-based oral rehydration salt solution versus glucose-based oral rehydration salt solution (WHO) in children with acute dehydrating diarrhoea.  

PubMed

One hundred children with acute dehydrating diarrhoea were studied. They were divided into two groups: Group A (n = 50) were given rice-based oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution and group B (n = 50) were given glucose-based ORS solution (WHO). There was no significant decrease in mean stool output and percentage weight gain with rice-based ORS. Both the groups were comparable for volume of ORS solution consumed, time taken for initial rehydration, mean stool output and for correcting biochemical abnormalities. PMID:10489752

Sharma, A; Pradhan, R K

1998-12-01

102

Metabolic gene expression changes in the hippocampus of obese epileptic male rats in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Chronically epileptic male adult rats in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), exhibited gross expansion of abdominal fat mass and significant weight gain several months after induction of status epilepticus (SE) when compared to control rats. We hypothesized that epileptogenesis can induce molecular changes in the hippocampus that may be associated with metabolism. We determined the expression levels of genes Hsd11b1, Nr3c1, Abcc8, Kcnj11, Mc4r, Npy, Lepr, Bdnf, and Drd2 that are involved in regulation of energy metabolism, in the hippocampus of age-matched control and chronic epileptic animals. Taqman-based quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the delta-delta cycle threshold (CT) methods were used for the gene expression assays. Gene expression of Hsd11b1 (cortisol generating enzyme) was significantly higher in epileptic versus control rats at 24h and 2 months, after induction of SE. Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor) mRNA levels on the other hand were down-regulated at 24h, 10 days and 2 months, post SE. Abcc8 (Sur1; subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel) was significantly down-regulated at 10 days post SE. Kcnj11 (Kir6.2; subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel) was significantly up-regulated at 24h, 1 month and 2 months post SE. Thus, we demonstrated development of obesity and changes in the expression of metabolic genes in the hippocampus during epileptogenesis in male rats in the pilocarpine model of TLE. PMID:22050960

Ruiz, Nicole; Pacheco, Luis F; Farrell, Bianca; Cox, Cody B; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R; Nair, Saraswathy

2011-10-08

103

Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references.

Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

104

Pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy shows enhanced response to general anesthetics.  

PubMed

Complex partial seizures, commonly arising from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are associated with neuronal loss and post-seizure impairment of consciousness. We tested the hypothesis that TLE subjects, in between seizures, are associated with a decreased level of consciousness that is manifested by an enhanced response to a general anesthetic. Two animal models of TLE--amygdala kindling and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (Pilo-SE)--were tested. Pilo-SE rats, but not amygdala-kindled rats, showed a prolonged loss of pain and righting responses after 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p. pentobarbital, 2% halothane, and 5 and 10 mg/kg i.v. propofol as compared to control saline-treated rats. Since the major pathology of Pilo-SE rats was cell loss in the piriform cortex (PC) and the entorhinal cortex (EC), we studied the anesthetic response after inactivation of the EC or PC by locally infusing GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Muscimol inactivation of the PC or EC, as compared to saline infusion in the same rats, prolonged the duration of loss of righting reflex, typically without changing the duration of loss of tail-pinch response, after 20 mg/kg i.p. pentobarbital, 2% halothane and 5 mg/kg i.v. propofol. Muscimol infusion, as compared to saline infusion, in the PC or EC also tended to decrease 30-100 Hz gamma EEG in the frontal cortex. In conclusion, a TLE model that resulted in neuronal loss, Pilo-SE, enhanced the response to a general anesthetic that could partly be attributed to a loss of neurons in the EC and PC. PMID:19501086

Long, Jennifer J A; Shen, Bixia; Luo, Tao; Stewart, Lee; McMurran, Thomas J A; Leung, L Stan

2009-06-06

105

Pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy shows enhanced response to general anesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex partial seizures, commonly arising from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are associated with neuronal loss and post-seizure impairment of consciousness. We tested the hypothesis that TLE subjects, in between seizures, are associated with a decreased level of consciousness that is manifested by an enhanced response to a general anesthetic. Two animal models of TLE – amygdala kindling and pilocarpine-induced status

Jennifer J. A. Long; Bixia Shen; Tao Luo; Lee Stewart; Thomas J. A. McMurran; L. Stan Leung

2009-01-01

106

Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats Involves Ischemic and Excitotoxic Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuron loss characteristic of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy patients is thought to be the result of excitotoxic, rather than ischemic, injury. In this study, we assessed changes in vascular structure, gene expression, and the time course of neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex during the acute period after onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Immediately after 2

Paolo Francesco Fabene; Flavia Merigo; Mirco Galiè; Donatella Benati; Paolo Bernardi; Paolo Farace; Elena Nicolato; Pasquina Marzola; Andrea Sbarbati; Schahram Akbarian

2007-01-01

107

Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock-down mice are more susceptible to pilocarpine induced status epilepticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pilocarpine (PILO) animal model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) portrays the most common changes in hippocampal circuitry found in human TLE. The acute cholinergic insult induces status epilepticus (SE), which triggers an overwhelming set of plastic events that result on late spontaneous recurrent limbic seizures. It has been suggested that the cholinergic system plays an important role in the

Patrícia A. M. Guidine; Gustavo H. S. Rezende; Cláudio M. T. Queiroz; Luiz Eugênio Mello; Vânia F. Prado; Marco A. M. Prado; Grace S. Pereira; Márcio F. D. Moraes

2008-01-01

108

Effects of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine on vigilance states and locomotor activity in ring doves.  

PubMed

Cholinergic systems play a significant role in regulating a variety of behavioral functions in mammals and birds. The aim of this work is to study the effects of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine on behavioral states by visual inspection and electroencephalographic recording; also, locomotor activity was continuously recorded by infrared interruption system in ring doves. The current results in birds demonstrated that the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (1 and 3mg/kg, i.p.) primarily induced theta activity in addition to promote passive waking, while diminished active waking, the EEG slow wave rhythm and REM sleep in ring doves. The locomotor activity recorded continuously in ring doves diminished after pilocarpine treatment, which was in good agreement with the observed reduction of active waking derived of the EEG study. Altogether, the current results are similar to the effects of pilocarpine previously reported in mammals. In conclusion, hippocampal theta rhythm in birds suggests that this rhythm is an ancestral property of hippocampal function and similar cholinergic mechanisms regulate vigilance states and theta generation in mammals and birds. PMID:22138442

Tejada, S; Nicolau, M C; Gamundí, A; Esteban, S

2011-11-25

109

Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Voltage gated K(+) channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (??CT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20971086

Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S; Farrell, Bianca; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

2010-10-21

110

Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (? ?CT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S.; Dotson, Bianca Farrel; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F.; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

2010-01-01

111

Biodegradable Nanoparticles Improve Oral Bioavailability of Amphotericin B and Show Reduced Nephrotoxicity Compared to Intravenous Fungizone®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Amphotericin B (AMB), an effective antifungal and antileishmanial agent associated with low oral bioavailability (0.3%) and\\u000a severe nephrotoxicity, was entrapped into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles to improve the oral bioavailability\\u000a and to minimize the adverse effects associated with it.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  The AMB-nanoparticles (AMB-NP) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method employing Vitamin E-TPGS as a stabilizer. In vitro release was carried out

J. L. Italia; M. M. Yahya; D. Singh; M. N. V. Ravi Kumar

2009-01-01

112

Chronic Olanzapine or Sertindole Treatment Results in Reduced Oral Chewing Movements in Rats Compared to Haloperidol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic haloperidol treatment typically produces late-onset, purposeless oral chewing movements in laboratory rats with a prevalence of 40 to 60%. Chronic clozapine does not produce these movements. Based on the phenomenologic and pharmacologic similarities between these rat chewing movements and human tardive dyskinesia (TD), the animal movements are often used as a model of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here we report

Xue-Min Gao; Kazuo Sakai; Carol A Tamminga

1998-01-01

113

Comparative Study of a Portable Prothrombin Time Monitor Employing Three Different Systems in Oral Anticoagulant Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the portable coagulometer CoaguChek® (Roche Diagnostics) as a prothrombin time (PT) monitor, and to correlate capillary blood results with those of three different routine methods used for monitoring oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT): capillary, plasma and whole blood samples. Three hospitals participated in the study with a total of 235

M. Vacas; M. A. Fernández; F. Martínez-Brotons; P. J. Lafuente; F. Ripoll; C. Alvarez; J. A. Iriarte

2001-01-01

114

Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

2011-01-01

115

COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

116

Comparative Cholinergic Neurotoxicity of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposures in Preweanling and Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphorus (OP) pes- ticide. Previous studies have demonstrated that neonatal rats are more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of high dosages of CPF. The present study examined lethality and age-related dif- ferences in neurochemical indicators and functional signs of neu- rotoxicity following a broad range of acute and repeated oral CPF exposures. There

Quan Zheng; Kenneth Olivier; Yen K. Won; Carey N. Pope

2000-01-01

117

Effects of centrally-injected glucagon-like peptide-1 on pilocarpine-induced seizures, anxiety and locomotor and exploratory activity in rat.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) is a gut peptide, which exerts significant effects on glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptors are also widely distributed in the central nervous system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.)-injected GLP-1 on pilocarpine-induced seizures, anxiety and locomotor and exploratory activity in rat. Rats were pretreated with GLP-1 (1-1000 ng/5 microl; i.c.v.) or saline (5 microl; i.c.v.) 30 min before seizure induction by pilocarpine (2.4 mg/5 microl; i.c.v.) and with GLP-1 (1, 10, 100 ng/5 microl; i.c.v.) or saline (5 microl; i.c.v.) 30 min before the open field test or the elevated plus maze test. GLP-1 did not produce any protective effect against pilocarpine-induced seizures and did not also produce statistically significant differences in the number of squares visited (measure of locomotor activity) or number of rearings (measure of exploratory behaviour), compared to the saline-treated rats in the open field test. On the other hand, GLP-1 (1 ng and 10 ng; i.c.v.) induced an anxiogenic effect, indicated by a decrease in the time spent in open arms, an increase in the time spent in closed arms, and a decrease in the anxiety scores in the elevated plus maze test. Pretreatment with an arginine vasopressin (AVP) V(1) receptor antagonist (125 ng/5 microl; i.c.v.) and L-NAME (100 microg/5 microl and 200 microg/5 microl) significantly abolished the anxiogenic effect of GLP-1 (1 ng/5 microl; i.c.v.). These results suggest that, centrally-injected GLP-1 produces anxiogenic effects via NO pathway and AVP V(1) receptors, but does not have any effects on pilocarpine-induced seizures or locomotor and exploratory activity in the open field test. PMID:20227110

Gulec, Guldal; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, Naciye; Kahveci, Nevzat

2010-03-12

118

Oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A comparative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Hemodynamic responses of laryngoscopy and laparoscopy should be attenuated by the appropriate premedication, smooth induction, and rapid intubation. The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A total of 180 healthy adult consented patients aged 35 to 52 years with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II of both gender, who met the inclusion criteria for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomized to receive placebo Group I, pregabalin (150 mg) Group II, or clonidine (200 ?g) Group III, given 75 to 90 minutes before surgery as oral premedication. All groups were compared for preoperative sedation and anxiety level along with changes of heart rate and mean arterial pressure prior to premedication, before induction, after laryngoscopy, pneumoperitoneum, release of carbon dioxide, and extubation. Intraoperative analgesic drug requirement and any postoperative complications were also recorded. Results: Pregabalin and clonidine proved to have sedative and anxiolytic effects as oral premedicants and decreased the need of intraoperative analgesic drug requirement. Clonidine was superior to pregabalin for attenuation of the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and laparoscopy, but it increased the incidence of intra-and postoperative bradycardia. No significant differences in the parameters of recovery were observed between the groups. None of the premedicated patient has suffered from any postoperative side effects. Conclusion: Oral premedication with pregabalin 150 mg or clonidine 200 ?g causes sedation and anxiolysis with hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without prolongation of recovery time and side effects.

Gupta, Kumkum; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Prashant K.

2011-01-01

119

Comparing Written and Oral Measures of Comprehension of Cancer Information by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese Immigrant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension\\u000a of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)\\u000a populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension\\u000a among ESL Chinese immigrant women

Jennifer McWhirter; Laura Todd; Laurie Hoffman-Goetz

120

Extended nasolabial flap compared with the platysma myocutaneous muscle flap for reconstruction of intraoral defects after release of oral submucous fibrosis: a comparative study.  

PubMed

We compared extended nasolabial flaps and coronoidectomy with platysma myocutaneous muscle flaps in the management of 20 randomly selected patients with histologically confirmed oral submucous fibrosis. Ten patients were treated by release of fibrous bands, bilateral coronoidectomy, and reconstruction with an extended nasolabial flap (nasolabial group), and the other 10 by bilateral release of fibrous bands, coronoidectomy, and reconstruction with a platysma myocutaneous muscle flap (platysma group). In the nasolabial group the mean preoperative interincisal mouth opening was 12(range 3-14)mm, and in the platysma group it was 11 (3-13). All 20 patients were given vigorous postoperative physiotherapy, and were followed up for 3 years. The interincisal mouth opening improved to 47(35-45)mm in the nasolabial group and 48(41-52)mm in the platysma group. The procedures were equally effective in the management of the oral submucous fibrosis, except that the extraoral scar was not aesthetically acceptable in the nasolabial group. PMID:22554695

Bande, Chandrashekhar R; Datarkar, Abhay; Khare, Neeraj

2012-05-01

121

Non-linear stress-strain measurements of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) compared to normal oral mucosal and skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-strain curves of oral mucosal tissues were measured using direct mechanical testing. Measurements were conducted on both natural oral mucosal tissues and engineered devices, specifically a clinically developed ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME). As seeded cells proliferate on EVPOME devices, they produce a keratinized protective upper layer which fills in surface irregularities. These transformations can further alter stress-strain

Frank Winterroth; Scott J. Hollister; Stephen E. Feinberg; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Arindam Ganguly; Kyle W. Hollman

2011-01-01

122

Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Alkylating Activity of Fractionated Intravenous and Oral Ifosfamide in Patients with Bronchogenic Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were treated with ifosfamide and mesna 1.5 jj\\/nr daily for 5 days; 10 received the drug by mouth and 10 i.v. Both schedules resulted in a reduction in the elimination half-life with an increased total and nonrenal clearance of ifosfamide over the 5-day period. Oral administration resulted in an unacceptably high incidence of

M. J. Lind; J. M. Margison; T. Cerny; N. Thatcher; P. M. Wilkinson

123

Comparative pharmacokinetic investigations with tritium-labeled ergot alkaloids after oral and intravenous administration man.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out with nine tritium-labeled ergot alkaloids (dihydroergotmine, dihydroergotoxine, dihydroergostine, dihydroergocornine, dihydroergovaline, dihydroergonine, ergotamine, 1-methyl-ergotamine, and bromocriptine). Each drug was administered to 6 subjects in a randomized cross-over design as single oral and intravenous doses. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of tritium-labeled material were analyzed on a phenomenological basis by non-linear regression as a sum of exponentials. All substances showed the highest plasma concentration about 2 hours after oral administration (range 1.0-2.7 hours). The mean invasion half-life was 0.5 hours (range 0.32-1.12 hours). The mean elimination half-lives ranged from 1.4-6.2 hours for the alpha-phase and from 13 to 50 hours for the beta-phase, the longest values being observed with bromocriptine. From cumulative urinary excretion data after oral and after intravenous administration, a quotient of absorption was calculated. Values between 25 and 30% were found for most dihydrogenated drugs, namely dihydroergotamine, dihydroergotoxine, dihydroergostine, and dihydroergocornine, the only exceptions being dihydroergovaline and dihydroergonine, which were less well absorbed. Ergotamine and 1-methyl-ergotamine had an absorption quotient of about two-thirds and bromocriptine was nearly completely absorbed. PMID:403149

Aellig, W H; Nüesch, E

1977-03-01

124

Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel before and after 1995: cohort and case-control analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism among women taking third generation oral contraceptives (with gestodene or desogestrel) with that among women taking oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. Design Cohort and case-control analyses derived from the General Practice Research Database. Setting UK general practices, January 1993 to December 1999. Participants Women aged 15-39 taking third generation oral contraceptives or oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. Main outcome measures Relative incidence (cohort study) and odds ratios (case-control study) as measures of the relative risk of venous thromboembolism. Results The adjusted estimates of relative risk for venous thromboembolism associated with third generation oral contraceptives compared with oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8) in the cohort analysis and 2.3 (1.3 to 3.9) in the case-control study. The estimates for the two types of oral contraceptives were similar before and after the warning issued by the Committee on Safety of Medicines in October 1995. A shift away from the use of third generation oral contraceptives after the scare was more pronounced among younger women (who have a lower risk of venous thromboembolism) than among older women. Fewer cases of venous thromboembolism occurred in 1996 and later than would have been expected if the use of oral contraceptives had remained unchanged. Conclusions These findings are consistent with previously reported studies, which found that compared with oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel, third generation oral contraceptives are associated with around twice the risk of venous thromboembolism.

Jick, Hershel; Kaye, James A; Vasilakis-Scaramozza, Catherine; Jick, Susan S

2000-01-01

125

Comparative study between daily and 5-days-a-week administration of oral 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in mice: determining the superior regimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oral administration of derivatives of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is currently used to treat colorectal cancer in the United States. Oral chemotherapy possesses certain advantages: it is simple, easy to administer, and has few side effects. We compared conventional daily oral administration of 5-FU (daily schedule) with administration on 5 consecutive days followed by 2 drug-free days (5-days-a-week schedule) in a

Masato Makino; Hidehiko Shoji; Daiki Takemoto; Takuya Honboh; Seiichi Nakamura; Kazuo Kurayoshi; Nobuaki Kaibara

2001-01-01

126

Compared to Subcutaneous Tenofovir, Oral Tenofovir Disoproxyl Fumarate Administration Preferentially Concentrates the Drug into Gut-Associated Lymphoid Cells in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques  

PubMed Central

To compare tissue-based pharmacokinetics and efficacy of oral tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF) versus subcutaneous tenofovir (TFV), macaques were treated for 2 weeks starting 1 week after simian immunodeficiency virus inoculation. Despite lower plasma TFV levels in the oral TDF arm, similar TFV diphosphate levels and antiviral activities were measured in lymphoid cells of most tissues. In intestinal tissues, however, oral TDF resulted in higher active drug levels, associated with lower virus levels and better immune preservation.

Babusis, Darius; Abbott, Zachary; Geng, Yongzhi; Jayashankar, Kartika; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Heneine, Walid; Abel, Kristina; Ray, Adrian S.

2012-01-01

127

Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of two oral formulations of thiocolchicoside, a GABA-mimetic muscle relaxant drug, in normal volunteers.  

PubMed

The comparative pharmacokinetic and bioavailability profile of two different formulations (tablets and capsules) of thiocolchicoside was investigated in 8 healthy male volunteers after administration of single oral 8 mg doses. Plasma samples were assayed by a capillary gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method following enzymatic hydrolysis of thiocolchicoside to its aglycone (3-demethylthiocolchicine) and no attempt was made to account for the possible occurrence of hydrolysis in vivo. Irrespective of the formulation used, the drug was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, peak levels of about 17 ng/ml being detected within 1 h in most subjects. Elimination was rapid, with mean MRT values of 5-6 h. All kinetic parameters showed considerable interindividual variability but none differed significantly between the two formulations. Relative to the tablet formulation, the oral bioavailability of the capsule formulation was 1.06 +/- 0.39. PMID:8983937

Perucca, E; Poitou, P; Pifferi, G

128

The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg

1999-01-01

129

Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.  

PubMed Central

Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration.

Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

1986-01-01

130

Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Randomized Trial Comparing Oral Uracil and Tegafur and Oral Leucovorin Vs. Intravenous 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare, in a randomized trial, 5-fluorouracil (FU) plus leucovorin (LV) (FU+LV) vs. oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus LV (UFT+LV) given concomitantly with preoperative irradiation in patients with cT3-4 or N+ rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients were entered onto the trial. Patients received pelvic radiotherapy (4500-5,040 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks) and chemotherapy consisting of two 5-day courses of 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d LV and 350 mg/m{sup 2}/d FU in the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy (77 patients) or one course of 25 mg/d oral LV and 300 mg/m{sup 2}/d UFT for 4 weeks beginning in the second week of radiotherapy (78 patients). The primary endpoints were pathologic complete response (pCR) and resectability rate. Secondary endpoints included downstaging rate, toxicity, and survival. Results: Grade 3-5 acute hematologic toxicity occurred only with FU+LV (leukopenia 9%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in resectability rates (92.1% vs. 93.4%; p = 0.82). The pCR rate was 13.2% in both arms. Tumor downstaging was more frequent with UFT+LV (59.2% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.04). Three-year overall survival was 87% with FU+LV and 74% with UFT+LV (p = 0.37). The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence were 7.5% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.619; relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval 0.32-6.55). Conclusion: Although this study lacked statistical power to exclude clinically significant differences between both groups, the outcome of patients treated with UFT+LV did not differ significantly from that of patients treated with FU+LV, and hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in the experimental arm.

Torre, Alejandro de la [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: oncrtcph@saludalia.com; Garcia-Berrocal, Maria Isabel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Arias, Fernando [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Marino, Alfonso [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro Oncologico de Galicia, A Coruna (Spain); Valcarcel, Francisco; Magallon, Rosa; Regueiro, Carlos A.; Romero, Jesus; Zapata, Irma; Fuente, Cristina de la; Fernandez-Lizarbe, Eva; Vergara, Gloria; Belinchon, Belen; Veiras, Maria; Moleron, Rafael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain); Millan, Isabel [Department of Biostatistics, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

2008-01-01

131

A multinational, multicentre, non-blinded, randomized study of moxifloxacin oral tablets compared with co-amoxiclav oral tablets in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of once daily dosing with moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) with that of coamoxiclav given three times daily for the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Moxifloxacin (one 400 mg tablet daily) was administered orally for 5 days and co-amoxiclav (three 625 mg tablets daily) was given orally for 7 days. The study was randomized, non-blinded, multinational (12 countries) and multicentre (68 centres). A total of 575 patients, all with clear signs of AECB, were treated, 292 with moxifloxacin and 283 with co-amoxiclav. Of these, 512 patients were evaluable for efficacy (261 in the moxifloxacin group and 251 in the co-amoxiclav group). The primary efficacy parameter was clinical response at 14 days in the evaluable population. A clinical success was classified as resolution or improvement of symptoms. Variables used to assess clinical response included wheeze, cough, dyspnoea, sputum volume, rales and rhonchi. The success rate for moxifloxacin in the evaluable patients was 96.2% and that for co-amoxiclav was 91.6%. The 95% confidence intervals for this difference (0.4%; 8.7%) indicate equivalence in the treatments. Sputum samples were taken from patients and 140 of these contained a pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae being the most frequently isolated. Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also commonly isolated pathogens. The eradication rate at 14 days in the evaluable patients was 87.7% in the moxifloxacin group and 89.6% in the coamoxiclav group. Both drugs were well tolerated with no significant differences in the numbers of drug-related adverse events or the numbers of patients withdrawing because of an adverse event. These results and the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity make moxifloxacin a promising and safe alternative to conventional therapy for the empirical treatment of AECB. PMID:11675905

Schaberg, T; Ballin, I; Huchon, G; Bassaris, H; Hampel, B; Reimnitz, P

132

Comparative evaluation for the use of oral ibuprofen and intravenous indomethacin in Korean infants with patent ductus.  

PubMed

Ductus arteriosus is a normal connecting blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and aorta in the fetus. However, if the ductus arteriosus is not closed and maintained as the open state even after 72 h of the birth, this is called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Intravenous indomethacin is the conventional treatment for PDA in immature infants, but remains controversial in mature infants. The purpose of this study was to compare intravenous indomethacin and oral ibuprofen with regard to efficacy and safety for treatment of PDA. 78 neonates treated for PDA were included and classified into immature (n = 49) and mature (n = 29) groups. Ductal closure occurred in immature infants treated with indomethacin (74.1%) and ibuprofen (90.9%). Ductal closure occurred in mature infants treated with indomethacin (66.7%) and ibuprofen (92.9%). Platelet counts were increased in immature infants treated with ibuprofen (p = 0.027). Hyponatremia occurred in immature infants treated with ibuprofen (p = 0.002) and in both groups of mature infants (p = 0.001 for both groups). Serum creatinine values were lowered in mature infants treated with ibuprofen (p = 0.032). Bleeding occurred in 5 immature infants treated with indomethacin. Administration of furosemide for urine output was more frequent in the mature groups than in the immature group. In conclusion, oral ibuprofen was as effective as intravenous indomethacin in the immature groups and more effective in the mature groups. Adverse effects of oral ibuprofen were less severe than intravenous indomethacin. PMID:23054725

Heo, Mi Jeong; Lee, Ok Sang; Lim, Sung Cil

2012-10-09

133

[Effectiveness and tolerance of an active combination of timolol and pilocarpine--a pilot project].  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted to find out whether it is possible to achieve a further drop in intraocular pressure in eyes with glaucoma, which is about 22 mmHg after treatment with 0.5% timolol, by employing a combination preparation of timolol 0.5% and pilocarpine 2% or timolol 0.5% and pilocarpine 4% respectively, administered as eyedrops. This resulted in an average additional lowering of 1.9 mmHg after 2 hrs and by 2.1 mmHg after 6 hours (TP2) or by 3.0 mmHg after 2 and 3.5 mmHg after 6 and by 2.7 mmHg after 12 hours (TP4), the therapeutically relevant duration of effectivity being 6 (TP2) or 12 (TP4) hours, respectively. PMID:3441105

Schnarr, K D; Merté, H J

1987-12-01

134

Sucrose ingestion decreases seizure onset time in female rats treated with lithium and pilocarpine.  

PubMed

To extend previous work concerning diet and overt seizures in rats, we tested the hypothesis that ingestion of 10% sucrose-water could reduce seizure onset time (SOT) in rats given lithium and pilocarpine. We found that female but not male rats given free access to a 10% sucrose-water solution for 3 weeks exhibited shorter SOTs than age- and sex-matched control subjects. A separate experiment determined that SOT was significantly reduced whether female rats were provided 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks of free access to sucrose. Moreover, the daily volume of sucrose ingested was significantly correlated (r=-0.42) with SOT regardless of the duration of sucrose treatment (in weeks). These findings suggest that a diet supplemented with sugar can facilitate the emergence of behavioral seizures in female rats given lithium and pilocarpine. We discuss the potential role of dopamine in mediating the sucrose-induced changes in SOT. PMID:15907749

Galic, M A; Persinger, M A

2005-06-01

135

Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of electroencephalography in a high-dose pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied nonlinear analysis to the results of electroencephalography (EEG) in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model to characterize nonlinear dynamics according to SE phase. Nine male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 150–250g were used. EEG was classified into four phases in addition to baseline EEG (phase 0) as follows: phase 1, discrete seizures; phase 2, continuous ictal discharges; phase 3, early

Ki-Young Jung; Jae-Moon Kim; Dong Wook Kim

2003-01-01

136

Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.  

PubMed

Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 k? versus 160 ± 19 k?, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 ?l cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. PMID:23701521

Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

2013-05-13

137

Wound healing in oral mucosa results in reduced scar formation as compared with skin: evidence from the red Duroc pig model and humans.  

PubMed

Scar formation is a common, unwanted result of wound healing in skin, but the mechanisms that regulate it are still largely unknown. Interestingly, wound healing in the oral mucosa proceeds faster than in skin and clinical observations have suggested that mucosal wounds rarely scar. To test this concept, we created identical experimental wounds in the oral mucosa and skin in red Duroc pigs and compared wound healing and scar development over time. We also compared the pig oral mucosal wound healing to similar experimental wounds created in human subjects. The findings showed significantly reduced scar formation at both clinical and histological level in the pig oral mucosa as compared with skin 49 days after wounding. Additionally, the skin scars contained a significantly increased number of type I procollagen immunopositive cells and an increased fibronectin content, while the oral mucosal wounds demonstrated a prolonged accumulation of tenascin-C. Furthermore, the pig oral mucosal wounds showed similar molecular composition and clinical and histological scar scores to human oral mucosal wounds. Thus, the reduced scar formation in the pig oral mucosa provides a model to study the biological processes that regulate scarless wound healing to find novel approaches to prevent scar formation in skin. PMID:19769724

Wong, Joyce W; Gallant-Behm, Corrie; Wiebe, Colin; Mak, Karen; Hart, David A; Larjava, Hannu; Häkkinen, Lari

138

Care home staff knowledge of oral care compared to best practice: a West of Scotland pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To evaluate care home (N) staff knowledge of oral care provision for dependent older people in comparison to guidelines from NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (NHSQIS). This pilot study also aimed to identify barriers to delivering oral care and determine if oral health educator (OHE) training had an effect upon staff knowledge of oral care delivery.Setting This cross-sectional analytic investigation

C. A. Murray; J. Thomson; B. C. Young

2008-01-01

139

Summary of: Care home staff knowledge of oral care compared to best practice: a West of Scotland pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To evaluate care home (N) staff knowledge of oral care provision for dependent older people in comparison to guidelines from NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (NHSQIS). This pilot study also aimed to identify barriers to delivering oral care and determine if oral health educator (OHE) training had an effect upon staff knowledge of oral care delivery.Setting This cross-sectional analytic investigation

J. R. Drummond

2008-01-01

140

Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

In searching for persistent seizure-induced alterations in brain function that might be causally related to epilepsy, presynaptic transmitter release has relatively been neglected. To measure directly the long-term effects of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on vesicular release and recycling in hippocampal mossy fibre presynaptic boutons, we used (i) two-photon imaging of FM1-43 vesicular release in rat hippocampal slices; and (ii) transgenic mice expressing the genetically encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent reporter synaptopHluorin preferentially at glutamatergic synapses. In this study we found that, 1–2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, there were significant increases in mossy fibre bouton size, faster rates of action potential-driven vesicular release and endocytosis. We also analysed the ultrastructure of rat mossy fibre boutons using transmission electron microscopy. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus led to a significant increase in the number of release sites, active zone length, postsynaptic density area and number of vesicles in the readily releasable and recycling pools, all correlated with increased release probability. Our data show that presynaptic release machinery is persistently altered in structure and function by status epilepticus, which could contribute to the development of the chronic epileptic state and may represent a potential new target for antiepileptic therapies.

Upreti, Chirag; Otero, Rafael; Partida, Carlos; Skinner, Frank; Thakker, Ravi; Pacheco, Luis F.; Zhou, Zhen-yu; Maglakelidze, Giorgi; Veliskova, Jana; Velisek, Libor; Romanovicz, Dwight; Jones, Theresa; Stanton, Patric K.

