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1

Enhanced pilocarpine-induced oral activity responses in neonatal 6-OHDA treated rats.  

PubMed

Neonatal destruction of rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers results in an enhanced oral activity response to both dopamine (DA) D1 and serotonin (5-HT) agonists. Because cholinergic systems represent another one of the neural circuits involved in oral behavior, it was of interest to determine whether muscarinic receptors might also be sensitized in the lesioned rats. At 3 days after birth, rats were pretreated with desipramine HCl (20 mg/kg, IP) 1 h before 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) HBr (100 micrograms in each lateral ventricle) or saline-ascorbic acid (0.1%) vehicle. Between 2 and 4 months, behavioral supersensitivity to a D1 agonist (SK&F 38393) and 5-HT agonist (m-chlorophenylpiperazine; m-CPP) was established before rats were challenged with the muscarinic receptor agonist, pilocarpine HCl (0.125 to 10.0 mg/kg, IP). The pilocarpine dose-effect curve was shifted to the left, with a maximal effect of 63.7 +/- 8.6 oral movements being produced by a 1.0 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl dose in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats, versus 15.0 +/- 2.4 oral movements in the control group (p < 0.001). The enhanced response to pilocarpine was attenuated by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine HCl (0.1 mg/kg IP). These findings indicate that neonatal 6-OHDA treatment produces supersensitization of muscarinic receptors in rats. PMID:8332633

Kostrzewa, R M; Neely, D

1993-07-01

2

A multicenter maintenance study of oral pilocarpine tablets for radiation-induced xerostomia.  

PubMed

Two hundred sixty-five patients with head and neck cancer who had previously participated in either a fixed-dose, dose-titration, or dose-ranging trial of oral pilocarpine hydrochloride tablets were enrolled in a 36-month multicenter maintenance study to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia. In this open-label study, the initial drug dose was 5.0 mg tid, with possible adjustments from 2.5 to 10.0 mg tid or bid. Efficacy was evaluated by subjective measures of oral function. Safety evaluations were based on self-report of symptoms (or of adverse effects), various examinations, and laboratory tests. There was significant improvement in all criteria of oral function. Sweating was the most frequent adverse experience (55%). Less frequent side effects, mild to moderate in nature, included increased urinary frequency, lacrimation, and rhinitis. Side effects usually diminished within hours after the cessation of therapy. We conclude that oral pilocarpine at these doses effectively and safely reduces the symptoms of radiation-induced xerostomia. PMID:8723429

Jacobs, C D; van der Pas, M

1996-03-01

3

Pilocarpine Ophthalmic  

MedlinePLUS

Ophthalmic pilocarpine is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can ... Ophthalmic pilocarpine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and as an eye gel ...

4

s-IgA and cytokine levels in whole saliva of Sjögren's syndrome patients before and after oral pilocarpine hydrochloride administration: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Previous investigations have found elevated levels of s-IgA in the parotid saliva and normal levels in submandibular saliva of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Fox et al. also found elevated levels of cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IL-6) in serum, salivary epithelial cells and parotid saliva of patients with SS. The oral administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride stimulates whole and parotid salivary flow. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of s-IgA and IL-2 and IL-6 in whole saliva before and after administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride in SS subjects. Ten definitively diagnosed SS subjects were enrolled in the study, as were ten controls (C). The mean age was 57.2 years and all subjects were female. Whole unstimulated saliva (WUS) was collected by standard techniques for 5 min, after which the volume and flow rate were determined (mean WUS: SS = 0.047 vs C = 0.480 ml/min). Samples were centrifuged and the immunoglobulin analysis performed on the supernatants by immunoreactivity in a double-sandwich technique as previously described by Rudney et al. Cytokine analysis was performed similarly utilizing commercially available kits from R&D Systems. The results as analyzed by pairwise t-tests revealed comparable levels of s-IgA in the saliva of the SS patients, as compared to controls at baseline (means +/- SEM: SS-IgA = 348.1 +/- 82.0 vs C-IgA = 284.0 +/- 65.1 micrograms/ml; NS). Whole salivary flow was significantly increased (328%) in the SS subject group 60 min after the administration of 5 mg pilocarpine hydrochloride (means +/- SEM: 0.0472 +/- 0.017 vs 0.1546 +/- 0.054 ml/min; P < 0.01). There was no significant change in the concentration of s-IgA in the SS subject group following the pilocarpine dose (means +/- SEM: SS-IgA = 439.9 +/- 121.2 microliters/ml; P = NS). There were elevated levels of IL-2 in the saliva of four out of the ten and IL-6 in two out of the ten SS patients, as compared to controls (means +/- SEM: SS-IL-2 = 127.8 +/- 11.4 vs C-IL-2 = 30.8 +/- 1.6 pg/ml and SS-IL-6 = 41.4 +/- 7.1 vs C-11.6 +/- 2.8 pg/ml). There was also a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-2 in the same four out of ten SS subjects following the pilocarpine dose (means +/- SEM: SS-IL-2 = 32.4 +/- 10.3; P < 0.01). These preliminary results indicate that s-IgA levels do not change with increased salivary flow following the administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. While cytokines are elevated in the whole saliva of some SS patients, a decrease in IL-2 concentration may occur with increased salivary flow. PMID:10388393

Rhodus, N; Dahmer, L; Lindemann, K; Rudney, J; Mathur, A; Bereuter, J

1998-12-01

5

sIgA and cytokine levels in whole saliva of Sjögren's syndrome patients before and after oral pilocarpine hydrochloride administration: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations have found elevated levels of s-IgA in the parotid saliva and normal levels in submandibular saliva\\u000a of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Fox et al. also found elevated levels of cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IL-6) in serum,\\u000a salivary epithelial cells and parotid saliva of patients with SS. The oral administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride stimulates\\u000a whole and parotid salivary

Nelson Rhodus; Lisa Dahmer; Karen Lindemann; Joel Rudney; Ambika Mathur; Janna Bereuter

1998-01-01

6

The pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Understanding the pathophysiogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) largely rests on the use of models of status epilepticus (SE), as in the case of the pilocarpine model. The main features of TLE are: (i) epileptic foci in the limbic system; (ii) an “initial precipitating injury”; (iii) the so-called “latent period”; and (iv) the presence of hippocampal sclerosis leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. Many of these characteristics can be reproduced in rodents by systemic injection of pilocarpine; in this animal model, SE is followed by a latent period and later by the appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). These processes are, however, influenced by experimental conditions such as rodent species, strain, gender, age, doses and routes of pilocarpine administration, as well as combinations with other drugs administered before and/or after SE. In the attempt to limit these sources of variability, we evaluated the methodological procedures used by several investigators in the pilocarpine model; in particular, we have focused on the behavioural, electrophysiological and histopathological findings obtained with different protocols. We addressed the various experimental approaches published to date, by comparing mortality rates, onset of SRSs, neuronal damage, and network reorganization. Based on the evidence reviewed here, we propose that the pilocarpine model can be a valuable tool to investigate the mechanisms involved in TLE, and even more so when standardized to reduce mortality at the time of pilocarpine injection, differences in latent period duration, variability in the lesion extent, and SRS frequency.

Curia, Giulia; Longo, Daniela; Biagini, Giuseppe; Jones, Roland S.G.; Avoli, Massimo

2008-01-01

7

Effect of Androsterone after Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Neurosteroids exert their antiepileptic effects via GABAA and NMDA receptors. Another cell death mechanism is excessive Ca2+ influx into cells. Calbindin-D28k (CB) is a protein that modulates intracellular Ca2+ in the nervous system. We evaluated whether androsterone up-regulates the expression of CB and has a neuroprotective effect by controlling Ca2+ after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in mice. Methods: SE was induced in ICR mice by injection of pilocarpine. Two hours after SE, mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with androsterone (100–200 mg/kg) or vehicle, and compared with other control groups. Two days after injection, immunohistochemical staining for CB was performed using a hippocampal slice from each mice group. We also used cresyl violet staining to compare changes in hippocampal structures. Results: Two days after pilocarpine-induced SE, androsterone increased the expression of CB in the hippocampus compared with control SE mice. The number of CB-positive cells was 1±0.4 cells/mm3 in pilocarpine-only group, 14±1.1 cells/mm3 in pilocarpine plus androsterone 100 mg group and 29±2.5 cells/mm3 in pilocarpine plus androsterone 200 mg group (p<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of androsterone after pilocarpine- induced SE may be mediated by an increased expression of CB.

Cho, Inja; Cho, Yang-Je; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Heo, Kyung; Lee, Byung-In; Kim, Won-Joo

2014-01-01

8

Design and evaluation of novel fast forming pilocarpine-loaded ocular hydrogels for sustained pharmacological response  

PubMed Central

Fast forming hydrogels prepared by crosslinking a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based copolymer containing multiple thiol (SH) groups were evaluated for the controlled ocular delivery of pilocarpine and subsequent pupillary constriction. Physical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometry, and swelling kinetics. Pilocarpine loading efficiency and release properties were measured in simulated tear fluid. The hydrogel formulations exhibited high drug loading efficiency (~74%). Pilocarpine release was found to be biphasic with release half times of ~2 and 94 h, respectively, and 85–100% of the drug was released over 8-days. Pilocarpine-loaded (2% w/v) hydrogels were evaluated in a rabbit model and compared to a similar dose of drug in aqueous solution. The hydrogels were retained in the eye for the entire period of the study with no observed irritation. Pilocarpine-loaded hydrogels sustained pupillary constriction for 24 h after administration as compared to 3 h for the solution, an 8-fold increase in duration of action. A strong correlation between pilocarpine release and pupillary response was observed. In conclusion, the current studies demonstrate that in situ forming PEG hydrogels possess the viscoelastic, retention, and sustained delivery properties required for an efficient ocular drug delivery system.

Anumolu, SivaNaga S.; Singh, Yashveer; Gao, Dayuan; Stein, Stanley; Sinko, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

9

?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1 mg/kg) 30 min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20 mmol/kg), 15 min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline. Pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) was then administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. Mice were monitored for 2 h after pilocarpine injection, and seizure behavior grades were evaluated according to Racine's scale. All mice developed typical seizure behaviors of grade 3 or higher. Although the severity in terms of seizure behavior grade was not significantly different between groups, the mean (±SD) latency to the onset of seizure was significantly prolonged in BHB-treated mice (5.15±2.19 min) compared with controls (2.95±1.06 min; p<0.001). This study demonstrates that treatment with BHB significantly prolongs the latency to the onset of seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice and suggests that BHB, one of the ketone bodies, may be direct anticonvulsant. PMID:21723679

Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook

2012-03-01

10

ACUTE INDUCTION OF EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGES BY PILOCARPINE IN THE IN VITRO ISOLATED GUINEA-PIG BRAIN REQUIRES ENHANCEMENT OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER PERMEABILITY  

PubMed Central

Systemic application of the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine, is commonly utilized to induce an acute status epilepticus that evolves into a chronic epileptic condition characterized by spontaneous seizures. Recent findings suggest that the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine may be triggered by changes in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. We tested the role of the BBB in an acute pilocarpine model by using the in vitro model brain preparation and compared our finding with in vivo data. Arterial perfusion of the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain with <1 mM pilocarpine did not cause epileptiform activity, but rather reduced synaptic transmission and induced steady fast (20–25 Hz) oscillatory activity in limbic cortices. These effects were reversibly blocked by co-perfusion of the muscarinic antagonist atropine sulfate (5 ?M). Brain pilocarpine measurements in vivo and in vitro suggested modest BBB penetration. Pilocarpine induced epileptiform discharges only when perfused with compounds that enhance BBB permeability, such as bradykinin (n=2) or histamine (n=10). This pro-epileptic effect was abolished when the BBB-impermeable muscarinic antagonist atropine methyl bromide (5 ?M) was co-perfused with histamine and pilocarpine. In the absence of BBB permeability enhancing drugs, pilocarpine induced epileptiform activity only after arterial perfusion at concentrations >10 mM. Ictal discharges correlated with a high intracerebral pilocarpine concentration measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. We propose that acute epileptiform discharges induced by pilocarpine treatment in the in vitro isolated brain preparation are mediated by a dose-dependent, atropine-sensitive muscarinic effect promoted by an increase in BBB permeability. Pilocarpine accumulation secondary to BBB permeability changes may contribute to in vivo ictogenesis in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.

UVA, L.; LIBRIZZI, L.; MARCHI, N.; NOE, F.; BONGIOVANNI, R.; VEZZANI, A.; JANIGRO, D.; DE CURTIS, M.

2008-01-01

11

Pilocarpine  

MedlinePLUS

... dry mouth caused by radiotherapy in people with head and neck cancer and to treat dry mouth in people ... mouth caused by radiotherapy in people who have head and neck cancer, it is usually taken three times a ...

12

Pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity with increased BNDF and neuropeptide Y expression in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.  

PubMed

Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were treated with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine to study induced seizure-like activity and changes in neurotrophin and neuropeptide expression. For establishment of a seizure-inducing protocol, 2-week-old cultures derived from 6-8-day-old rats were exposed to 0.1 mM to 5 mM of pilocarpine for 4 h to 7 days. Other cultures were treated with pilocarpine for 7 days and left for 7-14 days in normal medium. Age-matched, non-treated cultures served as controls. Intracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells revealed increased spontaneous activity in 31 of 35 cultures superfused with 0.1 or 5 mM pilocarpine. Epileptiform discharges were recorded in 17 of the 31 cultures, and 19 displayed frequencies specifically in the 6-12-Hz (Theta rhythm) range when superfused with pilocarpine. The pilocarpine effect was blocked by simultaneous superfusion with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (100 microM). Regardless of dose and exposure time, the pilocarpine treatment induced very limited neuronal cell death, recorded as cellular propidium iodide uptake. Cultures exposed to 5 mM pilocarpine for up to 7 days displayed increased BDNF expression when analyzed by Western blot and ELISA. This BDNF increase correlated with increased neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity, known to accompany seizure activity. Addition of BDNF (200 ng/ml) to otherwise untreated cultures also upregulated NPY expression. The pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity in hippocampal slice cultures, with concomitant increase in BDNF and NPY expression, is compared with in vivo observations and discussed in terms of the potential use of the easily accessible slice cultures in experimental seizure research. PMID:12231234

Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Jahnsen, Henrik; Blaabjerg, Morten; Zimmer, Jens

2002-09-20

13

Comparative Study of Expression of Smad3 in Oral Lichen Planus and Normal Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa which is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a premalignant condition. One step in malignant development is so called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics. A factor known to induce EMT is the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), which uses the Smad proteins as mediators for its signaling. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of Smad 3 in Oral Lichen Planus and normal oral mucosa. This descriptive analytic study was performed on 30 patients with OLP (21 women and 9 men with mean age of 45.23± 2.44 years) and 20 normal oral mucosa (14 women and 6 men with mean age of 46.95± 2.21 years). The samples were studied by immunohistochemical staining. Data were analyzed with paired T-test and Wilcoxon test by SPSS software. Expression of Smad3 in OLP samples and normal oral mucosa was different. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The apparently higher expression of Smad 3 in oral lichen planus compared to normal oral mucosa might help to discuss its higher potential for malignant transition.

Nafarzadeh, Shima; Ejtehadi, Samad; Amini Shakib, Pouyan; Fereidooni, Majid; Bijani, Ali

2013-01-01

14

A Phase III Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Pilocarpine for Vaginal Dryness: NCCTG study N04CA1  

PubMed Central

Purpose Vaginal dryness is a common problem, for which effective and safe non-estrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, to a placebo. Vaginal dryness was recorded by patient-completed questionnaires at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks after study initiation. The primary endpoint for this study was the area under the curve (AUC) summary statistic comprised of the longitudinal responses obtained at baseline and through the six weeks of treatment to a numerical analogue scale asking patients to rate their perceived amount of vaginal dryness. The primary analysis was carried out by a single t-test using a two-sided alternative to compare the collective pilocarpine treatment arms versus the collective placebo arms. Results A total of 201 patients enrolled in this trial. The primary analysis, comparing vaginal dryness symptoms in the collective pilocarpine arms against the placebo arm, did not reveal any benefit for the pilocarpine treatment. This finding was confirmed by other secondary analyses. Toxicity evaluation revealed more nausea, sweating, rigors, and urinary frequency with the pilocarpine arms compared to the placebo arm. Conclusion Pilocarpine did not alleviate vaginal dryness.

Loprinzi, Charles L.; Balcueva, Ernie P.; Liu, Heshan; Sloan, Jeff A.; Kottschade, Lisa A.; Stella, Philip J.; Carlson, Mark D.; Moore, Dennis F.; Zon, Robin T.; Levitt, Ralph; Jaslowski, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

15

Seizure susceptibility in intact and ovariectomized female rats treated with the convulsant pilocarpine.  

PubMed

Despite numerous neuroendocrinological studies of seizures, the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures and epilepsy remains unclear. This may be due to the fact that previous studies have not systematically compared distinct endocrine conditions and included all relevant controls. The goal of the present study was to conduct such a study using pilocarpine as chemoconvulsant. Thus, age and weight-matched, intact or ovariectomized rats were tested to determine incidence of status epilepticus and to study events leading to status. Intact female rats were sampled at each cycle stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus 2). Convulsant was administered at the same time of day, 10:00-10:30 a.m. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significantly lower incidence of status on the morning of estrus, but differences were attenuated in older animals. Ovariectomized rats were distinct in their rapid progression to status. These results show that the incidence of status in female rats following pilocarpine injection, and the progression to pilocarpine-induced status, are influenced by reproductive state as well as age. The hormonal milieu present specifically on the morning of estrus appears to decrease susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced status, particularly at young ages. In contrast, the chronic absence of reproductive steroids that characterizes the ovariectomized rat leads to a more rapid progression to status. This dissociation between incidence vs. progression provides new insight into the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures. PMID:16084511

Scharfman, Helen E; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Rigoulot, Marie-Aude; Berger, Russell E; Walling, Susan G; Mercurio, Thomas C; Stormes, Kerry; Maclusky, Neil J

2005-11-01

16

Comparative Effectiveness of Instructional Methods: Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Examination  

PubMed Central

This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students’ baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p < 0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

Clark, Nereyda P.; Marks, John G.; Sandow, Pamela R.; Seleski, Christine E.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2014-01-01

17

Oral Microflora: A Comparative Study in HIV and Normal Patients.  

PubMed

The study was designed to compare the oral microbiota in normal and HIV-infected individuals. The study tries to establish a significant shift in oral microflora in HIV-infected patients. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed to establish any rise in resistance against the antibiotics. It was a two and half year prospective study conducted in a tertiary care centre. The study group consisted of eighty subjects divided into two groups of control and HIV. The age range for this group was 9-75 years. The mean age in this group was 39.7 years. The male:female ratio was 2.75:1. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection in patients with HIV infection. The most common commensal micro organism isolated was the Viridans streptococci in 60% followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae in 23.33%. HIV Group: The most common commensal micro organism isolated was the Viridans streptococci in 42%; this was followed by the Micrococci spp. in 22% cases. S. pneumoniae was isolated in 6% of cases. The colony count for Viridans streptococci showed a heavy growth in 55.56% of cases in controls whereas the same in HIV group was 62.5%. Micrococcus spp. was isolated from 11 subjects in HIV group while it was not isolated from the controls. 50% subjects in the HIV group showed a heavy growth of Klebsiella spp. whereas controls showed only moderate and scanty growth. In patients with CD4+ T cell count less than 50 cells/?l we found a heavy colonization of the oral cavity with Micrococcus spp., Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Viridans streptococcus was not isolated in any of the patients with CD4+ T cell count less than 50 cells/?l. As CD4+ T cells counts improved to 51-100 cells/?l Viridans streptococcus colonies returned and 37.5% patients showed a heavy growth. Micrococcus spp. colonies were isolated till the CD4+ T cells improved up to 300 cells/?l. At counts > 300 cells/?l the oral microbiota became comparable to that of the controls. Many of the opportunistic infections in HIV are caused by commensal bacteria which are otherwise harmless in a normal individual. Our study is unique in that such a study of the oral commensals in HIV patients has never been reported. We found an increased colonization of the oral cavity by Micrococcus spp. which is a normal commensal of the skin. PMID:24533371

Hegde, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Abhijit; Bhat, Gopalkrishna; Sreedharan, Suja

2014-01-01

18

The effectiveness of combined oral lysine acetylsalicylate and metoclopramide compared with oral sumatriptan for migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAspirin is commonly used to treat migraine attacks, although sumatriptan, a much more expensive treatment, is also effective.We compared a combination of lysine acetylsalicylate (equivalent to 900 mg aspirin) and 10 mg metoclopramide (LAS+MTC) with oral sumatriptan (100 mg) and placebo in 421 patients with migraine. LAS+MTC was as effective as sumatriptan with a decrease of headache from severe or

P Tfelt-Hansen; P Henry; L. J Mulder; R. G Scheldewaert; J Schoenen; G Chazot

1995-01-01

19

Evidences for pharmacokinetic interaction of riluzole and topiramate with pilocarpine in pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effectiveness of two antiepileptic drugs: riluzole and topiramate against pilocarpine-induced seizures, which are considered to be a model of intractable epilepsy commonly used to investigate the antiepileptic effect of drugs and mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Seizures and status epilepticus were induced by pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats. Riluzole (1-4mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally before pilocarpine dose-dependently protected rats against seizures with the anticonvulsant ED(50) value (50% effective anticonvulsant dose) of 1.8 (1.3-2.6)mg/kg. In contrast, riluzole at 8 and 12mg/kg administered after the onset of pilocarpine-induced seizures affected neither status epilepticus nor mortality of rats. Topiramate significantly enhanced convulsive action of pilocarpine, lowering the convulsant CD(50) value (50% effective convulsant dose) of pilocarpine from 350.8 (329.2-373.8) to 246.4 (218.6-278.2)mg/kg. Riluzole (4mg/kg) lowered plasma and brain concentration of pilocarpine administered at a dose of 400mg/kg from 168.0+/-8.6 to 75.3+/-19.9microg/ml and from 193.7+/-6.6 to 97.0+/-26.1microg/g, respectively. Topiramate (200mg/kg) increased plasma and brain concentration of pilocarpine administered at a dose of 300mg/kg from 78.1+/-2.9 to 106.0+/-6.8microg/ml and from 138.4+/-5.0 to 155.2+/-5.1microg/g, respectively. It seems that both anticonvulsant effect exerted by riluzole and proconvulsant effect exerted by topiramate in pilocarpine model of seizures are due to a pharmacokinetic interaction. Therefore, we postulate that the concentration of pilocarpine should be measured routinely whenever the anticonvulsant effect of drugs is determined in the pilocarpine model of seizures. PMID:20015615

Zgrajka, Wojciech; Nieoczym, Dorota; Czuczwar, Miros?aw; Ki?, Jacek; Brzana, Wojciech; Wla?, Piotr; Turski, Waldemar A

2010-02-01

20

Efficacy of fish liver oil and propolis as neuroprotective agents in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with valproate.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate the action of fish liver oil and propolis in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with the anticonvulsant drug valproate. Methods: Seven groups of rats were treated daily for six months: control; fish liver oil (0.4ml/kg b.w); propolis (50mg/kg b.w); pilocarpine-treated rats (epileptic control); epileptic rats treated with valproate (400mg/kg b.w); groups 6 and 7, epileptic rats treated with valproate plus fish liver oil or propolis. Results: Pilocarpine administration caused a significant increase in hippocampal dopamine and serotonin levels accompanied with a significant decrease in their levels in serum. Lipid peroxidation level and LDH activity in hippocampus were significantly increased after pilocarpine treatment whereas Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and total antioxidant capacity were significantly decreased compared to the controls. Animals treated with the combined treatments showed a significant improvement in tested parameters towards the normal values of the control. Conclusion: Fish liver oil and propolis when given in combination with valproate, neuroprotected against the neurophysiological disorders induced by pilocarpine epilepsy in rats. PMID:21621986

Mannaa, Fathia; El-Shamy, Karima A; El-Shaikh, Kamal A; El-Kassaby, Mahitab

2011-09-01

21

Pilocarpine-induced flare is physiological rather than pathological.  

PubMed

An elevated aqueous humor protein level (aka flare) has always been considered to represent a pathological breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB), regardless of the etiology. Recent studies in humans, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to directly observe BAB kinetics in the posterior chamber of the human eye in-vivo, showed that pilocarpine-induced flare resulting from administration of a single drop of pilocarpine is not the result of breakdown of the BAB in the ciliary body. These MRI studies could not confirm whether pilocarpine caused an increase in iris vascular permeability. In the current studies we completed combined cell-flare meter and intravascular tracer studies, using intravenous horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in rabbits. One hour after receiving 3% pilocarpine in one eye, pupil size significantly decreased and aqueous flare significantly increased in pilocarpine-treated eyes. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated no leakage across either the iris vascular endothelium or the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium in either pilocarpine-treated or control eyes. One animal received HRP directly after pilocarpine to control for a transient increase in permeability before the peak flare response occurred. No leakage was found in the ciliary body or iris of this animal. Additional animals received topical pilocarpine in one eye but after 1 h they were sacrificed without tracer studies. Uveal tissues from these animals were used to assess the distribution of non-HRP protein in the ocular anterior segment and to assess the amount of elutable protein in the iris stromas of both treated and untreated eyes. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of a reservoir of protein in the iris stroma. Analysis of elutable total protein from the iris stroma of pilocarpine-treated and control eyes showed significantly less total elutable protein in pilocarpine-treated eyes. Eyes with the greatest percent change in pupil size (i.e. the strongest miosis) correlated with lowest amounts of residual protein in the iris stroma. The tracer studies confirmed recent MRI studies in humans showing that the source of pilocarpine-induced flare is not disruption of the ciliary epithelial barrier. Extending this work, the current studies also showed no pilocarpine-induced leakage from the iris vasculature. The elutable protein experiments suggested that a primary source of pilocarpine-induced flare was extrusion of a portion of the reservoir of protein in the iris stroma. Taken together, these studies strongly suggest that not all clinically observable flare results from breakdown of the BAB. PMID:23187102

Freddo, Thomas F; Neville, Nathan; Gong, Haiyan

2013-02-01

22

Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia  

PubMed Central

Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ?0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated.

Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

2011-01-01

23

Chronic intermittent hypoxic preconditioning suppresses pilocarpine-induced seizures and associated hippocampal neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Mild brief hypoxia can protect against neuronal damage induced by epileptic seizures, at least in part by inhibiting apoptosis. Further elucidation of the antiepileptic mechanisms and optimization of the conditioning protocols are required before this strategy can be considered for clinical intervention. In this study, we compared the effects of different hypoxic preconditioning protocols on spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), and apoptosis rate following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) or chronic intermittent normobaric hypoxia (CINH) (both for 6h/day×28 consecutive days) prior to pilocarpine-induced SE. The possible anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of CIHH and CINH were compared by video monitoring of behavioral seizure activity (frequency, delay), Nissl staining and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining to examine changes in the morphology of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and flow cytometry to detect the quantification of [Ca(2+)]i and cell apoptosis. Both hypoxic preconditioning protocols reduced the frequency and severity of SRS, suppressed post-ictal [Ca(2+)]i elevations, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in the rat hippocampus compared to pilocarpine alone, but CIHH was more effective than CINH. Thus, mild hypoxic pretreatment, particularly when delivered as CIHH, may be a novel strategy for the clinical prevention and treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24680745

Zhen, Jun-Li; Wang, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Qu, Zhen-Zhen; Fang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Ran-Ran; Lu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Chao; Zang, Hong-Min

2014-05-14

24

Prenatal stress potentiates pilocarpine-induced epileptic behaviors in infant rats both time and sex dependently.  

PubMed

Stressful events during gestation have important effects on the later physical and mental health of the offspring. In the study described here, the pilocarpine-induced seizure model was used to test the hypothesis that prenatal stress affects seizure susceptibility in infant rats. Prenatal stress consisted of daily restraint of the dam under normal room conditions (for 120minutes, twice daily) during the first, second, and third weeks of gestation. The pups were then compared with pups born to unstressed dams. Both second- and third-week-gestation stress significantly reduced pilocarpine-induced seizures in 19-day-old rat offspring, as compared with nonstressed control offspring. Mid- and late-gestation stress increased the rate and time of tonic-clonic seizures. Mortality rate 2 and 24hours after pilocarpine administration increased significantly in all stressed rats. Stress induced a significant rise in circulating corticosterone levels (2- to 8-fold, P<0.001) in the offspring. Female offspring differed little from male offspring with respect to blood corticosterone levels and epileptic behaviors. These findings indicate that prenatal stress, particularly during the second and third weeks of pregnancy, may play an important role in increasing seizure vulnerability in the unborn offspring. Female rats are more resistant to stress than males probably because of the lower susceptibility of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:20483668

Sadaghiani, Mahzad Mehrzad; Saboory, Ehsan

2010-07-01

25

Comparative efficacy of oral dexamethasone versus oral prednisone in acute pediatric asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to determine whether 2 days of oral dexamethasone (DEX) is more effective than 5 days of oral prednisone\\/prednisolone (PRED) in improving symptoms and preventing relapse in children with acute asthma. Study design: This was a prospective randomized trial of children (2 to 18 years old) who presented to the emergency department with acute asthma. PRED 2

Faiqa Qureshi; Arno Zaritsky; Michael P. Poirier

2001-01-01

26

Consequences of pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures in neonatal rats.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence have shown that a series of morphological alternations occur in patients with epilepsy and in different epileptic animal models. Given most of animal model studies have been focused on adulthood stage, the effect of recurrent seizures to immature brain in neonatal period has not been well established. This study was designed to observe the certain morphological changes following recurrent seizures occurred in the neonatal rats. For seizure induction, neonatal Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with pilocarpine on postnatal day 1 (P1), P4 and P7. Rat pups were grouped and sacrificed at 1d, 7d, 14d and 42d after the last pilocarpine injection respectively. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was intraperitoneally administered 36h before the rats were sacrificed. BrdU single and double labeling with neuronal markers were used to analyze cell proliferation and differentiation. Nissl and Timm staining were performed to evaluate cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Rats with neonatal seizures had a significant reduction in the number of Bromodeoxyuridine-(BrdU) labeled cells in the dentate gyrus compared with the control groups when the animals were killed either 1 or 7 days after the third seizure (P<0.05) but there was no difference between two groups on P21. On the contrary, BrdU-labeled cells significantly increased in the experimental group compared with control group on P49 (P<0.05). The majority of the BrdU-labeled cells colocalized with neuronal marker-NF200 (Neurofilament-200). Nissl staining showed that there was no obvious neuronal loss after seizure induction over all different time points. Rats with the survival time of 42 days after neonatal seizures developed to increased mossy fiber sprouting in both the CA3 region and supragranular zone of the dentate gyrus compared with the control groups (P<0.05). Taken together, the present findings suggest that synaptic reorganization only occurs at the later time point following recurrent seizures in neonatal rats, and neonatal recurrent seizures can modulate neurogenesis oppositely over different time window with a down-regulation at early time and up-regulation afterwards. PMID:17008043

Xiu-Yu, Shi; Ruo-Peng, Sun; Ji-Wen, Wang

2007-04-01

27

Acute and chronic responses to the convulsant pilocarpine in DBA/2J and A/J mice.  

PubMed

Characterizing the responses of different mouse strains to experimentally-induced seizures can provide clues to the genes that are responsible for seizure susceptibility, and factors that contribute to epilepsy. This approach is optimal when sequenced mouse strains are available. Therefore, we compared two sequenced strains, DBA/2J (DBA) and A/J. These strains were compared using the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine, because pilocarpine induces status epilepticus, a state of severe, prolonged seizures. In addition, pilocarpine-induced status is followed by changes in the brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Therefore, pilocarpine can be used to address susceptibility to severe seizures, as well as genes that could be relevant to TLE. A/J mice had a higher incidence of status, but a longer latency to status than DBA mice. DBA mice exhibited more hippocampal pyramidal cell damage. DBA mice developed more ectopic granule cells in the hilus, a result of aberrant migration of granule cells born after status. DBA mice experienced sudden death in the weeks following status, while A/J mice exhibited the most sudden death in the initial hour after pilocarpine administration. The results support previous studies of strain differences based on responses to convulsants. They suggest caution in studies of seizure susceptibility that are based only on incidence or latency. In addition, the results provide new insight into the strain-specific characteristics of DBA and A/J mice. A/J mice provide a potential resource to examine the progression to status. The DBA mouse may be valuable to clarify genes regulating other seizure-associated phenomena, such as seizure-induced neurogenesis and sudden death. PMID:17904758

Winawer, M R; Makarenko, N; McCloskey, D P; Hintz, T M; Nair, N; Palmer, A A; Scharfman, H E

2007-10-26

28

Prevention of oral mucositis in paediatric patients treated with chemotherapy; a randomised crossover trial comparing two protocols of oral care.  

PubMed

This study compared the efficacy of two protocols for oral care using either chlorhexidine or benzydamine as oral rinses to alleviate mucositis in children undergoing chemotherapy. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either protocol for 3 weeks in a two-period crossover design. The occurrence of ulcerative lesions and severity of mucositis were measured at baseline and twice weekly, using the modified Oral Assessment Guide (OAG). Data were continuously analysed by plotting them directly on predefined sequential charts. According to this sequential analysis, the study could be terminated at the 34th within subject comparison, with a statistically significant reduction in ulcerative lesions (P<0.05) and severity of mucositis (P<0.05) in children on the chlorhexidine protocol. These findings suggest that chlorhexidine together with oral care might be helpful in alleviating mucositis when given prophylactically to children on chemotherapy, but the therapeutic benefit needs to be confirmed in a larger trial. PMID:15110885

Cheng, K K F; Chang, A M; Yuen, M P

2004-05-01

29

Comparative Study of Oral Isotretinoin Versus Oral Isotretinoin + 20% Salicylic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Active Acne  

PubMed Central

Background: Acne is a self limiting condition that often results in scarring and disfigurement disproportionate to its clinical severity. Isotretinoin is considered the gold standard in the medical management of severe form of acne vulgaris. Salicyclic acid (SA) peels, a ?- hydroxy acid peel has got sebosuppressive effect and helps in faster resolution of acne with minimal scarring. It also decreases the post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Combining both the modalities is usually not advocated because of expected excessive dryness and irritation Aims: To compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin and oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: 60 consecutive patients with moderate to severe facial acne attending the skin department were randomized in to 2 groups. 1st group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily for 16 weeks and 2nd group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily along with 20% SA peels every two weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons Acne severity index (MASI).Right and left sides of the face were scored separately and total score was taken. Severity score was assessed monthly .Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation every month. Patients were asked to follow up once every 2 weeks or earlier in case of any adverse events. Results: Patients in both the groups revealed a reduction in the number of lesions. The 1st group showed a reduction of approximately 73.4% after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin for 16 weeks. The 2nd group showed a reduction of approximately 92.5 % after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin along with 20% SA peel once every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Conclusion: Both oral isotretinoin and combination of oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels once every 2 weeks are effective in treating moderate to severe acne but the combination showed significantly better clearance of acne than monotherapy with isotretinoin.

Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sanjita; Panda, Maitreyee

2013-01-01

30

Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: a study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p?compared to 1% of dentists (p?oral health behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists.

2014-01-01

31

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

32

Comparative in vivo evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride after oral and transdermal administration in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was the in vivo evaluation of orally and transdermally administered propranolol hydrochloride in rabbits. Transdermal patches of propranolol hydrochloride (PPN) were formulated employing ethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone as film formers. The pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) performance of PPN following transdermal administration was compared with that of oral administration. This study was carried out in

P Rama Rao; M. Narender Reddy; Sistla Ramakrishna; Prakash V Diwan

2003-01-01

33

Anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of 3-alkynyl selenophene in 21-day-old rats on pilocarpine model of seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the anticonvulsant effect of 3-alkynyl selenophene (3-ASP) on pilocarpine (PC)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures and mortality in 21-day-old rats. Rats were pretreated by oral route (p.o.) with 3-ASP (10, 25 and 50mg\\/kg) before intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of PC (400mg\\/kg), PTZ (80mg\\/kg) or KA (45mg\\/kg). 3-ASP increased the latency to the seizure onset on PTZ

Ethel A. Wilhelm; Cristiano R. Jesse; Cristiani F. Bortolatto; Cristina W. Nogueira; Lucielli Savegnago

2009-01-01

34

Comparative in vivo evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride after oral and transdermal administration in rabbits.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was the in vivo evaluation of orally and transdermally administered propranolol hydrochloride in rabbits. Transdermal patches of propranolol hydrochloride (PPN) were formulated employing ethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone as film formers. The pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) performance of PPN following transdermal administration was compared with that of oral administration. This study was carried out in a randomized cross-over design in male New Zealand albino rabbits. The PK parameters such as maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), time for peak plasma concentration (t(max)), mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC(0-alpha)) were significantly (P<0.01) different following transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of transdermally delivered PPN was found to be similar to that following oral administration. In contrast to oral delivery, a sustained therapeutic activity was observed over a period of 24 h after transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The relative bioavailability of PPN was increased about fivefold to sixfold after transdermal administration as compared to oral delivery. This may be due to the avoidance of first pass effect of PPN. The sustained therapeutic activity was due to the controlled release of drug into systemic circulation following transdermal administration. PMID:12837485

Rao, P Rama; Reddy, M Narender; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Diwan, Prakash V

2003-07-01

35

Temporally unstructured electrical stimulation to the amygdala suppresses behavioral chronic seizures of the pilocarpine animal model.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation applied to the basolateral amygdala in the pentylenetetrazole animal model of seizures may result in either a proconvulsant or an anticonvulsant effect depending on the interpulse intervals used: periodic or nonperiodic, respectively. We tested the effect of this electrical stimulation temporal coding on the spontaneous and recurrent behavioral seizures produced in the chronic phase of the pilocarpine animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, an experimental protocol that better mimics the human condition. After 45days of the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, male Wistar rats were submitted to a surgical procedure for the implantation of a bipolar electrical stimulation electrode in the right basolateral amygdala and were allowed to recover for seven days. The animals were then placed in a glass box, and their behaviors were recorded daily on DVD for 6h for 4 consecutive days (control period). Spontaneous recurrent behavioral seizures when showed in animals were further recorded for an extra 4-day period (treatment period), under periodic or nonperiodic electrical stimulation. The number, duration, and severity of seizures (according to the modified Racine's scale) during treatment were compared with those during the control period. The nonperiodically stimulated group displayed a significantly reduced total number and duration of seizures. There was no difference between control and treatment periods for the periodically stimulated group. Results corroborate previous findings from our group showing that nonperiodic electrical stimulation has a robust anticonvulsant property. In addition, results from the pilocarpine animal model further strengthen nonperiodic electrical stimulation as a valid therapeutic approach in current medical practice. Our working hypothesis is that temporally unstructured electrical stimulation may wield its effect by desynchronizing neural networks involved in the ictogenic process. PMID:24935084

de Oliveira, Jasiara Carla; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Cota, Vinícius Rosa

2014-07-01

36

Behavioral changes resulting from the administration of cycloheximide in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Cycloheximide influences synaptic reorganization resulting from pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). To investigate the possible behavioral consequences of this effect, we subjected animals to pilocarpine-induced SE either in the absence (Pilo group) or presence of cycloheximide (Chx group). Animals were further divided regarding the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Two months after SE induction animals were exposed to different behavioral tests. Age-matched naďve animals were used as controls. All epileptic groups showed a significantly diminished freezing time in contextual and tone fear conditioning, performed poorly in the Morris water maze and present less seconds in immobility position as compared to controls. Only Pilo animals explored more extensively the open arms of the elevated plus maze and showed increased in horizontal exploratory activity in the open field as compared to controls. With the exception of Pilo animals without recorded SRS, all other groups had extensive tissue shrinkage in central nucleus of the amygdala as compared to controls. Cycloheximide-treated animals differed from Pilo animals in the extent of hilar loss and supragranular mossy fiber sprouting as well as tissue shrinkage in the dorsal hippocampus. Despite the histological differences seen in the dorsal hippocampus between experimental groups, no differences were encountered in the cognitive tests used to evaluate dorsal hippocampal function. The encountered histological differences between Chx and Pilo animals, however, might underlie the different emotional responses between the two groups. PMID:16343452

Dos Santos, Jair Guilherme; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro; Blanco, Mirian Marcela; Menezes de Oliveira, Maria Gabriela; Mello, Luíz Eugęnio

2005-12-20

37

Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis currently involves intravenous antibiotic administration. To test the possibility of treating spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with oral antibiotics, oral ofloxacin was compared with intravenous cefotaxime in this infection. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three cirrhotics with uncomplicated spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (no septic shock, grade II-IV hepatic encephalopathy, serum creatinine level of > 3 mg\\/dL, and

M Navasa; A Follo; JM Llovet; G Clemente; V Vargas; A Rimola; F Marco; C Guarner; M Forne; R Planas; R Banares; L Castells; MT Jimenez De Anta; V Arroyo; J Rodes

1996-01-01

38

Hippocampal Desynchronization of Functional Connectivity Prior to the Onset of Status Epilepticus in Pilocarpine-Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

Status epilepticus (SE), a pro-epileptogenic brain insult in rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy, is successfully induced by pilocarpine in some, but not all, rats. This study aimed to identify characteristic alterations within the hippocampal neural network prior to the onset of SE. Sixteen microwire electrodes were implanted into the left hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After a 7-day recovery period, animal behavior, hippocampal neuronal ensemble activities, and local field potentials (LFP) were recorded before and after an intra-peritoneal injection of pilocarpine (350 mg/kg). The single-neuron firing, population neuronal correlation, and coincident firing between neurons were compared between SE (n?=?9) and nonSE rats (n?=?12). A significant decrease in the strength of functional connectivity prior to the onset of SE, as measured by changes in coincident spike timing between pairs of hippocampal neurons, was exclusively found in SE rats. However, single-neuron firing and LFP profiles did not show a significant difference between SE and nonSE rats. These results suggest that desynchronization in the functional circuitry of the hippocampus, likely associated with a change in synaptic strength, may serve as an electrophysiological marker prior to SE in pilocarpine-treated rats.

Wang, Chi-Han; Hung, Chou P.; Chen, Ming-Teh; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Yang

2012-01-01

39

Oral Rinse as a Simpler Approach to Exfoliative Cytology: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral rinse is a novel method that can be used to detect dysplasia in potentially malignant disorders and malignant oral lesions in resource challenged areas. A study was undertaken to compare the quality of the normal smears prepared with the oral rinse and that of the wooden tongue spatula. Material and Methods: One hundred five normal subjects were selected for the study. Two smears were prepared from clinically normal mucosa using an oral rinse and further two smears were scraped from clinically normal buccal mucosa using a wooden spatula. Statistical Analysis: The smears were graded for cell yield, dispersion and cellular clarity on a three-point scale by two observers. The results were analyzed using Mann Whitney non parametric test. Results: The Oral rinse was found to be significantly more efficient than the wooden spatula, in terms of cell yield (p<0.0001), cell dispersion (p =.0052) and cellular detail (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The study showed that the Oral rinse is an effective method for use in exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa.

Mulki, Shaila; Shetty, Pushparaj; Pai, Prakash

2013-01-01

40

Comparative Study of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Induction of Labour, Maternal and Foetal Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally.

Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya

2013-01-01

41

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex. Participants The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Methods The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed. Results Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE.

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette

2012-01-01

42

Comparative analysis of different oral approaches to treat Vibrio cholerae infection in adult mice.  

PubMed

In this study, we have established an oral phage cocktail therapy in adult mice model and also performed a comparative analysis between phage cocktail, antibiotic and oral rehydration treatment for orally developed Vibrio cholerae infection. Four groups of mice were orally infected with Vibrio cholerae MAK 757 strain. Phage cocktail and antibiotic treated groups received 1×10(8) plaque forming unit/ml (once a daily) and 40mg/kg (once a daily) as an oral dose respectively for consecutive three days after bacterial infection. In case of oral rehydration group, the solution was supplied after bacterial infection mixed with the drinking water. To evaluate the better and safer approach of treatment, tissue and serum samples were collected. Here, phage cocktail treated mice reduced the log10 numbers of colony per gram by 3log10 (p<0.05); however, ciprofloxacin treated mice reduced the viable numbers up to 5log10 (p<0.05). Whereas, the oral rehydration solution application was not able to reduce the viable bacterial count but the disease progress was much more diminished (p>0.05). Besides, it was evident that antibiotic and phage cocktail treated group had a gradual decrease in both IL-6 and TNF-? level for 3 days (p<0.05) but the scenario was totally opposite in bacterial control and oral hydration treated group. Histological examinations also endorsed the phage cocktail and ciprofloxacin treatment in mice. Although, in this murine model of cholera ciprofloxacin was found to be a better antimicrobial agent, but from the safety and specificity point of view, a better method of application could fill the bridge and advances the phages as a valuable agent in treating Vibrio cholerae infection. PMID:24656386

Jaiswal, Abhishek; Koley, Hemanta; Mitra, Soma; Saha, Dhira Rani; Sarkar, Banwarilal

2014-05-01

43

Effects of beta-blockers association with pilocarpine on rabbit intraocular pressure and heart rate.  