2012-01-01

141

Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

Burlage, Fred R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.r.burlage@rt.umcg.nl; Roesink, Judith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kampinga, Harm H. [Department of Cell Biology, Section for Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-01-01

142

Efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of the combined contraceptive ring, NuvaRing, compared with an oral contraceptive containing 30 ?g of ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis randomized multicenter, open-label, trial compared efficacy, acceptability, tolerability and compliance of NuvaRing with a combined oral contraceptive (COC), containing 30 ?g of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 3 mg of drospirenone.

Hans-Joachim Ahrendt; Israel Nisand; Carlo Bastianelli; Maria Angeles Gómez; Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson; Wolfgang Urdl; Birgit Karskov; Luc Oeyen; Johannes Bitzer; Geert Page; Ian Milsom

2006-01-01

143

Randomized Controlled Trial of Sequential Intravenous (i.v.) and Oral Moxifloxacin Compared with Sequential i.v. and Oral Co-Amoxiclav with or without Clarithromycin in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Initial Parenteral Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present trial was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (400 mg) given intravenously (i.v.) once daily followed by oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) for 7 to 14 days with the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of co-amoxiclav (1.2 g) administered by i.v. infusion three times a day followed by oral co-amoxiclav (625 mg) three times

R. Finch; D. Schurmann; O. Collins; R. Kubin; J. McGivern; H. Bobbaers; J. L. Izquierdo; P. Nikolaides; F. Ogundare; R. Raz; P. Zuck; G. Hoeffken

2002-01-01

144

EFFECTS OF LATRUNCULIN B ON OUTFLOW FACILITY, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, CORNEAL THICKNESS, AND MIOTIC AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES TO PILOCARPINE IN MONKEYS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if low doses of topical latrunculin B (LAT-B) will increase outflow facility and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) without adversely affecting the cornea, and inhibit miotic and accommodative responses to pilocarpine, in ocular normotensive monkeys. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann tonometry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.005% and 0.01% topical LAT-B/vehicle given twice daily on successive weeks. Outflow facility was then measured by perfusion following 15 doses. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B/vehicle. Pupillary diameter (calipers) and accommodation (refractometry) before and after one dose of 0.005% and 0.02% LAT-B were determined. Results LAT-B dose-dependently decreased IOP, multiple doses more than a single dose. Maximal hypotension after one dose was 2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 2.7 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .005); maximal hypotension after nine doses was 3.2 ± 0.5 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 4.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001). Outflow facility was increased by 75 ± 13% (n = 7; P < .005). Central corneal thickness was not changed after one or nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B. The miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular pilocarpine were dose-dependently inhibited. At 0.02% LAT-B, the inhibition of miosis was essentially complete when compared with the pre-LAT-B value, whereas the inhibition of accommodation was only about 25%. At 0.005% LAT-B, the effects were trivial. Conclusions In ocular normotensive monkeys, 0.005/0.01% LAT-B administered topically increases outflow facility and/or decreases IOP, but does not affect the cornea. Multiple doses reduce IOP more than a single dose. LAT-B dose-dependently relaxes the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle, with some separation of the miotic and accommodative effects.

Okka, Mehmet; Tian, Baohe; Kaufman, Paul L

2004-01-01

145

Comparing Oral Route Paraffin Oil versus Rectal Route for Disimpaction in Children with Chronic Constipation; a Randomized Control Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Functional constipation is a common and challenging problem in pediatrics. Fecal disimpaction prior to maintenance therapy is recommended to ensure successful treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and patient's compliance of the two methods of paraffin oil administration (oral and rectal route) with the purpose of disimpaction in treatment of children with functional constipation. Methods A total of 80 children (49 males and 31 females) aged 1–12 years, with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria, whose rectal examination confirmed fecal impaction were divided into two groups randomly. Group I received 3 ml/kg/day paraffin oil orally and group II received 3ml/kg/day paraffin oil rectally during 3 consequent days. Successful treatment was defined as no detectable fecal impaction in rectal examination after at most 72 hours. Patient compliance and family satisfaction also was evaluated using a scored questionnaire. Findings Response to the treatment in both groups was with 92.5% and 82.5% in group I and II, respectively. So, there was no significant difference between the two methods of therapy. Family satisfying and compliance were obviously more achieved in group 1 (87.5% vs 57.5%) than in Group 2 (P<0.001). No parents in group I complained about type of treatment while 12.5% of parents in group II were unsatisfied with the mode of paraffin oil administration. The most common side effect of paraffin oil in both groups was anal oil seepage (27.5%). Nausea and abdominal pain were more common side effects in group 1 and 2 respectively. Conclusion It seems that using paraffin oil per oral route in comparison with rectal route could be a preferred option for disimpaction in children causing less anxiety to the family.

Farahmand, Fatemeh; Eftekhari, Kambiz; Modarresi, Vajiheh; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh

2010-01-01

146

Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544) followed by generic risperidone ($9,080). In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719). The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia.

Furiak, Nicolas M; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Klein, Robert W; Smolen, Lee J; Lawson, Anthony H; Conley, Robert R; Culler, Steven D

2009-01-01

147

Influence of process parameters of high-pressure emulsification method on the properties of pilocarpine-loaded nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with pilocarpine hydrochloride were prepared by the high-pressure emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles were produced using polyvinylalcohol (PVA), carbomer (Carbopol 980) or poloxamer (Lutrol F-68) as stabilizers during emulsification. The influence of pressure and number of cycles on the nanoparticle properties was investigated. For comparison, nanoparicles without high-pressure treatment of the emulsion were made. The nanoparticle size, drug loading and release properties depended strongly on the homogenization pressure and number of cycles applied. Nanoparticles obtained without high pressure homogenization showed larger size and high values of polydispersity index, especially when carbopol and poloxamer were used as emulsifiers. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of all samples also decreased with pressure. The low drug loading could be due to two reasons. First, the high pressure promoted drug diffusion out of protoparticles during emulsification either by size reduction or shear forces. Secondly, the characteristics of the outer water phase of the emulsion also influenced the nanoparticle drug loading. This was proven by the different drug loadings measured when nanoparticles were made with PVA, carbopol or poloxamer at equal pressures applied. The main factor influencing the release properties of nanoparticles was the pressure used during emulsification. Faster drug release was observed from nanoparticles obtained after high-pressure emulsification compared to those prepared without homogenization of the emulsion. PMID:12851045

Yoncheva, K; Vandervoort, J; Ludwig, A

148

Costs and effects of long-acting risperidone compared with oral atypical and conventional depot formulations in Germany.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric conditions because of high direct and indirect costs associated with the nature of the illness, its resistance to treatment and the consequences of relapse. Long-acting risperidone is a new formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug that also offers the improvements in compliance associated with haloperidol depot. The aim of this simulation study was to compare the benefits and costs of three pharmacological treatment strategies comprising first-line treatment with long-acting risperidone injection, a haloperidol depot or an oral atypical antipsychotic agent, over a 5-year period in Germany. A discrete event simulation model was developed to compare three treatment scenarios from the perspective of major third-party payers (sickness funds and social security 'Sozialversicherung'). The scenarios comprised first-line treatment with haloperidol depot (scenario 1), long-acting risperidone (scenario 2) and oral olanzapine (scenario 3). Switches to second or third-line options were allowed when side-effects occurred or a patient suffered more than a fixed number of relapses. The model accounted for fixed patient characteristics, and on the basis of these, simulated patient histories according to several time-dependent variables. The time horizon for this model was limited to 5 years, and in accordance with German guidelines, costs and effects were discounted by between 3 and 10%. Direct costs included medication, type of physician visits and treatment location. Indirect costs were not included. Information on treatment alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and healthcare utilization were derived from the literature and an expert panel. Outcomes were expressed in terms of the number and duration of psychotic episodes, cumulative symptom scores, costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out, as were subgroup analyses based on disease severity and for patients at high risk of being non-compliant. The long-acting risperidone strategy was calculated to avoid 0.23 and 0.33 relapses per patient, decrease the cumulative symptom score by 25 and 33 points, and decrease the costs by 2017 Euro and 6096 Euro per patient (1608 Euro and 5422 Euro discounted), compared with the haloperidol depot and olanzapine strategies, respectively, over a 5-year period (year of costing 2004). Among high-risk non-compliant patients, long-acting risperidone was estimated to avoid 0.23 and 0.47 relapses and save 4822 Euro and 10,646 Euro per patient (4107 Euro and 9490 Euro discounted), compared with the haloperidol depot and olanzapine strategies, respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust and mainly sensitive to changes in the reported relative effectiveness of atypical and conventional formulations for preventing symptom recurrence, and in the relative compliance with oral and long-acting formulations. In this model, long-acting risperidone is a dominant strategy compared with a haloperidol depot or oral atypical antipsychotic agent, being both more effective and less costly over a 5-year period. Results for long-acting risperidone are even more favourable among patients at high risk of being noncompliant or with more severe disease. PMID:16416761

Laux, Gerd; Heeg, Bart; van Hout, Ben A; Mehnert, Angelika

2005-01-01

149

[The comparative characteristics of treating herpes virus diseases of the oral mucosa with antiviral preparations].  

PubMed

The efficacy of human leukocytic interferon (ointment), 20000 IU/g, in the treatment of viral diseases of the buccal mucosa was studied in 152 patients. The results were compared with those achieved with the commercial antiviral agent 0.5% oxolin ointment. The results evidence a manifest antiviral effect of the interferon ointment, recommending it for practical dentistry. PMID:1926196

Degtiareva, E P; Ramzaeva, L V; Iovlev, V I; Stepanov, A N

150

Increased dissolution and oral absorption of itraconazole/Soluplus extrudate compared with itraconazole nanosuspension.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to compare the in vitro and in vivo profiles of itraconazole (ITZ) extrudates and nanosuspension separately prepared by two different methods. And it was proved truly to form nanocrystalline and amorphous ITZ characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The release of ITZ/Soluplus solid dispersions with amorphous ITZ was almost complete while only 40% release was obtained with ITZ nanocrystals. The amorphous state need not to cross over the crystal lattice energy upon dissolution while the crystalline need to overcome it. In the in vivo assay, the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of ITZ/Soluplus were 6.9- and 11.6-time higher than those of pure ITZ. The formulation of the extrudate had an AUC(0-t) and Cmax similar to those of ITZ and also OH-ITZ compared with the commercial capsule (Sporanox®). The relative bioavailability values with their 95% confidence limit were calculated to be 98.3% (92.5-104.1%) and 101.3% (97.9-104.1%), respectively. The results of this study showed increased dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of Soluplus-based carrier loading ITZ prepared by HME compared with the ITZ nanosuspension prepared by wet milling. PMID:23562534

Zhang, Keru; Yu, Hongxia; Luo, Qing; Yang, Shenshen; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Bin; Tang, Xing

2013-04-01

151

Comparative effectiveness of depot and oral second generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: A nationwide study in Hungary.  

PubMed

We conducted a nationwide, full-population based investigation to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of all marketed second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGA) prescribed for outpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia in Hungary. Using the national central register, our observational follow-up study included all patients with schizophrenia or related disorder between 01/01/2006 and 30/06/2008. The study cohort comprised 9567 patients who started new SGA during the inclusion period (01/07/2007-30/06/2008). All-cause medication discontinuation of 8 SGAs (1 depot and 7 oral formulations) marketed during the inclusion period, and the time to all-cause discontinuation were the main outcomes. Statistical models included the Kaplan-Meier and the Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score adjustment. Patients treated with a depot formulation risperidone had the longest time to discontinuation with a median of 215 days (95%CI:181-242 days), which was statistically significantly different compared to patients treated with the rest of the medications: olanzapine (136 days, 95%CI:121-153 days), aripiprazole (102 days, 95%CI:81-126 days), ziprasidone (93 days, 95%CI:82-119 days), quetiapine (89 days, 95%CI:81-100 days), clozapine (76 days, 95%CI:54-92 days), amisulpride (73 days, 95%CI:62-85 days), and risperidone (55 days, 95%CI: 41-63 days). Our results in Hungary are partly similar to those of a recent register-based study in Finland with patients who were discharged from their first hospitalization for schizophrenia (Tiihonen et al., 2006, 2011); namely the median times to all-cause medication discontinuation were <120 days for the majority of the oral SGA. In terms of medication differences, our data support the superior effectiveness of the depot formulation regarding all-cause discontinuation, followed by olanzapine at the efficacy rank order. PMID:23477752

Bitter, István; Katona, Lajos; Zámbori, János; Takács, Péter; Fehér, László; Diels, Joris; Bacskai, Miklós; Lang, Zsolt; Gyáni, Gergely; Czobor, Pál

2013-03-01

152

An in vitro oral biofilm model for comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses.  

PubMed

The ability of commercial mouthrinses to reduce total viable counts of mixed microbial populations was examined using a previously developed in vitro model of supragingival plaque. Exploratory experiments aimed at fine-tuning the model indicated that optimal correspondence between in vitro and clinical results for chlorhexidine-containing formulations were obtained at a saliva:medium ratio of 70:30 (v/v); moreover, expanding the microbial population from 5 bacterial species to 5 bacterial species + Candida albicans had no noticeable impact on overall results. The efficacies of 12 different mouthrinse proprietary products containing chlorhexidine, hexetidine, octenidine, Triclosan, plant extracts, or aminefluoride/stannous fluoride vis-à-vis biofilm clearance were compared. All mouthrinses promoted a statistically significant reduction in microbial load compared to distilled water. The herbal- and phenolic-based products were substantially less effective than most chlorhexidine-containing mouthrinses, or mouthrinses containing hexetidine or octenidine. No significant difference between the plaque-clearing plaque-clearing abilities of Listerine and Meridol was observed. This polyspecies biofilm model can be a valuable tool for preclinical testing of antiplaque formulations, particularly during the product development stage. PMID:12037365

Shapiro, S; Giertsen, E; Guggenheim, B

153

Behavioral, biochemical and histological studies in a model of pilocarpine-induced spontaneous recurrent seizures.  

PubMed

Although the presence of profound cognitive disturbances in lithium-pilocarpine-induced spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) has been well documented, much less is known about changes in emotional behavior, in this model of temporal lobe epilepsy. To that end, a lithium-pilocarpine model of SRS was used to evaluate behavior of experimental animals (SRS, non-SRS and saline-treated rats) in different tests of anxiety (open field test, fear conditioning freezing and footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization). Flinch-jump test, allowing determination of pain threshold, was employed to confirm specificity of data from anxiety tests. Moreover, neurotransmitters' (dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites) concentration was measured in selected brain structures involved in emotional and motor processing (hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum). Finally, different brain structures were examined histologically in order to determine structures likely to be involved in behavioral changes. It was found that SRS rats, tested in a seizure free period, revealed an increase in motor activity, and a decrease in fear-related reactions (a freezing response to the aversively conditioned context, and a spontaneous, emotion-related ultrasonic vocalization). No changes in the pain threshold were present. The activity of dopamine and serotonin systems in examined brain structures remained unchanged. The neuropathological effects were widespread and involved a loss of neurons, proliferation of astroglial cells and the presence of activated ramified and ameboid microglial cells in the hippocampus proper, piriform cortex, amygdala and lateral posterior thalamic nuclei. The obtained results suggest a prevalence of disinhibitory effects on behavior in SRS rats, as shown by the results of contextual fear and aversive vocalization tests (i.e. a release of rat behavior controlled by fear). It is conceivable that the lesions to the limbic structures involved in the origin of emotions; the hippocampus, amygdala, and piriform cortex, may underlie changes in anxiety reactions in SRS rats. These results indicate that lithium-pilocarpine-induced SRS are also accompanied by profound alteration of animal emotional behavior. PMID:15894059

Szyndler, Janusz; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Skórzewska, Anna; Maciejak, Piotr; Walkowiak, Jerzy; Lechowicz, Waldemar; Turzy?ska, Danuta; Bidzi?ski, Andrzej; P?a?nik, Adam

2005-04-26

154

Studies on the response of nitroglycerin oral spray compared with sublingual tablets for angina pectoris patients with dry mouth. A multicenter trial.  

PubMed

Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, CAS 55-63-0, NTG) administered with an oral spray may be more effective in relieving anginal pain than sublingual tablets especially when the patient's mouth is dry. In this study, the effect of a NTG oral spray (Myocor Spray) on exercise-induced angina was compared with that of a sublingual tablet in relation to the oral dryness. In 17 patients with effort angina, graded bicycle exercise was performed twice at an interval of one week. Exercise was discontinued upon the onset of moderate anginal pain. Immediately after exercise, the oral dryness was evaluated by touching the tip of the tongue with a blotting paper for a moment. Then, 0.3 mg of NTG was administered by either a squirt of spray or a sublingual tablet in a randomized crossover fashion. Exercise results were reproducible between two exercise tests. According to the extent of the wet area of the blotting paper, the subjects were divided into two groups. In 7 patients of the wet group, the remission times of chest pain and ST segment depression were not significantly different by the formulation of NTG. In 10 patients of the dry group, however, both chest pain and ST depression more rapidly recovered with use of the oral spray (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the NTG oral spray is superior to the sublingual tablet in relieving anginal attacks, when the oral wetness is decreased. PMID:9079231

Sato, H; Koretsune, Y; Taniguchi, T; Fukui, S; Shimazu, T; Sugii, M; Matsuyama, T; Karita, M; Hori, M

1997-02-01

155

Rapamycin attenuates aggressive behavior in a rat model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric disorders are fairly common comorbidities of epilepsy in humans. Following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), experimental animals not only developed spontaneous recurrent seizures, but also exhibited significantly elevated levels of aggressive behavior. The cellular and molecular mechanism triggering these behavioral alterations remains unclear. In the present study, we found that aggression is positively correlated with development of spontaneous seizures. Treatment with rapamycin, a potent mTOR pathway inhibitor, markedly diminished aggressive behavior. Therefore, the mTOR pathway may have significance in the underlying molecular mechanism leading to aggression associated with epilepsy.

Huang, Xiaoxing; McMahon, John; Huang, Yunfei

2012-01-01

156

A comparative study of monophasic oral contraceptives containing either drospirenone 3 mg or levonorgestrel 150 microg on premenstrual symptoms.  

PubMed

This open-label randomized study compared the effects of two combined oral contraceptives (OCs) containing 3 mg drospirenone (DRSP)/30 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with 150 microg levonorgestrel (LNG)/30 microg EE on the prevalence and changes from baseline of premenstrual symptoms after six cycles. The symptoms were measured using the Women's Health Assessment Questionnaire. Subjects receiving DRSP/EE had fewer prevalence of premenstrual symptoms than those receiving LNG/EE after six cycles. A significantly lower score of negative affect category in the premenstrual phase was demonstrated in those receiving DRSP/EE more than LNG/EE. The DRSP/EE group showed a greater improvement of mean scores from baseline in the premenstrual phase compared with those who received LNG/EE on negative affect as seen in the items on anxiety, irritability, feeling sad or blue and weight gain in the category of water retention. In conclusion, OCs containing DRSP have beneficial effects in reducing the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms especially the symptoms of negative affect and weight gain, particularly when compared to LNG/EE. Hence, it should be recommended for women who are susceptible to these adverse symptoms. PMID:15639064

Sangthawan, Malinee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2005-01-01

157

The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate gel (Gelclair) on oral microbial colonization and pain control compared with other rinsing solutions in patients with oral mucositis after allogeneic stem cells transplantation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Gelclair is an oral lubricating gel used in the management of oral mucositis (OM). We evaluated its efficacy, tolerance and impact on oral cavity microbial colonization in patients with OM after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Material/Method Gelclair was administered in a group of 22 patients with active OM. A control group of 15 patients used other rinsing solutions (chlorhexidine, benzydamine, salvia). Tests with oral cavity swabs for microbiology analysis were performed once a week. Results The characteristics of OM in both groups were comparable, and rinsing solutions had satisfactory tolerability. There was no difference in the median improvement of oral intake and OM-related pain relief, which was assessed mostly as “slight effect”. In the Gelclair group, the effect duration was longer (median 3 [0–5] vs. 1 [0–3] hours, p=0.001). There was significant increase of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida sp. colonization of the oral cavity over the course of the hospitalization and significantly reduced incidence of such colonization in patients with OM in the Gelclair group: 1/22 (5%) vs. 6/15 (40%), p=0.01. In vitro tests showed inhibited growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida sp. colonies within the area of the Gelclair application. Conclusions Gelclair may be individually helpful in the management of OM and pain in patients after allogeneic stem cells transplantation. Its use did not lead to worsened oral bacterial and yeast colonization and probably even helped to protect mucosa from Enterococcus and Candida sp. Further studies based on larger cohorts are needed.

Vokurka, Samuel; Skardova, Jana; Hruskova, Renata; Kabatova-Maxova, Klara; Svoboda, Tomas; Bystricka, Eva; Steinerova, Katerina; Koza, Vladimir

2011-01-01

158

Comparative analysis of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and orally infected ducklings with Salmonella enteritidis by ERIC-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To analyze the difference of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and (S. enteritidis ) orally infected ducklings. METHODS: Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to analyze the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change including duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and rectum from healthy ducklings and 7-day-old ducklings after oral infection with S. enteritidis at different time points.

Sheng-Yan Cao; Ming-Shu Wang; An-Chun Cheng; Xue-Feng Qi; Xiao-Yan Yang; Shu-Xuan Deng; Nian-Chun Yin; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Deng-Chun Zhou; De-Kang Zhu; Qi-Hui Luo; Xiao-Yue Chen

2008-01-01

159

Preparation and characterization of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles of pilocarpine HCl for ocular application.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine is used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Various studies were performed to improve the bioavailability and prolong the residence time of drugs in ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles offer several favourable biological properties, such as biodegradability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and mucoadhesiveness. Therefore, preparing positively-charged pilocarpine HCl-loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles was the purpose of this study. Nanoparticles were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The non-biodegradable positively-charged polymer Eudragit(®) RS 100 and semi-solid lipid excipient Gelucire(®) 44/14 were used as a vehicle, the cationic lipid octadecylamine was used as a cationic agent. The formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential measurement, thermal behavior (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC), entrapment efficacy and pH. Characterizations of nanoparticles were analyzed during the storage period of 6 months for stability tests. Polymeric and lipid nanoparticles could be prepared successfully promising their use for ophthalmic delivery. PMID:22813238

Lütfi, Genç; Müzeyyen, Demirel

2012-07-20

160

Microinjection of GABAergic agents into the anterior nucleus of the thalamus modulates pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior nucleus of the thalamus (AN) has been suggested as a potential target for seizure modulation in animal models and patients with refractory epilepsy. We investigate whether microinjections of GABAergic agonists into the AN were protective against pilocarpine-induced generalized seizures and status epilepticus (SE). Rats were treated with bilateral AN injections of muscimol (160 or 80nmol), bicuculline (15nmol), or

Simone Bittencourt; Francisco P. Dubiela; Claudio Queiroz; Luciene Covolan; Danielle Andrade; Andres Lozano; Luiz E. Mello; Clement Hamani

2010-01-01

161

Facilitation of granule cell epileptiform activity by mossy fiber-released zinc in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent mossy fiber synapses in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain facilitate the synchronous firing of granule cells and may promote seizure propagation. Mossy fiber terminals contain and release zinc. Released zinc inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and may therefore oppose the development of granule cell epileptiform activity. Hippocampal slices from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and

Olga Timofeeva; J. Victor Nadler

2006-01-01

162

Spatial and temporal evolution of neuronal activation, stress and injury in lithium–pilocarpine seizures in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to follow the spatial and temporal evolution of neuronal damage, cellular activation and stress responses subsequent to lithium–pilocarpine seizures of various durations in the adult rat, we analyzed the expression of Fos protein and local cerebral glucose utilization as markers of cellular activation, HSP72 immunoreactivity and acid fuchsin staining as indicators of cellular stress and injury, and Cresyl

Jacques Motte; Maria José da Silva Fernandes; Tallie Z. Baram; Astrid Nehlig

1998-01-01

163

Vitamin C antioxidant effects in hippocampus of adult Wistar rats after seizures and status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin C (VIT C) is an exogenous antioxidant able to alter the brain oxidative stress. Antioxidant properties have been showed in seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine in adult rats. This present study was aimed at was investigating the VIT C effects on latency to first seizure, in percentage of seizures, mortality rate, as well as hippocampal lipid

S. M. Xavier; C. O. Barbosa; D. O. Barros; R. F. Silva; A. A. Oliveira; R. M. Freitas

2007-01-01

164

Human neural stem cell transplantation reduces spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) can replace lost neurons and improve the functional deficits. Cell transplantation strategies have been tried in the epileptic disorder, but the effect of exogenous NSCs is unknown. In this study, we attempted to test the anti-epileptogenic effect of NSCs in adult rats with status epilepticus. Experimental status epilepticus was induced by lithium-pilocarpine injection, and

Kon Chu; Manho Kim; Keun-Hwa Jung; Daejong Jeon; Soon-Tae Lee; Juhyun Kim; Sang-Wuk Jeong; Seung Up Kim; Sang Kun Lee; Hee-Sup Shin; Jae-Kyu Roh

2004-01-01

165

Redistribution of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Acute and Chronic Phases of Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocannabinoid system plays a central role in retrograde synaptic communication and may control the spread of activity in an epileptic network. Using the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy we examined the expression pattern of the Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) in the hippocampi of CD1 mice at survival times of 2 hours, 1 day, 3 days and 2

Mária R. Karlócai; Kinga Tóth; Masahiko Watanabe; Catherine Ledent; Gábor Juhász; Tamás F. Freund; Zsófia Maglóczky

2011-01-01

166

Conditional neural knockout of the adenosine A?A receptor and pharmacological A?A antagonism reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements: Studies with a mouse model of parkinsonian tremor.  

PubMed

Tremulous jaw movements are rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at any particular stimulus. In rats, tremulous jaw movements can be induced by a number of conditions that parallel those seen in human parkinsonism, including dopamine depletion, dopamine antagonism, and cholinomimetic drugs. Moreover, tremulous jaw movements in rats can be attenuated using antiparkinsonian agents such as L-DOPA, dopamine agonists, muscarinic antagonists, and adenosine A?A antagonists. In the present studies, a mouse model of tremulous jaw movements was established to investigate the effects of adenosine A?A antagonism, and a conditional neuronal knockout of adenosine A?A receptors, on cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements. The muscarinic agonist pilocarpine significantly induced tremulous jaw movements in a dose-dependent manner (0.25-1.0mg/kg IP). These movements occurred largely in the 3-7.5 Hz local frequency range. Administration of the adenosine A?A antagonist MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg IP) significantly attenuated pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. Furthermore, adenosine A?A receptor knockout mice showed a significant reduction in pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements compared to littermate controls. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the tremulous jaw movement model in mice, and indicate that adenosine A?A receptor antagonism and deletion are capable of reducing cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements in mice. Future studies should investigate the effects of additional genetic manipulations using the mouse tremulous jaw movement model. PMID:22947264

Salamone, John D; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Pardo, Marta; Podurgiel, Samantha J; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Correa, Mercè

2012-09-01

167

TGF?1 treatment reduces hippocampal damage, spontaneous recurrent seizures, and learning memory deficits in pilocarpine-treated rats.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective activity of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF?1), protecting neurons against different kinds of insults. However, the role of exogenous TGF?1 in the neuronal damage following status epilepticus (SE) and the related spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the effect of intranasal TGF?1 administration on SRS and cognitive function following lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE and associated hippocampal damage. We found that intranasal TGF?1 significantly attenuated the hippocampal insults marked by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and Fluoro-Jade B staining by 24, 48, and 72 h after SE was induced. The expression of the apoptosis-suppressing protein, Bcl-2, was elevated, whereas the expression of the apoptosis-promoting proteins, Bax and Caspase-3, was suppressed in TGF?1-treated rats compared to rats without TGF?1 treatment by 24, 48, and 72 h following induction of SE. The seizure number, severity, and duration of SRS over a 1-month period of monitoring starting 15 days after SE induction as well as the cognitive deficits detected 45 days after SE induction were significantly reduced in TGF?1-treated rats compared to those without TGF?1 treatment. Our results indicate that intranasal delivery of TGF?1 immediately after SE induction not only protected against SRS but also improved cognitive function. The anti-epileptogenic properties of TGF?1 may be related to its effect of neuroprotection or to its effect of apoptosis pathway changes. PMID:22936246

Li, Liang-Yong; Li, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Hui-Min; Yang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Kai; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Yu

2012-08-31

168

A randomized clinical trial comparing oral alendronate and intravenous pamidronate for the treatment of Paget's disease of bone.  

PubMed

Second and third generation bisphosphonates are the treatment of choice for Paget's disease of bone. These drugs are more effective than calcitonin and etidronate, but there have been no head to head, randomized controlled trials comparing potent bisphosphonates. We conducted a 2-year, randomized, open-label trial comparing oral alendronate and intravenous pamidronate in 72 subjects with Paget's disease. Randomization was stratified according to baseline plasma total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and previous bisphosphonate treatment (yes or no). All previously treated patients had received pamidronate but not alendronate. Assigned treatments were pamidronate (60 mg) every 3 months as a single infusion or alendronate (40 mg) daily in 3-month blocks, continued until biochemical remission (defined as both ALP and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD)/creatinine ratio in the reference range) or a clear plateau effect was observed. At 1 year, nonresponders to pamidronate were crossed over to alendronate treatment. At 1 year, 31/36 (86%) subjects randomized to alendronate achieved biochemical remission compared with 21/36 (56%) for pamidronate (P = 0.017). There was a significantly greater reduction in ALP (P < 0.001) and DPD/creatinine ratio (P < 0.001) for alendronate compared with pamidronate treatment. In previously untreated patients, alendronate resulted in remission in 20/22 (91%) subjects compared with 19/22 (86%) of pamidronate-treated subjects, which was not significantly different; however, alendronate resulted in a significantly greater reduction in ALP (P = 0.014) and DPD/creatinine ratio (P < 0.001). In previously treated patients, alendronate resulted in remission in 11/14 (79%) subjects compared with 2/14 (14%) for pamidronate (P < 0.001), with a significantly (P < 0.001) greater reduction in both ALP and DPD/creatinine ratio. Of subjects crossed over from pamidronate to alendronate, 10/14 (71%) achieved remission, including 9/11 (82%) previously treated patients. We conclude that, in patients with previously untreated Paget's disease of bone, alendronate and pamidronate have similar efficacy in achieving biochemical remission. In patients previously treated with pamidronate, alendronate is more effective. PMID:15050907

Walsh, J P; Ward, L C; Stewart, G O; Will, R K; Criddle, R A; Prince, R L; Stuckey, B G A; Dhaliwal, S S; Bhagat, C I; Retallack, R W; Kent, G N; Drury, P J; Vasikaran, S; Gutteridge, D H

2004-04-01

169

Lipid and lipoprotein changes in women taking low-dose, triphasic oral contraceptives: a controlled, comparative, 12-month clinical trial.  