PubMed

The effect of 7-days BID (twice in a day) or TID (three times in a day) administration of the eye-drop combinations of timolol and pilocarpine (0.5% and 2%, respectively), metipranolol and pilocarpine (0.1% and 2%, respectively) or placebo on intraocular pressure (IOP) and heart rate (HR) of conscious rabbits were studied in order to assess the pharmacological potency of the combinations and their heart side effects. TID administration of both pharmacological combinations was followed by similar decrease of IOP as measured over 24 h (at 4.00 and 20.00 h). After the BID administration, a reduction in IOP was observed only twice with the timolol-pilocarpine combination. In contrast, a constant reduction in IOP was seen with the metipranolol-pilocarpine combination. Furthermore, the TID administration of the timolol-pilocarpine combination exerted a decrease of IOP that appeared to be more pronounced than that observed after the BID administration of the same combination, while no difference was found between the TID and BID administration of the metipranolol-pilocarpine treatment. Heart rate, when measured after 7 days of treatment, appeared to be constantly decreased only in the group of animals which received the TID administration of timolol-pilocarpine combination. The present results suggest that the BID or TID administration of metipranolol-pilocarpine combination was fully effective in reducing IOP without influencing HR. The timolol-pilocarpine association appeared to be fully active in reducing IOP only under the TID administration schedule. However, this rate of administration was followed by a constant reduction of HR. Thus, on a dose basis the metipranolol-pilocarpine combination appeared to be more effective in reducing IOP and less effective in inducing bradycardia than the timolol-pilocarpine association. PMID:9264045

Drago, F; Emmi, I; Marino, V

1997-04-01

44

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

45

Comparative clinical pharmacokinetics of single doses of sumatriptan following subcutaneous, oral, rectal and intranasal administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sumatriptan, a 5-HT1 receptor agonist active for the acute treatment of migraine, is currently available as subcutaneous injection and oral tablets. Rectal or intranasal formulations may offer advantages over those marketed. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan via all four routes. Usual absorption parameters were described and the rate of absorption was assessed using deconvolution technics. There were no

C Duquesnoy; J. P Mamet; D Sumner; E Fuseau

1998-01-01

46

Oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease: a comparative safety study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent concerns have been raised about the risk of gallbladder disease associated with the use of drospirenone, a fourth-generation progestin used in oral contraceptives. We conducted a study to determine the magnitude of this risk compared with other formulations of oral contraceptives. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database. We included women who were using an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol combined with a progestin during 1997–2009. To be eligible, women had to have been taking the oral contraceptive continuously for at least six months. We computed adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for gallbladder disease using a Cox proportional hazards model. In the primary analysis, gallbladder disease was defined as cholecystectomy; in a secondary analysis, it was defined as hospital admission secondary to gallbladder disease. Results We included 2 721 014 women in the cohort, 27 087 of whom underwent surgical or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the follow-up period. Compared with levonorgestrel, an older second-generation progestin, a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease was associated with desogestrel (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.09), drospirenone (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.16–1.26) and norethindrone (adjusted RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14). No statistically significant increase in risk was associated with the other formulations of oral contraceptive (ethynodiol diacetate, norgestrel and norgestimate). Interpretation In a large cohort of women using oral contraceptives, we found a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease associated with desogestrel, drospirenone and norethindrone compared with levonorgestrel. However, the small effect sizes compounded with the possibility of residual biases in this observational study make it unlikely that these differences are clinically significant.

Etminan, Mahyar; Delaney, Joseph A.C.; Bressler, Brian; Brophy, James M.

2011-01-01

47

Formulation Development, Evaluation and Comparative Study of Effects of Super Disintegrants in Cefixime Oral Disintegrating Tablets  

PubMed Central

The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate.

Remya, KS; Beena, P; Bijesh, PV; Sheeba, A

2010-01-01

48

Nucleotide excision repair is reduced in oral epithelial tissues compared to skin‡  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to internal tissues for diagnostic, therapeutic and cosmetic procedures has increased dramatically over the past decade. The greatest increase in UVR exposure of internal tissues occurs in the cosmetic industry where it is combined with oxidizing agents for teeth whitening, often in conjunction with indoor tanning. To address potential carcinogenic risks of these procedures, we analyzed the formation and repair of the DNA photoproducts associated with the signature mutations of UVR. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify the induction and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts in DNA purified from three reconstructed tissues, EpiDerm™, EpiGingival™, and EpiOral™ (MatTek Corp.). We observed comparable levels of DNA damage in all tissues immediately after UVR exposure. In contrast, repair was significantly reduced in both oral tissues compared to EpiDerm™. Our data suggest that UVR exposure of oral tissues can result in accumulation of DNA damage and increase the risk for carcinoma and melanoma of the mouth. Because NER is a broad-spectrum defense against DNA damage caused by a variety of agents in addition to UVR, our data suggest that the relatively low NER efficiency observed in oral tissues may have wide-ranging consequences in this highly exposed environment.

Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Godar, Dianne

2012-01-01

49

Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective

Nicolas M Furiak; Haya Ascher-Svanum; Robert W Klein; Lee J Smolen; Anthony H Lawson; Robert R Conley; Steven D Culler

2009-01-01

50

A Retrospective Comparative Study of 2-Drug Oral and Intramuscular Cephalosporin Treatment Regimens for Pharyngeal Gonorrhea  

PubMed Central

Background.?The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for pharyngeal gonorrhea treatment recommend dual therapy with intramuscular ceftriaxone and either azithromycin or doxycycline. Few clinical data exist to support this recommendation. Methods.?We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with pharyngeal gonorrhea during 1993–2011, at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, Washington, and compared the proportion of repeat positive tests for pharyngeal gonorrhea 7–180 days following treatment among persons receiving different drug regimens. Associations of treatment regimens were assessed using relative risks through Poisson regression models with log link and robust standard errors. Results.?A total of 1440 cases of pharyngeal gonorrhea were diagnosed during the study period, 25% of which (n = 360) underwent retesting. Among retested patients, the risk of repeat positive test was lowest among persons receiving an oral cephalosporin and azithromycin (7%, reference group), and highest among those receiving an oral cephalosporin alone (30%; relative risk [RR], 3.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70–9.36) or in combination with doxycycline (33%; RR, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.64–10.7). The risk of repeat test positivity did not significantly differ between persons treated with an oral cephalosporin and azithromycin and those treated with ceftriaxone alone (9.1%; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, .18–3.60) or ceftriaxone combined with azithromycin or doxycycline (11.3%; RR, 1.20; 95% CI, .43–3.33). Conclusions.?In this retrospective study, dual therapy with an oral third-generation cephalosporin and azithromycin was comparable to ceftriaxone-based regimens in the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhea. Combination oral therapy with doxycycline was associated with an elevated risk of persistent or recurrent infection.

Barbee, Lindley A.; Kerani, Roxanne P.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Soge, Olusegun O.; Golden, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

51

Management of oral submucous fibrosis by two different drug regimens: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition of the oral mucosa. Existing treatments give only temporary symptomatic relief. Colchicine is an ancient drug with anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. We planned to study the effects of colchicine in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty OSF patients were divided randomly into two groups and treated for 12 weeks. Group 1-Patients were administered tablet colchicine orally, 0.5 mg twice daily and 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hyaluronidase 1,500 IU into each buccal mucosa once a week. Group 2-Patients were administered 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hyaluronidase 1,500 IU and 0.5 ml intralesional injection Hydrocortisone acetate 25 mg/ml in each buccal mucosa once a week alternatively. Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare pre and post treatment results. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Thirty-three percent in group 1 got relief from burning sensation in the second week. Inter group comparisons of increase in mouth opening and reduction in histological parameters indicated that group 1 patients responded better than group 2. Conclusion: These encouraging results should prompt further clinical trials with colchicine alone on a larger sample size to broaden the therapeutic usefulness of the drug in the management of OSF.

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Khan, Mubeen

2013-01-01

52

A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Pilocarpine for Vaginal Dryness: North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study N04CA ? † ? This study was conducted as a collaborative trial of the North Central Cancer Treatment Group and Mayo Clinic and was supported in part by Public Health Service Grants CA25224, CA37404, CA35195, CA63848, CA63849, CA35431, CA37417, CA35113, CA52352, CA35103, CA35119, CA35267, and CA35269. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health. † Additional participating institutions: Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois (Kendrith M. Rowland Jr, MD); Illinois Oncology Research Assn. CCOP, Peoria, Illinois (John W. Kugler, MD); Columbus CCOP, Columbus, Ohio (J. Philip Kuebler, MD, PhD); Grand Rapids Clinical Oncology Program, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Martin Bury, MD); Montana Cancer Consortium, Bi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal dryness is a common problem for which effective and safe nonestrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, with a placebo. Vaginal dryness

Charles L. Loprinzi; Ernie P. Balcueva; Heshan Liu; Jeff A. Sloan; Lisa A. Kottschade; Philip J. Stella; Mark D. Carlson; Dennis F. Moore; Robin T. Zon; Ralph Levitt; Anthony J. Jaslowski

2011-01-01

53

Oral sumatriptan compared with placebo in the acute treatment of migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multicentre, doubleblind, parallel-group study compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral sumatriptan, given as a new film-coated tablet, with placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Patients were randomised unequally (1:2) to receive placebo or sumatriptan. Eighty-eight patients received placebo (plus an optional dose 2 h later if the headache persisted plus a further optional dose for recurrence

Giuseppe Nappi; Federigo Sicuteri; Margaret Byrne; Maurizio Roncolato; Oriana Zerbini

1994-01-01

54

A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene practices, oral health status, and behavior between graduate and post-graduate dentists of North India: An epidemiological survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study was carried out to compare oral hygiene practices, oral health status and behavior of graduate and postgraduate dentists of North India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 727 dentists (446 graduate i.e., Group A and 281 post graduate i.e., Group B) through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire covered oral hygiene regimen, adverse oral habits, information regarding dental visits and dental treatment. Results: Results showed less than adequate oral hygiene practices among both the groups with more so in the graduate group (P ? 0.05). Very few dentists in both the groups reported any adverse oral habit. A more positive (P ? 0.05) attitude towards regular dental check up and dental treatment was seen in post-graduate dentists when compared to graduates. Conclusion: Very few dentists in both the groups followed ideal dental hygiene regimen. Dentists are the role models for the society as far as oral health is concerned; hence they need to be more responsible and lay more stress on their daily regimen and improve the scenario.

Singh, Maan Surinder; Tuli, Aaswin Kaur

2013-01-01

55

Relative bioavailability and comparative clinical efficacy of different ivermectin oral formulations in lambs  

PubMed Central

Background Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy among oral formulations routinely used in sheep. The main goal of the work reported here was to perform a pharmaco-parasitological assessment of three different IVM oral formulations in lambs infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The comparative drug systemic exposure (IVM plasma concentrations) and nematodicidal efficacies (clinical efficacy) in lambs were determined for a reference (RF) and two different test (T1, T2) IVM oral formulations. One hundred and fifty six (n= 156) healthy Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into four experimental groups (n=39). Animals in each group received treatment (200 ?g/kg) with either the RF, one of the test IVM formulations or were kept as untreated control. Blood samples were collected over 15 days post-treatment (n=8). The IVM plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) (n=39) and evaluation of the clinical efficacy were performed at day 14 post-treatment (n=6), where a predominance of IVM highly resistant nematodes was observed. Results and conclusions Neither the overall kinetic behaviour nor the IVM systemic exposure differed among all the tested oral formulations. Equivalent efficacy results were obtained for the different preparations, with an evident therapeutic failure to control Haemonchus spp. and Teladorsagia circumcincta, which correlates with a high degree of nematode resistance to IVM.

2013-01-01

56

The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

2000-01-01

57

Randomised clinical trial comparing oral versus depot formulations of zuclopenthixol in patients with schizophrenia and previous violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether the depot formulation of an antipsychotic reduces violence in outpatients with schizophrenia as compared to oral administration of the same antipsychotic.Methods. – Forty-six previously violent patients with schizophrenia were randomised to receive treatment with oral or depot zuclopenthixol for 1 year. Clinicians interviewed patients at baseline and every month

C. Arango; I. Bombín; T. González-Salvador; I. García-Cabeza; J. Bobes

2006-01-01

58

Salivary Flow Induction by Buccal Permucosal Pilocarpine in Anesthetized Beagle Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether permucosal delivery of pilocarpine nitrate could be used to elicit significant salivary secretion. Pilocarpine (pKa 6.6 at 37°C) was applied as solutions (pHs 5.6, 6.6, 7.6; 15 mg\\/mL) to the buccal mucosa (2.8 cm2) of 6 anesthetized dogs. Saliva was collected continuously from cannulated submandibular and parotid ducts and blood sampled during and after drug administration. Plasma

M. L. Weaver; J. M. Tanzer; P. A. Kramer

1992-01-01

59

Restoration of brain myo -inositol levels in rats increases latency to lithium-pilocarpine seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium pretreatment in rats potentiates the epileptogenic effects of pilocarpine and other cholinergic agonists. In order to determine if this effect of lithium could be reversed bymyo-inositol, rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections ofmyo-inositol, artificial CSF orl-chiro-inositol. Lithium chloride, 3 meq\\/kg was administered intraperitoneally 20–24 h prior to the subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine 20 or 30 mg\\/kg. In both

O. Kofman; W. R. Sherman; V. Katz; R. H. Belmaker

1993-01-01

60

Comparative absorption, distribution, and excretion of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration  

PubMed Central

Background The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated. Methods Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sample was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results TiO2 nanoparticles had extremely low absorption, while ZnO nanoparticles had higher absorption and a clear dose-response curve. Tissue distribution data showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were not significantly increased in sampled organs, even in the group receiving the highest dose (1041.5 mg/kg body weight). In contrast, Zn concentrations in the liver and kidney were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control. ZnO nanoparticles in the spleen and brain were minimally increased. Ti concentrations were not significantly increased in the urine, while Zn levels were significantly increased in the urine, again with a clear dose-response curve. Very high concentrations of Ti were detected in the feces, while much less Zn was detected in the feces. Conclusions Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated higher absorption and more extensive organ distribution when administered orally. The higher absorption of ZnO than TiO2 nanoparticles might be due to the higher dissolution rate in acidic gastric fluid, although more thorough studies are needed.

2013-01-01

61

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) dose of 10?mg?kg?1?bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(?)) and mean residence time (MRT) were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot) in renal damaged ducks (0.20?L?kg?1?h?1) was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41?L?kg?1?h?1). Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax) was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax) of 2.47 and 2.05?h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el)) at a significant slower rate (3.94?h) in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89?h). The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10?mg?kg?1?bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.

Soliman, Ahmed

2014-01-01

62

Experimental Basis for the High Oral Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin 1: A Comparative Study of DSP  

PubMed Central

Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues, dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2), are lipophilic and heat-stable marine toxins produced by dinoflagellates, which can accumulate in filter-feeding bivalves. These toxins cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans shortly after the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Studies carried out in mice indicated that DSP poisonous are toxic towards experimental animals with a lethal oral dose 2–10 times higher than the intraperitoneal (i.p.) lethal dose. The focus of this work was to study the absorption of OA, DTX1 and DTX2 through the human gut barrier using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we compared cytotoxicity parameters. Our data revealed that cellular viability was not compromised by toxin concentrations up to 1 ?M for 72 h. Okadaic acid and DTX2 induced no significant damage; nevertheless, DTX1 was able to disrupt the integrity of Caco-2 monolayers at concentrations above 50 nM. In addition, confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that the tight-junction protein, occludin, was affected by DTX1. Permeability assays revealed that only DTX1 was able to significantly cross the intestinal epithelium at concentrations above 100 nM. These data suggest a higher oral toxicity of DTX1 compared to OA and DTX2.

Fernandez, Diego A.; Louzao, M. Carmen; Fraga, Maria; Vilarino, Natalia; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

2014-01-01

63

Protective but Not Anticonvulsant Effects of Ghrelin and JMV-1843 in the Pilocarpine Model of Status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

In models of status epilepticus ghrelin displays neuroprotective effects mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). This activity may be explained by anticonvulsant properties that, however, are controversial. We further investigated neuroprotection and the effects on seizures by comparing ghrelin with a more effective GHS-R1a agonist, JMV-1843. Rats were treated either with ghrelin, JMV-1843 or saline 10 min before pilocarpine, which was used to induce status epilepticus. Status epilepticus, developed in all rats, was attenuated by diazepam. No differences were observed among the various groups in the characteristics of pilocarpine-induced seizures. In saline group the area of lesion, characterized by lack of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, was of 0.45±0.07 mm2 in the hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and was accompanied by upregulation of laminin immunostaining, and by increased endothelin-1 expression. Both ghrelin (P<0.05) and JMV-1843 (P<0.01) were able to reduce the area of loss in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining. In addition, JMV-1843 counteracted (P<0.05) the changes in laminin and endothelin-1 expression, both increased in ghrelin-treated rats. JMV-1843 was able to ameliorate neuronal survival in the hilus of dentate gyrus and medial entorhinal cortex layer III (P<0.05 vs saline and ghrelin groups). These results demonstrate diverse protective effects of growth hormone secretagogues in rats exposed to status epilepticus.

Lucchi, Chiara; Curia, Giulia; Vinet, Jonathan; Gualtieri, Fabio; Bresciani, Elena; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Biagini, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

64

Brain mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and glutamate level reduction in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice  

PubMed Central

Although certain metabolic characteristics such as interictal glucose hypometabolism are well established for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of brain metabolism in a mouse model of TLE, induced by pilocarpine–status epilepticus (SE). To investigate glucose metabolism, we injected mice 3.5–4 weeks after SE with [1,2-13C]glucose before microwave fixation of the head. Using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantified metabolites and 13C labeling in extracts of cortex and hippocampal formation (HF). Hippocampal levels of glutamate, glutathione and alanine were decreased in pilocarpine–SE mice compared with controls. Moreover, the contents of N-acetyl aspartate, succinate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) NAD(P)H were decreased in HF indicating impairment of mitochondrial function. In addition, the reduction in 13C enrichment of hippocampal citrate and malate suggests decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover in this region. In cortex, we found reduced 13C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate via the pyruvate carboxylation and pyruvate dehydrogenation pathways, suggesting slower turnover of these amino acids and/or the TCA cycle. In conclusion, mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and altered amino-acid metabolism is found in both cortex and HF in this epilepsy model.

Smeland, Olav B; Hadera, Mussie G; McDonald, Tanya S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

2013-01-01

65

Lipoic acid blocks seizures induced by pilocarpine via increases in ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase and Na +, K +ATPase activity in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the effects of lipoic acid (LA) on ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase (?-ALA-D) and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rat brain after seizures induction by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group), lipoic acid (10mg\\/kg, i.p., LA group), pilocarpine (400mg\\/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group), or the combination of LA (10mg\\/kg, i.p.) with pilocarpine (400mg\\/kg, i.p.),

Ítala Mônica de Sales Santos; Adriana da Rocha Tomé; Chistiane Mendes Feitosa; Geane Felix de Souza; Dejiang Feng; Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas; Joaquín Jordán

2010-01-01

66

Comparing Three Methods of Practicing Reading to Reduce Errors in Oral Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that reading in unison, reading silently, and reading orally to partners were all successful in reducing oral reading errors in primary school students, but that unison and silent reading were more effective at error reduction than was reading orally to partners. (FL)

Cox, Ruth Matz; Shrigley, Robert L.

1980-01-01

67

Comparing the effects of low-dose contraceptive pills to control dysfunctional uterine bleeding by oral and vaginal methods  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective : Contraceptive pills are generally taken orally and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hypertension. The vaginal use of these pills can reduce such complications. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and side effects of low dose contraceptive pills by oral and vaginal route in the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding-(DUB) Methods: This comparative observational study was conducted at Beheshti and Alzahra (SA) teaching hospitals, affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011. One hundred women who presented with DUB were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number, receiving the low dose oral contraceptive pills by oral or vaginal route for three month. The amount and duration of bleeding were compared at the beginning and at the end of the study and side effects by these two methods compared. Results: The results of this study showed that both oral and vaginal routes effectively reduced the duration and amount of bleeding due to DUB after three courses of treatment. This effect was better in the vaginal method compared with oral administration (P = 0.03). Regarding the side effects, nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in the oral group than in the vaginal group (P = 0.03). Vulvovaginitis infection was more frequent in the vaginal group than in the oral group (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Low dose contraceptive pills are effective in reducing the amount, time, and duration of bleeding in patients with DUB. In addition, reduction of gastrointestinal side effects by vaginal route helps to use these pills by the patient with proper training of physicians, midwives and patients.

Mehrabian, Ferdous; Abbassi, Fariba

2013-01-01

68

Comparing the effects of low-dose contraceptive pills to control dysfunctional uterine bleeding by oral and vaginal methods.  

PubMed

Background and Objective : Contraceptive pills are generally taken orally and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hypertension. The vaginal use of these pills can reduce such complications. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and side effects of low dose contraceptive pills by oral and vaginal route in the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding-(DUB) Methods: This comparative observational study was conducted at Beheshti and Alzahra (SA) teaching hospitals, affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011. One hundred women who presented with DUB were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number, receiving the low dose oral contraceptive pills by oral or vaginal route for three month. The amount and duration of bleeding were compared at the beginning and at the end of the study and side effects by these two methods compared. Results: The results of this study showed that both oral and vaginal routes effectively reduced the duration and amount of bleeding due to DUB after three courses of treatment. This effect was better in the vaginal method compared with oral administration (P = 0.03). Regarding the side effects, nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in the oral group than in the vaginal group (P = 0.03). Vulvovaginitis infection was more frequent in the vaginal group than in the oral group (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Low dose contraceptive pills are effective in reducing the amount, time, and duration of bleeding in patients with DUB. In addition, reduction of gastrointestinal side effects by vaginal route helps to use these pills by the patient with proper training of physicians, midwives and patients. PMID:24353721

Mehrabian, Ferdous; Abbassi, Fariba

2013-09-01

69

Strain differences in seizure-induced cell death following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Mouse strains differ from one another in their susceptibility to seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death. Previously, we have demonstrated that mature inbred strains of mice show remarkable genetic differences in susceptibility to the neuropathological consequences of seizures in the kainate model of status epilepticus. At present, while the cellular mechanisms underlying strain-dependent differences in susceptibility remain unclear, some of this variation is assumed to have a genetic basis. However, it remains unclear whether strain differences in susceptibility to seizure-induced cell death observed following kainate administration are observed following systemic administration of other chemoconvulsants. In rodents, the cholinomimetic convulsant pilocarpine is widely used to induce status epilepticus (SE), followed by hippocampal damage and spontaneous recurrent seizures, resembling temporal lobe epilepsy. This model has initially been described in rats, but is increasingly used in mice. We characterized neuronal pathologies after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in eight inbred strains of mice focusing on the hippocampus. A ramping-up dose protocol for pilocarpine was used and behavior was monitored for 4-5 h. While we did not observe any significant differences in seizure latency or duration to pilocarpine among the inbred strains, we did observe a significant difference in susceptibility to the neuropathological consequences of pilocarpine-induced SE. Of the eight genetically diverse mouse strains screened for pilocarpine-induced status, BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ were the only two strains that were resistant to the neuropathological consequences of seizure-induced cell death. Additional studies of these murine strains may be useful for investigating genetic influences on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. PMID:21878392

Schauwecker, P Elyse

2012-01-01

70

Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Oral Reading Practices: Round-Robin Reading and the Shared Book Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of two oral reading practices on second graders' reading growth: shared book reading and round-robin reading. The results indicated that the Shared Book Experience was superior to round-robin reading in reducing young children's oral reading errors, improving their reading fluency, increasing their vocabulary acquisition, and improving their reading comprehension. An analysis of the primary-grade basal

J. Lloyd Eldredge; D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1996-01-01

71

A comparative study of oral single dose of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and ornidazole in bacterial vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the cure rates of oral single dose of metronidazole (2 g), tinidazole (2 g), secnidazole (2 g), and ornidazole (1.5 g) in cases of bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial on 344 Indian women (86 women in each group) who attended a gynecology outpatient department with complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge or who had abnormal vaginal discharge on Gynecological examination but they did not complaint of it. For diagnosis and cure rate of bacterial vaginosis, Amsel's criteria were used. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test of proportions. The cure rate was compared considering metronidazole cure rate as gold standard. Results: At 1 week, the cure rate of tinidazole and ornidazole was 100% and at 4 weeks, it was 97.7% for both drugs (P<0.001). Secnidazole had cure rate of 80.2% at 4 weeks (P=NS). Metronidazole showed a cure rate of 77.9% at 4 weeks, which is the lowest of all four drugs. Conclusion: Tinidazole and ornidazole have better cure rate as compared to metronidazole in cases of bacterial vaginosis.

Thulkar, Jyoti; Kriplani, Alka; Agarwal, Nutan

2012-01-01

72

Asthma stability after oral prednisone: a clinical model for comparing inhaled steroid potency.  

PubMed

Clinical studies comparing the potency of inhaled corticosteroids require steep dose-response slopes (b) and minimal response variability (s), as statistical power is inversely related to the s/b ratio. To evaluate a new study model, we performed a randomized, crossover study of 12 adult asthmatics who required 800 to 2,000 microg of inhaled corticosteroids daily, and calculated s/b for 21 raw clinical outcomes and 36 mathematically derived variables based on these raw outcomes. Each of two 21-d treatment periods was preceded by 4 to 7 d of oral prednisone to maximize asthma control and minimize carry-over of previous inhaled treatment. Treatments were 100 and 800 micron/d of an HFA-134a beclomethasone dipropionate formulation. Assessments included daily home spirometry, histamine challenge, inhaled albuterol use, and asthma symptom scores. Efficacy variables with the greatest power (lowest s/b values) were A.M.FEF25-75, A.M.FEV1, and A.M.PEF, (s/b = 0.46, 0.48, and 0.59). Carry-over between treatment periods was not significant. Crossover study sample size calculations using these ratios yielded samples of 23, 25, and 37 patients, respectively. Otherwise identical parallel studies would require sample sizes of 657, 1,438, and 2,261 patients. These results support the use of a crossover asthma stability model after a short course of oral prednisone as a clinical study model for comparing topical potency of inhaled corticosteroids. PMID:11673199

Ahrens, R C; Teresi, M E; Han, S H; Donnell, D; Vanden Burgt, J A; Lux, C R

2001-10-01

73

Increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 expression reduces epileptogenic processes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that glutamate plays a crucial role in the initiation of seizures and their propagation; abnormal glutamate release causes synchronous firing of large populations of neurons, leading to seizures. In the present study, we investigated whether enhanced glutamate uptake by increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, the major glutamate transporter, could prevent seizure activity and reduce epileptogenic processes. EAAT2 transgenic mice, which have a 1.5-2 fold increase in EAAT2 protein levels as compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, were tested in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model. Several striking phenomena were observed in EAAT2 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic littermates. First, the post-SE mortality rate and chronic seizure frequency were significantly decreased. Second, neuronal degeneration in hippocampal subfields after SE were significantly reduced. Third, the SE-induced neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were significantly decreased. The severity of cell loss in epileptic mice was positively correlated with that of mossy fiber sprouting and chronic seizure frequency. Our results suggest that increased EAAT2 expression can protect mice against SE-induced death, neuropathological changes, and chronic seizure development. This study suggests that enhancing EAAT2 protein expression is a potential therapeutic approach.

Kong, Qiongman; Takahashi, Kou; Schulte, Delanie; Stouffer, Nathan; Lin, Yuchen; Lin, Chien-liang Glenn

2013-01-01

74

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy.

Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannus, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

2012-01-01

75

Increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 expression reduces epileptogenic processes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence indicate that glutamate plays a crucial role in the initiation of seizures and their propagation; abnormal glutamate release causes synchronous firing of large populations of neurons, leading to seizures. In the present study, we investigated whether enhanced glutamate uptake by increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, the major glutamate transporter, could prevent seizure activity and reduce epileptogenic processes. EAAT2 transgenic mice, which have a 1.5-2 fold increase in EAAT2 protein levels as compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, were tested in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model. Several striking phenomena were observed in EAAT2 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic littermates. First, the post-SE mortality rate and chronic seizure frequency were significantly decreased. Second, neuronal degeneration in hippocampal subfields after SE were significantly reduced. Third, the SE-induced neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were significantly decreased. The severity of cell loss in epileptic mice was positively correlated with that of mossy fiber sprouting and chronic seizure frequency. Our results suggest that increased EAAT2 expression can protect mice against SE-induced death, neuropathological changes, and chronic seizure development. This study suggests that enhancing EAAT2 protein expression is a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:22513140

Kong, Qiongman; Takahashi, Kou; Schulte, Delanie; Stouffer, Nathan; Lin, Yuchen; Lin, Chien-Liang Glenn

2012-08-01

76

Oral health status of Tibetan and local school children of Kushalnagar, Mysore district, India: A comparative study.  

PubMed

The presence of migrants culturally different from inhabitants of the host country is now a widespread phenomenon. It is known that dietary habits and oral hygiene practices vary from country to country, which in turn has a profound effect on oral health. Objectives: To assess and compare the oral health status of Tibetan school children and local school children of Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe). Study design: A survey was conducted at Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe), in Mysore district, India to assess the oral health status of Tibetan school children (n = 300) and local school children (n = 300) and compared using World Health Organization oral health proforma (1997). Results: The proportional values are compared using chi-square test and the mean values are compared using Student's t-test. Statistically significant results were obtained for soft tissue lesions, dental caries, malocclusion, and treatment needs. However, results were not significant when gingivitis was compared in the two populations. Conclusions: Tibetan school children showed higher prevalence of Angular cheilitis, gingival bleeding, dental caries experience, malocclusion, and treatment needs in comparison with non-Tibetans. Among the Tibetan school children, the requirement for two or more surface filling was more. PMID:24739911

Havaldar, K S; Bhat, S S; Hegde, S K

2014-01-01

77

Continuous Compared With Cyclic Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether continuous OCP (oral contraceptive pills) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCP, which induces withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms. Material and Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21/7 OCP regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) over the period of 6 months. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by VAS declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after one month (mean difference: -27.3; 95% CI: (-40.5,-14.2); p<0.001) and 3 months (mean difference: -17.8; 95% CI: (-33.4,-2.1); p=0.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 6 months, there was an increase in weight and decrease in systolic blood pressure in continuous compared with the cyclic group. Conclusions Both regimens of OCP are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Continuous OCP outperforms cyclic OCP in the short term, but this difference is lost after 6 months.

Dmitrovic, Romana; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

2013-01-01

78

Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey.

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

2006-01-01

79

Intermolecular interactions between cucurbit[7]uril and pilocarpine.  

PubMed

The interactions between cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) macrocycles and pilocarpine (PIL) were investigated in aqueous solution by using (1)H NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. The characterizations of the freeze-drying solid complex were conducted by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The DSC and thermogravimetry confirmed the production of a thermally stable solid complex. The NMR, CD and ESI-MS measurements confirmed asymmetric induction during the complexation reaction, in which the ?-lactone ring of PIL (not the imidazole nucleus) has been fully encapsulated within the cavity of CB7. The stability of the drug has significantly enhanced as evidenced by the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results are discussed in the context of utilizing non-conventional supramolecular host-guest approaches to enhance the chemical stability in aqueous media of hydrophilic PIL drugs as model compounds. The non-classical stereospecific interactions between CB7 and PIL drugs are also highlighted. PMID:24239578

Saleh, Na'il; Al-Handawi, Marieh B; Al-Kaabi, Leena; Ali, Liaquat; Salman Ashraf, S; Thiemann, Thies; Al-Hindawi, Bassam; Meetani, Mohammed

2014-01-01

80

Comparative oral dose toxicokinetics of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium accumulator plants.  

PubMed

Consumption of Se accumulator plants by livestock can result in Se intoxication. Recent research indicates that the Se forms most common in Se accumulator plants are selenate and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). In this study the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics of Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with a single oral dose of (1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Se/kg BW) of sodium selenate or MeSeCys were determined. The Se concentrations in serum and whole blood for both chemical forms of Se followed simple dose-dependent relationships. Se-methylselenocysteine was absorbed more quickly and to a greater extent in whole blood than sodium selenate, as observed by a greater peak Se concentration (Cmax; P < 0.0001), and faster time to peak concentration (Tmax; P < 0.0001) and rate of absorption (P < 0.0001). The rate of absorption and Tmax were also faster (P < 0.0001) in serum of lambs dosed with MeSeCys compared with those dosed sodium selenate at equimolar doses; however, Cmax in serum was greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with sodium selenate compared with those dosed MeSeCys at equimolar doses. The MeSeCys was absorbed 4 to 5 times faster into serum and 9 to 14 times faster into whole blood at equimolar Se doses. There were dose-dependent increases in the area under the curve (AUC) for Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with both sodium selenate and MeSeCys. In whole blood the MeSeCys was approximately twice as bioavailable as sodium selenate at equimolar doses as observed by the AUC, whereas in serum there were no differences (P > 0.05) in AUC at the same doses. At 168 h postdosing the Se concentration in whole blood remained much greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with MeSeCys as compared with lambs dosed with sodium selenate; however, the serum Se concentrations were not different between treatments at the same time point. The results presented in this study demonstrate that there are differences between the kinetics of different selenocompounds when orally dosed to sheep. Therefore, in cases of acute selenosis, it is important to understand the chemical form to which an intoxicated animal was exposed when determining the importance and meaning of Se concentration in serum or whole blood obtained at various times postexposure. PMID:23825349

Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Welch, K D; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Hall, J O

2013-09-01

81

Development and characterization of pilocarpine loaded Eudragit nanosuspensions for ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

With aim of improving the availability of drug at intraocular level and to reduce the frequency of drug administration, pilocarpine nitrate nanosuspensions were made from inert polymer resin (Eudragit RL 100) with varying drug to polymer ratios using Lutrol F68 solution in various concentration. Nanosuspensions were successfully prepared by solvent displacement method. Size of nanoparticles varied between 121.5 +/- 2.28 to 291.5 +/- 1.28 nm, a polydispersity index ranging from 0.218 +/- 0.003 to 0.658 +/- 0.035 with zeta potential ranging +14.1 +/- 0.7 to +19.8 +/- 2.3 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies clearly suggest the compatibility of the drug with the polymer used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape having a smooth surface and the drug is molecularly dispersed uniformly throughout the whole polymer matrix. PRL4 was successfully able to sustain the drug release for 24 hr as compared to other batches of formulated nanosuspensions. No significant change in average particle size and zeta potential were observed after conducting stability studies. Results of the studies clearly suggest the suitability of Eudragit RL 100 as a promising potential drug delivery adjuvant for ocular drug administration. PMID:23627075

Khan, Mohammed S; Vishakante, Gowda D; Bathool, Afifa

2013-01-01

82

A randomised controlled trial to compare intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron in treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose with oral iron therapy in pregnant patients with anemia. The primary outcome of the study was increase in haemoglobin on day 7, 14 & 28 and rise of serum ferritin over 28 days. The study population consisted of 100 patients with singleton pregnancy between 24 and 34 weeks, hemoglobin levels between 7.0-9.0 gm/dL and serum ferritin levels less than 15 ng/mL. The participants in the oral group were given daily 180 mg elemental iron in three divided oral doses for 4 weeks. Total calculated dose of iron sucrose with a target hemoglobin of 11 gm %, was given in 200 mg dose on alternate days. Mean haemoglobin rise was 0.58 gm/dL in the IV group as compared to 0.23 gm/dL in the oral group on day 14 and 1.9 gm/dL in the IV group & 1.3 gm/dL in the oral group on day 28, (p <0.05). In the IV group, 76% of the subjects achieved haemoglobin levels of ?11 gm% at the time of delivery, as compared to only 54% of the subjects in the oral group who achieved these levels. Serum ferritin value was significantly higher in the IV group, 37.45 ± 5.73 ng/mL as compared to 13.96 ± 1.88 ng/mL in the oral group at 4th week (p <0.001). There was no major side effect in the IV group. 36% subjects in the oral group developed gastrointestinal side effects & 10% of the subjects were non compliant. The rate of hemoglobin rise is faster with intravenous iron sucrose therapy as compared to oral iron therapy which can be beneficial in pregnant women presenting with anemia at a later period of gestation. Intravenous iron sucrose is very well tolerated during pregnancy. PMID:24839366

Gupta, Avantika; Manaktala, Usha; Rathore, Asmita Muthal

2014-06-01

83

The mechanism of action of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – compared with other anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results of some phase III clinical trials of new oral anticoagulants are now known, it is important to understand the mechanisms of their actions. These new agents exert their anticoagulant effect via direct inhibition of a single Factor within the coagulation cascade (such as Factor Xa or thrombin). Rivaroxaban – the first oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor – is

Meyer Michel Samama

2011-01-01

84

How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

2012-01-01

85

Comparing medical and dental providers of oral health services on early dental caries experience.  

PubMed

Objectives. Most state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children. We examined the association between who (PCP, dentist, or both) provides these services to Medicaid enrollees before age 3 years and oral health at age 5 years. Methods. We linked North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) to oral health surveillance data (2005-2006). Regression models estimated oral health status (number of decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and untreated disease (proportion of untreated decayed teeth), with adjustment for relevant characteristics and by using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to address confounding. Results. We analyzed data for 5235 children with 2 or more oral health visits from a PCP, dentist, or both. Children with multiple PCP or dentist visits had a similar number of overall mean decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth in kindergarten, whereas children with only PCP visits had a higher proportion of untreated decayed teeth. Conclusions. The setting and provider type did not influence the effectiveness of preventive oral health services on children's overall oral health. However, children having only PCP visits may encounter barriers to obtaining dental treatment. PMID:24832418

Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Weinberger, Morris; Lee, Jessica Y

2014-07-01

86

Zinc Chelation Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

87

Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. PMID:23119054

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

88

Comparative efficacy of subcutaneous versus oral methotrexate in active rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

This prospective study was conducted in rheumatology clinic under the department of medicine of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from December 2004 to December 2005 to asses the efficacy, safety and compliance of subcutaneous methotrexate (MTX) in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 92 active rheumatoid arthritis patients according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were recruited for the trial for six months. Among them 46 cases belonged to injectable MTX group and 46 cases belonged to oral MTX group. Mean±SD age of patients was 45.54±12.42 vs. 44.63±13.99 years in subcutaneous group and oral group respectively. In the subcutaneous group 41 were female and 5 male; in the oral group 34 were female and 12 male. Mean duration of the disease was 49.74 months in subcutaneous group and 49 months in oral group. RA test was positive in 35 cases in both groups whereas Rose Waaler test was positive in 19 patients in subcutaneous group and 14 patients in oral group. At 24 week, response rate of ACR 20 was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than oral MTX group (93% vs. 80%, p=0.02). Similarly ACR 50 response was significantly higher in subcutaneous MTX than in oral group (89% vs. 72%, p=0.03). ACR 70 response was not significantly higher in SCMTX group then oral group (11% vs. 9 %, p=0.72). Adverse effects were relatively less in subcutaneous MTX and most common side effects were nausea (37% vs. 63%), vomiting (11% vs. 30%), dyspepsia (29% vs. 48%), dizziness (4l% vs. 52%) and alopecia (72% vs. 85%). The results of the study demonstrated that subcutaneous MTX was significantly more effective than oral MTX at the same dosage in active Rheumatoid arthritis patients with no increase in side effects. PMID:23982537

Islam, M S; Haq, S A; Islam, M N; Azad, A K; Islam, M A; Barua, R; Hasan, M M; Mahmood, M; Safiuddin, M; Rahman, M M; Osmany, M F; Bari, N; Rumki, R S; Rashid, F B

2013-07-01

89

Comparative evaluation of oral and dermal cypermethrin exposure on antioxidant profile in Bubalus bubalis.  

PubMed

Cypermethrin, a type II synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, @ 0.5mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive weeks produced mild signs of toxicity in buffalo calves. Significant changes were observed in various antioxidant parameters in blood. There was a marked increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation (33.9%) and enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (6.7%), superoxide dismutase (35.0%), catalase (43.7%), glutathione-S-transferase (64.4%), glutathione reductase (36.7%) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (32.1%). A significant decrease in blood glutathione (16.7%), total antioxidant activity (45.4%) and vitamin E (40.8%) was observed and no significant effect was found on blood selenium levels. However, the extent of lipid peroxidation (42%) and the depletion of glutathione (28.8%) was greater after dermal sub-acute toxicity of cypermethrin (0.25%) for 14 consecutive days. Similarly, it was observed that the incline in the enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (29.7%), superoxide dismutase (38.3%) and glutathione reductase (38.3%) was higher in dermally cypermethrin exposed animals. Thus, the present investigation contemplates that oxidative stress is the important mechanisms involved in cypermethrin-induced toxicity and the oxidative insult produced by dermal route is more severe as compared to oral intoxication. PMID:23623842

Kaur, Rajdeep; Dar, Shabir Ahmad

2013-11-01

90

Comparative hydrophobicities of oral bacteria and their adherence to salivary pellicles.  

PubMed Central

Oral bacteria were found to differ in their surface hydrophobicities as determined by their ability to adsorb to hexadecane. Strains of Actinomyces viscosus, A. naeslundii, Streptococcus sanguis, S. mitis, and Bacteroides gingivalis proved highly hydrophobic. Strains of B. intermedius, S. salivarius, S. mutans, and B. melaninogenicus were less hydrophobic, whereas strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were hydrophilic. An overall correlation was noted between the adsorption of bacteria to hexadecane and their numbers which attached to experimental salivary pellicles formed on hydroxyapatite surfaces. This suggests that hydrophobic bonding plays an important role in this process. Pellicles prepared from saliva which had been extracted with chloroform-methanol to remove lipids adsorbed comparable numbers of S. sanguis and A. viscosus and increased numbers of S. mutans. Analyses of adsorption isotherms indicated that pellicles formed from lipid-depleted saliva contained increased numbers of binding sites for the S. mutans strains studied, and this likely accounts for their enhanced adsorption. Absorption of saliva with 10% octyl or phenyl Sepharose reduced the protein content of saliva by almost half, but the numbers of bacteria which attached to pellicles prepared from such absorbed saliva were similar to or higher than those which attached to control pellicles. These observations suggest that saliva does not contain unique highly hydrophobic salivary macromolecules which serve as essential pellicle receptors for the bacteria studied. The data obtained are consistent with the view that hydrophobic bonding together with interactions between complementary molecules are involved in bacterial attachment to salivary pellicles on teeth. Images

Gibbons, R J; Etherden, I

1983-01-01

91

Identification of genetic aberrations in cell lines from oral squamous cell carcinomas by comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed

We detected genetic alterations in 14 cell lines established from 14 human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), which allows a comprehensive analysis of chromosomal imbalances and identification of nonrandom genetic aberrations specific to OSCCs. All cell lines showed gains and losses of DNA copy number. DNA losses were detected for chromosomes 18q (10/14) and 4q (9/14) with minimal overlapping regions of 18q12-32 and 4q31-qter, respectively. In contrast, the common sites for increased copy number were chromosomes 5p (12/14), 8q23-ter (11/14), 20p (8/14), 20q (8/14), and 3q25-ter (7/14). These results suggest that losses of 18q12-22 and 4q31-ter and gains of 5p and 8q23-ter play important roles in the development and/or progression of OSCC. PMID:10426195

Okafuji, M; Ita, M; Hayatsu, Y; Shinozaki, F; Oga, A; Sasaki, K

1999-07-01

92

Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to be useful adjuncts to daily oral home care in the control of plaque and gingivitis. The objective of the study was to evaluate effect of two oral rinses; Chlorohexidine and Listerine on Plaque and Gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A doubled blind study was done on 150 patients visiting OPD of oxford general hospital for 2 months to compare the efficiency of two commercially available mouth rinses i.e. chlorohexdine (0.2%) & Listerine on plaque & gingivitis, along with a Placebo. Results: At the end of 28 weeks chlorohexdine & listerine significantly reduced plaque growth & gingivitis compared to a Placebo however chlorohexdine was more effective than Listerine. Conclusion: Chlorehexidine (0.2%) and a phenolic mouth rinse significantly reduced plaque growth and gingival inflammation compared to a placebo mouthrinse, however chlorhexidine rinse was more effective against plaque regrowth than the phenolic rinse. How to cite this article: Goutham BS, Manchanda K, Sarkar AD, Prakash R, Jha K, Mohammed S. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):56-61.

Goutham, Bala Subramanya; Manchanda, Kavita; Sarkar, Avishek De; Prakash, Ravi; Jha, Kunal; Mohammed, Shafaat

2013-01-01

93

An Open, Randomized, Comparative Study of Oral Finasteride and 5% Topical Minoxidil in Male Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aim: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is undoubtedly the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a condition which may cause cosmetic and psychosocial problems in androgen-dependent cases. In this open, randomized and comparative study we evaluated the efficacy of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil treatment for 12 months in 65 male patients with mild to

Ercan Arca; Osman Köse; Zafer Kurumlu

2004-01-01

94

Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study.  

PubMed

Background: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to be useful adjuncts to daily oral home care in the control of plaque and gingivitis. The objective of the study was to evaluate effect of two oral rinses; Chlorohexidine and Listerine on Plaque and Gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A doubled blind study was done on 150 patients visiting OPD of oxford general hospital for 2 months to compare the efficiency of two commercially available mouth rinses i.e. chlorohexdine (0.2%) & Listerine on plaque & gingivitis, along with a Placebo. Results: At the end of 28 weeks chlorohexdine & listerine significantly reduced plaque growth & gingivitis compared to a Placebo however chlorohexdine was more effective than Listerine. Conclusion: Chlorehexidine (0.2%) and a phenolic mouth rinse significantly reduced plaque growth and gingival inflammation compared to a placebo mouthrinse, however chlorhexidine rinse was more effective against plaque regrowth than the phenolic rinse. How to cite this article: Goutham BS, Manchanda K, Sarkar AD, Prakash R, Jha K, Mohammed S. Efficacy of two commercially available Oral Rinses - Chlorohexidine and Listrine on Plaque and Gingivitis - A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):56-61. PMID:24155621

Goutham, Bala Subramanya; Manchanda, Kavita; Sarkar, Avishek De; Prakash, Ravi; Jha, Kunal; Mohammed, Shafaat

2013-08-01

95

Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC ®) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC®; Actiq®) is a drug delivery formulation used for management of breakthrough cancer pain. Previous studies with open-label comparisons indicated OTFC was more effective than patients’ usual opioid for breakthrough pain. The objective of this study was to compare OTFC and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR®) for management of breakthrough pain in patients receiving a fixed

Paul H Coluzzi; Lee Schwartzberg; John D Conroy; Steve Charapata; Mason Gay; Michael A Busch; Jana Chavez; Jeri Ashley; Dixie Lebo; Maureen McCracken; Russell K Portenoy

2001-01-01

96

Comparative evaluation of transdermal diclofenac patch with oral diclofenac as an analgesic modality following root coverage procedures.  