PubMed

Effects on lipid/lipoprotein metabolism of two triphasic oral contraceptives, Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone) were compared in a 12-month controlled, prospective clinical trial. The data indicate that use of both estrogen-progestin preparations were accompanied by increases in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 and B, and triglycerides. Also observed were a decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and greater decreases in high-density lipoprotein2 cholesterol levels; the latter were below the lower limits of laboratory's reference range. All other changes remained within clinically acceptable limits. There were no statistically significant differences between the test preparations, suggesting that the impact on lipid metabolism of the triphasic preparations Triphasil and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 are similar and, given the dynamic balance between the various fractions, are unlikely to impart an adverse cardiovascular risk. PMID:2655452

Notelovitz, M; Feldman, E B; Gillespy, M; Gudat, J

1989-05-01

170

Oral pefloxacin mesylate in the treatment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis associated peritonitis: an open non-comparative study.  

PubMed

Twenty-two (15 female and 7 male) patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) associated peritonitis were entered into an open non-comparative evaluation of oral pefloxacin mesylate. An initial loading dose of 800 mg was followed by 400 mg twice daily. Five patients were subsequently excluded or withdrawn. The mean age of the patients was 44 +/- 12.6 years. All three Gram-negative infections (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Serratia liquefaciens) and all three culture negative infections were cured after 21 days treatment. In contrast one of four (25%) Staphylococcus aureus infections was cured, two persisted during treatment and one relapsed, after treatments of between 10 and 25 days. One of seven (14%) Staph. epidermidis infections was cured, three persisted and three relapsed after treatments of between nine and 25 days. Two of the five persistent isolates became resistant: all four relapsed isolates remained sensitive. Twelve of the 22 (55%) patients had 16 side effects, most commonly skin or musculo-skeletal. Three stopped pefloxacin because of them, though one had taken an excessive dose in error. Pefloxacin mesylate is not optimal treatment for Gram-positive coccal peritonitis in patients on CAPD, but its role in Gram-negative disease needs further evaluation. PMID:2373667

Rose, T F; Ellis-Pegler, R; Collins, J; Small, M

1990-05-01

171

Expressional analysis of the astrocytic Kir4.1 channel in a pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model  

PubMed Central

The inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel Kir4.1 in brain astrocytes mediates spatial K+ buffering and regulates neural activities. Recent studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in the human gene KCNJ10 encoding Kir4.1 cause epileptic seizures, suggesting a close relationship between the Kir4.1 channel function and epileptogenesis. Here, we performed expressional analysis of Kir4.1 in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to explore the role of Kir4.1 channels in modifying TLE epileptogenesis. Treatment of rats with pilocarpine (350 mg/kg, i.p.) induced acute status epilepticus, which subsequently caused spontaneous seizures 7–8 weeks after the pilocarpine treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that TLE rats (interictal condition) showed significantly higher levels of Kir4.1 than the control animals in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. However, the expression of other Kir subunits, Kir5.1 and Kir2.1, remained unaltered. Immunohistochemical analysis illustrated that Kir4.1-immunoreactivity-positive astrocytes in the pilocarpine-induced TLE model were markedly increased in most of the brain regions examined, concomitant with an increase in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. In addition, Kir4.1 expression ratios relative to the number of astrocytes (Kir4.1-positive cells/GFAP-positive cells) were region-specifically elevated in the amygdala (i.e., medial and cortical amygdaloid nuclei) and sensory cortex. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the expression of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels was elevated in a pilocarpine-induced TLE model, especially in the amygdala, suggesting that astrocytic Kir4.1 channels play a role in modifying TLE epileptogenesis, possibly by acting as an inhibitory compensatory mechanism.

Nagao, Yuki; Harada, Yuya; Mukai, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki; Okuda, Aoi; Fujimoto, Megumi; Ono, Asuka; Sakagami, Yoshihisa; Ohno, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

172

A comparative study of 35 mcg and 50 mcg combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter clinical trial.  

PubMed

A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two combined oral contraceptives (OCs) differing only in the estrogen content (35 mcg ethinyl estradiol versus 50 mcg mestranol) was conducted at five clinics located in Yugoslavia, Egypt, Sri Lanka, Costa Rica and Mexico. The trial was designed to determine the differences between Norinyl 1+35 (Syntex) and Norinyl 1+50 (Syntex) in rates and reasons of discontinuation, and frequency of selected side effects which might contribute to method discontinuation. This report includes analysis of 1698 women, all of whom were interval patients (at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum), randomly allocated to one of the above OCs between October 1982 and January 1984. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Significantly more women in the Norinyl 1+35 group (p less than .001) reported intermenstrual bleeding (primarily staining and spotting), as well as an increase in the occurrence of intermenstrual bleeding compared to women in the Norinyl 1+50 group. There were no significant differences between the groups for side effects with the exception of more women in the Norinyl 1+50 group (p less than .05) reporting breast discomfort. The lost to follow-up rate at 12 months was 19.3% for both the Norinyl 1+35 and the Norinyl 1+50 groups. The total discontinuation rate (including women lost to follow-up) at 12 months was 43.5% for the Norinyl 1+35 group and 41.0% for the Norinyl 1+50 group. There were no significant differences between the two groups for gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates (p greater than .05). There were six accidental pregnancies attributed to user failure reported during the study period; four in the Norinyl 1+35 group and two in the Norinyl 1+50 group. PMID:1797464

McLaurin, V L; Dunson, B A; Dunson, T R

1991-11-01

173

Pioglitazone compared to glibenclamide on lipid profile and inflammation markers in type 2 diabetic patients during an oral fat load.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pioglitazone and glibenclamide on lipid profile and inflammatory parameters during an oral fat load (OFL). A total of 201 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment with metformin were enrolled in the study; pioglitazone was titrated till 45?mg/day and glibenclamide till 15?mg/day, in association with metformin, respectively. The patients underwent an OFL at baseline and after 12 months. The OFL was given between 08.00 and 09.00?h after a 12-h fast. Blood samples were drawn before and 3, 6, 9, and 12?h after the OFL. We evaluated glycemic-metabolic parameters [glycated hemoglobin (HbA (1c)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment (Homa) index], total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tgs), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and adiponectin (ADN). Pioglitazone was better than glibenclamide in decreasing HbA (1c), FPG, FPI, lipid profile, and in improving inflammatory parameters such as Hs-CRP, and ADN. Comparing the OFL performed at baseline, and the OFL performed at the end of the study, pioglitazone, but not glibenclamide, improved all post-OFL peaks for all parameters. Comparing the 12 months OFL in the group treated with pioglitazone and in the group treated with glibenclamide, the values recorded with pioglitazone were significantly better than the ones obtained with glibenclamide. We can conclude that pioglitazone was better than glibenclamide in mitigating the variations of lipid components and inflammation parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:21590648

Derosa, G; Cicero, A F G; Fogari, E; D'Angelo, A; Bianchi, L; Maffioli, P

2011-05-17

174

A double-blind clinical trial comparing World Health Organization oral rehydration solution with a reduced osmolarity solution containing equal amounts of sodium and glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing 75 mmol\\/L of sodium and glucose each with the standard World Health Organization (WHO) ORS among Egyptian children with acute diarrhea. METHODS: One hundred ninety boys, ages 1 to 24 months, who were admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea and signs of dehydration were randomly

Mathuram Santosham; Ibrahim Fayad; Maha Abu Zikri; Abeer Hussein; Akwasi Amponsah; Christopher Duggan; Mohamed Hashem; Nermine El Sady; Mona Abu Zikri; Olivier Fontaine

1996-01-01

175

Prophylaxis of early bacterial infections after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT): a matched-pair study comparing oral fluoroquinolones and intravenous piperacillin–tazobactam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and efficacy of early bacterial prophylaxis with piperacillin–tazobactam were prospectively evaluated in 51 autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) recipients. The results were compared with those obtained in 51 control patients receiving oral fluoroquinolones in a retrospective matched-pair control study. Overall, 76% of the study group and 98% of the control group developed at least one febrile

C Solano; A Gutierrez; F Martinez; C Gimeno; C Gómez; I Muñoz; F Faus; R Goterris; A Farga; D Navarro

2005-01-01

176

COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

177

Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: A cost effectiveness study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To compare the costs and effects of paliperidone extended release (ER), a new pharmaceutical treatment for the management of schizophrenia, with the most frequently prescribed oral treatments in Greece (namely risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and ziprasidone) over a 1-year time period. METHODS: A decision tree was developed and tailored to the specific circumstances of the Greek healthcare system. Therapeutic

Maria Geitona; Hara Kousoulakou; Markos Ollandezos; Kostas Athanasakis; Sotiria Papanicolaou; Ioannis Kyriopoulos

2008-01-01

178

Short-term effect of a new mouthrinse formulation on oral malodour after single use in vivo: a comparative, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare a new chlorhexidine (CHX)-free mouthrinse containing amine fluoride\\/stannous fluoride (ASF) against a benchmark containing CHX with respect to their effect on oral malodour after single use. A total of 42 male and female subjects with an intraoral cause of bad breath, each with an organoleptic rating (OR) of at least 2 and a total volatile

D. Wilhelm; K. Gysen; A. Himmelmann; C. Krause; K.-P. Wilhelm

2010-01-01

179

Comparative assessment of two low-dose oral contraceptives, Lo-Femenal and Lo-Estrin, in Mexican women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This trial was designed to determine the differences in effectiveness, clinical acceptability, and one-year discontinuation rates of two low-dose oral contraceptives: Lo-Estrin (norethindrone acetate 1.5 mg plus ethinyl estradiol 0.030 mg) and Lo-Femenal (norgestrel 0.30 mg plus ethinyl estradiol 0.030 mg) in 148 Mexican women. In addition, the effects of both oral contraceptive preparations on blood lipids were prospectively evaluated

J. Garza-Flores; M. Martínez; V. Valles de Bourges; L. Vázquez-Estrada; S. McMullen; R. Dunson; G. Pérez-Palacios

1992-01-01

180

Redistribution of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Acute and Chronic Phases of Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The endocannabinoid system plays a central role in retrograde synaptic communication and may control the spread of activity in an epileptic network. Using the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy we examined the expression pattern of the Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) in the hippocampi of CD1 mice at survival times of 2 hours, 1 day, 3 days and 2 months (acute, latent and chronic phases). Based on the behavioral signs of the acute seizures, animals were classified as “weakly” or “strongly” epileptic using the modified Racine scale. Mice of the weak group had mild seizures, whereas seizures in the strong group were frequent with intense motor symptoms and the majority of these animals developed sclerosis in the chronic phase. In control samples the most intense staining of CB1-R-positive fibers was found in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in str. pyramidale of the cornu Ammonis. In weak animals no significant changes were seen at any survival time compared to controls. In strong animals, however, in the acute phase, a massive reduction in CB1-R-stained terminals occurred in the hippocampus. In the latent phase CB1-R immunoreactivity gradually recovered. In the chronic phase, CB1-immunostaining in sclerotic samples was stronger throughout the hippocampus. Quantitative electron microscopic analysis showed an increase in the number of CB1-R-positive terminals in the dentate gyrus. Moreover, the number of immunogold particles significantly increased in GABAergic terminals. Our results suggest a proconvulsive downregulation of CB1 receptors in the acute phase most probably due to receptor internalization, followed by compensatory upregulation and sprouting in the chronic phase of epilepsy. In conclusion, the changes in CB1 receptor expression pattern revealed in this study are associated with the severity of hippocampal injury initiated by acute seizures that ultimately leads to sclerosis in the vulnerable regions in the chronic phase.

Karlocai, Maria R.; Toth, Kinga; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ledent, Catherine; Juhasz, Gabor; Freund, Tamas F.; Magloczky, Zsofia

2011-01-01

181

Comparative analysis of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and orally infected ducklings with Salmonella enteritidis by ERIC-PCR  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the difference of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and (S. enteritidis) orally infected ducklings. METHODS: Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to analyze the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change including duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and rectum from healthy ducklings and 7-day-old ducklings after oral infection with S. enteritidis at different time points. RESULTS: The intestinal microbial community of the control healthy ducklings was steady and the ERIC-PCR band numbers of the control healthy ducklings were the least with rectum and were the most with caecum. ERIC-PCR bands of orally inoculated ducklings did not obviously change until 24 h after inoculation (p.i.). The numbers of the ERIC-PCR bands gradually decreased from 24 h to 72 h p.i., and then, with the development of disease, the band numbers gradually increased until 6 d p.i. The prominent bacteria changed because of S. enteritidis infection and the DNAstar of staple of ERIC-PCR showed that aerobe and facultative aerobe (Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella) became preponderant bacilli in the intestine of orally infected ducklings with SE. CONCLUSION: This study has provided significant data to clarify the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change of healthy and S. enteritidis orally infected ducklings, and valuable insight into the pathogenesis of S. enteritidis infection in both human and animals.

Cao, Sheng-Yan; Wang, Ming-Shu; Cheng, An-Chun; Qi, Xue-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Deng, Shu-Xuan; Yin, Nian-Chun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Deng-Chun; Zhu, De-Kang; Luo, Qi-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yue

2008-01-01

182

Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy study of the rat hippocampal formation after pilocarpine-evoked seizures.  

PubMed

In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SRFTIR) micro-spectroscopy and imaging were used for topographic and semi-quantitative biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue in cases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The tissue samples were analyzed with a beam defined by small apertures and spatial resolution steps of 10 microm which allowed us to probe the selected cellular layers of hippocampal formation. Raster scanning of the samples has generated 2D chemical cartographies revealing the distribution of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Spectral analysis has shown changes in the saturation level of phospholipids and relative secondary structure of proteins. Special interest was put in the analysis of two areas of the hippocampal formation (sector 3 of the Ammon's horn, CA3 and dentate gyrus, DG) in which elemental abnormalities were observed during our previous studies. Statistically significant increase in the saturation level of phospholipids (increased ratio of the absorption intensities at around 2921 and 2958 cm(-1)) as well as conformational changes of proteins (beta-type structure discrepancies as shown by the increased ratio of the absorbance intensities at around 1631 and 1657 cm(-1) as well as the ratio of the absorbance at 1548 and 1657 cm(-1)) were detected in pyramidal cells of CA3 area as well as in the multiform and molecular layers of DG. The findings presented here suggest that abnormalities in the protein secondary structure and increases in the level of phospholipid saturation could be involved in mechanisms of neurodegenerative changes following the oxidative stress evoked in brain areas affected by pilocarpine-induced seizures. PMID:20362662

Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Dumas, P; Eichert, D; Dudala, J; Setkowicz, Z

2010-04-01

183

Intravenous Levetiracetam in the Rat Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Model: Behavioral, Physiological and Histological Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency associated with neuronal injury, lasting behavioral disturbance, and a high rate of mortality. Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV), an antiepileptic drug approved to treat partial seizures, has recently been introduced. We sought to determine the effect of LEV administered intravenously in a chemoconvulsant model of status epilepticus. Methods We examined the effect of intravenous LEV in the rat lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Ten or 30 minutes after the onset of behavioral status epilepticus, animals were treated with LEV (200–1200 mg/kg i.v.) administered in a single bolus. Behavioral responses were recorded. Selected animals had continuous EEG recording before, during and after the administration of LEV. Some animals were sacrificed 24 h after the experiment and processed for histochemical assessment of neuronal injury. Results When administered 30 minutes after the onset of behavioral epileptic seizures, transient attenuation of ictal behavior was observed in animals treated with 800 mg/kg or more of LEV. The duration of behavioral attenuation increased sharply as the dose rose to 1000 mg/kg or higher, from a mean of 4 minutes to 23.6 minutes. When administered 10 minutes after seizure onset, 400 mg/kg of LEV resulted in transient ictal behavioral attenuation, and higher doses caused relatively longer periods of attenuation. Pretreatment with LEV prior to pilocarpine also delayed the onset of seizures. EEG recordings, however, showed no significant attenuation of ictal discharge. By contrast, TUNEL staining demonstrated less neuronal injury in hippocampii and other limbic structures in animals that responded behaviorally to LEV. Conclusions Intravenous administration of LEV in a chemoconvulsant model of status epilepticus results in attenuation of behavioral manifestations of seizure discharge and in reduction of neuronal injury but does not significantly alter ictal discharge recorded by EEG.

Zheng, Yi; Moussally, Jon; Cash, Sydney S.; Karnam, Havisha B.; Cole, Andrew J.

2010-01-01

184

Over-the-counter progesterone cream produces significant drug exposure compared to a food and drug administration-approved oral progesterone product.  

PubMed

Progesterone products are available in prescription form as well as over-the-counter (OTC) topical preparations sold for "cosmetic" uses. In a randomized study design, the authors compared the drug exposure from an OTC progesterone cream to a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral preparation at the labeled daily doses recommended for each product. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women received 200-mg oral progesterone capsules once daily for 12 days or progesterone cream 40 mg twice daily for 12 days. At steady state (day 12 of each phase), whole-blood samples were collected over 24 hours (oral progesterone) or 12 hours (topical progesterone) and assayed for total progesterone concentration. No significant differences were found in dose-normalized 24-hour progesterone exposure comparing the cream to oral capsules (median AUC(0-24) 12.5 ng x h/mL vs 10.5 ng x h/mL, respectively; P = .81). In light of the potential risks associated with long-term progesterone use, the authors question whether topical progesterone products should be available OTC. PMID:15901742

Hermann, Anne C; Nafziger, Anne N; Victory, Jennifer; Kulawy, Robert; Rocci, Mario L; Bertino, Joseph S

2005-06-01

185

Pilocarpine Ophthalmic  

MedlinePLUS

... for 2 to 3 minutes and tip your head down as though looking at the floor. Try not to blink or squeeze your eyelids. Place a finger on the tear duct and apply gentle pressure. Wipe any excess liquid from your face with a tissue. If you are to use ...

186

Comparative assessment of two low-dose oral contraceptives, Lo-Femenal and Lo-Estrin, in Mexican women.  

PubMed

This trial was designed to determine the differences in effectiveness, clinical acceptability, and one-year discontinuation rates of two low-dose oral contraceptives: Lo-Estrin (norethindrone acetate 1.5 mg plus ethinyl estradiol 0.030 mg) and Lo-Femenal (norgestrel 0.30 mg plus ethinyl estradiol 0.030 mg) in 148 Mexican women. In addition, the effects of both oral contraceptive preparations on blood lipids were prospectively evaluated in a subgroup of 41 women. The results indicated that there were no differences in pregnancy rates, discontinuation or clinical acceptability between the two groups. The lipid changes observed were minimal for the Lo-Femenal subgroup and somewhat greater for the Lo-Estrin group, mainly an increase in serum triglycerides. These changes were interpreted as estrogen induced effects of norethindrone-containing oral contraceptives. Overall, the data indicate that both Lo-Femenal and Lo-Estrin are effective and safe combined oral contraceptives. PMID:1290331

Garza-Flores, J; Martínez, M; Valles De Bourges, V; Vázquez-Estrada, L; McMullen, S; Dunson, R; Pérez-Palacios, G

1992-12-01

187

Restriction Endonuclease-fragment Polymorphisms of Oral Viridans Streptococci, Compared by Conventional and Field-inversion Gel Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral streptococci formerly classified as Streptococcus sanguis or Streptococcus mitis have recently been divided into four species. Two additional species have also been proposed for this group. Each species is genetically distinct, but they have many traits in common, which makes it difficult for clinical isolates to be identified by phenotypic tests. Genotypic comparison may provide an alternative approach. This

J. D. Rudney; E. K. Neuvar; A. H. Soberay

1992-01-01

188

Early effects of oral administration of lafutidine with mosapride compared with lafutidine alone on intragastric pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ideal medication for treatment of acid related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion after a single oral administrations of lafutidine, is a newly synthesized H2-receptor antagonist, with mosapride 5 mg or lafutidine alone. METHODS:

Hiroshi Iida; Masahiko Inamori; Yuichi Nozaki; Hiroki Endo; Kunihiro Hosono; Tomoyuki Akiyama; Yasunari Sakamoto; Hirokazu Takahashi; Tomoko Koide; Chikako Tokoro; Yasunobu Abe; Atsushi Nakajima

2009-01-01

189

Comparative distribution of azithromycin in lung tissue of patients given oral daily doses of 500 and 1000 mg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The administration of antibacterial agents should be optimized on the basis of their distribution to enhance drug exposure and obtain bacterial eradication. This study examines the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in plasma, lung tissue and bronchial washing in patients after oral administration of 500 mg versus 1000 mg once daily for 3 days. Patients and methods: Samples of plasma, lung

Romano Danesi; Antonella Lupetti; Cecilia Barbara; Emilia Ghelardi; Antonio Chella; Tecla Malizia; Sonia Senesi; Carlo Alberto Angeletti; Mario Del Tacca; Mario Campa

2003-01-01

190

Upregulation of 5HT 2C receptors in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: Antagonism by Bacopa monnieri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional disturbances, depressive mood, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and memory impairment are the common psychiatric features associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The present study was carried out to investigate the role of Bacopa monnieri extract in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats through the 5-HT2C receptor in relation to depression. Our results showed upregulation of 5-HT2C receptors with a

Amee Krishnakumar; M. S. Nandhu; C. S. Paulose

2009-01-01

191

Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are increased in the hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroinflammation occurs after seizures and is implicated in epileptogenesis. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor for CCL2 and their interaction mediates monocyte infiltration in the neuroinflammatory cascade triggered in different brain pathologies. In this work CCR2 and CCL2 expression were examined following status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine injection. Methods SE was induced by pilocarpine injection. Control rats were injected with saline instead of pilocarpine. Five days after SE, CCR2 staining in neurons and glial cells was examined using imunohistochemical analyses. The number of CCR2 positive cells was determined using stereology probes in the hippocampus. CCL2 expression in the hippocampus was examined by molecular assay. Results Increased CCR2 was observed in the hippocampus after SE. Seizures also resulted in alterations to the cell types expressing CCR2. Increased numbers of neurons that expressed CCR2 was observed following SE. Microglial cells were more closely apposed to the CCR2-labeled cells in SE rats. In addition, rats that experienced SE exhibited CCR2-labeling in populations of hypertrophied astrocytes, especially in CA1 and dentate gyrus. These CCR2+ astroctytes were not observed in control rats. Examination of CCL2 expression showed that it was elevated in the hippocampus following SE. Conclusion The data show that CCR2 and CCL2 are up-regulated in the hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced SE. Seizures also result in changes to CCR2 receptor expression in neurons and astrocytes. These changes might be involved in detrimental neuroplasticity and neuroinflammatory changes that occur following seizures.

2009-01-01

192

Correlation Between Hypermetabolism and Neuronal Damage During Status Epilepticus Induced by Lithium and Pilocarpine in Immature and Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between seizure-induced hypermetabolism and subsequent neuronal damage was studied in 10-day-old (P10), 21-day-old (P21), and adult rats subjected to lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE). Local CMRglc (LCMRglc) values were measured by the [14C]2-deoxyglucose method for a duration of 45 minutes starting at 60 minutes after the onset of SE, and neuronal damage was assessed by cresyl violet staining at

Céline Dubé; Sylvette Boyet; Christian Marescaux; Astrid Nehlig

1999-01-01

193

Effect of hormonal replacement therapy in the hippocampus of ovariectomized epileptic female rats using the pilocarpine experimental model.  

PubMed

Amado and Cavalheiro [Amado, D., Cavalheiro, E.A., 1998. Hormonal and gestational parameters in female rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 32, 266-274], studying the establishment of the pilocarpine epilepsy model in female rats observed that the estrous cycle was dramatically altered during the three periods of this experimental model. This work was delineated to study the function of sexual hormones in the development of the epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine in ovariectomized rats. Experimental groups were: (a) control animals during estrus phase of the estrous cycle (E) and ovariectomized female rats (OVX) treated with saline instead of pilocarpine in the same volume, (b) experimental animals, that developed status epilepticus (SE) and were studied during the chronic phase of this model: intact chronic rats (CHRON) and ovariectomized chronic rats (OVX+CHRON) and (c) ovariectomized chronic rats, that were submitted to hormonal replacement therapy treated with: medroxyprogesterone (OVX+CHRON+MPA); 17beta-estradiol (OVX+CHRON+E2), or both (OVX+CHRON+E2+MPA). All ovariectomized animals showed genital atrophy 4 days after the surgical procedure. Moreover, all animals that developed SE and survived showed spontaneous recurrent seizures during the chronic phase. Concerning to seizure frequency, animals receiving medroxyprogesterone associated with 17beta-estradiol showed decreased seizures' number. However, animals that received only medroxyprogesterone therapy also showed reduction in the number of seizures. In addition, hormonal treatment was also able to stabilize the mossy fibers sprouting process, showing the importance of these hormones in the development of the epilepsy in female rats. PMID:18760902

Valente, S G; Marques, R H; Baracat, E C; Cavalheiro, E A; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, M G; Amado, D

2008-08-29

194

Effects of Topically Applied Bupranolol and Pilocarpine on the Depth of the Anterior Chamber and Thickness of the Lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution ultrasonic biometry was performed on 3 normal volunteers (19–21 years of age) before and at 15-min intervals following topical application of 1% bupranolol and 2% pilocarpine. Bupranolol, a new ?-adrenergic blocking agent, which lowers intraocular pressure of the normal and glaucomatous eyes, did not show any measurable change in the depth of the anterior chamber and thickness of

N. Ohba; G. Sakimoto; N. Fujiwara; F. Uehara; S. Watanabe

1981-01-01

195

Vascular changes in epilepsy: functional consequences and association with network plasticity in pilocarpine-induced experimental epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) damage have been proposed to contribute to epileptogenesis and\\/or ictogenesis in experimental and human epilepsy. We tested a hypothesis that after brain injury angiogenesis occurs in the most damaged hippocampal areas with the highest need of tissue repair, and associates with formation of epileptogenic neuronal networks. We induced status epilepticus (SE) with pilocarpine in adult rats,

X. E. Ndode-Ekane; N. Hayward; O. Gröhn; A. Pitkänen

2010-01-01

196

A prospective randomized study comparing the clinical effects of a norethisterone and a levonorgestrel containing low dose oestrogen oral contraceptive pills.  

PubMed

The two types of low dose oral contraceptives one containing levonorgestrel the other containing norethisterone have been compared in a randomized prospective study. We have found that cycle control was much poorer with the norethisterone pill and would therefore recommend that if the norethisterone-containing pill needs to be prescribed then either the 1 mg or the 'synphasic' preparation should be considered. PMID:8498949

Anstee, P; Kovacs, G T

1993-02-01

197

Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.METHODSTwenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17–43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g

Marjaleena Koskiniemi; Betty Van Vleymen; Lauri Hakamies; Salla Lamusuo; Jaakko Taalas

1998-01-01

198

A Canadian, Multicentre Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine System to an Oral Contraceptive in Women With Idiopathic Menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) compared with a combined oral contraceptive containing 1 mg norethindrone acetate and 20 g ethinyl estradiol (OC1\\/20) in reducing menstrual blood loss (MBL) in women with idiopathic menorrhagia. Methods: A prospective, randomized, open-label study was conducted in nine centres in Canada. Healthy women over 30 years of age suffering

Jan Endrikat; Heather Shapiro; Eeva Lukkari-Lax; Michael Kunz; Werner Schmidt; Michel Fortier; Bayer Schering Pharma Oy

199

Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil + clorsulon + ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole.Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver

G. W. Hutchinson; K. Dawson; C. C. Fitzgibbon; P. J. Martin

2009-01-01

200

Microinjection of GABAergic agents into the anterior nucleus of the thalamus modulates pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus.  

PubMed

The anterior nucleus of the thalamus (AN) has been suggested as a potential target for seizure modulation in animal models and patients with refractory epilepsy. We investigate whether microinjections of GABAergic agonists into the AN were protective against pilocarpine-induced generalized seizures and status epilepticus (SE). Rats were treated with bilateral AN injections of muscimol (160 or 80 nmol), bicuculline (15 nmol), or saline (controls) 20 min prior to pilocarpine administration (350 mg/kg i.p.). Electrographic recordings were used to confirm seizure activity. We found that pretreatment with AN muscimol 160 nmol increased the latency to seizures and SE by 2.5-3.0-fold. This dose however was associated with side effects, particularly hypotonia. AN bicuculline was proconvulsant, whereas no major effect was observed after muscimol 80 nmol injections. The percentage of animals that developed SE was similar across groups. Overall, microinjection of high doses of muscimol into the AN delayed the occurrence of pilocarpine-induced seizures and SE but was not able to prevent these events. PMID:20347349

Bittencourt, Simone; Dubiela, Francisco P; Queiroz, Claudio; Covolan, Luciene; Andrade, Danielle; Lozano, Andres; Mello, Luiz E; Hamani, Clement

2010-03-27

201

Behavioral and genetic effects promoted by sleep deprivation in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

The interaction between sleep deprivation and epilepsy has been well described in electrophysiological studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on locomotor activity and genetic damage in the brains of rats treated with saline or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). After 50 days of pilocarpine or saline treatment, both groups were assigned randomly to total sleep deprivation (TSD) for 6 h, paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 24 h, or be kept in their home cages. Locomotor activity was assessed with the open field test followed by resection of brain for quantification of genetic damage by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Status epilepticus induced significant hyperactivity in the open field test and caused genetic damage in the brain. Sleep deprivation procedures (TSD and PSD) did not affect locomotor activity in epileptic or healthy rats, but resulted in significant DNA damage in brain cells. Although PSD had this effect in both vehicle and epileptic groups, TSD caused DNA damage only in epileptic rats. In conclusion, our results revealed that, despite a lack of behavioral effects of sleep deprivation, TSD and PSD induced genetic damage in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:22450051

Matos, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Hirotsu, Camila; Scorza, Fulvio A; Le Sueur-Maluf, Luciana; Noguti, Juliana; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

2012-03-17

202

A comparative study of one-year weight gain among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate, levonorgestrel implants, and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

With the recent introduction and growing popularity of Depo-Provera Contraceptive Injection, concern about the potential for weight gain during treatment has been raised. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not Depo-Provera Contraceptive Injection is associated with greater weight gain, and incidence thereof, than Norplant implants or oral contraceptives. A retrospective chart review of patients seen at a state- and federally-funded clinic was conducted. Fifty women in each treatment group who met the study criteria were identified and included in the study evaluation. Mean one-year weight gain for subjects in each group was as follows: -2.0 pounds in the oral contraceptive group, -1.8 pounds in the Norplant implants group, and +0.1 pounds in the Depo-Provera Contraceptive Injection group. While results among treatment groups differed slightly, no significant weight change occurred in any of the treatment groups. PMID:8605778

Moore, L L; Valuck, R; McDougall, C; Fink, W

1995-10-01

203

Comparative chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile by drinking water and oral intubation to Spartan® Sprague–Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 100 male and 100 female Spartan® Sprague–Dawley rats were administered lifetime oral doses of Acrylonitrile (AN) by one of two routes of dosing, either at 0.1 or 10 mg\\/kg per day, 7 day per week by intubation or continually at 1 or 100 ppm AN in their drinking water. The doses selected were designed to approximate the same

Frederick R. Johannsen; George J. Levinskas

2002-01-01

204

Memory B Cell and Other Immune Responses in Children Receiving Two Doses of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine Compared to Responses following Natural Cholera Infection in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than wild-type infection provides, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild-type disease versus vaccination, especially with regard to memory responses associated with long-term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2 to 5 years of age; n = 20) and older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 20) given two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against CtxB but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA, and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease than after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild-type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children.

Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M.; Patel, Sweta M.; Aktar, Amena; Khanam, Farhana; Uddin, Taher; Riyadh, M. Asrafuzzaman; Saha, Amit; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Charles, Richelle; LaRocque, Regina; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.

2012-01-01

205

Memory B cell and other immune responses in children receiving two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine compared to responses following natural cholera infection in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than wild-type infection provides, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild-type disease versus vaccination, especially with regard to memory responses associated with long-term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2 to 5 years of age; n = 20) and older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 20) given two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against CtxB but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA, and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease than after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild-type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children. PMID:22441386

Leung, Daniel T; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M; Patel, Sweta M; Aktar, Amena; Khanam, Farhana; Uddin, Taher; Riyadh, M Asrafuzzaman; Saha, Amit; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Charles, Richelle; LaRocque, Regina; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

2012-03-21

206

The expression of E-cadherin and cathepsin-D in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A comparative analysis between immunohistochemistry and routine histopathology  

PubMed Central

Background: E-cadherin is known to be an invasion suppressor gene and cathepsin-D, a protease, which is an invasion promoter and plays a central role in solid tumors including oral cancer. Aims: To look for the expression pattern in normal buccal mucosa, dysplastic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) along with their correlation to individual atypical features, thereby providing an objective to the grading system in predicting the fate of affected epithelium. Materials and Methods: To elucidate the expression patterns of these markers, we examined immunohistochemically on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections 22 dysplastic epithelia, eight SCC and ten normal buccal mucosa. Results: In dysplastic epithelium slight loss of expression of E-cadherin was noted as grade of dysplasia increased. Two cases of carcinoma clearance showed only basal and suprabasal staining. The staining varied in SCC with patchy to complete absence of expression. With cathepsin-D fine to moderate granular cytoplasmic staining was noted in most of the dysplastic epithelium. Similar staining was noted in SCC. The atypical features which strongly correlated to loss of expression of E-cadherin and intense cathepsin-D expression are basilar hyperplasia, loss of cohesion, mitosis, loss of polarity and drop shaped rete ridges. Conclusions: The result of the study shows that the above atypical features should be given more weightage in addition to traditional grading system, in predicting the fate of affected epithelium. Additional studies with larger sample size and using monoclonal antibody against cathepsin-D may further strengthen our findings.

Yogesh, TL; Narayan, TV; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Shashidara, R; Leekymohanty

2011-01-01

207

Once-daily intravenous busulfan with therapeutic drug monitoring compared to conventional oral busulfan improves survival and engraftment in children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Because of intra- and interindividual variability, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics of busulfan (Bu) in children, oral busulfan without therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is assumed to be associated with higher graft failure rates as well as higher toxicity (eg, veno-occlusive disease [VOD]). This study compares the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) of 2 groups: 1) 30 patients who received myeloablation with once-daily intravenous (i.v.) dose-targeted busulfan (BUdtIV) based on TDM and 2) 30 patients who received the current practice of untargeted oral busulfan (BUPO). Patients received a 3-hour infusion of Bu at a first dose of 120 mg/m(2) (age >or=1 year) or 80 mg/m(2) (<1 year), or BUPO 1 mg/kg 4 times daily. Both regimens were continued for 4 days. The target area under the curve (AUC) was defined as 17,500 microg *h/l. BUdtIV resulted in higher event-free survival (EFS) and survival rates compared to BUPO (EFS: 30% versus 83%, P < .001, survival: 53% versus 83%, P = .016). BUdtIV was associated with more cases of VOD. TDM was feasible in routine clinical practice. The results show that i.v. Bu using TDM is preferable over oral Bu in children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation, especially in those at high risk for graft failure/relapse. PMID:18158965

Bartelink, Imke H; Bredius, Robbert G M; Ververs, Tessa T; Raphael, Martine F; van Kesteren, Charlotte; Bierings, Marc; Rademaker, Carin M A; den Hartigh, J; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Zwaveling, Juliette; Boelens, Jaap J

2008-01-01

208

A comparative study of the adjuvanticity of Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces cerevsiae and Yarrowia lipolytica in oral and nasal immunization with virus capsid antigens.  

PubMed

The adjuvanticity of Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces cerevsiae and Yarrowia lipolytica were compared for oral and nasal immunization with virus capsid antigens. Mice were immunized orally with human papillomavirus type 16 L1 virus-like particles (HPV16 L1 VLPs), or intra-nasally with formalin-inactivated influenza A virus (FIV), in combination with one or other yeast. Mice receiving HPV16 L1 VLPs combined with H. polymorpha had a significantly higher titer for serum anti-HPV16 L1 IgG and neutralizing activity than those receiving HPV16 L1 VLPs combined with either of the other two yeasts. Also, mice receiving FIV combined with H. polymorpha had not only a markedly higher anti-influenza A virus IgG titer but also a higher survival rate after a potentially lethal influenza A virus challenge. We suggest that H. polymorpha thus will be useful for enhancing immune responses in mucosal immunizations. PMID:23801124

Lee, Jae Young; Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hong-Jin

2013-06-26

209

Comparative analysis of human-derived feeder layers with 3T3 fibroblasts for the ex vivo expansion of human limbal and oral epithelium.  

PubMed

Corneal transplantation with cultivated limbal or oral epithelium is a feasible treatment option for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Currently utilized co-culture of stem cells with murine 3T3 feeder layer renders the epithelial constructs as xenografts. To overcome the potential risks involved with xenotransplantation, we investigated the use of human-derived feeder layers for the ex vivo expansion of epithelial (stem) cells. Human limbal and oral epithelium was co-cultured with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, human dermal fibroblasts (DF), human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and with no feeder cells (NF). Cell morphology was monitored with phase-contrast microscopy, and stem cell characteristics were assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR for p63 and ABCG2, (stem cell markers), and by colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay. Immunohistochemical analysis detected positive staining for CK3 (cornea specific marker) and I?1 and p63 (putative stem cell markers) in all culture conditions. The level of I?1 and p63 was significantly higher in both limbal and oral cells cultured on the 3T3 feeder, as compared to the MSC or NF group (p<0.01). This level was comparable to the cells cultured on DF. Expression of p63 and ABCG2 in limbal and oral epithelial cells in the 3T3 and DF groups was significantly higher than that in the MSC or NF group (p<0.01). No statistical difference was detected between 3T3 and DF groups. The CFE of both limbal and oral cells co-cultured on 3T3 fibroblasts was comparable to cells grown on DF, and was significantly higher than that of cells co-cultured with MSC or NF (p<0.01). Epithelial cells grown on a DF feeder layer maintained a stem cell-like phenotype, comparable to cells grown on a 3T3 feeder layer. In conclusion, DF provides a promising substitute for 3T3 feeder cells during cultivation of xenobiotic-free corneal equivalents. PMID:21964568

Sharma, Sandhya M; Fuchsluger, Thomas; Ahmad, Sajjad; Katikireddy, Kishore R; Armant, Myriam; Dana, Reza; Jurkunas, Ula V

2012-09-01

210

Comparative evaluation of the diagnostic performance of autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance in oral cancer detection: a clinical study.  

PubMed

Autofluorescence (AF) and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopic techniques have shown good diagnostic accuracies for noninvasive detection of oral cavity cancer. In the present study, AF and DR spectra recorded in vivo from the same set of sites in 65 patients were analyzed using Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The effectiveness of these two techniques was assessed by comparison with gold standard and their discrimination efficiency was determined from the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve. Analysis using a DR technique shows a higher AUC-ROC of 0.991 as against 0.987 for AF spectral data. PMID:21905236

Jayanthi, Jayaraj L; Subhash, Narayanan; Stephen, Manju; Philip, Emmanuel K; Beena, Valappil T

2011-09-08

211

Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail. PMID:23772453

Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

2013-03-01

212

Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen ? chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV ? chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that ?1(IV)/?2(IV) and ?5(IV)/?6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, ?1(IV)/?2(IV) chains preceded ?5(IV)/?6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen ?(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen ?(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen ?(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC. PMID:22694915

Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

2012-06-12

213

Diagnostic Usefulness of the Serum-Specific IgE, the Skin Prick Test and the Atopy Patch Test Compared with That of the Oral Food Challenge Test  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is frequently associated with food allergies. In addition to the skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE, the atopy patch test (APT) has been introduced as a diagnostic procedure for food allergies. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the APT, the SPT and the serum-specific IgE levels compared with that of oral food challenge test against milk and egg in AD patients. Methods We conducted the SPT and APT, and determined the serum-specific IgE levels against milk and egg antigens for 101 patients. Oral food challenge tests were conducted for 86 out of 101 AD patients. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictable values were calculated for all the tests. Results Twenty-five patients were positive to oral food challenges. The sensitivity of the APT for milk was 66.7%, while the figures for the SPT and the serum-specific IgE were 35.5% and 14.2%. The sensitivity of the APT for egg was 50%, while that for the SPT and serum-specific IgE were 21.4% and 6.7%. Conclusion We were able to conclude that the APT test seems to be a valuable additional tool for the diagnostic method of food allergies in AD.

Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One; Lee, Cheol Heon

2010-01-01

214

Early effect of oral administration of omeprazole with mosapride as compared with those of omeprazole alone on the intragastric pH  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal medication for acid-related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and cause efficient resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to comparatively investigate the inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion of a single oral administration of omeprazole plus mosapride with that of omeprazole alone. Methods Ten Helicobacter pylori-negative male subjects participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 6 hours after a single oral administration of omeprazole 20 mg or that of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg (the omeprazole being administered one hour after the mosapride). Each administration was separated by a 7-days washout period. Results The average pH during the 6-hour period after administration of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg was higher than that after administration of omeprazole 20 mg alone (median: 3.22 versus 4.21, respectively; p = 0.0247). Conclusions In H. pylori -negative healthy male subjects, an oral dose of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg increased the intragastric pH more rapidly than omeprazole 20 mg alone.

2012-01-01

215

Use of subcutaneous enoxaparin compared to intravenous heparin and oral phenprocoumon in the setting of cardioversion--the ACE study (Anticoagulation in Cardioversion using Enoxaparin).  

PubMed

The mode and duration of anticoagulation in the setting of cardioversion of atrial fibrillation-either with or without guidance by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-is still an unresolved issue. Oral anticoagulation with warfarin or phenprocoumon is frequently used but may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications or, conversely, episodes of undercoagulation. Moreover, it takes several days to reach full anticoagulation with oral compounds. This phase may be covered with intravenous heparin but this requires prolonged hospitalization. Low-molecular weight heparin is an attractive alternative as it not only provides a safe and predictable level of anticoagulation with few side effects but can also be administered safely on an outpatient basis. In addition, anticoagulation monitoring is usually unnecessary. The ACE study (Anticoagulation in Cardioversion using Enoxaparin) compared the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous enoxaparin with intravenous heparin/oral phenprocoumon before and after cardioversion (stratified to TEE guidance or no TEE guidance). This article summarizes the study rationale and design. The results will be published shortly. PMID:15071260

Stellbrink, Christoph; Nixdorff, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Lehmacher, Walter; Daniel, Werner Günther; Hanrath, Peter; Geller, Christoph; Mügge, Andreas; Sehnert, Walter; Schmidt-Lucke, Caroline; Schmidt-Lucke, Jan-André

2003-12-01

216

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of paeoniflorin after oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, extract of Cortex Moutan and Shuang-Dan prescription to rats.  

PubMed

Shuang-Dan (SD) is a traditional Chinese prescription containing Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. Paeoniflorin is a main effective ingredient of Cortex Moutan and the pharmacokinetic differences of paeoniflorin following oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, Cortex Moutan extract and SD decoction to rats were studied with approximately the same dose of 30mg/kg paeoniflorin. At different time points (5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 210, 270, 360, 450min), plasma concentration of paeoniflorin was determined using a simple and rapid HPLC-MS method. Unpaired student's t-test was used for the statistical comparison. A bimodal phenomenon was observed in the plasma profile after oral administration of Cortex Moutan extract. Statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and MRT were obtained after oral administration of Cortex Moutan or SD decoction comparing with pure paeoniflorin. The investigation showed that among all calculated parameters, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), MRT, k(e) and T(1/2), there were no significant differences between the two decoctions. The results indicated that the reason which delay the elimination of paeoniflorin and enhance its bioavailability might be some ingredients in Cortex Moutan extract. PMID:19635542

Wu, Hao; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Zhu, Dongliang; Chai, Yifeng

2009-07-25

217

Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairments frequently accompany epileptic disorders. Here, we examine two neuroprotective agents, the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist ketamine and the dopaminergic antagonist acepromazine, for their efficacy in attenuating cognitive impairments in the lithium-pilocarpine (LI-PILO) model of rat limbic epilepsy. Declarative-like cognitive behaviors were assessed in a Morris water maze task that consisted successively of spatial and nonspatial (cued platform) training. Whereas the ketamine-treated (Ket) LI-PILO rats performed equally in all respects to nonseized control rats for the spatial and nonspatial components of the water maze task, the acepromazine-treated (Ace) LI-PILO rats failed to demonstrate learning in either the hidden or cued platform variants of the task and did not demonstrate any place learning in the platform-removed probe trials. We further assessed nondeclarative (associative) cognitive behaviors with a standard contextual fear-conditioning protocol. LI-PILO rats treated with acepromazine failed to learn the Pavlovian relationship; Ket LI-PILO rats performed equivalently to nonseized controls. Cumulatively, these data suggest robust cognitive sparing for LI-PILO rats with pharmacological NMDA receptor antagonism following induction of status epilepticus (SE). This cognitive sparing occurs despite earlier findings that the mean amount of total brain damage with LI-PILO is equivalent for Ket and Ace rats. PMID:15159140

McKay, B E; Persinger, M A

2004-05-01

218

Additional Antiepileptic Mechanisms of Levetiracetam in Lithium-Pilocarpine Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

Several studies have addressed the antiepileptic mechanisms of levetiracetam (LEV); however, its effect on catecholamines and the inflammatory mediators that play a role in epilepsy remain elusive. In the current work, lithium (Li) pretreated animals were administered LEV (500 mg/kg i.p) 30 min before the induction of convulsions by pilocarpine (PIL). Li-PIL-induced seizures were accompanied by increased levels of hippocampal prostaglandin (PG) E2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-10. Moreover, it markedly elevated hippocampal lipid peroxides and nitric oxide levels, while it inhibited the glutathione content. Li-PIL also reduced hippocampal noradrenaline, as well as dopamine contents. Pretreatment with LEV protected against Li-PIL-induced seizures, where it suppressed the severity and delayed the onset of seizures in Li-PIL treated rats. Moreover, LEV reduced PGE2 and MPO, yet it did not affect the level of both cytokines in the hippocampus. LEV also normalized hippocampal noradrenaline, dopamine, glutathione, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide contents. In conclusion, alongside its antioxidant property, LEV anticonvulsive effect involves catecholamines restoration, as well as inhibition of PGE2, MPO, and nitric oxide.

Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y.; El Sayeh, Bahia M.; Abdallah, Dalaal M.

2013-01-01

219

Role of mitochondrial fission in neuronal injury in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial fission has been reported to be involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis and many neurological diseases. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in seizures, which could induce oxidative stress and neuronal loss, remains unknown. In this study, we used pilocarpine to elicit seizures in rats. Meanwhile, we used mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1), a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1), to suppress mitochondrial fission in epileptic model of rats in vivo. We found that mitochondrial fission was increased after seizures and the inhibition of mitochondrial fission by mdivi-1 significantly attenuated oxidative stress and reduced neuronal loss after seizures, shown by the decreased 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-oHdG) content, the increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the reduced expression of cytochrome c and caspase3 and the increased surviving neurons in the hippocampus. These results indicated that mitochondrial fission is up-regulated after seizures and the inhibition of mitochondrial fission is protective against neuronal injury in seizures, the underlying mechanism may be through the mitochondria/reactive oxygen species (ROS)/cytochrome c pathway. PMID:23597828

Qiu, X; Cao, L; Yang, X; Zhao, X; Liu, X; Han, Y; Xue, Y; Jiang, H; Chi, Z

2013-04-15

220

Comparative study of uptake and tissue distribution of methylmercury in female rats by inhalation and oral routes of administration  

SciTech Connect

The release of mercury to the environment from coal-fired power plants, mining, and smelting operations is of special concern since these sources are currently uncontrolled and the use of coal is expected to increase significantly. Mercury which is released into the environment becomes available for methylation. Methylation rates in ecosystems are a function of the mercury burden, bacterial population, and other physicochemical conditions. Analysis of mercury forms in the air around Tampa Bay, Florida, revealed that about 21% of mercury in the atmosphere is of methylmercury types. No detailed data concerning the uptake and absorption of inhaled vapor of methyl mercury compounds are available. This paper reports a study on the uptake and tissue accumulation of /sup 203/Hg-methylmercuric chloride following oral and inhalation administration in female rats.

Fang, S.C.

1980-01-01

221

Comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveals 3q gain resulting in genetic alteration in 3q in advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed DNA sequence copy number aberrations (DSCNAs) in 17 primary oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) by comparative genomic hybridization. DSCNAs were detected frequently at 3q25–qter (7\\/17), Xp21 (5\\/17), and Xq12–q23 and 8q23–q24 (4\\/17), and losses were detected frequently at 13q21–q22 (5\\/17), 3p21–pter, 4p15–pter and 17p13 (4\\/17), and 8p22–pter and 9p21–pter (3\\/17). Four tumors showed amplifications of seven loci: 3q11–qter,

Atsunori Oga; Gu Kong; Kyung Tae; Youngsoo Lee; Kohsuke Sasaki

2001-01-01

222

Recurrent Chromosomal Imbalances Detected in Biopsy Material from Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions by Combined Tissue Microdissection, Universal DNA Amplification, and Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Biopsies routinely performed for the histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial lesions before treatment were screened for chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 12 oral premalignant lesions (OPLs; dysplasias and carcinomas in situ) and 14 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Eight biopsies displayed areas of different histopathological appearance, so that OPLs and OSCCs from the same patient were analyzed. To avoid contamination with nonneoplastic cells, defined cell populations were isolated by micromanipulation with a glass needle. Before comparative genomic hybridization analysis, universal DNA amplification was performed using the DOP-polymerase chain reaction protocol. In the 14 OSCCs examined, the average number of chromosomal imbalances was significantly higher than in the 12 OPLs (mean ± SEM: 11.9 ± 1.9 versus 3.2 ± 1.2; P = 0.003). The DNA copy number changes identified in more than one OPL were gains on 8q (3 of 12) and 16p (2 of 12), as well as losses on 3p (5 of 12); 5q (4 of 12); 13q (3 of 12); and 4q, 8p, and 9p (2 of 12 each). In more than 30% of OSCCs, gains of chromosomal material were identified on 20q (8 of 14); 8q, 11q, 22q (7 of 14 each); 3q, 15q, and 17p (6 of 14 each); and 14q, 17q, and 20p (5 of 14 each), and losses were identified on 3p and 4q (9 of 14 each), 5q (7 of 14), 13q (6 of 14), and 2q and 9p (5 of 14 each). These results were validated by positive and negative control comparative genomic hybridization experiments and microsatellite analysis for the detection of allelic loss. The vast majority of genomic alterations found in OPLs were again identified in OSCCs from the same biopsy, supporting the hypothesis that multiple lesions in the same patient are clonally related. In summary, we show that comprehensive information on the genomic alterations in oral epithelial lesions can be obtained from small biopsies. Such data may identify prognostic indicators that could eventually assist in designing therapeutic strategies.

Weber, Ruthild G.; Scheer, Martin; Born, I. Antonio; Joos, Stefan; Cobbers, J. M. J. Ludwig; Hofele, Christof; Reifenberger, Guido; Zoller, Joachim E.; Lichter, Peter

1998-01-01

223

A comparative study to evaluate the effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine versus oral alprazolam as a premedication agent in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea are extremely sensitive to sedative premedication. Intranasal dexmedetomidine is painless and quick acting. Intranasal dexmedetomidine can be used for premedication as it produces adequate sedation and also obtund hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: Forty morbidly obese patients with BMI > 35 were chosen and divided into two groups. Group DEX received intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg (ideal body weight) while other group (AZ) received oral alprazolam 0.5 mg. Sedation scale, heart rate and the mean arterial pressure was assessed in both the groups at 0 hour, 45 minutes, during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Results: The demographic profile, baseline heart rate, means arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and sedation scale was comparable between the two groups. The sedation scores, after 45 min, were statistically significant between the two groups i.e., 2.40 ± 1.09 in the AZ group as compared to 3.20 ± 1.79 in DEX group P value 0.034. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure and oxygen saturation were statistically similar between the two groups, after 45 min. The heart rate was significantly lower in the DEX group as compared to the AZ group. There was no statistical difference in the mean arterial pressure between the two groups either during laryngoscopy or tracheal intubation. Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine is a better premedication agent in morbidly obese patients than oral alprazolam.

Jayaraman, Lakshmi; Sinha, Aparna; Punhani, Dinesh

2013-01-01

224

Short and long-term anxiogenic effects induced by a single injection of subconvulsant doses of pilocarpine in rats: investigation of the putative role of hippocampal pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Behavioral consequences of convulsive episodes are well documented, but less attention was paid to changes that occur in response\\u000a to subconvulsant doses of drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We investigated short- and long-term effects of a single systemic injection of a subconvulsant dose of pilocarpine on the\\u000a behavior of rats as evaluated in the elevated plus maze.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Pilocarpine induced an anxiogenic-like profile

Filipe Silveira Duarte; Elaine Cristina Gavioli; Marcelo Duzzioni; Alexandre Ademar Hoeller; Newton Sabino Canteras; Thereza Christina Monteiro De Lima

2010-01-01

225

Pilocarpine-induced increases in the activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphate content of rat salivary glands.  

PubMed

The activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), an important regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, was determined after injection of the sialagogue pilocarpine. The fructose-2,6-bisphosphate content of the glands and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2) activity were also measured. The increase in PFK-1 activity after pilocarpine treatment was likely to be due to the increase in the content of its potent modulator, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. This in turn was assumed to be due to the increase in the activity of the active form of PFK-2. PMID:1322120

Nicolau, J; de Souza, D N; Martins, H R

1992-01-01

226

Effects of chronic treatment with levetiracetam on hippocampal field responses after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.  

PubMed

Levetiracetam (Keppra) is a new generation antiepileptic drug characterized by a unique profile of activity in experimental models of epilepsy. It also has a distinct binding site in the brain, i.e. the synaptic vesicle protein type 2 (SV2A). Levetiracetam has been reported to have antiepileptogenic and disease-modifying properties. In the present study the effects of chronic treatment with levetiracetam were assessed in rats that sustained pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Hippocampal field potentials were recorded in vivo in anesthetized animals after 3-day washout period that followed 21-day treatment with different doses of levetiracetam (50, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) administered via ALZET osmotic mini-pumps. Vehicle treated rats together with naive animals (not subjected to SE) were used as control groups. Chronic treatment with levetiracetam yielded clinically relevant plasma concentrations throughout the experiment with complete washout of the drug 3 days after treatment cessation. At this point in time post-SE rats chronically treated with vehicle developed clear signs of hippocampal hyperexcitability, i.e. increased amplitude of population spike (PS) recorded in the dentate gyrus and reduced paired-pulse inhibition in the CA1 area. Levetiracetam treatment dose-dependently counteracted these long-term effects of pilocarpine-induced SE. Furthermore, at the dose of 300 mg/kg/day levetiracetam restored these parameters back to control level. The present results indicate that chronic treatment with levetiracetam completely inhibits the development of hippocampal hyperexcitability following pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:18722515

Margineanu, Doru-Georg; Matagne, Alain; Kaminski, Rafal M; Klitgaard, Henrik

2008-08-21

227

Differential Patterns of Synaptotagmin7 mRNA Expression in Rats with Kainate- and Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in rat models of neurodegenerative disorders have shown disregulation of striatal synaptotagmin7 mRNA. Here we explored the expression of synaptotagmin7 mRNA in the brains of rats with seizures triggered by the glutamatergic agonist kainate (10 mg/kg) or by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) in LiCl (3 mEq/kg) pre-treated (24 h) rats, in a time-course experiment (30 min - 1 day). After kainate-induced seizures, synaptotagmin7 mRNA levels were transiently and uniformly increased throughout the dorsal and ventral striatum (accumbens) at 8 and 12 h, but not at 24 h, followed at 24 h by somewhat variable upregulation within different parts of the cerebral cortex, amigdala and thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus and the lateral septum. By contrast, after LiCl/pilocarpine-induced seizures, there was a more prolonged increase of striatal Synaptotagmin7 mRNA levels (at 8, 12 and 24 h), but only in the ventromedial striatum, while in some other of the aforementioned brain regions there was a decline to below the basal levels. After systemic post-treatment with muscarinic antagonist scopolamine in a dose of 2 mg/kg the seizures were either extinguished or attenuated. In scopolamine post-treated animals with extinguished seizures the striatal synaptotagmin7 mRNA levels (at 12 h after the onset of seizures) were not different from the levels in control animals without seizures, while in rats with attenuated seizures, the upregulation closely resembled kainate seizures-like pattern of striatal upregulation. In the dose of 1 mg/kg, scopolamine did not significantly affect the progression of pilocarpine-induced seizures or pilocarpine seizures-like pattern of striatal upregulation of synaptotagmin7 mRNA. In control experiments, equivalent doses of scopolamine per se did not affect the expression of synaptotagmin7 mRNA. We conclude that here described differential time course and pattern of synaptotagmin7 mRNA expression imply regional differences of pathophysiological brain activation and plasticity in these two models of seizures.

Glavan, Gordana; See, Ronald Eugene; Zivin, Marko

2012-01-01

228

Comparative clinical study of the anti-emetic effects of oral ramosetron and injected granisetron in patients with malignant glioma undergoing ACNU chemotherapy.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ramosetron tablets and granisetron injection was compared for reducing the frequency of nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with malignant glioma undergoing ACNU chemotherapy. Patients with malignant glioma to be treated with ACNU chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive oral ramosetron (20 patients) or intravenous granisetron (19 patients) prior to ACNU injection. Gastrointestinal toxicity within 48 hours of ACNU injection was compared to that in patients who had received ACNU chemotherapy with dopamine D2 receptor-blocker as a historical control group. Within 24 hours of the administration of ACNU, 15 of the 20 patients treated with ramosetron and 16 of the 19 treated with granisetron were nausea-free, and 14 of the former and 14 of the latter regained their normal appetite. There was no significant difference in the anti-emetic effects. Ten of the 17 controls experienced no vomiting within 6 hours of the injection of ACNU, five were nausea-free within 24 hours, and two retained their normal appetite within 24 hours. Oral ramosetron has the same anti-anorectic and anti-emetic effects as intravenous granisetron. Ramosetron tablets are less expensive and are easy to take, so should be on the list of first-choice anti-emetic drugs for patients treated with ACNU chemotherapy. PMID:15973062

Yano, Shigetoshi; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Kai, Yutaka; Morioka, Motohiro; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Kochi, Masato; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

2005-06-01

229

Diverse effects of variant doses of dexamethasone in lithium-pilocarpine induced seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids are used in the management of several epileptic aliments; however, their effectiveness in combating seizures remains controversial, with pro- and anti-convulsive effects ascribed. The current study aimed to address the modulatory effect of dexamethasone (DEX) utilizing 3 dose levels (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body mass of male Wistar rat) in the rat lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PIL) epilepsy model. Li-PIL induced seizures that were associated with neuronal cell loss in the CA3 region, and increased prostaglandin (PG)E(2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-10, nitric oxide, and neutrophil infiltration in the hippocampus. However, Li-PIL compromised the oxidant-antioxidant balance of the hippocampus. Effective anticonvulsant activity was only observed with 10 mg DEX/kg body mass, which reduced seizure production and incidence, as well as neuronal cell loss in the CA3 region. At this anticonvulsant dose, enhancements in the antioxidant system and IL-10, as well as suppression of altered inflammatory markers were observed. Conversely, doubling the dose showed a tendency to shorten seizure latency, and neither affected seizure incidence nor CA3 neuronal cell loss. These effects were associated with an increase in levels of PGE(2) and TNF-?. The present study found a lack of protection at 5 mg DEX/kg body mass, an anticonvulsant effect at 10 mg/kg, and a loss of protection at 20 mg/kg in the Li-PIL epilepsy model, which indicates that there is an optimal dose of DEX for preventing the induction of seizures. PMID:22171792

Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; El Sayeh, Bahia M; Abdallah, Dalaal M

2011-12-15

230

Lithium ion "cyclotron resonance" magnetic fields decrease seizure onset times in lithium-pilocarpine seized rats.  

PubMed

The cyclotron resonance equation predicts that the frequency of an applied magnetic field that might optimally interact with a single ion species may be computed as a function of the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and the strength of the background static magnetic field. The present study was undertaken to discern the applicability of this equation for optimizing lithium ion utilization in the rat, as inferred by the predicted magnetic "ion resonance "field-induced shift of lithium's dose-dependent curve for seizure onset times (SOTs) when combined with the cholinergic agent pilocarpine. Groups of rats were administered 1.5 thru 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride (in 0.5 mEq/kg increments) and exposed to reference conditions or to one of three intensities (70 nanoTesla, 0.8 microTesla, or 25 microTesla) of a 85 Hz magnetic field calculated to resonate with lithium ions given the background static geomagnetic field of approximately 38,000 nanoTesla (0.38 Gauss). A statistically significant quadratic relationship for SOT as a function of magnetic field intensity (irrespective of lithium dose) was noted: this U-shaped function was characterized by equal SOTs for the reference and 25 microTesla groups, with a trend toward shorter SOTs for the 70 nanoTesla and 0.8 microTesla groups. Although not predicted by the equations, this report extends other findings suggestive of discrete intensity windows for which magnetic field frequencies derived from the cyclotron ion resonance equation may affect ion activity. PMID:15527207

McKay, B E; Persinger, M A

2004-08-01

231

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment.  