PubMed

Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is effective in the management of pain following periodontal surgery. However, oral administration of diclofenac can lead to gastrointestinal (GI) complications. To overcome these drawbacks, diclofenac is formulated as a transdermal patch, which delivers the drug into systemic circulation through skin. Twenty patients were selected for root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts bilaterally. Following the surgical procedure on the control sites, oral diclofenac sodium 100 mg was administered QD for 3 days. Following the surgical procedure on the contralateral test site, a transdermal diclofenac patch (TDP) was applied every 24 hours for 3 days. The TDP was effective in postoperative pain control following root coverage procedures with subepithelial connective tissue grafts. Pain tolerance was higher with the TDP as compared to oral administration, as it did not cause any GI complications. PMID:24983174

Tejaswi, Devireddy Venkata; Prabhuji, M L V; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta

2014-01-01

97

The effects of sleep deprivation on microRNA expression in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with significant prevalence and the individuals affected by this disease have a great probability of occurrence of a lethal phenomenon known as Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP occurs mainly during the night and probably during sleep. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this lethal phenomenon are still obscure and new evidences that could corroborate in this area are warranted. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation in the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in the frontal cortex and heart tissues of adult male rats after 50days of saline (SAL) or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PILO). Initially 389 miRNA expressions were evaluated between SAL and PILO groups by microarray. Subsequently, 3 differentially expressed miRNAs of each tissue were investigated after total sleep deprivation (TSD 6h) and paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD 24h). Still, it was analyzed that the effects of sleep rebound with equivalent duration of PSD and TSD. There was a significant increase of miR-146a expression, an important inflammatory modulator in the frontal cortex of PILO rats when compared to SAL animals. Animals treated with pilocarpine were affected by TSD (through overexpression of miRNAs related to inflammatory process) and these changes were maintained even after a sleep window of 6h. In contrast, miRNAs associated with heart diseases were down-regulated in PSD rebound, suggesting a possible restoration of homeostasis in cardiovascular system of SAL and PILO groups. PMID:24530830

Matos, Gabriela; Scorza, Fulvio A; Mazzotti, Diego R; Guindalini, Camila; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

2014-06-01

98

Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

A single-intramuscular-dose immunization regimen with a penicillin G-streptomycin combination was compared with three oral-dose amoxicillin regimens for the capacity to prevent Streptococcus sanguis infections of experimentally induced valvular heart lesions in rabbits. Challenge doses of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) CFU of a strain of S. sanguis equally susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin were used in this study. Measured by recovery of test organisms from endocardial lesions, the lowest concentration of these inocula was infective for 60% of the recipients; the two higher-concentration inocula were infective for all recipients. The penicillin G-streptomycin combination provided complete protection against infection with inocula of all sizes. A single-oral-dose amoxicillin regimen (50 mg/kg of body weight) prevented endocarditis when rabbits were challenged with 10(4) CFU, but protection diminished with increasing inoculum concentrations. Similar results were achieved when five oral doses of amoxicillin (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) added at 8-h intervals were included in the single-oral-dose regimen. In contrast, when rabbits received two oral doses of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg of body weight) with a 10-h interval between doses, prophylaxis was fully effective with even the highest inoculum concentration.

Pujadas, R; Escriva, E; Jane, J; Fernandez, F; Fava, P; Garau, J

1986-01-01

99

Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)  

PubMed Central

Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with ?-2 microglobulin (?-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and ?-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to ?-2MG level in saliva.

Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

2014-01-01

100

Allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptor signaling: alcuronium-induced conversion of pilocarpine from an agonist into an antagonist.  

PubMed

Previous studies on allosteric interactions at muscarinic receptors have often focused on ligand-receptor binding interactions, because ligand binding seemed to reflect functional consequences. The prototypal allosteric agent alcuronium is known to bind with similar affinity to the M(2) subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors whether or not the receptors are occupied by the agonist pilocarpine. To determine allosteric modulation of receptor signaling by alcuronium, the effects of pilocarpine were measured in contracting guinea pig left atria and on G-protein coupling in M(2)-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes. Alcuronium dose-dependently suppressed pilocarpine-induced reduction of isometric contraction force in atria (pIC(50, Alc) = 5.63) without any effect on the EC(50) of pilocarpine, consistent with an allosteric mechanism. In contrast, alcuronium shifted the concentration-effect curve of the agonist oxotremorine M to the right without affecting the maximal effect, in a formally competitive manner (pK(A, Alc) = 5.54). If pilocarpine remained receptor bound in the presence of alcuronium, this indicates that pilocarpine can no longer act as an agonist. In support of this hypothesis, pilocarpine acted as a competitive antagonist against oxotremorine M in the presence of 10 microM alcuronium. Measuring guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding in CHO-M(2) membranes yielded similar results. Alcuronium suppressed pilocarpine-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (pIC(50, Alc) = 5.47) without shift in EC(50), whereas it competitively shifted the response to oxotremorine M (pK(A, Alc) = 5.97). [(3)H]Oxotremorine M binding data corresponded with the functional findings. In conclusion, alcuronium converted the agonist pilocarpine into an antagonist-a novel type of functional allosteric interaction. PMID:11961078

Zahn, Katrin; Eckstein, Niels; Tränkle, Christian; Sadée, Wolfgang; Mohr, Klaus

2002-05-01

101

Hydroethidine detection of superoxide production during the lithium–pilocarpine model of status epilepticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroethidine is reported to be selectively oxidized to ethidium by superoxide. Using digital imaging and fluorescence microscopy it is possible to evaluate neuronal ethidium accumulation in specific brain regions of rats damaged in the lithium–pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Intravenous or intraperitoneal administration of hydroethidine prior to 1 h of status epilepticus produced diffuse cytosolic distribution of ethidium fluorescence suggesting

Steven L Peterson; Daniel Morrow; Shimin Liu; Ke Jian Liu

2002-01-01

102

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor inhibits hippocampal synaptic reorganization in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine modulations caused by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors on altered microenvironments and overbalanced neurotransmitters in pilocarpine-induced epileptic status rats and to investigate possible mechanisms. Methods: Celecoxib (a COX-2 inhibitor) was administered 45 min prior to pilocarpine administration. The effects of COX-2 inhibitors on mIPSCs (miniature GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents) of CA3 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus were recorded. Expressions of COX-2, c-Fos, newly generated neurons, and activated microgliosis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and expressions of ?-subunit of ?-amino butyric acid (GABAA) receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) activity were detected by Western blotting. Results: Pretreatment with celecoxib showed protection against pilocarpine-induced seizures. Celecoxib prevented microglia activation in the hilus and inhibited the abnormal neurogenesis and astrogliosis in the hippocampus by inhibiting MAPK/ERK activity and c-Fos transcription. Celecoxib also up-regulated the expression of GABAA receptors. NS-398 (N-2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl-methanesulfonamide), another COX-2 inhibitor, enhanced the frequency and decay time of mIPSCs. Conclusion: The COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib decreased neuronal excitability and prevented epileptogenesis in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats. Celecoxib regulates synaptic reorganization by inhibiting astrogliosis and ectopic neurogenesis by attenuating MAPK/ERK signal activity, mediated by a GABAergic mechanism.

Zhang, Hai-ju; Sun, Ruo-peng; Lei, Ge-fei; Yang, Lu; Liu, Chun-xi

2008-01-01

103

Na +K + ATPase activity in the rat hippocampus: A study in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical abnormalities have been implicated in possible mechanisms underlying the epileptic phenomena. Some of these alterations include changes in the activity of several enzymes present in epileptic tissues. Systemic administration of pilocarpine in rats induces electrographic and behavioral limbic seizures and status epilepticus, that is followed by a transient seizure-free period (silent period). Finally a chronic phase ensues, characterized by

M. J. S. Fernandes; M. G. Naffah-Mazzacoratti; E. A. Cavalheiro

1996-01-01

104

Detection of micrometastasis in lymph nodes of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: The annual mortality rate from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is over 11,000 worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) frequently metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes which are the first site of arrest of tumor cells that have invaded the peritumoral lymphatics, hence the strongest predictor of disease prognosis and outcome. Aim: The present study aims to compare the efficacy of frozen sections (cryosection), step-serial sectioning conventional H and E staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-PCR analysis in detection of lymph node micrometastasis. Materials and Methods: A prospective series of 30 patients who were diagnosed with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and underwent surgical treatment including unilateral or bilateral selective neck dissection were considered for the study. Result: Metastatic carcinomatous cells were observed in H and E staining of frozen section in 18 lymph nodes (54%) and in 19 lymph nodes (57%) in step-serial sectioned H and E-stained sections of the 78 lymph nodes from 30 patients. Carcinomatous cells were immunolabeled with pancytokeratin in 18 lymphnodes (54%). CK19 mRNA was detected in 33 lymph nodes of 16 patients. RT-PCR gave positive signals for 24% and 23% of lymph nodes positive by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that RT-PCR is far more sensitive in detection of micrometastasis than any other technique used in routine procedures and immunohistochemistry. Fifty-three percent patients with micrometastasis detected by RT-PCR had large T3/T4 tumors. Prognosis was poor for patients who were positive for micrometastasis detected only by RT-PCR, among which two patients died within a period of 6 months.

Thakare, Eesha; Gawande, Madhuri; Chaudhary, Minal; Seralathan, Mohil; Kannan, Krishnamurthy

2013-01-01

105

Comparative bioavailability study of two ibuprofen preparations after oral administration in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of a new ibuprofen (2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid, CAS 15687-27-1) preparation was compared with a reference preparation of the drug in 23 healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 27. A single dose of 400 mg was given orally in the fasted state, using a randomized two-way crossover study. A washout period of two weeks separated both treatment periods. Ibuprofen plasma levels were determined by means of a validated HPLC method (UV detector). Values of 154.48 +/- 53.27 microg x h/ml (95 % confidence interval CI: 133.50-177.03) for the test, and 140.86 +/- 44.82 microg x h/ml (95% CI: 122.53-159.16) for the reference preparation AUC(0-infinity) demonstrate a nearly identical extent of drug absorption. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax of 39.53 +/- 7.11 microg/ml (95 % CI: 35.97-41.78) and 37.71 +/- 8.67 microg/ml (95% CI: 33.37-40.46) achieved for the test and reference preparations did not differ significantly. AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax ratios (90% CI) were within the 80-125% interval required for bioequivalence as stipulated in the current international regulations of the European Agency for the Evalution of Medicinal Products and the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore it is concluded that the new ibuprofen preparation is therapeutically equivalent to the reference preparation for both, the extent and the rate of absorption, after single dose administration in healthy volunteers. PMID:17063640

Bienert, Agnieszka; Szkutnik-Fiedler, Danuta; Dyderski, Stanis?aw; Grze?kowiak, Edmund; Drobnik, Leon; Wolc, Anna; Slawi?iska, Urszula

2006-01-01

106

Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in minipigs after oral dosing or transdermal administration via a newly developed patch.  

PubMed

1. A rasagiline transdermal patch was developed for the treatment of early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of rasagiline obtained after transdermal administration to minipigs were compared with those of rasagiline after oral administration. 2. A total of 18 minipigs were randomly divided into three groups (six animals for each group). A single dose of 1?mg rasagiline tablet was orally administrated to one group. Meanwhile, single dose of 1.25 and 2.5?mg (2 and 4?cm(2)) rasagiline patches were given (at the postauricular skin) to the other two groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life (t1/2), time to peak plasma-concentration (Tmax), mean residence time (MRT), area under the curve (AUC(0-t)) were significantly (p?oral administrations. 3. The plasma half-life (t1/2) of rasagiline (1.25?mg patch: 11.8?±?6.5?h, 2.5?mg patch: 12.5?±?4.7?h) in minipig following transdermal administration was significantly prolonged as compared with that following the oral administration (1?mg tablet: 4.7?±?2.5?h). The dose-normalized relative bioavailability of rasagiline patch in minipig were 178.5% and 156.4%, respectively, for 1.25 and 2.5?mg patches compared with 1?mg rasagiline tablet. The prolonged t1/2 and increased bioavailability of rasagiline patch suggested a possible longer dosing interval compared with oral tablet. PMID:23339547

Lin, Yu; Zou, Yanye; Lin, Jialiang; Zhang, Tao; Deng, Jie

2013-08-01

107

Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references.

Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

108

Mucosal HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through oral compared to vaginal and rectal routes  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field There are currently over thirty million people infected with HIV and there are no vaccines available to prevent HIV infections or disease. The genitourinary, rectal and oral mucosa are the mucosal HIV transmission routes. An effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and local mucosal immunity is generally accepted as a major means of protection against mucosal HIV transmission and AIDS. What the reader will gain Structure and cells that comprise the oral, vaginal and rectal mucosa pertaining to HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through each mucosal route to prevent mucosal and systemic infection will be discussed. Areas covered in this review Covering publications from 1980’s through 2010, mucosal transmission of HIV and current and previous approaches to vaccinations are discussed. Take home message Although oral transmission of HIV is far less common than vaginal and rectal transmissions, infections through this route do occur through oral sex as well as vertically from mother to child. Mucosal vaccination strategies against oral and other mucosal HIV transmissions are under intense research but the lack of consensus on immune correlates of protection and lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems hamper progress towards a licensed vaccine.

Yu, Mingke; Vajdy, Michael

2010-01-01

109

Endocrine effects of inhaled budesonide compared with inhaled fluticasone propionate and oral prednisolone in healthy Beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Orally administered corticosteroids are commonly used to treat chronic respiratory disease, but adverse effects suggest that the inhalation route may be safer. To compare the systemic effects of inhaled and oral corticosteroids, a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted. Six healthy neutered female Beagle dogs were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: (1) budesonide inhalation (200 ?g twice daily); (2) fluticasone inhalation (250 ?g twice daily); (3) oral prednisolone (1mg/kg once daily); and (4) placebo inhalation (room air twice daily). Each treatment and wash-out period lasted 4 weeks. The endocrine status of each dog was assessed on days 0, 28 and 35 using the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. The effects of treatments were assessed using a linear mixed effects model. After the 4 week treatment period, a significant decrease was observed in the basal serum cortisol level of the prednisolone group (P<0.03), and a decrease was also seen in the ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol levels of both the prednisolone and fluticasone groups (P<0.001), compared with the budesonide group in which no suppression was detected. The results showed that cortisol production in dogs was strongly suppressed by oral prednisolone and by inhaled fluticasone. PMID:22640563

Melamies, Marika; Vainio, Outi; Spillmann, Thomas; Junnila, Jouni; Rajamäki, Minna M

2012-12-01

110

How study designs influence comparative effectiveness outcomes: The case of oral versus long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This article reviews key methodological considerations for clinical trials that utilize explanatory and pragmatic trial designs and relates these contrasting approaches to the interpretation of results from comparisons of oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Explanatory randomized controlled trials (RCTs) generally measure the efficacy of a treatment in a homogeneous population with intensive, frequent, and often clinical trial-specific assessments. In contrast, pragmatic trials measure effectiveness in routine clinical practice and frequently aim to inform choices between treatments. Comparative effectiveness outcomes with pragmatic designs in naturalistic settings for schizophrenia treatments are of increasing interest to healthcare providers because outcomes of treatment (both efficacy and safety) may vary significantly when identified in an explanatory setting compared with a naturalistic pragmatic setting. Indeed, it has been suggested that the inconsistent outcomes observed in trials comparing oral and LAI antipsychotic medications may be a function of the use of explanatory or pragmatic trial designs. In practice, clinical trial designs are seldom purely explanatory or pragmatic. To identify the predominant orientation of a trial, one must consider multiple features. This paper reviews the relative impact of these features when comparing LAI and oral antipsychotic treatments and makes recommendations for improving these comparative designs. PMID:24842538

Alphs, Larry; Schooler, Nina; Lauriello, John

2014-07-01

111

Comparative Cholinergic Neurotoxicity of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposures in Preweanling and Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphorus (OP) pes- ticide. Previous studies have demonstrated that neonatal rats are more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of high dosages of CPF. The present study examined lethality and age-related dif- ferences in neurochemical indicators and functional signs of neu- rotoxicity following a broad range of acute and repeated oral CPF exposures. There

Quan Zheng; Kenneth Olivier; Yen K. Won; Carey N. Pope

2000-01-01

112

Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

2011-01-01

113

Timolol and pilocarpine are hypotensive in light-induced avian glaucoma.  

PubMed

Two antiglaucoma drugs were tested on Hubbard chicks with light-induced avian glaucoma (LIAG). This animal model for open-angle glaucoma was further assessed by a novel method for monitoring aqueous inflow and outflow simultaneously. When the chicks were 8 to 9 weeks of age the preglaucomatous eyes were significantly enlarged (p less than 0.001), weighing a mean of 3.37 g, compared with 2.59 g for a group of normal eyes, but the intraocular pressure (IOP) was slightly lower in the former (13.79 v. 16.46 mm Hg; p less than 0.05). At this age the aqueous outflow was markedly reduced (to 0.70 v. 2.47 microL/min; p less than 0.05), but no change in aqueous inflow could be demonstrated. By 18 to 20 weeks the glaucomatous eyes were further enlarged (mean weight 4.67 v. 3.76 g; p less than 0.001) and hypertensive (mean IOP 29.85 v. 22.27 mm Hg; p less than 0.05). Timolol elicited a 29% to 33% reduction in the IOP at 8 to 9 weeks in both groups of eyes. At 18 to 20 weeks it reduced the IOP of the glaucomatous eyes to normal values but caused a less marked reduction in the normal eyes. Pilocarpine elicited an initial sharp rise in the IOP but was ultimately hypotensive, causing about a 33% decrease from the preinfusion IOP, in both young and adult birds. PMID:4052863

Lauber, J K; McLaughlin, M A; Chiou, G C

1985-06-01

114

Oral anticoagulants controlled by the British comparative thromboplastin versus low-dose heparin in prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

The British comparative thromboplastin (BCT) was used to monitor the effectiveness of oral anticoagulants in preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery. All patients were screened for DVT with the use of the (125)I-fibrinogen scan.One hundred and forty-five patients aged 40 years or more were randomised into three groups. Group 1 received oral anticoagulant (nicoumalone) treatment, stabilised over five days before surgery and continuing into the second postoperative week. The other patients served as two contrast groups and were managed on a double-blind basis. Group 2 received a subcutaneous low-dose regimen of heparin calcium. Group 3 received subcutaneous saline. Eleven of 48 patients in the saline group, three of 49 patients in the heparin group, and three of 48 patients in the oral anticoagulant group developed DVT as judged by (125)I-fibrinogen scanning. The incidences in groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than in the saline group. The falls in haemoglobin concentration and incidence of haemorrhage were similar in all three groups.The study showed that oral anticoagulant prophylaxis stabilised preoperatively and low-dose heparin were equally effective in preventing deep vein thrombosis in a moderate-risk group. Immediate preoperative prothrombin ratios of 2.0-2.5 and postoperative ratios of 2.0-4.0 with the BCT gave adequate protection without increased haemorrhagic risk. PMID:340005

Taberner, D A; Poller, L; Burslem, R W; Jones, J B

1978-02-01

115

Oral anticoagulants controlled by the British comparative thromboplastin versus low-dose heparin in prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis  

PubMed Central

The British comparative thromboplastin (BCT) was used to monitor the effectiveness of oral anticoagulants in preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery. All patients were screened for DVT with the use of the 125I-fibrinogen scan. One hundred and forty-five patients aged 40 years or more were randomised into three groups. Group 1 received oral anticoagulant (nicoumalone) treatment, stabilised over five days before surgery and continuing into the second postoperative week. The other patients served as two contrast groups and were managed on a double-blind basis. Group 2 received a subcutaneous low-dose regimen of heparin calcium. Group 3 received subcutaneous saline. Eleven of 48 patients in the saline group, three of 49 patients in the heparin group, and three of 48 patients in the oral anticoagulant group developed DVT as judged by 125I-fibrinogen scanning. The incidences in groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than in the saline group. The falls in haemoglobin concentration and incidence of haemorrhage were similar in all three groups. The study showed that oral anticoagulant prophylaxis stabilised preoperatively and low-dose heparin were equally effective in preventing deep vein thrombosis in a moderate-risk group. Immediate preoperative prothrombin ratios of 2·0-2·5 and postoperative ratios of 2·0-4·0 with the BCT gave adequate protection without increased haemorrhagic risk.

Taberner, D A; Poller, L; Burslem, R W; Jones, J B

1978-01-01

116

Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of two oral formulations of thiocolchicoside, a GABA-mimetic muscle relaxant drug, in normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The comparative pharmacokinetic and bioavailability profile of two different formulations (tablets and capsules) of thiocolchicoside\\u000a was investigated in 8 healthy male volunteers after administration of single oral 8 mg doses. Plasma samples were assayed\\u000a by a capillary gas chromatography — mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method following enzymatic hydrolysis of thiocolchicoside to\\u000a its aglycone (3-demethylthiocolchicine) and no attempt was made to account

E. PERUCCAI; P. Poitou; G. Pifferi

1995-01-01

117

Comparative effects of oral and intraduodenal glucose on blood pressure, heart rate, and splanchnic blood flow in healthy older subjects.  

PubMed

Postprandial hypotension occurs frequently, particularly in the elderly. The magnitude of the fall in blood pressure (BP) and rise in heart rate (HR) in response to enteral glucose are greater when gastric emptying (GE) or small intestinal infusion are more rapid. Meal ingestion is associated with an increase in splanchnic blood flow. In contrast, gastric distension may attenuate the postprandial fall in BP. The aims of this study were to evaluate, in older subjects, the comparative effects of intraduodenal glucose infusion, at a rate similar to GE of oral glucose, on BP, HR, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow, and blood glucose. Eight healthy subjects (5 men, 3 women, age 66-75 yr) were studied on two occasions. On day 1, each subject ingested 300 ml of water containing 75 g glucose. GE was quantified by three-dimensional ultrasonography between time t = 0-120 min, and the rate of emptying (kcal/min) was calculated. On day 2, glucose was infused intraduodenally at the same rate as that on day 1. On both days, BP, HR, SMA flow, and blood glucose were measured. The mean GE of oral glucose was 1.3 +/- 0.1 kcal/min. Systolic BP (P < 0.01), SMA flow (P < 0.05), and blood glucose (P < 0.01) were greater and HR less (P < 0.01) after oral, compared with intraduodenal, glucose. There were comparable falls in diastolic BP during the study days (P < 0.01 for both). We conclude that the magnitude of the fall in systolic BP and rise in HR are less after oral, compared with intraduodenal, glucose, presumably reflecting the "protective" effect of gastric distension. PMID:19553500

Gentilcore, Diana; Nair, Nivasinee S; Vanis, Lora; Rayner, Christopher K; Meyer, James H; Hausken, Trygve; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

2009-09-01

118

Pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of mammalian hearts by activating a cardiac M3 receptor and a K+ current  

PubMed Central

Pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is widely used for treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It can also cause many other cellular responses by activating different subtypes of mAChRs in different tissues. However, the potential role of pilocarpine in modulating cardiac function remained unstudied.We found that pilocarpine produced concentration-dependent (0.1–10??M) decrease in sinus rhythm and action potential duration, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential in guinea-pig hearts. The effects were nearly completely reversed by 1??M atropine or 2?nM 4DAMP methiodide (an M3-selective antagonist).Patch-clamp recordings in dispersed myocytes from guinea-pig and canine atria revealed that pilocarpine induces a novel K+ current with delayed rectifying properties. The current was suppressed by low concentrations of M3-selective antagonists 4DAMP methiodide (2–10?nM), 4DAMP mustard (4–20?nM, an ackylating agent) and p-F-HHSiD (20–200?nM). Antagonists towards other subtypes (M1, M2 or M4) all failed to alter the current.The affinity of pilocarpine (KD) at mAChRs derived from displacement binding of [3H]-NMS in the homogenates from dog atria was 2.2??M (65% of the total binding) and that of 4DAMP methiodide was 2.8?nM (70% of total binding), consistent with the concentration of pilocarpine needed for the current induction and for the modulation of the cardiac electrical activity and the concentration of 4DAMP to block pilocarpine effects.Our data indicate, for the first time, that pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of the hearts, likely by activating a K+ current mediated by M3 receptors.

Wang, Huizhen; Shi, Hong; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Zhiguo

1999-01-01

119

Extended nasolabial flap compared with the platysma myocutaneous muscle flap for reconstruction of intraoral defects after release of oral submucous fibrosis: a comparative study.  

PubMed

We compared extended nasolabial flaps and coronoidectomy with platysma myocutaneous muscle flaps in the management of 20 randomly selected patients with histologically confirmed oral submucous fibrosis. Ten patients were treated by release of fibrous bands, bilateral coronoidectomy, and reconstruction with an extended nasolabial flap (nasolabial group), and the other 10 by bilateral release of fibrous bands, coronoidectomy, and reconstruction with a platysma myocutaneous muscle flap (platysma group). In the nasolabial group the mean preoperative interincisal mouth opening was 12(range 3-14)mm, and in the platysma group it was 11 (3-13). All 20 patients were given vigorous postoperative physiotherapy, and were followed up for 3 years. The interincisal mouth opening improved to 47(35-45)mm in the nasolabial group and 48(41-52)mm in the platysma group. The procedures were equally effective in the management of the oral submucous fibrosis, except that the extraoral scar was not aesthetically acceptable in the nasolabial group. PMID:22554695

Bande, Chandrashekhar R; Datarkar, Abhay; Khare, Neeraj

2013-01-01

120

Bisoprolol--comparative toxicokinetic study after oral and conjunctival administration in beagles.  

PubMed

Beagles were treated with bisoprolol, a beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist, for 30 days with the following daily doses: oral: 30 mg/kg; conjunctival: 0.5% solution (approx. 0.04 mg/kg) and 5% solution (approx. 0.4 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were determined in plasma and various eye tissues on days 1, 16, and 30, and on day 59, i.e. on day 29 of the follow-up period. Bisoprolol concentrations in plasma and most eye tissues were considerably higher after oral than after conjunctival treatment. The highest tissue concentrations were observed in the iris (+ciliary body) and retina (+choroid) with tissue/plasma concentration ratios between 100 and 150 after oral and 1000 to 3000 after conjunctival instillation (5% solution). In plasma no accumulation of the drug was observed which is in accordance with its plasma half-life of 4 to 5 h. In contrast to this, concentrations in the iris and retina increased from day 1 to day 16 and 30 by 3 to 8 times and the half-life of bisoprolol in these tissues was estimated to be between 3 to 5 days. PMID:1983105

Bühring, K U; Metallinos, A; Jakobs, N; von Landenberg, F; Merck, E

1990-01-01

121

A comparative study of histological grade and expression of Ki67 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in young and old patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer of oral region. The characteristic feature of SCC is invasion of dysplastic epithelium into the connective tissue. Oral SCC is more common in old patients. It is believed that etiology and pathogenesis of SCC in young patients differ from old patients and it is related to different molecular mechanism. In this study, histopathologic differentiation and proliferation activity (by Ki67) in oral SCC lesions of young patient (<40 years) and old patients (>50 years) have been compared. Materials and Methods: In a cohort study, Formalin Fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 20 oral SCC of young patients and 20 oral SCC of old patients were stained by H and E and immunohistochemically by biotin-streptavidin method. They were observed by two pathologists. Histological grade and Ki67 labeling index (LI) were determined. Data were analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney. Results: In cases of oral SCC in young patients, 80% were grade I and 20% were grade II and Ki67 LI was 21/5% in this age group. In cases of oral SCC in old patients, 75% were grade I and 25% were grade II and Ki67 LI was 21/6% in this age group. Conclusion: Histological and immunohistochemical evidence of this study show that oral SCC of young patients and oral SCC lesions of old patients didn’t show any differences in histopathological differention and proliferative activity.

Deyhimi, Parviz; Torabinia, Nakisa; Torabinia, Aitin

2013-01-01

122

An economic evaluation of oral compared with intravenous ganciclovir for maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed for maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, clinical economic study was done to determine the cost impact of oral compared with intravenous (IV) ganciclovir for the maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Efficacy and safety data were extracted from a trial of oral and IV ganciclovir. Medical care utilization and reimbursement data were obtained from the

Sean D. Sullivan; Essy Mozaffari; Eric S. Johnson; Richard Wolitz; Stephen E. Follansbee

1996-01-01

123

The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg

1999-01-01

124

Screening species of Pilocarpus (Rutaceae) as sources of pilocarpine and other imidazole alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of the Pilocarpus genus (Rutaceae) are popularly known as jaborandi and are the only source of pilocarpine, an imidazole alkaloid used in eye-drops for the treatment of glaucoma as well as\\u000a for the stimulation of sweat and lachrymal glands. Alkaloid extracts from leaf samples of seven species of Pilocarpus, from the states of Săo Paulo and Maranhăo in Brazil,

Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya; Boniek Gontijo Vaz; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin; Paulo Mazzafera

2011-01-01

125

Early effects of oral administration of lafutidine with mosapride compared with lafutidine alone on intragastric pH values  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal medication for treatment of acid related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion after a single oral administrations of lafutidine, is a newly synthesized H2-receptor antagonist, with mosapride 5 mg or lafutidine alone. Methods Ten Helicobacter pylori negative male subjects participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 4 hours after a single oral administration of lafutidine 10 mg or lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg (the lafutidine being administrated one hour after the mosapride). Each administration was separated by a 7-day washout period. Results The average pH during the 4-hour period after administration of lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg was higher than after lafutidine 10 mg alone (median: 5.25 versus 4.58, respectively; p = 0.0318). During the 3–4 hour study period, lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg provided a higher pH, compared to lafutidine 10 mg alone (median: 7.28 versus 6.42; p = 0.0208). Conclusion In H. pylori negative healthy male subjects, an oral dose of lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg more rapidly increased intragastric pH than lafutidine 10 mg alone.

2009-01-01

126

Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

In searching for persistent seizure-induced alterations in brain function that might be causally related to epilepsy, presynaptic transmitter release has relatively been neglected. To measure directly the long-term effects of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on vesicular release and recycling in hippocampal mossy fibre presynaptic boutons, we used (i) two-photon imaging of FM1-43 vesicular release in rat hippocampal slices; and (ii) transgenic mice expressing the genetically encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent reporter synaptopHluorin preferentially at glutamatergic synapses. In this study we found that, 1–2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, there were significant increases in mossy fibre bouton size, faster rates of action potential-driven vesicular release and endocytosis. We also analysed the ultrastructure of rat mossy fibre boutons using transmission electron microscopy. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus led to a significant increase in the number of release sites, active zone length, postsynaptic density area and number of vesicles in the readily releasable and recycling pools, all correlated with increased release probability. Our data show that presynaptic release machinery is persistently altered in structure and function by status epilepticus, which could contribute to the development of the chronic epileptic state and may represent a potential new target for antiepileptic therapies.

Upreti, Chirag; Otero, Rafael; Partida, Carlos; Skinner, Frank; Thakker, Ravi; Pacheco, Luis F.; Zhou, Zhen-yu; Maglakelidze, Giorgi; Veliskova, Jana; Velisek, Libor; Romanovicz, Dwight; Jones, Theresa; Stanton, Patric K.

2012-01-01

127

Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).  

PubMed

Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with ?-2 microglobulin (?-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and ?-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to ?-2MG level in saliva. PMID:24948960

Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

2014-05-01

128

Studies on the effect of pilocarpine incorporation into a submicron emulsion on the stability of the drug and the vehicle.  

PubMed

In order to obtain a novel ocular formulation with a potential for prolonging pilocarpine activity, the drug (2.0%) was incorporated into a submicron emulsion containing soya-bean oil and lecithin as emulgator. The effect of drug incorporation into the emulsion on its physical stability and on the other hand, the potential of the vehicle to reduce drug degradation at pH higher than 5.0 was studied. The pH was adjusted to 6.5 or 5.0 and the physicochemical stability of the formulations was observed. The mean diameter of oily particles in the resulting emulsions measured by a laser diffractometer was 0.6-0.7 micron and this was larger than in a drug-free emulsion where a 0.33 micron value was measured. The formulations were physically stable for 6 months at 4 degrees C, but progressing chemical degradation of pilocarpine was noted at pH 6.5. At that pH nearly 8% of pilocarpine was degraded to isopilocarpine and pilocarpic acid, both in the emulsion and in the solution. Thus, it may be concluded that pilocarpine in submicron emulsion is not protected against degradation. The presence of pilocarpine changes the physical stability of the vehicle since the formulation was easily destabilized during autoclaving or at room temperature. In the presence of higher concentration of lecithin (2.4%) or co-emulgators (poloxamer 2.0% or Tween 80 0.5%) the mean droplet size in the emulsions was the same as in a drug-free system. However the emulsions containing poloxamer were not stable during storage. Viscosity of pilocarpine emulsions can be increased by addition of methylcellulose or sodium carmellose (1.0%), but an intensive creaming occurs in these systems. Pilocarpine base is less suitable for emulsion preparation than hydrochloride salt, and emulsions prepared at pH 5.0 show the most satisfying stability. PMID:10382109

Zurowska-Pryczkowska, K; Sznitowska, M; Janicki, S

1999-05-01

129

Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

Burlage, Fred R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.r.burlage@rt.umcg.nl; Roesink, Judith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kampinga, Harm H. [Department of Cell Biology, Section for Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-01-01

130

A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n?=?10) and rectal lavage fluid (n?=?10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense against HIV.

Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

2014-01-01

131

Comparing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in female rats orally exposed to lovastatin by gavage versus diet.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess how the dosing method (i.e., gavage versus diet) affects the absorption and disposition of lovastatin, as well as its effect on two biological markers of exposure, such as serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. In preclinical safety studies the test agent is normally administered by gavage, but in chemoprevention efficacy studies the test agent is usually administered with the diet. Therefore, extrapolation of safety and efficacy data from laboratory animals to humans should consider the influence of the method of administration on the absorption, disposition and effect of the drug. Lovastatin, a blood cholesterol-lowering drug with a short elimination half-life in humans, was used to assess the influence of two different dosing methods on the drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Plasma and liver concentrations of lovastatin and its active metabolite lovastatin-Na were measured in female rats at sequential times after administration. Serum concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured at similar times and used as biomarkers of effect. Significant differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were observed after administration of lovastatin by the two oral dosing paradigms. In general, oral gavage resulted in higher peak and lower trough concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin-Na in plasma and liver, lower area under the concentration-time curve of lovastatin-Na in plasma and liver, and less of an effect on the serum concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol than the corresponding diet dosing. Although no inverse linear relationship was observed between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic markers, in the case of serum cholesterol a visual trend could be observed which might have proven significant had data from a larger number of dose levels been available. As in our previous study with sulindac, this study illustrates potential limitations in trying to extrapolate from data obtained using different dosing schemes to potential safety and efficacy in humans. PMID:17854789

Martín-Jiménez, T; Lindeblad, M; Kapetanovic, I M; Chen, Y; Lyubimov, A

2008-01-30

132

EFFECTS OF LATRUNCULIN B ON OUTFLOW FACILITY, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, CORNEAL THICKNESS, AND MIOTIC AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES TO PILOCARPINE IN MONKEYS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if low doses of topical latrunculin B (LAT-B) will increase outflow facility and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) without adversely affecting the cornea, and inhibit miotic and accommodative responses to pilocarpine, in ocular normotensive monkeys. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann tonometry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.005% and 0.01% topical LAT-B/vehicle given twice daily on successive weeks. Outflow facility was then measured by perfusion following 15 doses. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry before and after one and nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B/vehicle. Pupillary diameter (calipers) and accommodation (refractometry) before and after one dose of 0.005% and 0.02% LAT-B were determined. Results LAT-B dose-dependently decreased IOP, multiple doses more than a single dose. Maximal hypotension after one dose was 2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 2.7 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .005); maximal hypotension after nine doses was 3.2 ± 0.5 mm Hg (0.005% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001) or 4.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg (0.01% LAT-B; n = 8; P < .001). Outflow facility was increased by 75 ± 13% (n = 7; P < .005). Central corneal thickness was not changed after one or nine dose(s) of 0.01% LAT-B. The miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular pilocarpine were dose-dependently inhibited. At 0.02% LAT-B, the inhibition of miosis was essentially complete when compared with the pre-LAT-B value, whereas the inhibition of accommodation was only about 25%. At 0.005% LAT-B, the effects were trivial. Conclusions In ocular normotensive monkeys, 0.005/0.01% LAT-B administered topically increases outflow facility and/or decreases IOP, but does not affect the cornea. Multiple doses reduce IOP more than a single dose. LAT-B dose-dependently relaxes the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle, with some separation of the miotic and accommodative effects.

Okka, Mehmet; Tian, Baohe; Kaufman, Paul L

2004-01-01

133

Neuroprotective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin in the developing brain of rat after lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Status epilepticus triggers a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic cell death within the hippocampus. This neuronal loss may result in the development of epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Erythropoietin mediates a number of biological actions within the central nervous system and has been shown to be neuroprotective. In the present study, we investigated the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on hippocampus of rat after lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus. Twenty-one dam reared Wistar male rats, 21-day-old were divided into three groups: control group, lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and erythropoietin treated group. Erythropoietin treated group received recombinant human erythropoietin 10 U/g intraperitoneally 40 min after pilocarpine injection for 5 days. Rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected at 5th day of experiment. Neuronal cell death and apoptosis were evaluated. Histopathological examination showed that erythropoietin significantly decreased neuronal cell death in CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus. It also diminished apoptosis in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus. In conclusion, erythropoietin may preserve the number of neurons and decrease apoptosis in model of status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This experimental study suggests that erythropoietin administration may be neuroprotective in status epilepticus. PMID:21600713

Sözmen, Sule Ça?layan; Kurul, Semra H?z; Yi?, Uluç; Tu?yan, Kaz?m; Baykara, Ba?ak; Y?lmaz, Osman

2012-03-01

134

A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Study of Oral Triple Therapy versus Etanercept plus Methotrexate in Early, Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess if it is better to intensively treat all early RA patients with drug combinations or reserve this for those who do not appropriately respond to methotrexate monotherapy and assess if the combination therapy of methotrexate plus etanercept is superior to the combination of methotrexate plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine. Methods The TEAR study is a 2-year, randomized, double-blind trial. Using a 2×2 factorial design, participants were randomized to one of four treatment arms: immediate combination therapy of methotrexate plus etanercept; or oral triple therapy (methotrexate plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine); or initial methotrexate monotherapy with a step-up to one of the combination therapies (all arms included matching placebos). The primary outcome was an observed-group analysis of DAS28-ESR scores from weeks 48 to 102. Results At the week 24 step-up period, those receiving immediate combination therapy (etanercept plus methotrexate; or triple therapy) demonstrated greater reduction in DAS28-ESR compared to those on initial methotrexate monotherapy (DAS28-ESR: 3.6 vs. 4.6, p<0.0001), with no differences between regimens of combination therapy. For weeks 48 through 102, participants randomized to step-up arms had a DAS28-ESR clinical response that was not different than those who received initial combination therapy, regardless of the treatment arm (3.2 vs. 3.2, p=0.75). There was no significant difference in DAS28-ESR between participants receiving oral triple therapy versus combination methotrexate plus etanercept (3.1 vs. 3.2, p=0.42). By week 102, there was a small, statistically significant difference in change in radiographic measurements from baseline between methotrexate plus etanercept compared to oral triple therapy (0.64 vs. 1.69, p= 0.047). The absolute difference at week 102 was small. Conclusions There were no differences in the mean DAS28-ESR during weeks 48-102 between participants randomized to methotrexate plus etanercept or triple therapy, regardless of whether they received immediate combination treatment or step-up from methotrexate monotherapy. At 24 months, immediate combination treatment with either strategy was more effective than methotrexate monotherapy prior to step-up. Initial use of methotrexate monotherapy with the addition of sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine; or etanercept, if necessary after 6 months, is a reasonable therapeutic strategy for early RA. The combination of etanercept plus methotrexate resulted in a statistically significant, but clinically small, radiographic benefit over oral triple therapy.

Moreland, Larry W.; O'Dell, James R.; Paulus, Harold E.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Bathon, Joan M.; Clair, E. William St.; Bridges, S. Louis; Zhang, Jie; McVie, Theresa; Howard, George; van der Heijde, Desiree; Cofield, Stacey S.

2014-01-01

135

Influence of process parameters of high-pressure emulsification method on the properties of pilocarpine-loaded nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with pilocarpine hydrochloride were prepared by the high-pressure emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles were produced using polyvinylalcohol (PVA), carbomer (Carbopol 980) or poloxamer (Lutrol F-68) as stabilizers during emulsification. The influence of pressure and number of cycles on the nanoparticle properties was investigated. For comparison, nanoparicles without high-pressure treatment of the emulsion were made. The nanoparticle size, drug loading and release properties depended strongly on the homogenization pressure and number of cycles applied. Nanoparticles obtained without high pressure homogenization showed larger size and high values of polydispersity index, especially when carbopol and poloxamer were used as emulsifiers. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of all samples also decreased with pressure. The low drug loading could be due to two reasons. First, the high pressure promoted drug diffusion out of protoparticles during emulsification either by size reduction or shear forces. Secondly, the characteristics of the outer water phase of the emulsion also influenced the nanoparticle drug loading. This was proven by the different drug loadings measured when nanoparticles were made with PVA, carbopol or poloxamer at equal pressures applied. The main factor influencing the release properties of nanoparticles was the pressure used during emulsification. Faster drug release was observed from nanoparticles obtained after high-pressure emulsification compared to those prepared without homogenization of the emulsion. PMID:12851045

Yoncheva, K; Vandervoort, J; Ludwig, A

2003-01-01

136

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Naringin in Rat after Oral Administration of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San Aqueous Extract and Naringin Alone  

PubMed Central

Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula containing seven herbal medicines, has been used in the clinical treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome and depression in China. In order to explore the interaction between naringin and other constituents in CSGS, the pharmacokinetic difference of naringin in rats after oral administration of CSGS aqueous extract and naringin alone was investigated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of naringin in rats were achieved by quantification of its aglycone, naringenin by LC-MS/MS method. The double peaks phenomenon was observed in both serum profiles of rats after orally administered CSGS aqueous extract and naringin alone. However, the T1/2? was significantly decreased in rats given CSGS aqueous extract compared with naringin alone, and the mean residence time (MRT) and the area under the serum concentration–time curve (AUC0-?) were higher than those of naringin, which indicated that naringin in CSGS had higher bioavailability, longer term efficacy and somewhat faster metabolism and excretion than those of naringin. The results suggested that certain ingredients co-exist in CSGS could influence pharmacokinetic behavior of naringin. This also provides a reference for human studies.

Li, Shu-Qi; Dong, Shu; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Peng, Jing-Bo; Yu, Chang-Yuan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

2013-01-01

137

Treatment of Fast Breathing in Neonates and Young Infants With Oral Amoxicillin Compared With Penicillin-Gentamicin Combination  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization recommends hospitalization and injectable antibiotic treatment for young infants (0–59 days old), who present with signs of possible serious bacterial infection. Fast breathing alone is not associated with a high mortality risk for young infants and has been treated with oral antibiotics in some settings. This trial was designed to examine the safety and efficacy of oral amoxicillin for young infants with fast breathing compared with that of an injectable penicillin–gentamicin combination. The study is currently being conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods/Design: This is a randomized, open-label equivalence trial. All births in the community are visited at home by trained community health workers to identify sick infants who are then referred to a trial study nurse for assessment. The primary outcome is treatment failure by day 8 after enrollment, defined as clinical deterioration, development of a serious adverse event including death, persistence of fast breathing by day 4 or recurrence up to day 8. Secondary outcomes include adherence to study therapy, relapse, death between days 9 and 15 and adverse effects associated with the study drugs. Study outcomes are assessed on days 4, 8, 11 and 15 after randomization by an independent outcome assessor who is blinded to the treatment being given. Discussion: The results of this study will help inform the development of policies for the treatment of fast breathing among neonates and young infants in resource-limited settings.

2013-01-01

138

Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims data  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women receiving oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with that in women receiving oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. Design Nested case-control and cohort study. Setting The study was based on information from PharMetrics, a United States based company that collects information on claims paid by managed care plans. Participants The study encompassed all women aged 15 to 44 years who received an oral contraceptive containing either drospirenone or levonorgestrel after 1 January 2002. Cases were women with current use of a study oral contraceptive and a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in the absence of identifiable clinical risk factors (idiopathic venous thromboembolism). Up to four controls were matched to each case by age and calendar time. Main outcome measures Odds ratios comparing the risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in users of the two contraceptives; incidence rates and rate ratios of non-fatal venous thromboembolism for users of each of the study contraceptives. Results 186 newly diagnosed, idiopathic cases of venous thromboembolism were identified in the study population and matched with 681 controls. In the case-control analysis, the conditional odds ratio for venous thromboembolism comparing use of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with use of those containing levonorgestrel was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.2). The incidence rates for venous thromboembolism in the study population were 30.8 (95% confidence interval 25.6 to 36.8) per 100?000 woman years among users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone and 12.5 (9.61 to 15.9) per 100?000 woman years among users of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. The age adjusted incidence rate ratio for venous thromboembolism for current use of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with those containing levonorgestrel was 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8). Conclusions The risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism among users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone seems to be around twice that of users of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel, after the effects of potential confounders and prescribing biases have been taken into account.