PubMed

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe(2)O(3)-30nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000mg/kg bw of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3) -bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p>0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe(2)O(3)-30nm. Fe(2)O(3) NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe(2)O(3) NMs. PMID:23142030

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M F; Murty, U S N; Mahboob, M; Grover, Paramjit

2012-11-06

232

Comparative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the oral antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone in patients with type-2 diabetes: A cross-sectional, observational pilot study.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, observational pilot study was designed to investigate the frequency of different endpoints of genotoxicity (sister-chromatid exchange, total chromosome aberrations, and micronucleus formation) and cytotoxicity (mitotic index, replication index, and nuclear division index) in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with type-2 diabetes treated with different oral anti-diabetic agents for 6 months. A total of 104 patients who met the American Diabetes Association criteria for type-2 diabetes were enrolled in the study. Of the 104 patients, 33 were being treated with sitagliptin (100mg/day), 25 with pioglitazone (30mg/day), 22 with rosiglitazone (4mg/day), and 24 with medical nutrition therapy (control group). The results for all the genotoxicity endpoints were significantly different across the four study groups. Post hoc analysis revealed that the genotoxicity observed in the sitagliptin group was significantly higher than that observed in the medical nutrition therapy group, but lower than that occurring in subjects who received thiazolidinediones. All of the three cytotoxicity endpoints were significantly lower in patients treated by oral anti-diabetic agents compared with those who received medical nutrition therapy. However, the three indexes did not differ significantly in the sitagliptin, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone groups. Taken together, these pilot data indicate that sitagliptin and thiazolidinediones may exert genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in patients with type-2 diabetes. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the possible long-term differences between oral anti-diabetic drugs in terms of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, and how these can modulate the risk of developing diabetic complications in general and cancer in particular. PMID:23859957

Oz Gul, Ozen; Cinkilic, Nilufer; Gul, Cuma Bulent; Cander, Soner; Vatan, Ozgur; Ersoy, Canan; Y?lmaz, Dilek; Tuncel, Ercan

2013-07-13

233

L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker inhibits mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits following pilocarpine seizures in immature mice.  

PubMed

Behavioral and cognitive deficits are one of the most frequent sequelae of childhood epilepsy. Accumulating evidence indicates that epilepsy induces aberrant development of the mossy fibers in the hippocampus, the region that is commonly accepted to play a key role in learning and memory. We have therefore proposed that such abnormal maturation of the central nervous system may cause the adverse prognoses following epilepsy. Based on this hypothesis, using primary cultures of the dentate granule cells, we showed that the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine was neuroprotective against excessive mossy fiber synaptogenesis induced by prolonged depolarization that was assumed to mimic epileptiform conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the in vivo effect of nicardipine on aversive sequelae following epileptiform seizures. We found aberrant sprouting of the mossy fibers and poor performance of spatial and contextual tasks in the mice that had received treatment with pilocarpine at their early postnatal age. Repetitive administration of nicardipine prevented the mossy fiber sprouting and ameliorated the cognitive deterioration, although it did not show anticonvulsant actions against pilocarpine seizures. In the present study, we proposed two in vitro and in vivo models for evaluating epilepsy sequelae and noticed that L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine was effective in both models. L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker may be a good candidate for a preventive for childhood epilepsy sequelae. Likewise, these useful systems will disclose additional candidates in future. PMID:10891608

Ikegaya, Y; Nishiyama, N; Matsuki, N

2000-01-01

234

Progressive, potassium-sensitive epileptiform activity in hippocampal area CA3 of pilocarpine-treated rats with recurrent seizures.  

PubMed

Rat hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells synchronously discharge in rhythmic bursts of action potentials after acute disinhibition or convulsant treatment in vitro. These burst discharges resemble epileptiform activity, and are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms underlying limbic seizures. However, few studies have examined CA3 burst discharges in an animal model of epilepsy, because a period of prolonged, severe seizures (status epilepticus) is often used to induce the epileptic state, which can lead to extensive neuronal loss in CA3. Therefore, the severity of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was decreased with anticonvulsant treatment to reduce damage. Rhythmic burst discharges were recorded in the majority of slices from these animals, between two weeks and nine months after status epilepticus. The incidence and amplitude of bursts progressively increased with time after status, even after spontaneous behavioral seizures had begun. The results suggest that modifying the pilocarpine models of temporal lobe epilepsy to reduce neuronal loss leads to robust network synchronization in area CA3. The finding that these bursts increase long after spontaneous behavioral seizures begin supports previous arguments that temporal lobe epilepsy exhibits progressive pathophysiology. PMID:21880468

McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2011-08-30

235

Human neural stem cell transplantation reduces spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in adult rats.  

PubMed

Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) can replace lost neurons and improve the functional deficits. Cell transplantation strategies have been tried in the epileptic disorder, but the effect of exogenous NSCs is unknown. In this study, we attempted to test the anti-epileptogenic effect of NSCs in adult rats with status epilepticus. Experimental status epilepticus was induced by lithium-pilocarpine injection, and beta galactosidase-encoded human NSCs were transplanted intravenously on the next day of status epilepticus. Spontaneous recurrent seizures were monitored with Racine's seizure severity scale. Immunohistochemistry with anti-beta gal, Tuj-1, NeuN, GFAP, CNPase, GluR2, parvalbumin, and GABA were performed and extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded. Human NSCs suppressed spontaneous recurrent seizure formation and transplanted NSCs were differentiated into GABA-immunoreactive interneurons in the damaged hippocampus. Amplitude of fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 was reduced, which was reversed by picrotoxin. These findings suggest that NSCs could be differentiated into inhibitory interneurons and decrease neuronal excitability, which could prevent spontaneous recurrent seizure formation in adult rats with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. PMID:15374747

Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jeon, Daejong; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Juhyun; Jeong, Sang-Wuk; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Sang Kun; Shin, Hee-Sup; Roh, Jae-Kyu

2004-10-15

236

Treatment of experimentally induced Pasteurella multocida infections in broilers and turkeys: comparative studies of different oral treatment regimens.  

PubMed

Experimental fowl cholera was induced in 60 healthy 10-week-old broiler chickens and 8-week-old turkeys by intramuscular inoculation with approximately 80 colony-forming units (cfu) of Pasteurella multocida X-73 strain and with approximately 70 cfu of P. multocida P-1059 strain, respectively. This method of infection proved to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of anti-microbial medication, by measuring mortality, weight gain, pathological responses and frequency of re-isolation of P. multocida. The efficacies of two different dosing methods, continuous and pulse dosing, were compared. Using the continuous-dosing method, norfloxacin was administered to drinking water at 100 mg/l for 5 days in chickens. Efficacies were slightly improved compared with pulse dosing at 15 mg/kg bodyweight for the same length of time. The opposite was observed in turkeys, to the degree of control of mortality and maintenance of weight gain. PMID:12019943

Sarközy, G; Semjén, G; Laczay, P; Horváth, E

2002-04-01

237

Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitalization and empirical broad-spectrum, intravenous antibiotics are the standard treatment for febrile cancer patients.\\u000a Recent evidence supports the suggestion that febrile episodes in a low-risk population can be managed successfully in an outpatient\\u000a setting, but the optimal drug regimen is unknown. In a prospective randomized clinical trial we compared ciprofloxacin 750\\u000a mg p.o. twice a day with ceftriaxone 2 g

V. Minotti; G. Gentile; G. Bucaneve; A. P. Iori; A. Micozzi; F. Cavicchi; G. Barbabietola; G. Landonio; F. Menichetti; P. Martino; A. Del Favero

1999-01-01

238

A Pharmacokinetic and Tolerability Evaluation of Two Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion Systems Compared to an Oral Controlled-Release Morphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetic profiles, safety, and tolerability of continuous subcutaneous infusion with a novel drug deliver system (the MEDIPAD system) was compared to a standard infusion pump (the CADD-Micro) and to controlled-release tablets (MS Contin) for the administration of morphine sulfate. This was a single-center, open-label, three-treatment study conducted in 24 male and female healthy volunteers. The mean age was 40.6

Pia Mikkelsen Lynch; Jackie Butler; Deanne Huerta; Izrail Tsals; Diana Davidson; Sharon Hamm

2000-01-01

239

Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively. Group mean levels of the bile duct-associated enzyme gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the parenchymal associated enzymes, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) increased above the normal range 8 and 11 weeks after infection in the untreated control animals and the group treated 2 weeks after infection with Genesis Pour-On. The groups treated with Fasimec at 2 or 4 weeks after infection, also had elevated enzyme levels. The use of liver-associated enzyme assay is supported as supplementary indicators of fluke-induced pathology. PMID:19375232

Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

2009-03-27

240

Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Dose Intravenous Peramivir with Oral Oseltamivir in Patients with Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection ? †  

PubMed Central

Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ?20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

Kohno, Shigeru; Yen, Muh-Yong; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Ishida, Tadashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jingoro

2011-01-01

241

Oral Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... http://www.usa.gov . Oral Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush") Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or ... other Fungal topics, visit the Fungal Homepage. Oral Candidiasis Topics Definition What is oral candidiasis? Symptoms Redness ...

242

Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Phase 2 Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Solithromycin (CEM-101) to Those of Oral Levofloxacin in the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Solithromycin, a new macrolide, and the first fluoroketolide in clinical development, with activity against macrolide-resistant bacteria, was tested in 132 patients with moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase 2 study. Patients were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to either 800 mg solithromycin orally (PO) on day 1, followed by 400 mg PO daily on days 2 to 5, or 750 mg levofloxacin PO daily on days 1 to 5. Efficacy outcome rates of clinical success at the test-of-cure visit 4 to 11 days after the last dose of study drug were comparable in the intent-to-treat (ITT) (84.6% for solithromycin versus 86.6% for levofloxacin) and microbiological-intent-to-treat (micro-ITT) (77.8% for solithromycin versus 71.4% for levofloxacin) populations. Early response success rates at day 3, defined as improvement in at least two cardinal symptoms of pneumonia, were also comparable (72.3% for solithromycin versus 71.6% for levofloxacin). More patients treated with levofloxacin than with solithromycin experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the study (45.6% versus 29.7%). The majority of TEAEs were mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms and included nausea (1.6% for solithromycin; 10.3% for levofloxacin), diarrhea (7.8% for solithromycin; 5.9% for levofloxacin), and vomiting (0% for solithromycin; 4.4% for levofloxacin). Six patients, all of whom received levofloxacin, discontinued the study drug due to an adverse event. Solithromycin demonstrated comparable efficacy and favorable safety relative to levofloxacin. These findings support a phase 3 study of solithromycin for the treatment of CABP. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01168713.)

Oldach, David; Clark, Kay; Schranz, Jennifer; Das, Anita; Craft, J Carl; Scott, Drusilla; Jamieson, Brian D.

2013-01-01

243

Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail.

Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

2011-01-01

244

Efficacy and Safety of Technosphere Inhaled Insulin Compared With Technosphere Powder Placebo in Insulin-Naive Type 2 Diabetes Suboptimally Controlled With Oral Agents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group study compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of Technosphere insulin with Technosphere powder as placebo in insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients whose diabetes was suboptimally controlled with oral antidiabetic agents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Patients (n = 126) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of therapy with Technosphere insulin or Technosphere powder after lifestyle education on nutrition, exercise, and instructions on inhaler use. The primary efficacy outcome was change in A1C from baseline to study end, and the secondary efficacy outcome was area under the curve for postprandial glucose levels during a meal test at treatment weeks 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS—A1C reduction from a mean baseline of 7.9% was greater with Technosphere insulin than with Technosphere powder (?0.72 vs. ?0.30%; P = 0.003). Postprandial glucose excursions were reduced by 56% with Technosphere insulin compared with baseline, and maximal postprandial glucose levels were reduced by 43% compared with Technosphere powder. Incidences of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, cough, and other adverse events were low in both groups. Body weight was unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSIONS—Technosphere insulin was well tolerated and demonstrated significant improvement in glycemic control with clinically meaningful reductions in A1C levels and postprandial glucose concentrations after 12 weeks of treatment.

Rosenstock, Julio; Bergenstal, Richard; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Hirsch, Irl B.; Klonoff, David; Boss, Anders H.; Kramer, David; Petrucci, Richard; Yu, Wen; Levy, Brian

2008-01-01

245

Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Chlorogenic Acid after Oral Administration of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Shuang-Huang-Lian in Normal and Febrile Rats.  

PubMed

Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe containing Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), Forsythiae Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix, is clinically used for the treatment of fever and acute upper respiratory tract infection. In this research, a comparative study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic difference of chlorogenic acid (ChA) after oral administration of LJF and SHL to normal and febrile rats with approximately the same dose of 60?mg/kg, and the antipyrexia effect of LJF and SHL on rectal temperature changes induced by Baker's yeast was investigated. The results indicated that AUC0?-?t and plasma concentrations of ChA in the febrile rats were significantly higher than normal rats whether in the extract of LJF or SHL. In addition, SHL increased the values of AUC of ChA in both febrile and normal rats compared with LJF alone (p?

Gao, Ru; Lin, Yining; Liang, Ge; Yu, Boyang; Gao, Yuan

2013-02-28

246

A comparative study of three oral contraceptives in Ibadan: Norinyl 1/35, Lo-Ovral and Noriday 1/50.  

PubMed

A study of three combined oral contraceptives, Norinyl 1/35, Lo-Ovral and Noriday 1/50, was conducted at the University of Ibadan Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, to determine if there were differences in continuation rates and reasons for discontinuation. This report includes analysis of 150 women, all of whom were interval patients, randomly allocated to one of the above oral contraceptives between May 1984 and February 1985. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4 and 8 months after admission. Significantly more women in the Norinyl 1/35 group (P less than 0.05) reported intermenstrual bleeding, as well as an increase in the occurrence of intermenstrual bleeding compared to women in the Lo-Ovral group. There were no other differences between the groups for side-effects. The continuation rates at 8 months were 90.8% for the Norinyl 1/35 group, 94.4% for the Lo-Ovral group and 87.1% for the Noriday 1/50 group. The corresponding rates for those lost to follow-up were 26.0, 40.8 and 17.7. The rate for total discontinuations (all discontinuations including women lost to follow-up) was 34.0% for the Norinyl 1/35 group, 44.9% for the Lo-Ovral group and 29.4% for the Noriday 1/50 group. There was a significant difference in lost to follow-up rates between the Lo-Ovral group and the Noriday 1/50 group (P less than 0.05). There were no other significant differences between the groups for life table rates (P greater than 0.05). There were no pregnancies reported during the study period. PMID:2109515

Otolorin, E O; Falase, E A; Ladipo, O A

1990-03-01

247

The prevalence of human herpes viruses in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to oral health providers and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The causative agents in periodontal disease are periopathogenic bacteria; however, viruses have been implicated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different HHVs in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and to compare it to two groups of healthy controls. Three groups were included: chronic periodontitis patients (CP), periodontally healthy patients (NP) and oral health providers with a healthy periodontium (NPOHP). For each subject, 1 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and mixed with 2 ml lysis buffer. HHVs assays were performed using real-time PCR. Fifteen percent of the subjects in the CP group tested positive for CMV compared to none in the NP and NPOHP groups (p = 0.04). Recurrent herpes was more frequent in females (51.7 %) than in males (33.3 %), and this was statistically significant (p = 0.038). The higher prevalence of CMV in the unstimulated saliva of CP patients suggests that CMV may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:23381395

Bilder, Leon; Elimelech, Rina; Szwarcwort-Cohen, Moran; Kra-Oz, Zipi; Machtei, Eli E

2013-02-05

248

Management of oral malodour.  

PubMed

Halitosis is a common problem. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but oral malodour is usually caused by microbial metabolism from the tongue, saliva or dental plaque. Mouthwashes are only effective against halitosis caused by intraoral factors. The principal causative agents of oral malodour are volatile sulphide compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide. Data suggest that oral VSC levels correlate with the depth of periodontal pockets. Trials have shown that both mechanical oral care and mouthwash use can reduce halitosis levels. The majority of studies involving mouthwashes have investigated chlorhexidine and essential oil mouthwashes, although comparative studies are sparse. PMID:12787198

Quirynen, M

2003-01-01

249

Short-term effect of a new mouthrinse formulation on oral malodour after single use in vivo: a comparative, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare a new chlorhexidine (CHX)-free mouthrinse containing amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (ASF) against a benchmark containing CHX with respect to their effect on oral malodour after single use. A total of 42 male and female subjects with an intraoral cause of bad breath, each with an organoleptic rating (OR) of at least 2 and a total volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentration higher than 130 ppb, participated in the study. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment groups (i.e. CHX-free ASF mouthrinse, CHX benchmark mouthrinse or water) according to a randomization list. Participants received written instructions on precautions to be taken for optimal breath analysis. Eight trained and qualified odour judges assessed the subjects' malodour by OR at baseline and 30 min and 4 h after single use of the mouthrinses. Additionally, VSC levels were measured at baseline and 4 h after using the mouthrinse. Treatment with water alone led already to some reduction in OR with mean differences to baseline of -1.13 at 30 min and -0.64, 4 h after treatment. Both CHX-free ASF product (-1.51) and CHX (-1.48) provided a significantly stronger OR reduction than water at 30 min (p < 0.05). Only CHX-free ASF treatment showed a sustained benefit in terms of significantly better OR reduction after 4 h (-1.17, p < 0.05), whereas CHX (-0.81) was not significantly different from water (-0.64, p = 0.517). Both ASF (-90.9%) and CHX (-81.6%) reduced VSC levels significantly stronger than water (-53.5%; p < 0.001). OR and VSC readings in the group using the CHX mouthrinse did not differ significantly from those in the group using the CHX-free ASF formulation. The newly developed CHX-free ASF mouthrinse significantly reduced oral malodour after single use, both in terms of OR and VSC levels. Efficacy was comparable to that of the CHX benchmark product. PMID:21383479

Wilhelm, D; Gysen, K; Himmelmann, A; Krause, C; Wilhelm, K-P

2010-08-17

250

Client satisfaction among participants in a randomized trial comparing oral methadone and injectable diacetylmorphine for long-term opioid-dependency  

PubMed Central

Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST). In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship between satisfaction and patients' characteristics, the treatment modality received and treatment outcomes. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI), conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone vs. injectable diacetylmorphine over 12 months. A small sub-group of patients received injectable hydromorphone on a double blind basis with diacetylmorphine. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) was used to measure satisfaction with treatment. CSQ-8 scores, as well as retention and response to treatment, did not differ between those receiving hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine at 3 or 12 months assessments; therefore, these two groups were analyzed together as the 'injectable' treatment group. Results A total of 232 (92%) and 237 (94%) participants completed the CSQ-8 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Participants in both groups were highly satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, participants satisfied with treatment at 3 months were more likely to be retained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that satisfaction was greater among those randomized to the injection group after controlling for treatment effectiveness. Participants who were retained, responded to treatment, and had fewer psychological symptoms were more satisfied with treatment. Finally, open-ended comments were made by 149 (60.3%) participants; concerns about the randomization process and the study ending were most commonly reported by participants receiving the oral and injectable medications, respectively. Conclusions The higher satisfaction among those receiving medically prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone) supports current evidence regarding the attractiveness of this treatment for long-term, opioid-dependent individuals not benefiting sufficiently from other treatments. In addition, the measurement of treatment satisfaction provides valuable information about participants at risk of relapse and in need of additional services. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00175357

2011-01-01

251

A prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the clinical safety, effectiveness, and cost of oral ofloxacin\\/clindamycin vs intravenous clindamycin\\/gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endomyometritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this prospective, randomized, clinical study was to compare the safety, clinical and microbiologic efficacy, and cost of oral ofloxacin in combination with clindamycin vs intravenous (IV) clindamycin\\/gentamicin in the early empiric treatment for hospitalized patients with mild to moderate postpartum endomyometritis. The secondary objective is to reduce total hospital and patient treatment cost. Postpartum endomyometritis

Marcello Pietrantoni; Sherree Goss; Stanley A. Gall

1998-01-01

252

Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate\\/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol\\/levonorgestrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study compared the bleeding pattern, cycle control and safety of an oral contraceptive (OC) comprising estradiol valerate\\/dienogest (E2V\\/DNG; administered using a dynamic dosing regimen) with a monophasic OC containing ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg\\/levonorgestrel 100 mcg (EE\\/LNG). E2V releases estradiol (E2), which is identical to endogenously produced 17?-estradiol.

Hans-Joachim Ahrendt; Dagmar Makalová; Susanne Parke; Uwe Mellinger; Diana Mansour

2009-01-01

253

Arylaminopeptidase Activities of Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protease and peptidase enzymes are thought to play a role in the virulence of many oral organisms, especially those associated with periodontal diseases. In order to evaluate the peptidases of periodontopathogens, we compared the arylaminopeptidase activities of Bacteroides gingivalis with those of other oral and non-oral bacteria. Sixty-three bacterial strains representing the prominent cultivable organisms in human periodontal pockets were

H. Suido; M. Nakamura; P. A. Mashimo; J. J. Zambon; R. J. Genco

1986-01-01

254

Progressive Metabolic Changes Underlying the Chronic Reorganization of Brain Circuits during the Silent Phase of the Lithium–Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy in the Immature and Adult Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium–pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy reproduces most of the features of human temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we explored the correlation between metabolic changes, neuronal damage, and epileptogenesis during the silent phase following status epilepticus (SE) induced by Li-Pilo in 10- (P10) and 21-day-old (P21) and adult rats. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglcs) were measured at

Céline Dubé; Sylvette Boyet; Christian Marescaux; Astrid Nehlig

2000-01-01

255

Predictive Value of Cortical Injury for the Development of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in 21-day-old Rats: An MRI Approach Using the Lithium-pilocarpine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Purpose: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) usually had an initial precipitating injury in early child- hood. However, epilepsy does not develop in all children who have undergone an early insult. As in patients, the conse- quences of the lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) are age dependent, and only a subset of 21-day-old rats will develop epilepsy. Thus with magnetic

Catherine Roch; Claire Leroy; Astrid Nehlig

2002-01-01

256

Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo assess the effects of the oral intake of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on coronary circulation, we measured coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in healthy adult subjects.

Yumi Shiina; Nobusada Funabashi; Kwangho Lee; Taichi Murayama; Koki Nakamura; Yu Wakatsuki; Masao Daimon; Issei Komuro

2009-01-01

257

Comparative study on the disposition of a new orally active dopamine prodrug, N-(N-acetyl-L-methionyl)-O,O-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)dopamine (TA-870) and dopamine hydrochloride in rats and dogs  

SciTech Connect

The pharmacokinetics of a dopamine derivative, TA-870, and dopamine (DA) after oral administration are compared in rats and dogs. The maximum concentrations of free DA in plasma after oral administration of TA-870 were 150 ng/ml in the rat (30 mg/kg) and 234 ng/ml in the dog (33.5 mg/kg). On the contrary, the maximum plasma concentrations after oral administration of DA at an equimolar dose to TA-870 were 12 ng/ml in the rat (12 mg/kg) and 36 ng/ml in the dog (13.5 mg/kg). The AUC values of free DA in plasma after oral administration of TA-870 (30 or 33.5 mg/kg) were 4-6 times higher than those after DA in both animal species. The peak tissue levels of radioactivity in rats after oral administration of (/sup 14/C)TA-870 (30 mg/kg) were also 5.5 times higher in the liver and 1-2 times higher in other tissues than those after (/sup 14/C)DA dose (12 mg/kg). In rats, the main excretion route of radioactivity after oral administration of (/sup 14/C)TA-870 or DA was via the urine. The total recoveries of radioactivity in the urine and feces were 91-96% of the dose within 24 hr for both compounds. Biliary excretion in rats accounted for 19.8% of the dose of (/sup 14/C)TA-870 and 12.6% of the dose of (/sup 14/C)DA within 24 hr. These results demonstrate that TA-870 was well absorbed from the digestive tract, extensively metabolized to dopamine, and proved to be an orally usable dopamine prodrug.

Yoshikawa, M.; Endo, H.; Otsuka, M.; Yamaguchi, I.; Harigaya, S.

1988-09-01

258

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

259

Safe administration of oral BU twice daily during conditioning for stem cell transplantation in a paediatric population: a comparative study between the standard 4-dose and a 2-dose regimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared outcome and toxicity in two paediatric groups undergoing SCT and treated with busulphan (BU) by the oral route of administration. One group receiving the standard dose of 1 mg\\/kg q.i.d. for a total of 16 doses was compared with age- and disease-matched patients receiving 2 mg\\/kg of BU b.i.d. for a total of eight doses. Seventy-two patients from

K Mellgren; C Nilsson; A Fasth; J Abrahamsson; J Winiarski; O Ringdén; M Hassan

2008-01-01

260

Changes in coagulation and anticoagulation in women taking low-dose triphasic oral contraceptives: a controlled comparative 12-month clinical trial.  

PubMed

Researchers from Gainesville, Florida compared data on 20 women who were randomly assigned the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel) with data on 24 women who were randomly assigned the triphasic OC Ortho-Novum (ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone) and data on 8 women who were controls to evaluate these 2 triphasic OCs' effects on coagulation and anticoagulation factors. They measured these factors at baseline and 6 and 12 months after beginning OC use. Both OCs significantly reduced prothrombin time (Triphasil at 6 and 12 months, p.001; Ortho-Novum at 6 months, p01, and at 12 months, p.001). They also decreased partial thromboplastin time (Triphasil at 6 months, p.01), and at 12 months, p.001; Ortho-Novum at 6 months, p.01). Both OCs significantly increased Factor XII after 6 and 12 months (Triphasil p.001 and p.01 for controls and p.05 from baseline, respectively; Ortho Novum p.01). Ortho-Novum considerably increased fibrinogen antigen at 6 and 12 months (p.05 and p.001 from baseline and p.05 for controls, respectively) while Triphasil increased it only at 12 months (p.05). Platelet counts remained the same. Ortho-Novum markedly increased antithrombin III activity after 6 months (p.05). Even though neither OC changed antithrombin III antigen, they did significantly increase alpha-1-antitrypsin antigen and plasminogen antigen and activity at 6 and 12 months as well as alpha-2-antiplasmin antigen at 12 months. Ortho-Novum increased alpha-s-antiplasmin antigen at 12 months. No great differences in coagulation or anticoagulation factors existed between the OCs. The mean values were within reference ranges. These results showed that the OCs had the same, limited effects on hemostasis and changes in coagulation factors offset changes in anticoagulation factors. PMID:1442974

Notelovitz, M; Kitchens, C S; Khan, F Y

1992-11-01

261

Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE). Methods In a randomised, open-label study, 121 healthy women, 18-50 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 ?g/30 ?g) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 for all indices. Results All parameters were similar at baseline between the two groups. Over six cycles, NOMAC/E2 had less effect on most haemostatic indices than LNG/EE. Lipids were essentially unchanged with NOMAC/E2, whereas with LNG/EE high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides slightly increased. NOMAC/E2 induced negligible changes in glucose and insulin parameters, in contrast to LNG/EE. A much smaller increase in CRP was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. Conclusions The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE.

Agren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Maenpaa-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

2011-01-01

262

Comparative evaluation of live marker vaccine candidates "CP7_E2alf" and "flc11" along with C-strain "Riems" after oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Due to the tremendous socio-economic impact of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks, emergency vaccination scenarios are continuously under discussion. Unfortunately, all currently available vaccines show restrictions either in terms of marker capacities or immunogenicity. Recent research efforts were therefore directed at the design of new modified live marker vaccines. Among the most promising candidates the chimeric pestiviruses "CP7_E2alf" and "flc11" were identified. Within an international research project, these candidates were comparatively tested in challenge experiments after a single oral vaccination. Challenge infection was carried out with highly virulent CSF virus strain "Koslov", 14 or 21 days post vaccination (dpv), respectively. Safety, efficacy, and marker potential were addressed. All assessments were done in comparison with the conventional "gold standard" C-strain "Riems" vaccine. In addition to the challenge trials, multiple vaccinations with both candidates were performed to further assess their marker vaccine potential. All vaccines were safe and yielded full protection upon challenge 21 days post vaccination. Neither serological nor virological investigations showed major differences among the three vaccines. Whereas CP7_E2alf also provided clinical protection upon challenge at 14 days post vaccination, only 50% of animals vaccinated with flc11, and 83% vaccinated with C-strain "Riems" survived challenge at this time point. No marked differences were seen in protected animals. Despite the fact that all multiple-vaccinated animals stayed sero-negative in the accompanying marker test, the discriminatory assay remains a weak point due to delayed or inexistent detection of some of the vaccinated and subsequently infected animals. Nevertheless, the potential as live marker vaccines could be confirmed for both vaccine candidates. Future efforts will therefore be directed at the licensing of "Cp7_E2alf" as the first live marker vaccine for CSF. PMID:22397931

Blome, Sandra; Aebischer, Andrea; Lange, Elke; Hofmann, Martin; Leifer, Immanuel; Loeffen, Willie; Koenen, Frank; Beer, Martin

2012-02-17

263

Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17?-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study.  

PubMed

Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. NOMAC/E2 is a new monophasic OC that combines nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a highly selective progestogen, with 17?-estradiol (E2). The study objective was to compare the effects on markers of haemostasis of NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) versus the second-generation OC, levonorgestrel (LNG)/EE (100 ?g/20 ?g). Healthy women (age 18-38 years) received once-daily treatment for three consecutive 28-day cycles in a double-blind, randomised study: either NOMAC/E2 for 24 days with a four-day placebo interval (n=45) or LNG/EE for 21 days with a seven-day placebo interval (n=45) per cycle. Mean changes from baseline to end-of-treatment in coagulation markers, including prothrombin fragment 1+2 (primary endpoint), fibrinolysis markers and platelet functions were assessed. Mean prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels (primary endpoint) did not increase with NOMAC/E2 compared with LNG/EE ( -0.02 vs. +0.08 nM, p<0.01). Other significant differences between NOMAC/E2 and LNG/EE were mean changes in antithrombin (+0.3% vs. -4.4%, p<0.001), activated protein C resistance - normalised ratio (+0.20 vs. +0.46, p<0.01), D-dimer ( -53 vs. +43 ng/ml, p<0.001), plasminogen (+6% vs. +30%, p<0.0001) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( -3.1 vs. -8.0 ng/ml, p<0.001). There was no effect of either treatment on platelet aggregation. The NOMAC/E2 pill regimen has fewer adverse effects on blood biological coagulation and fibrinolysis markers than LNG/EE. This suggests that NOMAC/E2 could have a more favourable venous thromboembolism risk profile than LNG/EE; further epidemiological data are required to confirm this. PMID:21225090

Gaussem, Pascale; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Remones, Veronique; Ali, Fouad Dali; Aiach, Martine; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

2011-01-12

264

[Multicenter comparative study of the recurrence-inhibitory effect of oral fluoropyrimidine drugs in patients with colorectal cancer following curative resection].  