2011-01-01

139

EGFR status in oral squamous cell carcinoma: comparing immunohistochemistry, FISH and CISH detection in a case series study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) with the gene amplification evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and their association with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, we tested the sensibility and specificity of CISH in comparison with FISH. Design Case series study Setting Oral surgery and pathology department in a school of dentistry. Participants 52 patients with histopathological diagnosis of OSCC. Methods Tumour tissue samples from 52 patients with OSCC were evaluated by IHC, FISH and CISH using tissue microarray technology. Clinicopathological data from all patients were collected. Results EGFR+ rates were 53.8% (28/52) by IHC, 5.8% (3/52) by CISH and 15.4% (8/52) by FISH. Amplification detected by CISH and FISH with IHC negative occurred in 3.8% (2/52), and one case (1.9%) showed amplification detected by CISH and FISH and protein overexpression concomitantly. There were 9.6% FISH+ cases with IHC and CISH negative rates and 6/8 (75%) FISH+ and also EGFR+ cases; however, an association between protein expression and gene amplification was not found for both techniques. IHC and FISH rates were not associated with clinicopathological features. CISH+ rates were associated with T3–T4 status. Compared with FISH assay, CISH reached a sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions There is no association between EGFR expression and gene amplification in OSCC when the IHC is driven to external epitopes of the protein. Although CISH demonstrates specificity, technical problems may influence sensibility when compared with FISH.

Bernardes, Vanessa Fatima; Gleber-Netto, Frederico Omar; de Sousa, Silvia Ferreira; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; de Aguiar, Maria Cassia Ferreira

2013-01-01

140

Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544) followed by generic risperidone ($9,080). In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719). The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia.

Furiak, Nicolas M; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Klein, Robert W; Smolen, Lee J; Lawson, Anthony H; Conley, Robert R; Culler, Steven D

2009-01-01

141

The effect of paxilline on early alterations of electrophysiological properties of dentate gyrus granule cells in pilocarpine-treated rats.  

PubMed

The dentate gyrus of hippocampus has long been considered as a focal point for studies on mechanisms responsible for the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Change in intrinsic properties of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) has been considered as an important factor responsible in temporal lobe seizures. In this study, we evaluated the intrinsic properties of GCs, during acute phase of seizure (24 h after i.p. injection of pilocarpine) compared to sham group using whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Our results showed a significant increase in the number of action potentials (APs) after applying depolarizing currents of 200 pA (p < 0.01) and 250pA (p < 0.05) compared to sham group. The evaluation of AP properties revealed a decrease in half-width of AP in GCs of seizure group (1.27 ± 0.03 ms) compared to sham group (1.60 ± 0.11). Moreover, addition of BAPTA to pipette solution prevented changes in AP half-width in seizure group (1.71 ± 0.11 ms) compared to sham group (1.91 ± 0.08 ms). In contrast, an increase in the amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization was observed in GCs of seizure group (-11.68 ± 0.72 mV) compared to sham group (-8.28 ± 0.59 mV). Also, GCs of seizure group showed a significant increase in both firing rate and instantaneous firing frequency at depolarizing currents of 200 pA (P < 0.01) and 250 pA (P < 0.05) compared to sham group. The changes in electrophysiological properties of GCs were attenuated after bath application of paxilline suggesting possible involvement of large conductance Ca(2+)- activated K(+) channel (BK channel). Our results suggested the possible involvement of certain potassium channels in early changes of intrinsic properties of GCs which eventually facilitate TLE development. PMID:24711838

Mehranfard, Nasrin; Gholamipour-Badie, Hamid; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Naderi, Nima

2014-01-01

142

Liquid lithium vs. solid lithium: an open, cross-over, pilot study comparing oral preparations.  

PubMed

This paper suggests some of the possible advantages of a liquid lithium preparation and describes an open, cross-over, pilot study comparing solid (capsule or tablet) with liquid lithium salt preparations in terms of obtained blood levels and side-effects for a nonmanic-depressive prison population. PMID:1106967

Heiman, M F; Schwabach, G; Tupin, J

1976-01-01

143

Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding

Sam Van Wassenbergh; Peter Aerts; Anthony Herrel

2006-01-01

144

Comparative Bioavailability of Two Oral Formulations of Danazol in Mexican Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danazol is a synthetic attenuated androgen drug used for the treatment of endometriosis. Currently, there are several sources in Mexico containing this drug; however, very limited information about bioavailability is available. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability of two formulations of danazol used in Mexico, Ladogal® and Danalem®. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in this study that

José C. Aguilar-Carrasco; Norma A. Carrasco-Portugal; Jorge E. Herrera; Francisco J. Flores-Murrieta

145

Activation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the lateral hypothalamus reduces pilocarpine-induced salivation in rats.  

PubMed

Anti-hypertensive drugs that act on central alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and imidazoline receptors usually cause dry mouth in patients. A central area important for the control of salivary secretion and also for the effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation is the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of the injections of moxonidine (an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and imidazoline agonist) alone or combined with RX 821002 (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist) into the LH on the salivation induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) pilocarpine (cholinergic muscarinic agonist). Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannula implanted into the LH were used. Saliva was collected using pre-weighted small cotton balls inserted into the animal's mouth under ketamine anesthesia. Salivation induced by i.p. pilorcarpine (4micromol/kg of body weight) was reduced by the injection of moxonidine (10 and 20nmol/0.5microl) into the LH (222+/-46 and 183+/-19mg/7min, vs. vehicle: 480+/-30mg/7min). The inhibitory effect of moxonidine on pilocarpine-induced salivation was abolished by prior injections of RX 821002 (160 and 320nmol/0.5microl) into the LH (357+/-25 and 446+/-38mg/7min). Injections of the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (320nmol/0.5microl) into the LH did not change the effects of moxonidine. The results show that activation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the LH inhibits pilocarpine-induced salivation, suggesting that LH is one of the possible central sites involved in the anti-salivatory effects produced by the treatment with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:19041371

Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Menani, José V

2009-02-01

146

Increased dissolution and oral absorption of itraconazole/Soluplus extrudate compared with itraconazole nanosuspension.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to compare the in vitro and in vivo profiles of itraconazole (ITZ) extrudates and nanosuspension separately prepared by two different methods. And it was proved truly to form nanocrystalline and amorphous ITZ characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The release of ITZ/Soluplus solid dispersions with amorphous ITZ was almost complete while only 40% release was obtained with ITZ nanocrystals. The amorphous state need not to cross over the crystal lattice energy upon dissolution while the crystalline need to overcome it. In the in vivo assay, the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of ITZ/Soluplus were 6.9- and 11.6-time higher than those of pure ITZ. The formulation of the extrudate had an AUC(0-t) and C(max) similar to those of ITZ and also OH-ITZ compared with the commercial capsule (Sporanox®). The relative bioavailability values with their 95% confidence limit were calculated to be 98.3% (92.5-104.1%) and 101.3% (97.9-104.1%), respectively. The results of this study showed increased dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of Soluplus-based carrier loading ITZ prepared by HME compared with the ITZ nanosuspension prepared by wet milling. PMID:23562534

Zhang, Keru; Yu, Hongxia; Luo, Qing; Yang, Shenshen; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Bin; Tang, Xing

2013-11-01

147

Comparative effectiveness of depot and oral second generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a nationwide study in Hungary.  

PubMed

We conducted a nationwide, full-population based investigation to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of all marketed second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGA) prescribed for outpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia in Hungary. Using the national central register, our observational follow-up study included all patients with schizophrenia or related disorder between 01/01/2006 and 30/06/2008. The study cohort comprised 9567 patients who started new SGA during the inclusion period (01/07/2007-30/06/2008). All-cause medication discontinuation of 8 SGAs (1 depot and 7 oral formulations) marketed during the inclusion period, and the time to all-cause discontinuation were the main outcomes. Statistical models included the Kaplan-Meier and the Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score adjustment. Patients treated with a depot formulation risperidone had the longest time to discontinuation with a median of 215 days (95%CI:181-242 days), which was statistically significantly different compared to patients treated with the rest of the medications: olanzapine (136 days, 95%CI:121-153 days), aripiprazole (102 days, 95%CI:81-126 days), ziprasidone (93 days, 95%CI:82-119 days), quetiapine (89 days, 95%CI:81-100 days), clozapine (76 days, 95%CI:54-92 days), amisulpride (73 days, 95%CI:62-85 days), and risperidone (55 days, 95%CI: 41-63 days). Our results in Hungary are partly similar to those of a recent register-based study in Finland with patients who were discharged from their first hospitalization for schizophrenia (Tiihonen et al., 2006, 2011); namely the median times to all-cause medication discontinuation were <120 days for the majority of the oral SGA. In terms of medication differences, our data support the superior effectiveness of the depot formulation regarding all-cause discontinuation, followed by olanzapine at the efficacy rank order. PMID:23477752

Bitter, István; Katona, Lajos; Zámbori, János; Takács, Péter; Fehér, László; Diels, Joris; Bacskai, Miklós; Lang, Zsolt; Gyáni, Gergely; Czobor, Pál

2013-11-01

148

An in vitro oral biofilm model for comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses.  

PubMed

The ability of commercial mouthrinses to reduce total viable counts of mixed microbial populations was examined using a previously developed in vitro model of supragingival plaque. Exploratory experiments aimed at fine-tuning the model indicated that optimal correspondence between in vitro and clinical results for chlorhexidine-containing formulations were obtained at a saliva:medium ratio of 70:30 (v/v); moreover, expanding the microbial population from 5 bacterial species to 5 bacterial species + Candida albicans had no noticeable impact on overall results. The efficacies of 12 different mouthrinse proprietary products containing chlorhexidine, hexetidine, octenidine, Triclosan, plant extracts, or aminefluoride/stannous fluoride vis-ŕ-vis biofilm clearance were compared. All mouthrinses promoted a statistically significant reduction in microbial load compared to distilled water. The herbal- and phenolic-based products were substantially less effective than most chlorhexidine-containing mouthrinses, or mouthrinses containing hexetidine or octenidine. No significant difference between the plaque-clearing plaque-clearing abilities of Listerine and Meridol was observed. This polyspecies biofilm model can be a valuable tool for preclinical testing of antiplaque formulations, particularly during the product development stage. PMID:12037365

Shapiro, S; Giertsen, E; Guggenheim, B

2002-01-01

149

Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration  

PubMed Central

Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain.

Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

150

Non-linear stress-strain measurements of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) compared to normal oral mucosal and skin tissue.  

PubMed

Stress-strain curves of oral mucosal tissues were measured using direct mechanical testing. Measurements were conducted on both natural oral mucosal tissues and engineered devices, specifically a clinically developed ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME). As seeded cells proliferate on EVPOME devices, they produce a keratinized protective upper layer which fills in surface irregularities. These transformations can further alter stress-strain parameters as cells in EVPOME differentiate, more similar to natural oral mucosal tissues in contrast to an unseeded scaffold. In addition to tissue devices grown under normal conditions (37 °C), EVPOMEs were also produced at 43 °C. These thermally stressed specimens model possible failure mechanisms. Results from a mechanical deformation system capable of accurate measurements on small (approximately 1.0-1.5 cm(2)) cylindrical tissue samples are presented. Deformations are produced by lowering a circular piston, with a radius smaller than the sample radius, onto the center of the sample. Resulting force is measured with a precision electronic balance. Cultured EVPOME was less stiff than AlloDerm®, but similar to native porcine buccal tissue. Porcine skin and porcine palate tissues were even less stiff. Thermally stressed EVPOME was less stiff than normally cultured EVPOME as expected because stressed keratin cells were damaged reducing the structural integrity of the tissue. PMID:22254305

Winterroth, Frank; Hollister, Scott J; Feinberg, Stephen E; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Fowlkes, J Brian; Ganguly, Arindam; Hollman, Kyle W

2011-01-01

151

Body composition is improved during 12 months' treatment with metformin alone or combined with oral contraceptives compared with treatment with oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Context: Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether treatment with metformin (M) or M combined with oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) resulted in a more advantageous body composition than treatment with OCP alone. Setting: The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic. Patients and Interventions: This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12 months' treatment with M (2 g/d), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 ?g ethinylestradiol), or OCP. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans and clinical and hormonal evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period. A total of 65 of 90 patients completed the study. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in weight at 6 and 12 months and changes in regional fat mass estimates at 12 months were measured. Results: Dropout rates between intervention groups were not significantly different. Treatment with M and M+OCP were superior to OCP regarding weight and regional fat mass. The median (quartiles) weight changes during 12 months of M, M+OCP, and OCP treatment were -3.0 (-10.3; 0.6), -1.9 (-4.9; 0.1), and 1.2 (-0.8; 3.0) kg, respectively, P < .05. Upper to lower fat mass ratio was unchanged. Changes in body composition were predicted by the type of medical intervention (M, M+OCP, or OCP) and not by body mass index at study inclusion. OCP and M+OCP were superior to M regarding reduction in free T levels. Conclusions: M treatment alone or in combination with OCP was associated with weight loss and improved body composition compared with OCP, whereas free T levels decreased during M+OCP or OCP. Combined treatment with M+OCP should be considered as an alternative to treatment with OCP alone to avoid weight gain in PCOS. PMID:24742124

Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

2014-07-01

152

Comparing anti-hyperglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of three different trivalent chromium complexes in mice.  

PubMed

Three different ligands (rutin, folate and stachyose) of chromium(III) complexes were compared to examine whether they have similar effect on anti-hyperglycemic activity as well as the acute toxicity status. Anti-hyperglycemic activities of chromium rutin complex (CrRC), chromium folate complex (CrFC) and chromium stachyose complex (CrSC) were examined in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with daily oral gavage for a period of 2 weeks at the dose of 0.5-3.0 mg Cr/kg. Acute toxicities of CrRC and CrFC were tested using ICR mice at the dose of 1.0-5.0 g/kg with a single oral gavage and observed for a period of 2 weeks. Biological activities results indicated that only CrRC and CrFC could decrease blood glucose level, reduce the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and increase liver glycogen level. In acute toxicity study, LD(50) values for both CrRC and CrFC were above 5.0 g/kg. The minimum lethal dose for CrFC was above 5.0 g/kg, while that for CrRC was 1.0 g/kg. Anti-diabetic activity of those chromium complexes was not similar and their acute toxicities were also different. CrFC represent an optimal chromium supplement among those chromium complexes with potential therapeutic value to control blood glucose in diabetes and non-toxicity in acute toxicity. PMID:22366098

Li, Fang; Wu, Xiangyang; Zou, Yanmin; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Min; Feng, Weiwei; Yang, Liuqing

2012-05-01

153

Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day) was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE) reports and weight. AEs with rates ?5% and with a ?2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95) and risperidone trials (n = 122) groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768). Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179), risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113) or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129) were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159). PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p < 0.05) and similar to risperidone 4-6 mg/day (0.2; p = 0.927). Placebo-adjusted AEs more common with paliperidone ER were insomnia, sinus tachycardia and tachycardia; more common with risperidone were somnolence, restlessness, nausea, anxiety, salivary hypersecretion, akathisia, dizziness and nasal congestion. Weight changes with paliperidone ER and risperidone were similar (paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.489; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.236). Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg/day. The AE-adjusted incidence rates suggest differences between treatments that may be relevant for individual patients. Additional randomized, direct, head-to-head clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

2011-01-01

154

Neuroprotective effect of pyruvate and oxaloacetate during pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in rats.  

PubMed

Recent research data have shown that systemic administration of pyruvate and oxaloacetate causes an increased brain-to-blood glutamate efflux. Since increased release of glutamate during epileptic seizures can lead to excitotoxicity and neuronal cell death, we tested the hypothesis that glutamate scavenging mediated by pyruvate and oxaloacetate systemic administration could have a neuroprotective effect in rats subjected to status epilepticus (SE). SE was induced by a single dose of pilocarpine (350mg/kgi.p.). Thirty minutes after SE onset, a single dose of pyruvate (250mg/kgi.p.), oxaloacetate (1.4mg/kgi.p.), or both substances was administrated. Acute neuronal loss in hippocampal regions CA1 and hilus was quantitatively determined five hours after SE onset, using the optical fractionator method for stereological cell counting. Apoptotic cascade in the hippocampus was also investigated seven days after SE using caspase-1 and -3 activity assays. SE-induced neuronal loss in CA1 was completely prevented in rats treated with pyruvate plus oxaloacetate. The SE-induced caspase-1 activation was significantly reduced when rats were treated with oxaloacetate or pyruvate plus oxaloacetate. The treatment with pyruvate and oxaloacetate caused a neuroprotective effect in rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:21185899

Carvalho, Andrezza Sossai Rodrigues; Torres, Laila Brito; Persike, Daniele Suzete; Fernandes, Maria José Silva; Amado, Debora; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrăo; da Silva, Alexandre Valotta

2011-02-01

155

Progranulin promotes activation of microglia/macrophage after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency accounts for up to 10% of frontotemporal lobe dementia. PGRN has also been implicated in neuroinflammation in acute and chronic neurological disorders. Here we report that both protein and mRNA levels of cortical and hippocampal PGRN are significantly enhanced following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. We also identify intense PGRN immunoreactivity that colocalizes with CD11b in seizure-induced animals, suggesting that PGRN elevation occurs primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. To test the role of PGRN in activation of microglia/macrophages, we apply recombinant PGRN protein directly into the hippocampal formation, and observe no change in the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus. However, with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, PGRN application significantly increases the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus, without affecting the extent of hilar cell death. In addition, the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages induced by status epilepticus is not significantly different between PGRN knockout mice and wildtype. Our findings suggest that status epilepticus induces PGRN expression, and that PGRN potentiates but is not required for seizure-induced microglia/macrophage activation. PMID:23887054

Zhu, Shanshan; Tai, Chao; Petkau, Terri L; Zhang, Si; Liao, Chengyong; Dong, Zhifang; Wen, Wendy; Chang, Qing; Tian Wang, Yu; MacVicar, Brian A; Leavitt, Blair R; Jia, William; Cynader, Max S

2013-09-12

156

Expressional analysis of the astrocytic Kir4.1 channel in a pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model  

PubMed Central

The inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel Kir4.1 in brain astrocytes mediates spatial K+ buffering and regulates neural activities. Recent studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in the human gene KCNJ10 encoding Kir4.1 cause epileptic seizures, suggesting a close relationship between the Kir4.1 channel function and epileptogenesis. Here, we performed expressional analysis of Kir4.1 in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to explore the role of Kir4.1 channels in modifying TLE epileptogenesis. Treatment of rats with pilocarpine (350 mg/kg, i.p.) induced acute status epilepticus, which subsequently caused spontaneous seizures 7–8 weeks after the pilocarpine treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that TLE rats (interictal condition) showed significantly higher levels of Kir4.1 than the control animals in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. However, the expression of other Kir subunits, Kir5.1 and Kir2.1, remained unaltered. Immunohistochemical analysis illustrated that Kir4.1-immunoreactivity-positive astrocytes in the pilocarpine-induced TLE model were markedly increased in most of the brain regions examined, concomitant with an increase in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. In addition, Kir4.1 expression ratios relative to the number of astrocytes (Kir4.1-positive cells/GFAP-positive cells) were region-specifically elevated in the amygdala (i.e., medial and cortical amygdaloid nuclei) and sensory cortex. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the expression of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels was elevated in a pilocarpine-induced TLE model, especially in the amygdala, suggesting that astrocytic Kir4.1 channels play a role in modifying TLE epileptogenesis, possibly by acting as an inhibitory compensatory mechanism.

Nagao, Yuki; Harada, Yuya; Mukai, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki; Okuda, Aoi; Fujimoto, Megumi; Ono, Asuka; Sakagami, Yoshihisa; Ohno, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

157

Genetic deletion of the neuronal glutamate transporter, EAAC1, results in decreased neuronal death after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1 also called EAAT3) is a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter expressed by both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. It provides precursors for the syntheses of glutathione and GABA and contributes to the clearance of synaptically released glutamate. Mice deleted of EAAC1 are more susceptible to neurodegeneration in models of ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and aging. Antisense knock-down of EAAC1 causes an absence seizure-like phenotype. Additionally, EAAC1 expression increases after chemonvulsant-induced seizures in rodent models and in tissue specimens from patients with refractory epilepsy. The goal of the present study was to determine if the absence of EAAC1 affects the sensitivity of mice to seizure-induced cell death. A chemoconvulsant dose of pilocarpine was administered to EAAC1(-/-) mice and to wild-type controls. Although EAAC1(-/-) mice experienced increased latency to seizure onset, no significant differences in behavioral seizure severity or mortality were observed. We examined EAAC1 immunofluorescence 24h after pilocarpine administration and confirmed that pilocarpine causes an increase in EAAC1 protein. Forty-eight hours after induction of seizures, cell death was measured in hippocampus and in cortex using Fluoro-Jade C. Surprisingly, there was ?2-fold more cell death in area CA1 of wild-type mice than in the corresponding regions of the EAAC1(-/-) mice. Together, these studies indicate that absence of EAAC1 results in either a decrease in pilocarpine-induced seizures that is not detectable by behavioral criteria (surprising, since EAAC1 provides glutamate for GABA synthesis), or that the absence of EAAC1 results in less pilocarpine/seizure-induced cell death, possible explanations as discussed. PMID:24334055

Lane, Meredith C; Jackson, Joshua G; Krizman, Elizabeth N; Rothstein, Jeffery D; Porter, Brenda E; Robinson, Michael B

2014-07-01

158

Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria  

PubMed Central

In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest.

Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; Garcia-Flores, M.; Valladares-Mendez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martinez-Alfaro, M.