PubMed

HCFU and UFT were reported effective in adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. This investigation was planned as a randomized study to compare the usefulness of combination therapies with mitomycin C (MMC)+HCFU and MMC+UFT as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer following curative resection, in terms of survival rate, recurrence rate, and adverse drug reactions. A total of 501 patients consisting of 252 patients with stage III/IV colon cancer (Colorectal Cancer Handling Rules, 4th Ed.) for which macroscopic curative resection was possible and 249 patients with stage II/III/IV rectal cancer (ibid, 4th Ed.) were registered from 40 participating institutions. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups with colon cancer and rectal cancer employed as stratification factors. Beginning on Day 14 after surgery, HCFU at 300 mg/day was administered to one group and UFT at 300 mg/day or 400 mg/day to another group, both orally and daily for one year. MMC 6 mg/m2 was administered intravenously to both groups on the day of surgery and the day following. Among the 501 patients, 496 patients (99%) were eligible. The 5-year survival rates were 77.1% for the MMC+ HCFU group and 79.2% for the MMC+UFT group, with the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 76.1% and 72.9%, respectively, neither showing a significant difference between the groups. Adverse drug reactions appeared in 23% of patients in the MMC+HCFU group and in 19% in the MMC+UFT group, with no serious reactions. One year after surgery the administration completion rates were good, at 82% for the MMC+HCFU group and 83% for the MMC+UFT group. No clear difference in effectiveness was noted between MMC+HCFU therapy and MMC+UFT therapy as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. The administration completion rates were good, and no serious adverse drug reactions were observed for either therapy. It was thus considered that both therapies could be administered safely, and both were useful as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies for colorectal cancer. It is considered necessary to compare them with standard therapies in Western countries in the future. PMID:16044962

Sadahiro, Sotaro; Mitomi, Toshio; Noto, Takashi; Kumada, Kaoru; Hiki, Yoshiki; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Amano, Tomishige; Oki, Shigeo; Otani, Yoshimasa; Oka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Toshitake; Takemiya, Shoji; Nishiyama, Kiyoshi; Yamamura, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Shuji; Ogawa, Nobuya

2005-07-01

265

Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.?METHODS—Twenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17-43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g piracetam, given in two divided doses, were compared with placebo. The crossover design was such that patients received placebo and two of the three dosage regimens of piracetam, each for two weeks, for a total treatment period of six weeks and thus without wash out between each treatment phase. The primary outcome measure was a sum score representing the adjusted total of the ratings of six components of a myoclonus rating scale in which stimulus sensitivity, motor impairment, functional disability, handwriting, and global assessments by investigators and patients were scored. Sequential clinical assessments were made by the same neurologist in the same environment at the same time of day.?RESULTS—Treatment with 24 g/day piracetam produced significant and clinically relevant improvement in the primary outcome measure of mean sum score (p=0.005) and in the means of its subtests of motor impairment (p=0.02), functional disability (p=0.003), and in global assessments by both investigator (p=0.002) and patient (p=0.01). Significant improvement in functional disability was also found with daily doses of 9.6 g and 16.8 g. The dose-effect relation was linear and significant. More patients showed clinically relevant improvement with the highest dosage and, in individual patients, increasing the dose improved response. Piracetam was well tolerated and adverse effects were few, mild, and transient.?CONCLUSIONS—This study provides further evidence that piracetam is an effective and safe medication in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease. In addition, it shows that a dose of 24 g is highly beneficial, more effective than lower doses and that a dose-effect relation exists. There is considerable variation in optimal individual dosage.??

Koskiniemi, M.; Van Vleymen, B.; Hakamies, L.; Lamusuo, S.; Taalas, J.

1998-01-01

266

A randomized comparative open study of the effects of two oral contraceptives, Triphasil and Ortho 7/7/7, on lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

This study assessed serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein changes during one year in 3 groups of nonsmoking women: 1) Triphasil(R); 2) Ortho(R) 7/7/7; 3) Controls. Both oral contraceptives contain the estrogen, ethinyl estradiol(EE), in combination with a progestin in three different ratios during each cycle. The progestin in Triphasil is d-norgestrel, as the dl-racemate norgestrel (NG), whereas that in Ortho 7/7/7 is norethindrone(NE). Total plasma triglycerides were elevated significantly from baseline (p < 0.001) with Ortho 7/7/7 at 3, 6 and 12 months, but only at 3 months with Triphasil, p = 0.047. Triglycerides were elevated in the LDL fraction with Ortho 7/7/7 at 3 months (p = 0.001), 6 months (p = 0.018) and 12 months (p = 0.010). In contrast, LDL triglycerides were not significantly elevated with Triphasil. Similarly, IDL triglycerides were elevated only in the Ortho 7/7/7 group at 6 months (p = 0.002) and 12 months (p = 0.001). Plasma cholesterol was elevated only in the Ortho 7/7/7 group at 3, 6 and 12 months with p values of 0.009, 0.005 and 0.010, respectively. Cholesterol in the LDL fraction was elevated with Ortho 7/7/7 at 12 months (p = 0.002). Plasma apolipoprotein B (apo B) increased at least 24% from baseline for both the Triphasil and Ortho 7/7/7 groups at 3 and 12 months (p < 0.001). However, at 6 months, apolipoprotein B increased only 17.7% (p = 0.008) with Triphasil compared to 29.7% (p < 0.001) with Ortho 7/7/7 at 6 months. Apo B was increased (p < 0.001) in LDL with Triphasil at 3 months only, whereas LDL apo B was increased at 3, 6 and 12 months with Ortho 7/7/7 (p < 0.001, p = 0.020 and p = 0.012, respectively). Apo B increased dramatically in the IDL fraction of both oral contraceptive user populations, with the range of increases being between 48% and 87% during the year (p < 0.001 at all times). Significant elevations in VLDL apo B ranged from 71% to 106% (p < 0.001) with Triphasil and from 42.4% (p < 0.005) to 72.6% (p < 0.001) with Ortho 7/7/7. In conclusion, norethindrone- and dl-norgestrel-formulations have divergent effects on several components of plasma lipoprotein and lipid metabolism, but both products increase plasma and IDL apo B. PMID:8449014

Kakis, G; Powell, M; Marshall, A; Steiner, G

1993-02-01

267

Comparative clinical evaluation of the IsoAmp(R) HSV assay with ELVIS(R) HSV culture/ID/typing test system for the detection of herpes simplex virus in genital and oral lesions  

PubMed Central

Background The novel IsoAmp® HSV Assay employs isothermal helicase-dependent nucleic acid amplification and a user-friendly disposable test device to achieve rapid (<1.5 hours), on-demand qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 in oral and genital lesions. Objectives To compare performance of the IsoAmp® HSV Assay with the ELVIS® HSV ID/typing (shell-vial culture and DFA) test system for clinical specimens collected from oral and genital lesions in symptomatic patients. Study design A total of 994 specimens from male and female genital and oral lesions were obtained and evaluated at five study sites in the United States. Results from the IsoAmp® HSV Assay were compared to those from the ELVIS® system. Separate reproducibility studies were performed at 3 sites using a blinded and randomized study panel. Discrepant specimens were resolved by bidirectional sequencing analysis. Results After discrepant analysis, overall agreement of IsoAmp® with ELVIS® was 98.8% with 37.0% overall prevalence (all study sites). Reproducibility rates were well within expectations. Conclusion The IsoAmp® HSV assay showed excellent performance for clinical use for detection of HSV in genital and oral specimens. In contrast to ELVIS®, IsoAmp® HSV offers excellent sensitivity plus rapid on-demand testing and simpler specimen preparation.

Miller, Nancy S.; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Poulter, Melinda D.; Tang, Yi-Wei; Granato, Paul A.

2012-01-01

268

Comparative bioavailability study of triflusal oral solution vs. triflusal capsules in healthy subjects. A single, randomized, two-way cross-over, open-label phase I study.  

PubMed

Triflusal (CAS 322-79-2) is an antiplatelet agent that irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase isoform 1 (COX-1) and therefore inhibits thromboxane biosynthesis. The main metabolite of triflusal, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid (HTB), possesses also antiaggregant activity. Recently a new oral 600 mg (10 ml) solution form of triflusal has been developed. The purpose of this clinical trial was to study the relative bioavailability of the new oral solution of triflusal versus the capsules formulation, both administered as a single dose. This was a randomized, two-way, cross-over, open-label, single-site phase I clinical trial, in 24 healthy volunteers who received triflusal as 600 mg oral solution and as two 300 mg capsules in a single administration separated by a washout period of at least 17 days. Blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of HTB were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters used for bioequivalence assessment included AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax were within the predetermined equivalence range (80% to 125%). Tolerability was based on the recording of adverse events (AEs), physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory tests. The parameters for bioequivalence, mean [SD] values were as follows: AUC(0-t) (microg x h/ml): 3574.08 [628.17] for triflusal oral solution and 3901.78 [698.43] for triflusal capsules; AUC(0-infinity) (microg x h/ml): 4089.21 [842.54] for triflusal oral solution and 4471.33 [905.93] for triflusal capsules; Cmax, (microg/ml): 91.24 [12.88] for triflusal oral solution and 88.61 [13.46] for triflusal capsules; Cmax/AUC(0-infinity) (h(-1)): 0.03 (0.00) for triflusal oral solution and 0.02 (0.00) for triflusal capsules. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio experimental/control by analysis of variance after log transformed AUC(0-infinity), AUC(0-t), and Cmax were within 80% to 125%. Similar results were found for the data without log transformation. All adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity and all subjects recovered. Nine and 12 subjects reported at least one adverse event during treatment with triflusal oral solution and with triflusal capsules, respectively. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and dizziness. It was concluded that the 600-mg solution of triflusal appeared to be bioequivalent to the reference formulation capsules. Both formulations were well tolerated. PMID:20184225

Izquierdo, Iñaki; Borja, Javier; Rovira, Sandra; Pelagio, Pilar; Torres, Ferran; Cebrecos, Jesus; García-Rafanell, Julián

2010-01-01

269

Perceived Oral Health in a Diverse Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of perceived oral health represent subjective, individual perspectives of one's health. One measure commonly used is the single-item perceived oral health rating: How would you rate your overall oral health? These analyses examine the associations among age, ethnicity, and perceived oral health within the context of a comprehensive battery of 21 predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The study compares

K. A. Atchison; H. C. Gift

1997-01-01

270

Oral liquid L-thyroxine (L-t4) may be better absorbed compared to L-T4 tablets following bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Drug malabsorption is a potential concern after bariatric surgery. We present four case reports of hypothyroid patients who were well replaced with thyroxine tablets to euthyroid thyrotropin (TSH) levels prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. These patients developed elevated TSH levels after the surgery, the TSH responded reversibly to switching from treatment with oral tablets to a liquid formulation. PMID:23824980

Pirola, Ilenia; Formenti, Anna M; Gandossi, Elena; Mittempergher, Francesco; Casella, Claudio; Agosti, Barbara; Cappelli, Carlo

2013-09-01

271

Cost Effectiveness of Insulin Glargine plus Oral Antidiabetes Drugs Compared with Premixed Insulin Alone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several treatment options are available for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are making the transition from oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) to insulin. Two options currently recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Association for initiating insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes who are no longer responsive to OADs alone are insulin glargine plus OADs, and premixed insulin

Sandra L. Tunis; Luc Sauriol; Michael E. Minshall

2010-01-01

272

Use of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin Compared to Intravenous Heparin and Oral Phenprocoumon in the Setting of Cardioversion—The ACE Study (Anticoagulation in Cardioversion Using Enoxaparin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode and duration of anticoagulation in the setting of cardioversion of atrial fibrillation—either with or without guidance by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)—is still an unresolved issue. Oral anticoagulation with warfarin or phenprocoumon is frequently used but may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications or, conversely, episodes of undercoagulation. Moreover, it takes several days to reach full anticoagulation

Christoph Stellbrink; Uwe Nixdorff; Thomas Hofmann; Walter Lehmacher; WernerGünther Daniel; Peter Hanrath; Christoph Geller; Andreas Mügge; Walter Sehnert; Caroline Schmidt-Lucke; Jan-André Schmidt-Lucke

2003-01-01

273

An observational study comparing 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance with fasting plasma glucose in pregnant women: both poorly predictive of birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The definition and treatment of glucose intolerance during pregnancy are matters of intense controversy. Our goal was to examine the value of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in terms of its ability to predict birth weight per- centile in a group of women with singleton pregnancies who received minimal treatment for their glucose intolerance. Methods: We reviewed

Christian Ouzilleau; Marie-Andrée Roy; Louiselle Leblanc; André Carpentier; Pierre Maheux

2003-01-01

274

Comparative evaluation of oral levofloxacin and parenteral nafcillin in the treatment of experimental methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is the most common pathogen recovered from osteomyelitis patients. The current standard therapeutic method for acute phase osteomyelitis is parenteral antibiotic therapy. However, parenteral administration has negative aspects, such as secondary infection, patient inconvenience and high cost. The use of single oral antibiotic therapy may alleviate these problems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to

Mark E. Shirtliff; Jason H. Calhoun; Jon T. Mader

2001-01-01

275

Oral cancer mortality in the province of Cordoba, Argentine Republic in the period 1975-2000. A comparative study with other populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant neoplasm (MN) mortality worldwide ranks among the first four causes of death, in the 1990 decade (1-4). The aim of this work is to study the eight most frequent MN mortality rates, and especially that one caused by oral cancer (OC) in the province of Cordoba, Argentine Republic, in the period between 1975 and 2000, in order to analyze

Rosana Andrea Morelatto; Silvia Adrian; López de Blanc; Silvia López de Blanc

276

Extreme obesity in female rats following prepuberal induction of lithium-pilocarpine seizures and a single injection of acepromazine.  

PubMed

Seizures were induced in female Wistar albino rats at either 35 or 55 days of age with a single systemic injection of lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 mg/kg); the rats were then treated with the atypical neuroleptic acepromazine (25 mg/kg). These rats manifested progressive weight gain for the rest of their lives. The effect was conspicuous by casual observation 6 weeks after treatment and occurred primarily in those rats that later developed spontaneous seizures. After 1 year, the rats were obese (>1000 g). Such weight gains, associated with almost three times the serum triglyceride levels, were not observed in male rats and have not been observed in hundreds of female rats that received this treatment as adults. Single postseizure injections of ketamine rather than acepromazine did not produce this obesity; the weights of these rats were similar to those of normal littermates. These results indicate that a single injection of a neuroleptic during limbic seizures before puberty can produce neuronal alterations that contribute to a lifetime of obesity. PMID:16103018

St-Pierre, L S; Persinger, M A

2005-08-15

277

Comparative study on the excretion of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside in mice after oral and intravenous administration by using HPLC.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize the excretion of pure vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VOG) in mice following oral and intravenous administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A sensitive and specific HPLC method with hespridin as internal standard, a Diamonsil C18 column protected with a KR C18 guard column and a mixture consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.1% glacial acetic acid (6:2:18:74, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was developed and validated for quantitative analysis in biological samples. VOG could be excreted as prototype in excreta including urine and feces after both routes of administration, and the cumulative excretion of VOG was 24.31?±?11.10% (17.97?±?5.59% in urinary excretion; 6.34?±?5.51% in fecal excretion) following oral dosing and 5.66?±?3.94% (4.78?±?3.13% in urinary excretion; 0.88?±?0.81% in fecal excretion) following intravenous dosing. The results showed that the elimination of VOG after the two routes was fairly low, which meant that VOG was metabolized as other forms and the elimination after oral dosing was almost 4.3-fold that after intravenous dosing. For both routes of administration, VOG excreted as prototype in urine was much more than that in feces, nearly 2.83-fold for oral administration and 5.43-fold for intravenous administration, which should be attributed to enterohepatic circulation. Taken together, renal excretion was the dominant path of elimination of VOG for oral and intravenous administration in mice and biliary excretion contributed less. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23760836

Cai, Shuang; Chen, Yinghui; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang

2013-06-13

278

Herbal treatment following post-seizure induction in rat by lithium pilocarpine: Scutellaria lateriflora (Skullcap), Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium) and Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) may prevent development of spontaneous seizures.  

PubMed

About 1 week after the induction of status epilepticus in male rats by a single systemic injection of lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 g/kg), rats were continuously administered one of three herbal treatments through the water supply for 30 days. A fourth group received colloidal minerals and diluted food grade hydrogen peroxide in tap water, while a fifth group of rats received only tap water (control). Herbal treatments were selected for their historical antiseizure activities and sedative actions on the nervous system. The numbers of spontaneous seizures per day during a 15 min observation interval were recorded for each rat during the treatment period and during an additional 30 days when only tap water was given. Rats that received a weak solution of the three herbal fluid extracts of Scutellaria lateri flora (Skullcap), Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium) and Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) displayed no seizures during treatment while all the other groups were not seizure-free. However, when this treatment was removed, the rats in this group displayed numbers of spontaneous seizures comparable to the controls. Although there is no proof that herbal remedies can control limbic or temporal lobe epilepsy, the results of this experiment strongly suggest that the appropriate combination of herbal compounds may be helpful as adjunctive interventions. PMID:15478209

Peredery, Oksana; Persinger, Michael A

2004-09-01

279

Comparative effects of Lunelle™ Monthly Contraceptive Injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum® 7\\/7\\/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone\\/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) on lipid profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a 60-week, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a monthly contraceptive injection containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 25 mg and estradiol cypionate (E2C) 5 mg (Lunelle™ Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg\\/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET\\/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum® 7\\/7\\/7), a longitudinal examination of lipid profiles was conducted. Lipid parameters were assessed at

Matthew A Cromie; Marie H Maile; Charles P Wajszczuk

2000-01-01

280

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the mouth. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are male, over age 40, use tobacco or alcohol or have a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure is also a risk for lip cancer. Symptoms of oral ...

281

How do detemir and glargine compare when added to oral agents in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Practice Point commentary, I describe the findings and limitations of a 52-week, open-label, noninferiority, head-to-head comparison study of the basal insulin analogs detemir and glargine. Rosenstock et al. enrolled 582 insulin-naïve individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic agents. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either detemir or glargine, titrated to a target fasting

Jennifer B Marks

2008-01-01

282

Comparative study of Pluronic(®) F127-modified liposomes and chitosan-modified liposomes for mucus penetration and oral absorption of cyclosporine A in rats.  

PubMed

Liposomes modified using cationic and hydrophilic nonionic polymers are 2 popular carriers for improving oral drug absorption. Cationic polymer-modified liposomes can adhere to the intestinal wall mucus (mucoadhesive type), while liposomes modified using hydrophilic nonionic polymers can penetrate across the mucus barrier (mucus-penetrating type). Chitosan-modified liposomes (CS-Lip, mucoadhesive type) and Pluronic(®) F127-modified liposomes (PF127-Lip, mucus-penetrating type) were engineered to investigate the differences between these mucoadhesive and mucus-penetrating systems in oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug, cyclosporine A (CyA). Stability of CS-Lip and PF127-Lip was studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The intestinal mucus adhesion or penetration of liposomes was studied by confocal laser scanning microcopy and fluorophotometry using coumarin 6 as the fluorescent probe. The oral absorption of CyA-loaded liposomes was also studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that CS-Lip tended to aggregate in SIF, to be trapped by mucus, to remain mainly in the upper portion of the intestinal tract, and to show limited penetration ability. In contrast, PF127-Lip were more stable in the SIF and SGF, were found throughout the intestinal tract, and were able to penetrate the mucus layers to reach the epithelial surface. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed that the Cmax and AUC0-t of PF127-Lip were 1.73- and 1.84-fold higher than those of CS-Lip, respectively (P<0.05). In conclusion, the stability and mucus-penetrating ability of PF127-Lip in the gastrointestinal tract rendered it more suitable than the mucoadhesive CS-Lip for oral delivery CyA. PMID:23583840

Chen, Dan; Xia, Dengning; Li, Xiuying; Zhu, Quanlei; Yu, Hongzhen; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong

2013-04-11

283

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of paeoniflorin after oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, extract of Cortex Moutan and Shuang-Dan prescription to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shuang-Dan (SD) is a traditional Chinese prescription containing Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. Paeoniflorin is a main effective ingredient of Cortex Moutan and the pharmacokinetic differences of paeoniflorin following oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, Cortex Moutan extract and SD decoction to rats were studied with approximately the same dose of 30mg\\/kg paeoniflorin.

Hao Wu; Zhenyu Zhu; Guoqing Zhang; Liang Zhao; Hai Zhang; Dongliang Zhu; Yifeng Chai

2009-01-01

284

Neuronal degeneration is observed in multiple regions outside the hippocampus after lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat.  

PubMed

Although hippocampal sclerosis is frequently identified as a possible epileptic focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, neuronal loss has also been observed in additional structures, including areas outside the temporal lobe. The claim from several researchers using animal models of acquired epilepsy that the immature brain can develop epilepsy without evidence of hippocampal neuronal death raises the possibility that neuronal death in some of these other regions may also be important for epileptogenesis. The present study used the lithium pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy in immature animals to assess which structures outside the hippocampus are injured acutely after status epilepticus. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were implanted with surface EEG electrodes, and status epilepticus was induced at 20days of age with lithium pilocarpine. After 72h, brain tissue from 12 animals was examined with Fluoro-Jade B, a histochemical marker for degenerating neurons. All animals that had confirmed status epilepticus demonstrated Fluoro-Jade B staining in areas outside the hippocampus. The most prominent staining was seen in the thalamus (mediodorsal, paratenial, reuniens, and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei), amygdala (ventral lateral, posteromedial, and basomedial nuclei), ventral premammillary nuclei of hypothalamus, and paralimbic cortices (perirhinal, entorhinal, and piriform) as well as parasubiculum and dorsal endopiriform nuclei. These results demonstrate that lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat brain consistently results in neuronal injury in several distinct areas outside of the hippocampus. Many of these regions are similar to areas damaged in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, thus suggesting a possible role in epileptogenesis. PMID:23896573

Scholl, E A; Dudek, F E; Ekstrand, J J

2013-07-27

285

XP13512 [(+/-)-1-([(alpha-isobutanoyloxyethoxy)carbonyl] aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexane acetic acid], a novel gabapentin prodrug: II. Improved oral bioavailability, dose proportionality, and colonic absorption compared with gabapentin in rats and monkeys.  

PubMed

The absorption of gabapentin (Neurontin) is dose-dependent and variable between patients. Rapid clearance of the drug necessitates dosing three or more times per day to maintain therapeutic levels. These deficiencies appear to result from the low capacity, limited intestinal distribution, and variable expression of the solute transporter responsible for gabapentin absorption. Saturation of this transporter at doses used clinically leads to unpredictable drug exposure and potentially ineffective therapy in some patients. XP13512 [(+/-)-1-([(alpha-isobutanoyloxyethoxy)carbonyl]aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexane acetic acid] is a novel prodrug of gabapentin designed to be absorbed by high-capacity nutrient transporters located throughout the intestine. XP13512 was efficiently absorbed and rapidly converted to gabapentin after oral dosing in rats and monkeys. Exposure to gabapentin was proportional to prodrug dose, whereas exposure to intact XP13512 was low. In rats, >95% of an oral dose of (14)C-XP13512 was excreted in urine in 24 h as gabapentin. In monkeys, oral bioavailability of gabapentin from XP13512 capsules was 84.2% compared with 25.4% after a similar oral Neurontin dose. Compared with intracolonic gabapentin, intracolonic XP13512 gave a 17-fold higher gabapentin exposure in rats and 34-fold higher in monkeys. XP13512 may therefore be incorporated into a sustained release formulation to provide extended gabapentin exposure. XP13512 demonstrated improved gabapentin bioavailability, increased dose proportionality, and enhanced colonic absorption. In clinical use, XP13512 may improve the treatment of neuropathic pain, epilepsy, and numerous other conditions by increasing efficacy, reducing interpatient variability, and decreasing frequency of dosing. PMID:15146029

Cundy, Kenneth C; Annamalai, Thamil; Bu, Lin; De Vera, Josephine; Estrela, Jenny; Luo, Wendy; Shirsat, Payal; Torneros, Allan; Yao, Fenmei; Zou, Joan; Barrett, Ronald W; Gallop, Mark A

2004-05-14

286

Impaired expression and function of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rats  

PubMed Central

Group II metabotropic (mGlu II) receptor subtypes mGlu2 and mGlu3 are important modulators of synaptic plasticity and glutamate release in the brain. Accordingly, several pharmacological ligands have been designed to target these receptors for the treatment of neurological disorders characterized by anomalous glutamate regulation including epilepsy. In this study, we examine whether the expression level and function of mGlu2 and mGlu3 are altered in experimental epilepsy by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR and extracellular recordings. A down-regulation of mGlu2/3 protein expression at the mossy fiber pathway was associated with a significant reduction in mGlu2/3 protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats. Moreover, a reduction in mGlu2 and mGlu3 transcripts levels was noticed as early as 24h after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and persisted during subsequent “latent” and chronic periods. In addition, a significant impairment of mGlu II-mediated depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses was detected in chronically epileptic rats. Application of mGlu II agonists (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) induced a significant reduction of the fEPSP amplitude in control rats, but not in chronic epileptic rats. These data indicate a long-lasting impairment of mGlu2/3 expression that may contribute to abnormal presynaptic plasticity, exaggerate glutamate release and hyperexcitability in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.; Otalora, Luis F. Pacheco; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Herrera, Berenice; Francisco, Sebastian; Ermolinsky, Boris

2008-01-01

287

Study of spontaneous recurrent seizures and morphological alterations after status epilepticus induced by intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures are clinical manifestations of neuronal discharges characterized by hyperexcitability and/or hypersynchrony in the cortex and other subcortical regions. The pilocarpine (PILO) model of epilepsy mimics temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans. In the present study, we used a more selective approach: microinjection of PILO into the hilus of the dentate gyrus (H-PILO). Our main goal was to evaluate the behavioral and morphological alterations present in this model of TLE. Seventy-six percent of all animals receiving H-PILO injections had continuous seizures called status epilepticus (SE). A typical pattern of evolution of limbic seizures during the SE with a latency of 29.3 ± 16.3 minutes was observed using an analysis of behavioral sequences. During the subsequent 30 days, 71% of all animals exhibited spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) during a daily 8-hour videotaping session. These SRSs had a very conspicuous and characteristic pattern detected by behavioral sequences or neuroethiological analysis. Only the animals that had SE showed positive Neo-Timm staining in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (sprouting) and reduced cell density in Ammon's horn pyramidal cell subfield CA1. However, no correlation between the intensity of sprouting and the mean number and total number of SRSs was found. Additionally, using Fluoro-Jade staining, we observed neurodegeneration in the hilus and pyramidal cell subfields CA3 and CA1 24 hours after SE. These data indicate that H-PILO is a reliable, selective, efficient, low-mortality model that mimics the acute and chronic behavioral and morphological aspects of TLE. PMID:21237720

Furtado, M A; Castro, O W; Del Vecchio, F; de Oliveira, J A Cortes; Garcia-Cairasco, N

2011-01-14

288

Impaired expression and function of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Group II metabotropic (mGlu II) receptor subtypes mGlu2 and mGlu3 are important modulators of synaptic plasticity and glutamate release in the brain. Accordingly, several pharmacological ligands have been designed to target these receptors for the treatment of neurological disorders characterized by anomalous glutamate regulation including epilepsy. In this study, we examine whether the expression level and function of mGlu2 and mGlu3 are altered in experimental epilepsy by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR and extracellular recordings. A down-regulation of mGlu2/3 protein expression at the mossy fiber pathway was associated with a significant reduction in mGlu2/3 protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats. Moreover, a reduction in mGlu2 and mGlu3 transcripts levels was noticed as early as 24 h after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and persisted during subsequent "latent" and chronic periods. In addition, a significant impairment of mGlu II-mediated depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses was detected in chronically epileptic rats. Application of mGlu II agonists (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) induced a significant reduction of the fEPSP amplitude in control rats, but not in chronic epileptic rats. These data indicate a long-lasting impairment of mGlu2/3 expression that may contribute to abnormal presynaptic plasticity, exaggerate glutamate release and hyperexcitability in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:18804094

Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R; Otalora, Luis F Pacheco; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Herrera, Berenice; Francisco, Sebastian; Ermolinsky, Boris S

2008-09-10

289

A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis.

Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.

2010-01-01

290

The Effects Of Oral Presentation Previewing Rates On Reading Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multielement design was used to compare the effects of rapid oral presentation and slow oral presentation during listening previewing on rates of accurate oral rereading. The participants were 2 elementary students with reading skills deficits. For both students, rates of accurate oral rereading were higher when adults reduced their oral reading rates as students read silently. DESCRIPTORS: reading rates,

CHRISTOPHER H. SKINNER; LISA COOPER; C Colel

1997-01-01

291

Zolmitriptan Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... with other symptoms such as upset stomach and sensitivity to sound and light). Zolmitriptan is in a ... To take the orally disintegrating tablet, use dry hands to peel back the foil packaging. Immediately take ...

292

Oral Thrush  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar, which encourages the growth of candida. Vaginal yeast infections. Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the same fungus that causes oral thrush. Although a yeast infection isn't dangerous, if you're pregnant ...

293

Oral pemphigoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by anti-basement membrane zone (BMZ) antibodies with a varied heterogeneous clinical spectrum. We sought to characterize a subset of patients with disease limited to the oral cavity.Study Design. Twenty-nine random patients with vesiculobullous disease limited to the oral cavity were studied. We identified patients by clinical criteria, the presence of

Narciss Mobini; Neville Nagarwalla; A. Razzaque Ahmed

1998-01-01

294

Bleeding patterns of women using Lunelle monthly contraceptive injections (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) compared with those of women using Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) or other oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Persistent and/or unpredictable bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of hormonal contraceptive methods. An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of the new, highly efficacious monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) (MPA/E(2)C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of the frequently used norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). This report directly compares the bleeding patterns of women on MPA/E(2)C to those of women on NET/EE and untreated women. Overall, breakthrough bleeding occurred less frequently in women using MPA/E(2)C than in women using NET/EE (p < or =0.01). However, more women using MPA/E(2)C experienced amenorrhea/missed periods than those on NET/EE (p < or =0.01). In addition, the percentage of women experiencing breakthrough bleeding or amenorrhea while using other oral contraceptives is compared to that of women using MPA/E(2)C. A rapidly reversible method, MPA/E(2)C, combines the high contraceptive efficacy of surgical sterilization with the convenience of monthly administration. These data suggest that, for a large proportion of women, MPA/E(2)C offers predictability in bleeding patterns comparable to or greater than that experienced by ovulatory untreated women or those using combination oral contraceptives. PMID:11239615

Garceau, R J; Wajszczuk, C J; Kaunitz, A M

2000-12-01

295

Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

2011-10-29

296

Immune responses to the O-specific polysaccharide antigen in children who received a killed oral cholera vaccine compared to responses following natural cholera infection in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower levels of protective efficacy and shorter durations of protection in young children than in adults. Immunity against cholera is serogroup specific, and immune responses to Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the antigen that mediates serogroup-specific responses, are associated with protection against disease. Despite this, responses against V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), a key component of the LPS responsible for specificity, have not been characterized in children. Here, we report a comparison of polysaccharide antibody responses in children from a region in Bangladesh where cholera is endemic, including infants (6 to 23 months, n = 15), young children (24 to 59 months, n = 14), and older children (5 to 15 years, n = 23) who received two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine 14 days apart. We found that infants and young children receiving the vaccine did not mount an IgG, IgA, or IgM antibody response to V. cholerae OSP or LPS, whereas older children showed significant responses. In comparison to the vaccinees, young children with wild-type V. cholerae O1 Ogawa infection did mount significant antibody responses against OSP and LPS. We also demonstrated that OSP responses correlated with age in vaccinees, but not in cholera patients, reflecting the ability of even young children with wild-type cholera to develop OSP responses. These differences might contribute to the lower efficacy of protection rendered by vaccination than by wild-type disease in young children and suggest that efforts to improve lipopolysaccharide-specific responses might be critical for achieving optimal cholera vaccine efficacy in this younger age group. PMID:23515016

Leung, Daniel T; Uddin, Taher; Xu, Peng; Aktar, Amena; Johnson, Russell A; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Bufano, Meagan Kelly; Eckhoff, Grace; Wu-Freeman, Ying; Yu, Yanan; Sultana, Tania; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraf I; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Kovác, Pavol; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

2013-03-20

297

Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle™ monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum® 7\\/7\\/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone\\/ ethinyl estradiol triphasic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA\\/E2C) (Lunelle™ Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg\\/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET\\/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum® 7\\/7\\/7). At study enrollment, women

Andrew M Kaunitz; Roger J Garceau; Matthew A Cromie

1999-01-01

298

Oral myiasis  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

2010-01-01

299

Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study after Oral Administration of Geniposide in Normal Rats and Adjuvant-induced Arthritis Rats by UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of geniposide (GE) in rat plasma was developed, validated and applied to determine the level of GE in rat plasma after oral administration of GE in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) and normal rats. The investigation showed that there were significant differences in the groups between the normal rat and AA rat in pharmacokinetics parameters, such as the area under the time versus drug concentration curve (AUC (0-?) ) (3.77 ± 0.68 versus 2.27 ± 0.42, p < 0.05), the apparent volume of distribution (V) (140.41 ± 2.07 versus 136.51 ± 1.03, p < 0.05), the mean residence time (MRT) (3.98 ± 0.90 versus 3.80 ± 0.50, p < 0.05) and the clearance from the total body (CL) (16.10 ± 2.87 versus 26.44 ± 4.94, p < 0.05). The results indicated that AA could alter the pharmacokinetics of the drug and these experimental findings could be useful for the further study of the clinical applications of GE. PMID:23953346

Li, Hui; Wu, Hong; Shen, Chen; Chen, Jin-Yun; Hu, Shun-Li; Wu, Huan

2013-09-10

300

[Comparative study of parenteral and oral immunization to influenza in a large clinical trial. 1. Results of clinico-epidemiologic studies].  

PubMed

360 volunteers were recruited for the investigation from a homologous collective. 174 were immunized parenterally with "Influmun" from SSW Dresden, GDR. 176 volunteers were immunized twice orally with an interval of 60 days with an influenza vaccine inactivated by x-ray using enteric-coated capsules. In an interval of six months ARI-symptoms were investigated. Between 13th and 17th week 1988 an increased ARI-morbidity in the Greifswald-region was observed in which influenza A viruses were involved. In comparison with 312 non-immunized persons of the same age, sex and living area the immunized volunteers of the two groups showed 83.4% less sickness days. 30 persons of the non-immunized group got ill for totally 217 days, whereas only nine persons of the two immunized groups were put on the sicklist for totally 36 days. No significant differences concerning the occurrence and duration of acute respiratory infections (ARI) between the two differently immunized groups could be observed. PMID:2264362

Tischner, H; Popp, M; Herrmann, H; Finke, E J; Totzke, O; Nordheim, W; Bräuniger, S; Werchan, D; Luther, P; Dittmann, S

1990-01-01

301

Hydrocortisone Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...

302

Triamcinolone Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...

303

Dexamethasone Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation corticosteroid ...

304

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

305

Oral history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home

Lois B. Taft; Mary Ellen Stolder; Alice Briolat Knutson; Karolyn Tamke; Jennifer Platt; Tara Bowlds

2004-01-01

306

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-02-10

307

Oral tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells (DCs) by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent DC that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and forkhead box protein 3+ iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2012-01-01

308

Oral Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2011-01-01

309

Comparing newer oral anti-platelets prasugrel and ticagrelor in reduction of ischemic events-evidence from a network meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The two newer antiplatelet drugs, prasugrel and ticagrelor have both been incorporated in various national guidelines and are both under consideration for approval or have already been approved by various drug regulatory authorities. Mortality benefits with clopidogrel were comparable to newer anti-platelets, and prasugrel had great anti-ischemic potency than ticagrelor. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials' databases for randomized controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2012 that assessed clinical outcomes with prasugrel or ticagrelor. The comparator was standard dosage of clopidogrel. Outcomes assessed were the risk of all causes mortality, TIMI non-CABG major bleeding, and a composite of stent thrombosis, recurrent ischemia and serious recurrent ischemia in the intervention groups versus the comparator groups. Event rates were compared using a forest plot of relative risk using a random effects model (Mantel-Haenszel); and Odd's ratio was calculated in the absence of significant heterogeneity. Prasugrel was indirectly compared with ticagrelor using network meta-analysis. Four studies (total N = 34,126) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Both drugs had improved mortality and greater risk of bleeding compared to clopidogrel; but outcomes were comparable for both (p = NS). However a composite of recurrent ischemic events, including rates of stent thrombosis (p = 0.045) was reduced to a modest degree with prasugrel compared with ticagrelor. This systematic review suggests greater clinical efficacy of both prasugrel and ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel and an indirect comparison indicates prasugrel may be more effective than ticagrelor for preventing stent thrombosis and recurrent ischemic events. PMID:23212803

Chatterjee, Saurav; Ghose, Abhimanyu; Sharma, Abhishek; Guha, Gunjan; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Frankel, Robert

2013-10-01

310

Oral calcitonin.  

PubMed

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen(®) 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-09-06

311

Association between intermale social aggression and cellular density within the central amygdaloid nucleus in rats with lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Aggressive behaviors (numbers of bites/hour) within groups (ns = 8) of normal rats and rats in which seizures had been induced by a single systemic injection of lithium/pilocarpine were observed for 11 successive, 1-hr, periods. Mean numbers of neurons and glial cells were counted for 10 different nuclei of the amygdala for 16 different brains (8 control; 8 seizure). Although there was no significant difference found between rats with chronically induced seizures and controls for the numbers of neurons per area within the central medial amygdaloid nucleus, the neuronal density was correlated significantly (.92) with mean numbers of bites per hour for the chronically epileptic group only. The hypothesis that seizure-induced damage within proximal amygdaloid nuclei disinhibits the central nucleus and encourages aggression was supported. PMID:8570370

Desjardins, D; Persinger, M A

1995-10-01

312

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases.

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

313

Temporal changes in mRNA expression of the brain nutrient transporters in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in the immature and adult rat  

PubMed Central

The lithium-pilocarpine model mimics most features of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Following our prior studies of cerebral metabolic changes, here we explored the expression of transporters for glucose (GLUT1 and GLUT3) and monocarboxylates (MCT1 and MCT2) during and after status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine in PN10, PN21, and adult rats. In situ hybridization was used to study the expression of transporter mRNAs during the acute phase (1, 4, 12 and 24 h of SE), the latent phase, and the early and late chronic phases. During SE, GLUT1 expression was increased throughout the brain between 1 and 12 h of SE, more strongly in adult rats; GLUT3 increased only transiently, at 1 and 4 h of SE and mainly in PN10 rats; MCT1 was increased at all ages but 5-10-fold more in adult than immature rats; MCT2 expression increased mainly in adult rats. At all ages, MCT1 and MCT2 up-regulation was limited to the circuit of seizures while GLUT1 and GLUT3 changes were more widespread. During the latent and chronic phases, the expression of nutrient transporters was normal in PN10 rats. In PN21 rats, GLUT1 was up-regulated in all brain regions. In contrast, in adult rats GLUT1 expression was down-regulated in the piriform cortex, hilus and CA1 as a result of extensive neuronal death. The changes in nutrient transporter expression reported here further support previous findings in other experimental models demonstrating rapid transcriptional responses to marked changes in cerebral energetic/glucose demand.

Leroy, Claire; Pierre, Karin; Simpson, Ian A.; Pellerin, Luc; Vannucci, Susan J.; Nehlig, Astrid

2013-01-01

314

Oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of standard chemoradiation regimens used for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Virtually all patients who receive cumulative radiation doses of more than 30 Gy that includes oral mucosal fields will develop the condition. Not only does mucositis cause extreme discomfort, often necessitating opioid analgesia, but it is also associated with increased use of health resources and cost of treatment. The incremental cost of mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer is more than $17 000 (US). Much has been learned about the pathobiology that underlies the condition. The departure from the historical paradigm of direct cell death as being the primary cause for mucosal injury in favor of a more comprehensive view of the impact of chemoradiation on all the cells of the mucosa, has resulted in a picture of mucositis pathogenesis, which is biologically broad based. Although there are currently few treatment options for oral mucositis at the moment, the recognition that its underlying biology is complex has provided a range of treatment options that are currently being developed. PMID:21709615

Sonis, Stephen T

2011-08-01

315

Which treatment for low back pain? A factorial randomised controlled trial comparing intravenous analgesics with oral analgesics in the emergency department and a centrally acting muscle relaxant with placebo over three days [ISRCTN09719705  

PubMed Central

Background About two thirds of adults suffer from backpain at some time during their life. In the emergency room many patients with acute back pain are treated with intravenous non-steroidal analgesics. Whether this treatment is superior to oral administration of non-steroidal analgesics is unknown. Intravenous administration, however, requires considerable amounts of resources and accounts for high workload in busy clinics. In the further course centrally acting muscle relaxants are prescribed but the effectiveness remains unclear. The objective of this study is on the one hand to compare the effectiveness of intravenous with oral non-steroidal analgesics for acute treatment and on the other hand to compare the effectiveness of a centrally active muscle relaxant with placebo given for three days after presentation to the ED (emergency department). Methods/Design This study is intended as a randomised controlled factorial trial mainly for two reasons: (1) the sequence of treatments resembles the actual proceedings in every-day clinical practice, which is important for the generalisability of the results and (2) this design allows to take interactions between the two sequential treatment strategies into account. There is a patient preference arm included because patients preference is an important issue providing valuable information: (1) it allows to assess the interaction between desired treatment and outcome, (2) results can be extrapolated to a wider group while (3) conserving the advantages of a fully randomised controlled trial. Conclusion We hope to shed more light on the effectiveness of treatment modalities available for acute low back pain.

Havel, Christof; Sieder, Anna; Herkner, Harald; Domanovits, Hans; Schmied, Mascha; Segel, Rudolf; Koreny, Maria; Laggner, Anton N; Mullner, Marcus

2001-01-01

316

An open-label randomized comparative study of oral contraceptives between medications containing 3 mg drospirenone/30 microg ethinylestradiol and 150 microg levonogestrel/30 microg ethinylestradiol in Thai women.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare the cycle control, efficacy and adverse events of a new low-dose oral contraceptive pill regimen containing 3 mg drospirenone (DRSP)/30 microg ethinylestradiol (EE), with a widely prescribed 150 microg levonogestrel (LNG)/30 microg EE. The results of this comparative trial demonstrated that the two preparations had no statistically significant difference in terms of cycle control, efficacy and adverse events. The occurrence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding was low and was not different between the two regimens. There was neither amenorrhea nor pregnancies reported in either group. The most common adverse events in both groups were nausea, headache and breast tenderness. Also statistically significant changes were found in body weight and blood pressure in both groups at the end of the study. In conclusion, the 3 mg DRSP/30 microg EE regimen provides good cycle control with reliable contraceptive efficacy and a low incidence of adverse events equal to the 150 microg LNG/30 microg EE preparation. Compared with the 150 microg LNG/30 microg EE preparation, the 3 mg DRSP/30 microg EE preparation demonstrated a more favorable effect on body weight and blood pressure, with the mean body weight and mean blood pressure remaining lower than baseline mean. The new formulation may be especially beneficial for women susceptible to body weight gain and rise in blood pressure. PMID:14720615

Suthipongse, Wichit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2004-01-01

317

NWP06, an Extended-Release Oral Suspension of Methylphenidate, Improved Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Compared with Placebo in a Laboratory Classroom Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NWP06, a novel extended-release (ER) liquid formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), compared with placebo in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a laboratory school. Methods A total of 45 subjects ages 6–12 years were enrolled in this dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study. Following open-label dose optimization, subjects received 2 weeks of double-blind treatment (1 week of NWP06 and 1 week of placebo). The treatment sequence (NWP06/placebo or placebo/NWP06) was randomly assigned with the last day of each week-long treatment occurring on the laboratory school test day. Efficacy measures included Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) mathematics tests measured at pre-dose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dose on each laboratory classroom day. Safety assessments included physical examination, screening electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event measures, and assessment of suicidality with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results NWP06 resulted in significant (p<0.0001) improvements in the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dose (mean=7.12) as compared with placebo (mean=19.58) in the completers (n=39). Significant separation from placebo occurred at each time point tested (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours), with onset of action of NWP06 at 45 minutes post-dose and duration of efficacy extending to 12 hours post-dose. Adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs following NWP06 treatment were generally mild and consistent with the known safety profile of MPH. The most common AEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (55.6%), upper abdominal pain (42.2%), affect lability (26.7%), initial insomnia (22.2%), insomnia (17.8%), and headache (17.8%). Conclusions NWP06 treatment effectively reduced symptoms of ADHD in children beginning at 45 minutes and continuing for 12 hours post-dose. NWP06 was well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00904670. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00904670.

Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Belden, Heidi W.

2013-01-01

318

Plasticizer effect and comparative evaluation of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes for oral osmotic pumps of naproxen sodium.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the performance of cellulose acetate (CA) and ethylcellulose (EC)-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes (SPMs) for osmotic pump tablets (OPTs) of naproxen sodium (NPS) so as to deliver a constant, predetermined amount of drug in solution form over a fixed span of time, independent of external environmental conditions. Osmotic pump tablets were designed with different coating variables and optimized in terms of nature of plasticizer, membrane thickness, and orifice diameter. The effect of insertion of an inner microporous film around the NPS core to minimize deformation of the SPM due to peristaltic movement of the gut was also studied. Osmotic pump tablets composed of membranes with water-soluble plasticizer, propyleneglycol (PG), released drug mainly through diffusion, whereas those designed with CA and EC-HPMC (4:1) coats containing water-insoluble plasticizer, castor oil, released their contents by perfect zero-order kinetics over a prolonged period of time, though the average release rate that could be achieved with the EC-HPMC (4:1) membrane was only about half the rate achieved with the CA membrane for the same membrane thickness. Release rates for both the membranes decreased with increasing membrane thickness and were found to be independent of orifice diameter, agitation intensity, and pH of the dissolution medium. PMID:12056533

Ramakrishna, N; Mishra, B

2002-04-01

319

Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.  

PubMed

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland

2012-09-04

320

Comparative effects of omeprazole, amoxycillin plus metronidazole versus omeprazole, clarithromycin plus metronidazole on the oral, gastric and intestinal microflora in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients.  

PubMed

Fourteen patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with 20 mg omeprazole, 1 g amoxycillin and 400 mg metronidazole bd for 7 days (OAM), and 16 patients were treated with 20 mg omeprazole, 250 mg clarithromycin and 400 mg metronidazole bd for 7 days (OCM). Saliva, gastric biopsies and faecal samples were collected before, during (day 7) and 4 weeks after treatment in order to analyse alterations of the normal microflora and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. Both treatment regimens resulted in marked quantitative and qualitative alterations. A selection of resistant streptococcal strains were noticed in both treatment groups, most apparent in the OCM group where a shift from susceptible to resistant strains was recorded. In the OAM group, six patients had overgrowth of resistant enterobacteriaceae during treatment compared with none in the OCM group, in the gastric microflora. The MICs for Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae in faeces increased significantly during treatment in both groups. Nine patients in the OAM group became intestinally colonized by yeasts during treatment. The total anaerobic microflora was strongly suppressed in both treatment groups, although most pronounced in the OCM group, where the frequency of clarithromycin-resistant bacteroides strains increased from 2 to 76% during treatment, and remained at 59% 4 weeks post-treatment. Even if the treatment outcome was better in the OCM group (100%) than in the OAM group (71%), the amoxycillin-based treatment might be preferable from an ecological point of view, since the qualitative alterations in terms of emergence and persistence of resistant strains seemed to be most pronounced in the clarithromycin-treated group. PMID:10552979

Adamsson, I; Nord, C E; Lundquist, P; Sjöstedt, S; Edlund, C

1999-11-01

321

Exploring scarless healing of oral soft tissues.  

PubMed

Our research group is comparing clinical, histological and molecular healing profiles of oral and skin wounds using human and pig models. The goal is to determine the molecular cues that lead to scarless healing in the oral mucosa and use that information to develop scar prevention therapies for skin and prevent aberrant wound healing in the oral cavity. Wound healing in human and pig palatal mucosa is almost identical, and scar formation is reduced in oral wounds compared with skin. The striking difference between these tissues is transient and rapidly resolving inflammation in oral wounds compared with long-lasting inflammation in the skin wounds. Currently, we are looking at wound transcriptomes (genes differentially regulated) and proteomes (a set of proteins) to investigate how these wound healing responses in skin and oral mucosa are regulated at the molecular level. PMID:21366956

Larjava, Hannu; Wiebe, Colin; Gallant-Behm, Corrie; Hart, David A; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari

2011-01-01

322

Depressive Symptoms and Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

Of 261 women who completed a self-rating scale for measuring depression, 168 were taking oral contraceptives and 93 were using physical methods of contraception. Of the group of women taking oral contraceptives 6·6% were more severely depressed than any of the control group. There was a significant variation in the depth of depression related to the day of the menstrual cycle in the control group. This association was not found in the oral contraceptive group, where premenstrual depression was limited to the one or two days preceding menstruation. Women taking a contraceptive containing lynoestrenol 2·5 mg. and mestranol 0·075 mg. showed a significantly increased incidence of pessimism, feelings of dissatisfaction, crying, and tension, compared with women taking other oral contraceptives and the control group.

Herzberg, Brenda N.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Brown, Susannah

1970-01-01

323

Clinical assessment of ramosetron HCl oral preparation in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin: A multicenter, randomized, parallel-design, double-blind comparative study with ondansetron HCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer drugs cause considerable stress to patients and complicate drug administration and\\/or cause patients to refuse further courses of therapy. Oral antiemetics, such as ondansetron HCl, were developed to provide a wider selection of drugs to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Ramosetron HCl oral preparation (intraoral disintegrator) was specially formulated to be taken without

Kiichiro Noda; Masanori Ikeda; Tetsuo Taguchi; Ryunosuke Kanamaru; Motohiko Ichijyo; Koji Okada; Saburo Yano; Osamu Sugimoto; Masahiro Fukuoka; Mitsuyoshi Nakashima

2002-01-01

324

Oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D

2006-05-01

325

Oral Sex and HIV Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Oral Sex and HIV Risk Oral Sex Is Not Risk Free Like all sexual activity, ... HIV or another STD through oral sex. Oral Sex is a Common Practice Oral sex involves giving ...

326

Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic). Lunelle Study Group.  

PubMed

An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). At study enrollment, women chose either the injections or the oral contraceptive. A higher proportion of women in the NET/EE group (65.1%) than in the MPA/E2C group (48.7%) had used hormonal contraception during the month before the study (p < 0.01). Overall, 55.5% (434/782) of MPA/E2C users and 67.6% (217/321) of NET/EE users completed the 60-week trial. One-year contraceptive efficacy (13 cycles of 28 days) for MPA/E2C and NET/EE was based on 8008 and 3434 woman-cycles of use, respectively. During the first year, one pregnancy occurred in an NET/EE user for a life table rate of 0.3; no pregnancies occurred in users of MPA/E2C. One additional pregnancy in the NET/EE group occurred during the 15th treatment cycle. After the first treatment cycle, women in both groups experienced regular menses, with an average cycle length of 28 days in MPA/E2C users and 27 days in NET/EE users. Although MPA/E2C users were more likely to experience bleeding irregularities, only 2.5% (19/775) cited metrorrhagia as a reason for discontinuing treatment. The adverse events reported in both treatment groups are consistent with those expected with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives. Overall, the results of this first Phase III US clinical trial of MPA/E2C confirm this method's high contraceptive efficacy and safety, as shown in previous studies by the World Health Organization. These results suggest that a monthly combination injectable would represent a welcome new contraceptive option for women in the US. PMID:10640164

Kaunitz, A M; Garceau, R J; Cromie, M A

1999-10-01

327

Emergence of spontaneous seizures during the year following lithium/pilocarpine-induced epilepsy and neuronal loss within the right temporal cortices.  

PubMed

Thirty days after the induction of seizures in 16 rats with lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 mg/kg), the numbers of episodes of motor seizures (rapid forelimb clonus) during daily 10-minute observational periods were recorded for 11 months. The proportions of neuronal loss were ranked using two methods by light microscopy for all structures between the posterior and anterior commissures. Amounts of damage within the dentate gyrus, hilus (CA4), and CA3 field were most strongly correlated with numbers of seizures per month about 6 months before the brains were removed. The strongest correlations occurred between the amounts of damage within the right temporal cortices, even after the variance associated with damage within the dentate gyrus had been removed, and the numbers of seizures during the last 2 months. These results may explain the greater proportion of spontaneous seizures that begin with left side forelimb clonus and suggest a particular sensitivity of the right side of the brain to either their initiation or their consequences. PMID:15256179

Persinger, M A; Dupont, M J

2004-08-01

328

A selective inhibitor of Drp1, mdivi-1, protects against cell death of hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of a mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Recent studies demonstrated that inhibition of Drp1 provides neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the role of mdivi-1 in hippocampal neuron death after seizures induced by pilocarpine. Our data showed that pretreatment with mdivi-1 (1.25 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the neuronal death in hippocampus induced by seizures. This neuroprotective effect was dose-dependent. In addition, the seizures resulted in up-regulation of Drp1 expression and mdivi-1 treatment had no effect on the expression. Moreover, we also found that mdivi-1 (1.25 mg/kg) treatment reversed the release of cytochrome c (CytC), translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) induced by seizures while inhibiting the activated caspase-3. Altogether, our data suggested that mdivi-1 exerts neuroprotective effects against cell death of hippocampal neurons induced by seizures, and the underlying mechanism may be through inhibiting CytC release, AIF translocation and suppression of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:23628672

Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Cui; Lian, Yajun; Zhang, Haifeng; Wu, Chuanjie; Zhang, Qian

2013-04-28

329

Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations.

Lai, Jui-Yang

2013-01-01

330

Oral malodour and active ingredients for treatment.  

PubMed

Synopsis Oral care preparations are widely used for the treatment of oral malodour as over-the-counter products. Bad breath is highly distressing to an individual's confidence during social interaction, which is a large concern nowadays as the consumption of these products is increasing worldwide. However, oral deodorant ingredients are rarely studied compared with other cosmetic ingredients, and the only preparations which are well known are those contained in dentifrices and mouthrinses. This review briefly summarizes the compounds which cause oral malodour and the treatments available. The active ingredients in various preparations are emphasized and novel products are presented. PMID:20572885

Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

2010-06-21

331

The Communication Model Perspective of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication models suggest that oral interpretation is a communicative process, that this process may be represented by specification of implicit and explicit content and structure, and that the models themselves are useful. This paper examines these assumptions through a comparative analysis of communication models employed by oral

Peterson, Eric E.

332

Discourse Approaches to Oral Language Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at a sample conversation and examines layers of interpretation that different academic traditions have constructed to interpret it. Reviews studies that have compared the discourse of oral interaction in assessment with oral discourse in contexts outside the assessment. Discusses studies that related ways of speaking to cultural values of…

Young, Richard F.

2002-01-01

333

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

334

The availability of orally administered nortriptyline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of an orally administered drug may be defined as the fraction of the total dose that enters the blood. Three healthy subjects were given identical doses of nortriptyline hydrochloride (NT-HCl) by the oral and intramuscular routes. The availability was assessed by comparing the total areas under the NT plasma concentration-time curves produced by the two methods of administration.

B. Alexanderson; O. Borgå; G. Alvfin

1973-01-01

335

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

336

The oral apparatus of Colpoda variabilis (Ciliophora, Colpodidae): II. Ultrastructure of the oral ciliature and its implications on ciliate phylogeny.  

PubMed

The oral ciliature of Colpoda variabilis has been examined by serial thin sections. The left oral polykinetid consists of parallel rows of ciliated kinetosomes. The right oral polykinetid consists of a ventral part of ciliated kinetosomes in anarchic arrangement and a dorsal double row of ciliated kinetosomes. The existence of postciliary microtubules in association with each kinetosome makes it possible to determine the orientation of kinetosomes within the oral polykinetids. The orientation of kinetosomes in oral polykinetids and oral primordia is discussed and compared with the oral ciliature of Furgasonia, Paramecium and Tetrahymena. The left oral polykinetid is interpreted as consisting of adorai membranelies and the right oral polykinetid is interpreted as consisting of a stichodyad type of paroral membrane accompanied by a ciliary field in anarchic arrangement. A closer phylogenetic relationship between colpodid, nassulid and hymenostome ciliates is suggested. PMID:23196286

Hofmann-Münz, A H

2011-11-02

337

Efficacy of lycopene in the management of oral submucous fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of oral lycopene therapy in patients with oral submucous fibrosis and to compare these effects with a placebo. Study design. Fifty-eight patients with oral submucous fibrosis formed the population for the study and were randomly divided into 3 groups, evaluated weekly over a 2-month period. Patients of group A (n 21) received 16 mg of

Abhinav Kumar; Anjana Bagewadi; Vaishali Keluskar; Mohitpal Singh

2007-01-01

338

Palifermin for Oral Mucositis after Intensive Therapy for Hematologic Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Oral mucositis is a complication of intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no ef- fective treatment. We tested the ability of palifermin (recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor) to decrease oral mucosal injury induced by cytotoxic therapy. methods This double-blind study compared the effect of palifermin with that of a placebo on the development of oral mucositis in 212 patients with

Ricardo Spielberger; Patrick Stiff; William Bensinger; Teresa Gentile; Daniel Weisdorf; Tarun Kewalramani; Thomas Shea; Saul Yanovich; Keith Hansen; Stephen Noga; John McCarty; C. Frederick LeMaistre; Eric C. Sung; Bruce R. Blazar; Dieter Elhardt; Mon-Gy Chen; Christos Emmanouilides

2009-01-01

339

Oral insulin delivery: how far are we?  

PubMed

Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The mainbarriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

2013-03-01

340

Hospitalized mental health patients and oral health.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review of the literature is to present a contemporary perspective related to the nursing care of hospitalized mental health patients who have risk of developing oral health issues. Mental illness is a major health concern worldwide. Compounding this health issue, mental health patients/clients demonstrate avoidant behaviours related to oral health, and the symptoms of mental illness can be a compounding factor. Oral health and oral inflammatory disease are the result of lifestyle and behaviour and mental disorders affect both lifestyle and behaviour. The search used the search terms oral health AND nursing AND mental illness AND Published Date 2005 to 2010. For those who experience mental illness oral health assessment is not routinely practised by clinicians. The importance of special attention to dental problems for people with mental disorders has also been stressed by researchers since the lifespan of people with serious mental disorders is shortened compared to the general population. Oral health care is an important part of treatment. Routine oral care for hospitalized patients is imperative, and this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. PMID:22070464

Edward, K-L; Felstead, B; Mahoney, A-M

2011-10-27

341

Peptides in oral diseases.  

PubMed

The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases. PMID:22236124

Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

2012-01-01

342

Oral sex practices, oral human papillomavirus and correlations between oral and cervical human papillomavirus prevalence among female sex workers in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18-26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women. PMID:22096051

Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N

2011-11-01

343

Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin and comparison of its efficacy with that of oral artesunate in falciparum malaria patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of oral artemisinin and oral artesunate as well as artemisinin pharmacokinetics during and after resolution of falciparum malaria. Forty adults with symptomatic falciparum malaria were allocated at random to treatment with either oral artemisinin (500 mg single dose on day 1 followed by 250 mg twice daily for 4 d and then

M. Hassan Alin; M. Ashton; C. M. Kihamia; G. J. B. Mtey; A. Björkman

1996-01-01

344

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs.

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

345

Tamsulosin Oral Controlled Absorption System (OCAS) in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (LUTS\\/BPH): Efficacy and Tolerability in a Placebo and Active Comparator Controlled Phase 3a Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This phase 3a study assessed the efficacy and safety of two different doses of a new formulation of tamsulosin (the oral controlled absorption system: OCAS) in comparison with placebo and the old modified release (MR) formulation of tamsulosin.

Christopher R. Chapple; Salman H. Al-Shukri; Bernard Gattegno; Simon Holmes; José M. Martínez-Sagarra; Roberto M. Scarpa; Oncko B. van Vierssen Trip; Viktor Vik; Ingrid van der Putten-Slob

2005-01-01

346

Comparative effects of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) on lipid profiles. Investigators from the Lunelle Study Group.  

PubMed

As part of a 60-week, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a monthly contraceptive injection containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 25 mg and estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) 5 mg (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum(R) 7/7/7), a longitudinal examination of lipid profiles was conducted. Lipid parameters were assessed at screening and at weeks 20, 40, and 60 (or the final visit) in 114 women using MPA/E(2)C and 93 using NET/EE (lipid analysis population). Extra blood samples were obtained at weeks 21, 22, and 23 in 61 MPA/E(2)C users and 51 NET/EE users (index-cycle analysis population) to investigate lipid changes during one cycle of use. In the index-cycle population, median changes from screening to week 60 showed a decrease in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo A-II in both groups. MPA/E(2)C users had a decrease in total cholesterol (C), total triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with maintenance of the total C/HDL-C ratio. NET/EE users showed an increase in total C and LDL-C, with no change in HDL-C or the total C/HDL-C ratio. Within the index cycle (weeks 20 to 23), median changes in lipid values in both MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE users were generally greatest during the first week after the injection or the start of the pill pack. The results of this first longitudinal examination of serum lipids in US women using MPA/E(2)C confirm earlier findings in women in other countries. However, a direct comparison of the effects of MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE on lipid profiles was not possible in this study because of its design and because of the baseline and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic differences between the two contraceptive groups. The results of this analysis showed that, although overall lipid values decreased, including a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol, the maintenance of the total-C/HDL-C ratio suggests that the effect of MPA/E(2)C on lipid parameters may not negatively affect CVD risk over 1 year of use. However, these results warrant further investigation, given the nature of this trial. PMID:10745070

Cromie, M A; Maile, M H; Wajszczuk, C P

2000-01-01

347

Oral and extra-oral taste perception.  

PubMed

Of the five basic taste qualities, the molecular mechanisms underlying sweet, bitter, and umami (savory) taste perception have been extensively elucidated, including the taste receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. Recent studies have revealed that these taste-related molecules play important roles not only in the oral cavity but also in a variety of tissues including the respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidney, testes, and brain. This review covers the current knowledge regarding the physiological roles of taste-related molecules in the oral and extra-oral tissues. PMID:22963927

Yamamoto, Kurumi; Ishimaru, Yoshiro

2012-09-02

348

Ximelagatran: nuova prospettiva per l'anticoagulazione orale Ximelagatran: a promising new agent for oral anticoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ximelagatran: a promising new agent for oral anticoagulation. S. Scardi, C. Giansante. Ximelagatran is the first orally available direct thrombin inhibitor. Ximelagatran is a pro-drug with an antithrombotic effect comparable to that of warfarin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that ximelagatran is as effective as warfarin in the prevention of deep-vein thrombosis, of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and

Sabino Scardi; Carlo Giansante

349

Acupuncture for pilocarpine-resistant xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies 1 1 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the United States Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Xerostomia is a frequent and potentially debilitating toxicity of radiotherapy (XRT) for cancers of the head and neck. This report describes the use of acupuncture as palliation for such patients.Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with xerostomia refractory to pilocarpine therapy after XRT for head and neck malignancy were offered acupuncture as palliation. All patients are without evidence of cancer

Peter A. S Johnstone; Y. Peter Peng; Byron C May; Warren S Inouye; Richard C Niemtzow

2001-01-01

350

The effect of an oral hygiene program on oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC).  

PubMed

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by bacteria in niches of the oral cavity play a major role in the etiology of bad breath, and can be easily detected by a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter). To investigate the effect of an oral hygiene program on VSC levels, Halimeter readings were taken from 55 healthy dental students during a course in oral hygiene training, including instruction on brushing, flossing and professional tooth cleaning. Ten students who received no oral hygiene training served as a negative control. The oral hygiene status was measured using the papillary bleeding index (PBI). PBI and VSC values did not show significant changes during the study period of 10 weeks in the control group. In the test group, PBI values significantly decreased compared to baseline and the control, indicating that the oral hygiene program had a benefit on the oral hygiene status. The VSC values also decreased significantly during the study period compared to baseline and the control. It was concluded that in a group of dental students, a thorough oral hygiene training program was capable of reducing the oral level of VSC Halimeter readings. PMID:11507918

Seemann, R; Passek, G; Zimmer, S; Roulet, J F

2001-01-01

351

A 24Week, Randomized, Treat-to-Target Trial Comparing Initiation of Insulin Glargine Once-Daily With Insulin Detemir Twice-Daily in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Oral Glucose-Lowering Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE - To determine whether glargine is noninferior to detemir regarding the percentage of patients reaching A1C <7% without symptomatic hypoglycemia <= 3.1 mmol\\/l. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In this 24-week trial, 973 insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients on stable oral glucose-lowering drugs with A1CS. 7.0-10.5% were randomized to glargine once daily or detemir twice daily. Insulin doses were

S. G. Swinnen; M.-P. Dain; R. Aronson; M. Davies; H. C. Gerstein; A. F. Pfeiffer; F. J. Snoek; J. H. Devries; J. B. Hoekstra; F. Holleman

2010-01-01

352

Effi cacy and tolerability of MK-0974 (telcagepant), a new oral antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, compared with zolmitriptan for acute migraine: a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-treatment trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods In a randomised, parallel-treatment, placebo-controlled, double-blind, trial at 81 sites in the Europe and the USA, adults with migraine diagnosed by International Headache Society criteria treated moderate or severe attacks with either oral telcagepant 150 mg or 300 mg, zolmitriptan 5 mg, or placebo. The fi ve co-primary endpoints were pain freedom, pain relief, or absence of photophobia, phonophobia,

Tony W Ho; Michel D Ferrari; David W Dodick; Vince Galet; James Kost; Xiaoyin Fan; Heather Leibensperger; Samar Froman; Christopher Assaid; Christopher Lines; Hille Koppen; Paul K Winner; H Leibensperger BS; S Froman BS

2008-01-01

353

Increased oral fibroblast lifespan is telomerase-independent.  

PubMed

Oral mucosal wound-healing is characterized by rapid re-epithelialization and remodeling, with minimal scar formation. This may be attributed to the distinct phenotypic characteristics of the resident fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis, we investigated patient-matched oral mucosal and skin fibroblasts. Compared with skin fibroblasts, oral mucosal fibroblasts had longer proliferative lifespans, underwent more population doublings, and experienced senescence later, which was directly related to longer telomere lengths within oral mucosal fibroblasts. The presence of these longer telomeres was independent of telomerase expression, since both oral oral mucosal fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts were negative for active telomerase, as assessed according to the Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol. This study has demonstrated that, compared with skin fibroblasts, oral mucosal fibroblasts are 'younger', with a more embryonic/fetal-like phenotype that may provide a notable advantage for their ability to repair wounds in a scarless fashion. PMID:19783799

Enoch, S; Wall, I; Peake, M; Davies, L; Farrier, J; Giles, P; Baird, D; Kipling, D; Price, P; Moseley, R; Thomas, D; Stephens, P

2009-10-01

354

Initial selection of oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

A prospective, randomized trial compared client experiences with three popular oral contraceptives--Triphasil, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 and Ortho-Novum 1/35. After one year, no significant relationship was found between the contraceptive prescribed and either breakthrough bleeding or satisfaction with the medication. The monophasic formulation, Ortho-Novum 1/35, was associated with amenorrhea more often. PMID:2352250

Reiter, S L; Baer, L J

1990-05-01

355

Altered haemorheology in oral-contraceptive users.  

PubMed Central

The haemorheological profile of the menstrual cycle was determined in 12 women who did not take oral contraceptives and compared with that in two groups of women (n = 8 and n = 30) who had been taking oral contraceptives for at last six months. Packed cell volume, platelet count, erythrocyte deformability, plasma fibrinogen concentration, and plasma and whole-blood viscosity varied cyclically throughout the menstrual cycle in the 12 non-users. This variation was abolished by the use of oral contraceptives, and the values of these indices were raised by an amount likely to predispose to thrombosis.

Buchan, P C; Macdonald, H N

1980-01-01

356

[Bacteremia of oral origin].  

PubMed

Transient bacteremia from oral cavity related to oral anaerobic bacteria may occur as a result of dental healthcare procedures but also as a result of daily gestures involving the gums (chewing and oral hygiene). The risk of presenting a transient bacteremia is related to oral cavity bacterial load and to the severity of inflammation in the oral cavity. Although bacteremia is transient, in patients with immunodeficiency or comorbidity, this bacteremia may cause extra-oral infections. The bacteremia rate and the identified bacteria vary from one study to the next, depending on the method used to isolate and identify bacteria. Nevertheless, the risk for bacteremia is determined by the infectious and inflammatory conditions of each patient. PMID:21940028

Perez-Chaparro, P J; Meuric, V; De Mello, G; Bonnaure-Mallet, M

2011-09-21

357

Probiotics and oral health  

PubMed Central

Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize their observed effects with respect to oral health.

Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari

2011-01-01

358

Oral Delivery of Taxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low oral bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof orally administered paclitaxel.Additional studies

Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens

2001-01-01

359

Oral microbiota and cancer  

PubMed Central

Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

Meurman, Jukka H.

2010-01-01

360

The Oral History Review, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

361

Changes in gene expression in the frontal cortex of rats with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus after sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Sleep and epilepsy present a bidirectional interaction. Sleep complaints are common in epilepsy, and sleep deprivation may provoke seizures. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD24h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD6h) in the expression of genes related to reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production in the frontal cortex of a rodent model of temporal lobe epilepsy (PILO). The data show that PILO rats had increased NOX-2 expression and decreased SOD expression, independent of sleep. Higher NOX-2 expression was observed only in PILO rats subjected to the control condition and TSD6h. Also, eNOS and DDAH1 were increased in the PILO group submitted to TSD6h. Moreover, CAT expression in the frontal cortex of PILO rats submitted to PSD24h was reduced compared to that of PILO rats that were not sleep-deprived. The molecular changes found in the frontal cortex of PILO rats following sleep deprivation suggest a mechanism via oxidative stress. PMID:23542896

Hirotsu, Camila; Matos, Gabriela; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

2013-03-28

362

Splenocyte cytokine profile in mouse with oral mucosa-sensitization and oral-tolerization by NiSO(4).  

PubMed

Metals used in the oral cavity have been reported to cause various allergic diseases of the skin and mucosa. Skin manifestations due to dental restorations appear not only in the oral cavity, but also on the hands, feet or the whole body, as in the cases of pustulosis palmoplantaris and lichen planus. These phenomena implicate different pathogeneses from that of conventional skin sensitization and tolerance. Therefore, we compared skin and oral mucosa sensitization with nickel and oral tolerance for nickel in a mouse model. Female C57BL/6J mice were sensitized by injection of NiSO(4) into the skin or oral mucosa. Allergic reactions were evaluated by the mouse ear swelling test and splenocyte proliferation and cytokine profiles. Skin and oral mucosa sensitization succeeded in all mice. Ear swelling was significantly greater in the skin- than in the oral mucosa-sensitized mice at 48 hr after challenge. Ear swelling was also suppressed by single oral administration of NiSO(4) in both the skin- and oral mucosa-sensitized mice to the level of that in nonsensitized mice. Splenocytes from skin-sensitized mice proliferated similarly to those from oral mucosa-sensitized mice. Splenocytes from orally-tolerized mice also showed similar proliferation activity to those from skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice. In the challenge phase, IL-2, IFN-?, and IL-10 production was induced in splenocytes from both skin- and oral mucosa-sensitized mice. However, IL-4 was induced only in those from skin-sensitized mice. In addition, IL-4 in splenocytes from oral mucosa-sensitized mice was up-regulated to the level in those from skin-sensitized mice by oral tolerance. These results suggest that sensitization sites in mice influence not only the degree of excitation, but also Th-1 and Th-2 balance in the challenge phase and oral tolerance. PMID:21701121

Fujimoto, Masaru; Ukichi, Kenichirou; Okamura, Taito; Takada, Atsushi; Fukushima, Daihei; Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi

2011-01-01

363

Early deficits in social behavior and cortical rhythms in pilocarpine-induced mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Many patients with epilepsy are afflicted with psychiatric comorbidities including social dysfunction. However, although social deficits have been a major concern in epilepsy treatment, the relationship between social behavioral pathogenesis and the time course of epileptogenesis is not well defined. To address this, we investigated social behavioral alterations and cortical rhythms during two distinct periods in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE): 1) a seizure-free, latent period after status epilepticus and 2) the subsequent, chronic period characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). We found that severe social impairments, such as reduced sociability/social novelty preference, social interaction, social learning, and enhanced defensiveness, appeared during the latent period in mice with TLE. The social dysfunctions in the latent-period mice were nearly comparable to those in the chronic-period mice. We also found that both the latent- and chronic-period mice showed similar aberrant neural activities. They showed enhanced delta-band (1-4 Hz) activity and reduced alpha- (8.5-12 Hz) and gamma-band (30-55 Hz) activity during baseline behavior. Interestingly, concomitant increases in alpha- and gamma-band activities during social behavior, which were characteristic in control mice, were not observed in either latent- or chronic-period mice. Our results indicate that social deficits and abnormal neural activities appear at an earlier stage in epileptogenesis regardless of SRS occurrence. These findings may help to understand behavioral pathogenesis in patients with TLE and at-risk patients with initial insults that develop into TLE. PMID:23220251

Seo, Jinsoo; Jung, Seungmoon; Lee, So-Young; Yang, Hyunwoo; Kim, Byung Sun; Choi, Jiye; Bang, Minji; Shin, Hee-Sup; Jeon, Daejong

2012-12-03

364

Deprivation and oral health: a review.  

PubMed

The link between socioeconomic status and health, including oral health, is well established. The conventional measures of socioeconomic status used in these studies, such as social class and household income, have a number of weaknesses so that alternatives, in the form of area-based measures of deprivation, are increasingly being used. This paper reviews epidemiological research linking deprivation and oral health. Four types of study are identified and described: simple descriptive, comparative, analytic and explanatory. These studies confirm that deprivation indices are sensitive to variations in oral health and oral health behaviours and can be used to identify small areas with high levels of need for dental treatment and oral health promotion services. As such, they are likely to provide a useful administrative tool. In terms of research, the studies demonstrate that these measures provide a ready way of controlling for socioeconomic status in studies examining the association between oral health and other variables. However, this research, in largely replicating previous studies using social class, does not address fundamental issues concerning the mechanisms which link social inequality and health. Deprivation measures have a major role to play in research that examines features of people and places, and how they promote and/or damage both oral and general health. PMID:10830642

Locker, D

2000-06-01

365

Survival of Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of individual species of oral bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the oral environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteria causing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.

G. H. W. Bowden; I. R. Hamilton

1998-01-01

366

Tobacco and Oral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and there is weighty evidence that it has a considerable influence on oral health. Smoking has many negative effects on the mouth, including staining of teeth and dental restorations, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and the development of oral diseases such

Jesper Reibel

2003-01-01

367

Oral mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

Oral keratinocytes and dendritic cells of the oral mucosa, through molecular pattern recognition receptors, distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and mediate the generation of protective immunoinflammatory responses to potentially invading pathogens or mediate immune tolerance toward commensal microorganisms. Oral immune tolerance is the result either of lack of activation of T cells in response to immunogenic presentation of antigens or of suppression of activity of effector T cells by regulatory T cells. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies at oral mucosal sites contribute to oral immunity by limiting colonization of microorganisms and their invasion of the epithelium. Ig isotype class switching to IgA is either dependent on or independent of T helper cells and is facilitated by cytokines secreted by dendritic cells and monocytes. PMID:24119522

Feller, L; Altini, M; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Bouckaert, M; Lemmer, J

2013-11-01

368

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

369

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

370

Oral health in long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an investigation designed to compare extant models of delivering oral health and dental services to the institutionalized elderly revealed that structural variables explained very little of the difference between effective and ineffective programs, secondary analytic techniques were employed to consider alternative explanations. The original study was a program evaluation based on a comparative case study of 12 long-term care

Sally E. Thorne; Arminee Kazanjian; Michael I. MacEntee

2001-01-01

371

Examining the Association between Oral Health and Oral HPV Infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. Cancer Prev Res; 6(9); 917-24. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-08-21

372

'Young' oral fibroblasts are geno/phenotypically distinct.  

PubMed

Wound healing within the oral mucosa results in minimal scar formation compared with wounds within the skin. We have recently demonstrated distinct differences in the aging profiles of cells (oral mucosal and patient-matched skin fibroblasts) isolated from these tissues. We hypothesized that the increased replicative potential of oral mucosal fibroblasts may confer upon them preferential wound-healing capacities. Passage-matched early cultures of oral mucosal fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts demonstrated distinct gene expression profiles, with several genes linked to wound healing/tissue repair. This was related to an increased ability of the 'replicatively younger' oral mucosal fibroblasts to repopulate a wound space and reorganize their surrounding extracellular matrix environment, key activities during the wound-healing process. We conclude that oral mucosal fibroblasts exhibit a preferential healing response in vivo, due to their 'replicatively younger' phenotype when compared with that of patient-matched skin fibroblasts. PMID:21098492

Enoch, S; Peake, M A; Wall, I; Davies, L; Farrier, J; Giles, P; Kipling, D; Price, P; Moseley, R; Thomas, D; Stephens, P

2010-12-01

373

Generic and oral quality of life is affected by oral mucosal diseases  

PubMed Central

Background The generic and oral health-related quality of life (QoL) has provided opportunity for investigation of the interrelations among generic health, oral health, and related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the generic and oral QoL in the patients with oral mucosal disease (OMD). Methods Five hundred and thirty-eight OMDs were recruited in this study. The instruments applied were Chinese version of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) and the short-form of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results The mean score of sum OHIP-14 was significantly higher in the patients with OMD (10.81 ± 9.01) compared with those in the healthy subjects (HS) (6.55 ± 6.73) (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). 56.51% of the OMD patients and 12.94% of the HS reported at least one oral negative impact (p < 0.001, Chi-square test). The overall mean score of SF-36 was significantly lower in the patients with OMD (74.54 ± 12.77) compared with those in the HS (77.97 ± 12.39) (p = 0.021, t-test). Conclusions Administration of specific and generic questionnaires of QoL can provide us a detailed picture of the impact of OMDs on patients, and both generic and oral QoL were impaired in the patients with OMD.

2012-01-01

374

200890_pilocarpine_Clinical_PREA  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to perform a darkroom provocative test ... at the University of Wisconsin and one of its satellite clinics between ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

375

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

... oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or ... inhalation is in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. It works by providing nicotine to your ...

376

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... INCLUDE Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

377

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

378

Rehydration and Maintenance Therapy of Cholera Patients in Jakarta: Citrate-Based Oral Rehydration Salt Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Therapeutic efficacy of a World Health Organization standard bicarbonate based oral rehydration salt solution (BBORS) are compared with a citrate based oral rehydration solution (CBORS) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in 130 dehydrated pat...

S. L. Hoffman M. A. Moechtar C. H. Simanjuntak N. H. Punjabi S. Kumala

1985-01-01

379

Personality and oral health  

PubMed Central

We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry.

Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

380

Validated LC-MS method for simultaneous quantitation of catalpol and harpagide in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and diabetic rats after oral administration of Zeng-Ye-Decoction.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of catalpol and harpagide in normal and diabetic rat plasma. Protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile was carried out using salidroside as the internal standard (IS). The LC separation was performed on an Elite C18 column (150?×?4.6?mm, 5?µm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water within a runtime of 12.0?min. The analytes were detected without endogenous interference in the selected ion monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. Calibration curves offered satisfactory linearity (r?>?0.99) at linear range of 0.05-50.0?µg/mL for catalpol and 0.025-5.0?µg/mL for harpagide with the lower limits of quantitation of 0.05 and 0.025?µg/mL, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were <9.4%, and accuracy (RE) was in the -6.6 to 4.9% range. The extraction efficiencies of catalpol, harpagide and IS were all >76.5% and the matrix effects of the analytes ranged from 86.5 to 106.0%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of catalpol and harpagide after oral administration of Zeng-Ye-Decoction to normal and diabetic rats, respectively. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23754598

Feng, Yukun; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Lunhui; Ju, Ping; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

2013-06-11

381

Eudragit E PO as a Complementary Material for Designing Oral Drug Delivery Systems with Controlled Release Properties: Comparative Evaluation of New Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes with Countercharged Eudragit L100 Copolymers.  

PubMed

The design of new interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between countercharged polymers (Eudragit EPO (EPO) and Eudragit L100 (L100)) was investigated. The formation and chemical composition of three new IPECs between EPO and L100 was established by elemental analysis. The structure and solid state properties of the synthesized IPEC were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and modulated temperatre differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC). The binding ratio of a unit molecule of EPO with L100 was found to range between 1:0.98 (Z = 1.02) and 1:0.50 (Z = 2.00) while increasing the pH from 6.0 to 7.0. As a result of electrostatic interaction between the copolymer chains, the glass transition temperature of the IPEC increased significantly. Considerable pH-sensitive swelling in acidic and neutral media was observed for different type of IPECs. Through evaluation of diffusion-transportation properties of the IPECs, basic mechanisms controlling the delivery of chemically different drugs (diclofenac sodium and theophylline) were obtained. The results of swelling and release of the model drugs from the polycomplex matrices confirm that they have potential to be used in oral controlled drug delivery. PMID:23777284

Moustafine, R I; Bukhovets, A V; Sitenkov, A Y; Kemenova, V A; Rombaut, P; Van den Mooter, G

2013-06-18

382

A 24-Week, Randomized, Treat-to-Target Trial Comparing Initiation of Insulin Glargine Once-Daily With Insulin Detemir Twice-Daily in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Oral Glucose-Lowering Drugs  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether glargine is noninferior to detemir regarding the percentage of patients reaching A1C <7% without symptomatic hypoglycemia ?3.1 mmol/l. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this 24-week trial, 973 insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients on stable oral glucose-lowering drugs with A1C 7.0–10.5% were randomized to glargine once daily or detemir twice daily. Insulin doses were systematically titrated. RESULTS 27.5 and 25.6% of patients reached the primary outcome with glargine and detemir, respectively, demonstrating the noninferiority of glargine. Improvements in A1C were ?1.46 ± 1.09% for glargine and ?1.54 ± 1.11% for detemir (P = 0.149), with similar proportions of patients achieving A1C <7% (P = 0.254) but more detemir-treated patients reaching A1C <6.5% (P = 0.017). Hypoglycemia risk was similar. Weight gain was higher for glargine (difference: 0.77 kg, P < 0.001). Glargine doses were lower than detemir doses: 43.5 ± 29.0 vs. 76.5 ± 50.5 units/day (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients, glargine reached similar control as detemir, with more weight gain, but required significantly lower doses.

Swinnen, Sanne G.; Dain, Marie-Paule; Aronson, Ronnie; Davies, Melanie; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.; Snoek, Frank J.; DeVries, J. Hans; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Holleman, Frits

2010-01-01

383

Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens.  

PubMed

Production of immunospecific egg yolk antibodies (IgY antibodies) in egg laying hens through oral immunization is an attractive alternative to conventional antibody production in mammals for economic reasons as well as for animal welfare reasons. Oral immunization results in a systemic humoral response, but oral booster immunizations lack efficiency. The aim of the present study was to develop immunization schemes in which the concentration of immunospecific IgY would increase following oral booster immunizations. Two groups of egg laying hens (5 in each group) were immunized orally (each immunization event consisted of dosing on three consecutive days) with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in combination with RhinoVax (RV) using different immunization schemes. A 3rd group served as a reference and received BSA emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) by subcutaneous injection three times and one oral dose with BSA+RV. The eggs of the chickens in this group had a significantly higher immunospecific anti BSA IgY-concentration than did any of the eggs from the orally immunized chickens. One of the immunization regimes (immunizations in weeks 1, 7 and 18) clearly included a booster effect of the immunization in week 18, demonstrating the presence of memory cells following the two initial oral immunizations. Considering that oral immunization results in approximately ten times lower concentrations of immunospecific antibodies in the egg yolk, compared to traditional subcutaneous immunization schemes, the oral immunization routines have to be further refined to compete with parenteral immunization protocols. PMID:19109968

Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea; Royo, Felix; Hau, Jann

2008-12-25

384

Accuracy of recall of histories of oral contraceptive use  

PubMed Central

Published retrospective studies of the relationship between the use of oral contraceptives and disease have assumed that women are able to recall their oral contraceptive histories with reasonable accuracy. The validity of this assumption has been investigated by comparing oral contraceptive histories obtained from 75 women attending family planning clinics with the information contained in the clinic records. It is concluded that simple measures of oral contraceptive use, such as whether the preparations have ever or never been used, whether they are in current use, and the total duration of use, are likely to be remembered with adequate accuracy.

Glass, Roger; Johnson, Bridget; Vessey, Martin

1974-01-01

385

Oral versus intravenous rehydration therapy in severe gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled, randomised trial comparing the results of oral rehydration therapy with those of intravenous fluid treatment in 470 children with severe gastroenteritis was undertaken. The oral rehydration therapy was divided into two phases--a rehydration phase that used high sodium isotonic fluid at 40 ml\\/kg per hour and a maintenance phase using low sodium isotonic fluid (sodium 40, potassium 30,

J Sharifi; F Ghavami; Z Nowrouzi; B Fouladvand; M Malek; M Rezaeian; M Emami

1985-01-01

386

Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the benzodiazepine–oral contraceptive interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedative, psychomotor, and memory effects of single oral doses of alprazolam (ALP), lorazepam (LOR), temazepam (TMP), and triazolam (TRZ) were evaluated in women taking oral contraceptives (OCs) and a comparable group of control women. Nine women taking OCs and 11 control women took doses of 1 mg ALP and 2 mg LOR and 10 OC users and 10 control

Patricia D Kroboth; Randall B Smith; Gary P Stoehr; Randy P Juhl

1985-01-01

387

Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost.

Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

2011-01-01

388

Clearance and Metabolism of Starch Foods in the Oral Cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth

Harald A. B. Linke; Lucia H. Birkenfeld

1999-01-01

389

Benefits and Risks of Third-Generation Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risks and benefits of third-generation oral contraceptives. DATA SOURCES A medlinesearch was done for English language articles published from 1985 through 1998 relating to the side-effect profile of third-generation oral contraceptives or their association with cardiovascular or thromboembolic disease. All articles containing original data were included. DATA SYNTHESIS The risk of venous thromboembolism appears to be 1.5- to 2.7-fold greater in users of third-generation, compared with second-generation, oral contraceptives. Compared with nonusers, women who use third-generation oral contraceptives may have a 4.8- to 9.4-fold greater risk of venous thromboembolism. Users of third-generation oral contraceptives do not appear to have an increased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonusers and may have risk of myocardial infarction of 0.26 to 0.7 compared with second-generation users. Whether third-generation oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased stroke risk is still not clear. CONCLUSIONS Although third-generation oral contraceptives most likely increase a user's risk of venous thromboembolism, their improved side-effect profile and their possible decreased association with myocardial infarction and stroke may make them a useful new class of oral contraceptives for most women except those at increased risk of venous thrombosis.

LeBlanc, Erin S; Laws, Ami

1999-01-01

390

A Multicenter, Randomized Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous and\\/or Oral Levofloxacin versus Ceftriaxone and\\/or Cefuroxime Axetil in Treatment of Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

posttherapy was superior for the levofloxacin group (96%) compared with the ceftriaxone and\\/or cefuroxime axetil group (90%) (95% confidence interval (CI) of 210.7 to 21.3). Among patients with typical respira- tory pathogens who were evaluable for microbiological efficacy, the overall bacteriologic eradication rates were superior for levofloxacin (98%) compared with the ceftriaxone and\\/or cefuroxime axetil group (85%) (95% CI of

JOHN SEGRETI; LALA DUNBAR; RICHARD KOHLER; R. REX WILLIAMS; CLARE KOJAK; ARKADY RUBIN; R. W. Johnson

1997-01-01

391

The implications of Phenylketonuria on oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the oral health of children with PKU and to assess, in vitro, the erosive potential of 5 amino acid supplements commonly prescribed in the manage- ment of these children. Methods: Forty children with phenylketonuria underwent a full dental examination and were compared with an age and sex matched control group. The erosive potential

Nicky M. Kilpatrick; Halimah Awang; Bridget Wilcken; John Christodoulou

1999-01-01

392

Oral heparin: status review  

PubMed Central

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

393

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

394

Discoloration of provisional restorations after oral rinses.  

PubMed

Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic(®)) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II(®), Luxatemp(®) and Fill-In(®)) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (?E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). A* values were found to be significantly higher with oral rinses (p<0.05), except Protemp II immersed in benzydamine HCl or alcohol-containing mouthwash. Conclusions: The type of the oral rinse did not affect the discoloration process. For long-term esthetic results, choosing MMA-based materials for provisional restorations appears to be more effective. PMID:24046524

Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, K?vanç Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

2013-08-30

395

Oral and perioral candidosis.  

PubMed

The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

1994-06-01

396

Oral myiasis in children.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

2012-04-01

397

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions.

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

398

Oral myiasis in children  

PubMed Central

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

2012-01-01

399

Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin.  

PubMed Central

Colera toxin was evaluated as an oral immunogen against experimental canine cholera. Dogs were immunized orally with 100-microgram doses of purified cholera toxin or comparable doses of crude toxin. Both doses caused moderate diarrhea in most nonimmune dogs. Repeated oral doses (12 doses in 54 days) gave marked protection against the diarrheal effect of oral toxin, provoked a vigorous antitoxic response in jejunal mucosa, and gave nearly complete protection against subsequent oral challenge with living virulent Vibrio cholerae. Protection appeared to be due largely to the antitoxic response in intestinal mucosa. The effectiveness of cholera toxin as an oral vaccine contrasts with the previously described ineffectiveness of toxoid given orally. This study provides an example of mucosal immunity due to a nonreplicating vaccine given orally and suggests that cholera toxin may be useful as a component of an oral vaccine for cholera. Images Fig. 2

Pierce, N F; Cray, W C; Engel, P F

1980-01-01

400

Oral Crohn's disease: is it a separable disease from orofacial granulomatosis? A review.  

PubMed

Symptomatic oral Crohn's disease is comparatively rare. The relationship between orofacial granulomatosis, (where there is granulomatous inflammation and ulceration of the mouth in the absence of gastrointestinal disease) and true oral Crohn's disease is discussed along with the plethora of clinical oral disease presentations associated with both disorders and the differential diagnosis of oral ulceration in patients presenting to a gastroenterological clinic. Specific oral syndromes are outlined including the association between oral manifestations in Crohn's disease and the pattern of intestinal disease and their relationship to other recorded extraintestinal manifestations. The histological and immunological features of oral biopsies are considered as well as the principles of management of symptomatic oral disease. At present, it is suggested that both orofacial granulomatosis and oral Crohn's disease appear to be distinct clinical disorders. PMID:22325167

Zbar, Andrew P; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Beer-Gabel, Marc; Eliakim, Rami

2011-08-09