2012-01-01

159

Comparative evaluation of low-level laser and CO? laser in treatment of patients with oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

A comparative evaluation of low-level laser and CO(2) laser therapies was performed, for the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP). In a randomized open clinical trial, 28 patients with 57 lesions were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received CO(2) laser therapy, the other received low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for 5 sessions every other day. Participants were examined before the treatment, after 2 weeks, and at 1, 2 and 3 months, to assess the changes in sign and symptom scores. Improvements in size of lesions, in pain and clinical response scores were achieved in both groups. After 3 months, clinical response showed 100% and 85% partial to complete improvement in LLLT and CO(2) laser surgery, respectively. This demonstrates a quick and pronounced beneficial effect in controlling symptoms related to OLP. Both methods may be effective in the treatment of OLP, and can be used as alternative therapy alongside standard treatment modalities. The present study showed that LLLT displayed better results than CO(2) laser therapy as alternative or additional therapy, but further investigations in comparison with standard treatment modalities with a prolonged follow-up period will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of laser therapy in the treatment of OLP. PMID:22784653

Agha-Hosseini, F; Moslemi, E; Mirzaii-Dizgah, I

2012-10-01

160

[Comparative pharmacological activity of triamcinolone acetonide and of a new topical steroid: amcinonide, after percutaneous or oral administration (author's transl)].  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to compare the potential anti-inflammatory activity and the level of action of triamcinolone acetonide (Triam. Ac.) and amcinonide (Amc.) after percutaneous administration to animals. Administered per os to rats Amc. is 18 times less active (DI50 1,85 mg . kg-1) on carrageenin plantar edema and 10 times less active (DI50 4,2 mg . kg-1) than Triam Ac. on air pouch granuloma with carrageenin. The potential anti-inflammatory activity at the various levels of tissues under the skin was evaluated with an ointment and a cream containing the two corticosteroďds through three methods: --vasoconstrictor assays on guinea pig showing cutaneous activity; --plantar edema showing subcutaneous activity; --air pouch granuloma showing anti-exsudative activity. The results are as it follows: --vasoconstrictor activity Amc. higher than Triam. Ac.; --plantar edema Amc. equal to Triam Ac.; --air pouch granuloma Am. lesser than Triam. Ac. The two corticoids administered percutaneously show any thymolytic activity on young female rats. Though Amc. is far less active than Triam. Ac. when orally administered, nevertheless it is a powerful dermocorticoďd with a poor systemic activity. Its local effects are less profound than those of Triam. Ac. PMID:7206733

Wepierre, J; Bogaievsky, Y

1980-01-01

161

Comparative pharmacokinetics study of a kaurane diterpenoid after oral administration of monomer and Siegesbeckiae pubescens Makino extract to rats.  

PubMed

In this paper, a sensitive, rapid and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to analyze 16?-hydro-ent-kauran-17,19-dioic acid in rat plasma. First, this study compared the pharmacokinetics of 16?-hydro-ent-kauran-17,19-dioic acid after oral administration of monomer and Siegesbeckiae pubescens Makino extract in rat plasma with approximately the same dosage of 6.0?mg/kg. Second, chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Symmetry C18 column (2.1?×?100?mm, 3.5?µm) with isocratic elution using methanol-water containing 5?mmol/L ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2?mL/min. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 30-12000?ng/mL for monomer. At different time points (0, 0.083, 0.25, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72?h) after administration, the concentrations of monomer in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The double absorption presented in this study indicates that the pharmacokinetics of monomer in rat plasma have significant differences between different groups. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24338899

Lei, Ming; Jiang, Zhen; Liu, Hongjiao; Cui, Yan; Ye, Xiaoxia; Ji, Bin; Guo, Xingjie

2014-05-01

162

MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124

Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

2013-01-01

163

COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

164

Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: A cost effectiveness study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To compare the costs and effects of paliperidone extended release (ER), a new pharmaceutical treatment for the management of schizophrenia, with the most frequently prescribed oral treatments in Greece (namely risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and ziprasidone) over a 1-year time period. METHODS: A decision tree was developed and tailored to the specific circumstances of the Greek healthcare system. Therapeutic

Maria Geitona; Hara Kousoulakou; Markos Ollandezos; Kostas Athanasakis; Sotiria Papanicolaou; Ioannis Kyriopoulos

2008-01-01

165

Muscarinic activity of the thiolactone, lactam, lactol, and thiolactol analogues of pilocarpine and a hypothetical model for the binding of agonists to the m1 receptor.  

PubMed

Pilocarpine isosteres have been synthesized and characterized with regard to their in vitro muscarinic properties. The results indicate that the carbonyl oxygen of the lactone function of pilocarpine is of primary importance for agonist activity with the ether oxygen being of lesser or secondary importance. An X-ray structure determination for the hydrogen O,O'-ditoluoyltartrate salt of thiolactone pilocarpine isostere 2a has been performed. This compound has an unusual pharmacological profile exhibiting M1-agonist selectivity as well ass presynaptic antagonism. As a result this compound is also viewed as having therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease. A model for the binding of pilocarpine and other muscarinic agonists to the third transmembrane helix of the human m1 muscarinic receptor has been developed. PMID:1732522

Shapiro, G; Floersheim, P; Boelsterli, J; Amstutz, R; Bolliger, G; Gammenthaler, H; Gmelin, G; Supavilai, P; Walkinshaw, M

1992-01-01

166

Comparison of the pupillary, refractive, and hypotensive effects of Ocusert-40 and pilocarpine eyedrops in the treatment of chronic simple glaucoma.  

PubMed Central

Twelve patients with chronic simple glaucoma were treated for 1 week with Ocusert-40, and the effects on the pupil, intraocular pressure, and refraction were measured. A comparison was made with the effects of pilocarpine eyedrop therapy in 8 of these patients. Both forms of pilocarpine treatment gave satisfactory control of intraocular pressure and both constricted the pupil to a similar degree shortly after initiation of treatment. During the week on Ocusert-40 the pupils redilated, so that 54% of the initial miosis remained after 7 days' wear. There was, however, considerable variability in the pupillary sensitivity to Ocusert-40 within and between eyes, and it is suggested that this may have been partly due to variable release rates of pilocarpine. Only minor decreases in visual acuity and refraction resulted from pilocarpine in either form. Seven of the 12 patients rejected Ocusert-40 because of discomfort or inability to retain the device.

Smith, S E; Smith, S A; Friedmann, A I; Chaston, J M

1979-01-01

167

Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice  

SciTech Connect

Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

2010-04-01

168

The comparative efficacy of decalcified allogenic bone matrix and intra-oral free osseous autografts in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The primary goal of periodontal treatment is the maintenance of the natural dentition in health and comfortable function. The shift in therapeutic concepts from resection to regeneration has significantly impacted the practice of periodontology. The objective of the present study is to compare the relative efficacy of intra-oral autogenous graft and decalcified allogenic bone matrix (DABM) in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 30 patients in the age group of 30-50 years with two almost identical intrabony defects, on either side of the mouth/upper and lower jaw, based upon the radiographic observations were selected from amongst the patients visiting the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Punjab Government Dental College and Hospital, Amritsar. One of the defect was selected randomly and filled with autogenous cancellous graft and the other with DABM. Post-operative assessment was done by taking radiographs, 12 weeks and 24 weeks post-operatively. Results: Definite bone fill was achieved both with intra-oral free osseous autograft and with DABM at 12 weeks observation, which further increased significantly at 24 weeks observation. The bone fill obtained with intra-oral free osseous autograft was found to be significantly higher than that with DABM both at 12 weeks and 24 weeks post-operative observation. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it establishes the superiority of the intra-oral free osseous autograft over that of DABM graft in correcting the intrabony defects.

Jindal, Vikas; Gill, Amarjit Singh; Kapoor, Daljit; Gupta, Harinder

2013-01-01

169

Perforant path activation of ectopic granule cells that are born after pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Granule cells in the dentate gyrus are born throughout life, and various stimuli can affect their development in the adult brain. Following seizures, for instance, neurogenesis increases greatly, and some new cells migrate to abnormal (ectopic) locations, such as the hilus. Previous electrophysiological studies of this population have shown that they have intrinsic properties that are similar to normal granule cells, but differ in other characteristics, consistent with abnormal integration into host circuitry. To characterize the response of ectopic hilar granule cells to perforant path stimulation, intracellular recordings were made in hippocampal slices from rats that had pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and subsequent spontaneous recurrent seizures. Comparisons were made with granule cells located in the granule cell layer of both pilocarpine- and saline-treated animals. In addition, a few ectopic hilar granule cells were sampled from saline-treated rats. Remarkably, hilar granule cells displayed robust responses, even when their dendrites were not present within the molecular layer, where perforant path axons normally terminate. The evoked responses of hilar granule cells were similar in several ways to those of normally positioned granule cells, but there were some differences. For example, there was an unusually long latency to onset of responses evoked in many hilar granule cells, especially those without molecular layer dendrites. Presumably this is due to polysynaptic activation by the perforant path. These results indicate that synaptic reorganization after seizures can lead to robust activation of newly born hilar granule cells by the perforant path, even when their dendrites are not in the terminal field of the perforant path. Additionally, the fact that these cells can be found in normal tissue and develop similar synaptic responses, suggests that seizures, while not necessary for their formation, strongly promote their generation and the development of associated circuits, potentially contributing to a lowered seizure threshold. PMID:14580952

Scharfman, H E; Sollas, A E; Berger, R E; Goodman, J H; Pierce, J P

2003-01-01

170

Neuroprotective properties of topiramate in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy.  

PubMed

The lithium-pilocarpine model reproduces the main characteristics of human temporal lobe epilepsy. After status epilepticus (SE), rats exhibit a latent seizure-free phase characterized by development of extensive damage in limbic areas and occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic effects of topiramate were investigated in this model. SE was induced in adult male rats by LiCl (3 mEq/kg) followed 20 h later by pilocarpine (25 mg/kg). Topiramate (10, 30, or 60 mg/kg) was injected at 1 and 10 h of SE. Injections were repeated twice a day for six additional days. Another group received two injections of diazepam on the day of SE and of vehicle for 6 days. Neuronal damage was assessed at 14 days after SE by cell counting on thionin-stained sections. Occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) was videorecorded for 10 h per day in other groups of rats. In diazepam-treated rats, the number of neurons was dramatically reduced after SE in all subregions of hippocampus and layers II-IV of ventral cortices. At all doses, topiramate induced a 24 to 30% neuroprotection in layer CA1 of hippocampus (p < 0.05). In CA3b, the 30-mg/kg dose prevented neuronal death. All rats subjected to SE became epileptic. The latency (14-17 days) to and frequency of SRS were similar in topiramate- and diazepam-treated rats. The high mortality in the 30 mg/kg topiramate group (84%) was possibly the result of interaction between lithium and topiramate. In conclusion, topiramate displayed neuroprotective properties only in CA1 and CA3 that were not sufficient to prevent epileptogenesis. PMID:14593082

Rigoulot, M A; Koning, E; Ferrandon, A; Nehlig, A

2004-02-01

171

Evidence for a possible avian dorsal thalamic region comparable to the mammalian ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and oral ventroposterolateral nuclei.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated whether a dorsal thalamic region comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier (the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral nucleus, and the oral ventroposterolateral nucleus) exists in pigeon. With this aim, we reinvestigated the projections of the pigeon dorsal pallidum to the dorsal thalamus by using 1) injections of the anterogradely transported form of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal pallidum (paleostriatum primitivum) and 2) injections of the retrogradely transported form of BDA (3,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal thalamus. Our results indicate that the dorsal pallidum in pigeons projects to three areas of the dorsal thalamus: the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, the ventrointermediate area, and the nucleus subrotundus. Only the projection to the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus was described previously (Karten and Dubbeldam [1973] J. Comp. Neurol. 148:61-90; Kitt and Brauth [1982] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566). To investigate whether any of the dorsal thalamic nuclei receiving pallidal input project to a motor cortical field, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were placed into the rostral Wulst. This is an avian cortical field that appears to contain a region comparable to mammalian primary somatomotor cortex (Karten [1971] Anat. Rec. 169:353; Wild [1992] J. Comp. Neurol. 287:1-18). Our results indicate that neurons in the rostral ventrointermediate area, but not in the nucleus subrotundus, the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, or the intermediate or caudal parts of the ventrointermediate area, project to the rostral Wulst. In addition to the input from the dorsal pallidum, the avian ventrointermediate area also receives input from the lateral substantia nigra and the lateral and internal cerebellar nuclei (present results). Our results suggest the existence in birds of a pallidothalamocortical loop similar to the pallidoventral tier-motor cortex loop of mammals and suggest that the avian ventrointermediate area is comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier in both location and connections. If this is confirmed by physiological experiments, then it would indicate that basal ganglia control of movement mediated by a pallidothalamocortical loop may have evolved with the stem reptiles. PMID:9214542

Medina, L; Veenman, C L; Reiner, A

1997-07-21

172

Randomized Trial of 13-cis Retinoic Acid Compared With Retinyl Palmitate With or Without Beta-Carotene in Oral Premalignancy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether retinyl palmitate (RP) alone or plus beta-carotene (BC) would be as effective and less toxic than low-dose 13-cis retinoic acid (13cRA) in treating oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and reducing the risk of oral cancer. Patients and Methods Initially, patients were randomly assigned to receive low-dose 13cRA or BC plus RP for 3 years (plus 2 years follow-up). After other randomized trials established an adverse effect of BC on lung cancer incidence/mortality, BC was dropped (patients randomly assigned to 13cRA or RP alone). The primary end point was OPL clinical response at 3 months. Results We randomly assigned 162 eligible patients. The 3-month clinical response rate of the combined BC plus RP and RP alone arm (32.5%) was not statistically equivalent to that of 13cRA (48.1%). The clinical response rate of RP alone (20.0%) was significantly lower than that of BC plus RP (42.9%; P = .03). Similar oral cancer–free survival rates were observed across all arms. There was no significant association between 3-month OPL response and subsequent oral cancer development (P = .11). Grades 2 and higher adverse events were more common in the 13cRA than other groups (P < .0001). Conclusion This large chemoprevention trial did not establish the equivalence of RP plus BC or RP alone with low-dose 13cRA in reducing the long-term risk of oral cancer. At present, 13cRA, BC plus RP, and RP alone cannot be recommended for chemoprevention, and new, better agents are needed in this setting. Our results did not establish short-term OPL response as a surrogate end point for oral cancer–free survival.

Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A.; Lee, J. Jack; William, William N.; Martin, Jack W.; Thomas, Margaret; Kim, Edward S.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Shin, Dong M.; Feng, Lei; Hong, Waun Ki; Lippman, Scott M.

2009-01-01

173

Programmed cell death in the lithium pilocarpine model: evidence for NMDA receptor and ceramide-mediated mechanisms.  

PubMed

Ceramide is known to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in neural and non-neural tissues and to increase after kainic acid (KA) status epilepticus (SE). Ceramide increases have been shown to depend on NMDA receptor activation in the KA model, but these changes have not been studied in the lithium pilocarpine (LiPC) model. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if hippocampal ceramide levels increase after LiPC induced SE and if NMDA receptor blockade prevents PCD and any such ceramide increases. We found that LiPC induced SE resulted in ceramide increases and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus of adult, P21, and P7 rats. The administration of MK-801, the NMDA receptor antagonist, in adults, 15min prior to pilocarpine, prevented ceramide increases, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:18295995

Mikati, Mohamad A; Rizk, Elias; El Dada, Shirine; Zeinieh, Michele; Kurdi, Rana; El Hokayem, Jimmy; Rahmeh, Amal; Koubeissi, Mohamad; Kobeissi, Mohamad; Azzam, Diana; Usta, Julnar; El Sabban, Marwan; Dbaibo, Ghassan

2008-09-01

174

Distribution and proliferation of bone marrow cells in the brain after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice.  

PubMed

The distribution of bone marrow cells in brain areas during the acute period after pilocarpine-induced status epiepticus (SE) was investigated here. To achieve this, we generated chimeric mice by engrafting bone marrow cells from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice. GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells were found throughout the brain, predominantly in the hippocampus. As expected, these cells exhibited the characteristics of microglia. The pattern of distribution, proliferation, and differentiation of GFP(+)cells changes as a function of intensity and time following SE. This pattern is also a consequence of the inflammatory response, which is followed by the progressive neuronal damage that is characteristic of the pilocarpine model. PMID:20384764

Longo, Beatriz; Romariz, Simone; Blanco, Miriam Marcela; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Bahia, Luciana; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Mello, Luiz E; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo

2010-08-01

175

Early effects of oral administration of lafutidine with mosapride compared with lafutidine alone on intragastric pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ideal medication for treatment of acid related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion after a single oral administrations of lafutidine, is a newly synthesized H2-receptor antagonist, with mosapride 5 mg or lafutidine alone. METHODS:

Hiroshi Iida; Masahiko Inamori; Yuichi Nozaki; Hiroki Endo; Kunihiro Hosono; Tomoyuki Akiyama; Yasunari Sakamoto; Hirokazu Takahashi; Tomoko Koide; Chikako Tokoro; Yasunobu Abe; Atsushi Nakajima

2009-01-01

176

Blockade of the sodium calcium exchanger exhibits anticonvulsant activity in a pilocarpine model of acute seizures in rats  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) may contribute to the etiology of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Here we further investigated the role of NCX in the etiology of seizures by quantifying the effects of KB-R7943 and SN-6, potent inhibitors of the reverse mode of NCX subtypes 3 (NCX3) and 1 (NCX1), respectively, on the occurrence of acute seizures and status epilepticus induced by intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Pretreatment with KB-R7943 significantly reduced the incidence of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus in 22–56% of treated animals. In the remaining animals that exhibited seizures, KB-R7943 pretreatment delayed the onset of seizures and status epilepticus, and reduced seizure severity. Delayed onset of seizures and reduced seizure severity also were seen following pretreatment with SN-6. These findings suggest that altered NCX activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus.

Martinez, Yuris; N'Gouemo, Prosper

2010-01-01

177

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

178

New Dosing Regimens for Amifostine: A Pilot Study to Compare the Relative Bioavailability of Oral and Subcutaneous Administration with Intravenous Infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase I clinical trial was conducted to assess the feasibility of a more convenient and safe dosing regime for the cytoprotective drug amifostine. Two alternative routes of administration, oral and subcutaneous (SQ), each with a dose of 500 mg, were compared to a 7.5-minute intravenous (IV) infusion, with a dose of 200 mg\\/m2, in normal, healthy volunteers (N =

H. S. Bonner; L. M. Shaw

2002-01-01

179

Comparative efficacy of patient-controlled administration of morphine, hydromorphone, or sufentanil for the treatment of oral mucositis pain following bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 119 bone marrow transplant patients suffering from oral mucositis pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia with morphine, hydromorphone and sufentanil. Patient ratings of pain and side-effects on visual analog scales were gathered daily from the start of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) therapy until the discontinuation of opioid treatment either

Barbara A Coda; Barbara O'Sullivan; Gary Donaldson; Sharol Bohl; C. Richard Chapman; Danny D Shen

1997-01-01

180

Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil + clorsulon + ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole.Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver

G. W. Hutchinson; K. Dawson; C. C. Fitzgibbon; P. J. Martin

2009-01-01

181

Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.METHODSTwenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17–43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g

Marjaleena Koskiniemi; Betty Van Vleymen; Lauri Hakamies; Salla Lamusuo; Jaakko Taalas

1998-01-01

182

A bioavailability study comparing two oral formulations containing zinc (Zn bis-glycinate vs. Zn gluconate) after a single administration to twelve healthy female volunteers.  

PubMed

As the current nutritional zinc intake frequently falls outside the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and as zinc is an essential trace mineral involved in the function of many enzymes, zinc supplementation has been recommended to prevent or treat the adverse effects of zinc deficiency. The aim of the present study was to compare the oral bioavailability of zinc bis-glycinate (a new formulation) with zinc gluconate (reference formulation). A randomized, cross-over study was conducted in 12 female volunteers. The two products were administrated orally at the single dose of 15 mg (7.5 mg x 2), with a 7-day wash-out period between the two tests. Serum concentrations of zinc were assayed by a validated inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method and C(max), T(max), and areas-under-the-curve (AUCs) were determined. The comparison between the two treatments was performed by comparing the C(max), AUC(t), and AUC(inf) using an analysis of variance followed by the calculation of the 90% confidence intervals of the ratio test/reference. Bis-glycinate administration was safe and well tolerated and bis-glycinate significantly increased the oral bioavailability of zinc (+43.4%) compared with the gluconate. PMID:18271278

Gandia, Peggy; Bour, Dorothée; Maurette, Jean-Marc; Donazzolo, Yves; Duchčne, Patrick; Béjot, Marie; Houin, Georges

2007-07-01

183

Comparing ONRAB® AND RABORAL V-RG® oral rabies vaccine field performance in raccoons and striped skunks, New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine, USA.  

PubMed

Control of rabies in mesocarnivore reservoirs through oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires an effective vaccine bait. Oral rabies vaccine performance in the field may be affected by a variety of factors, including vaccine bait density and distribution pattern, habitat, target species population density, and the availability of competing foods. A field study in which these covariates were restricted as much as possible was conducted along the international border of the state of Maine (ME), USA, and the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada, to compare the performance of two oral rabies vaccines in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). RABORAL V-RG(®) (vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in fishmeal-coated sachet) or ONRAB(®) (adenovirus-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in Ultralite bait matrix) were distributed in ME and NB, respectively, by fixed-wing aircraft at a density of 75 baits/km(2) along parallel flight lines spaced 1.0 km apart. Sera were collected from live-trapped raccoons and skunks 5-7 wk post-ORV and assayed to determine antibody prevalence in each area. Duplicate serum samples were provided blind to two different laboratories for analyses by rabies virus serum neutralization assays (at both laboratories) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at one laboratory). There was no significant difference in the proportion of antibody-positive animals determined by the three serologic methods, nor was there a significant difference between ONRAB and RABORAL V-RG in the proportion of antibody-positive striped skunks observed post-ORV. In contrast, the proportion of antibody-positive raccoons was significantly higher in the ONRAB- versus the RABORAL V-RG-baited areas (74% vs. 30%; ?(2)=89.977, df=5, P<0.0001). These data support that ONRAB may serve as an effective tool for raccoon rabies control. PMID:22247384

Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Rudd, Robert; Donovan, Dennis; Slate, Dennis; Kempf, Libby; Badcock, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

184

Randomized double-blind clinical trial comparing clobetasol and dexamethasone for the topical treatment of symptomatic oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation frequently develop an immunologic disease caused by the reactivation of the graft to the host tissues. This disease is called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and it is usually a systemic disorder. In a large proportion of cases, oral disorders that are related to a chronic phase of GVHD (cGVHD) occur, and their treatment involves the use of topical immunosuppressive drugs. Several medications have been studied for this purpose, but only a small number of clinical trials have been published. The present study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial that compares topical clobetasol and dexamethasone for the treatment of symptomatic oral cGVHD. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with clobetasol propionate .05% or dexamethasone .1 mg/mL for 28 days. In both arms, nystatin 100,000 IU/mL was administered with the corticosteroid. Oral lesions were evaluated by the modified oral mucositis rating scale (mOMRS) and symptoms were registered using a visual analogue scale. Thirty-five patients were recruited, and 32 patients were randomized into the study groups: 18 patients (56.3%) to the dexamethasone group and 14 patients (43.8%) to the clobetasol group. The use of clobetasol resulted in a significant reduction in mOMRS total score (P = .04) and in the score for ulcers (P = .03). In both groups, there was significant symptomatic improvement but the response was significantly greater in the clobetasol group (P = .02). In conclusion, clobetasol was significantly more effective than dexamethasone for the amelioration of symptoms and clinical aspects of oral lesions in cGVHD. PMID:24727333

Noce, Cesar W; Gomes, Alessandra; Shcaira, Vanessa; Corręa, Maria Elvira P; Moreira, Maria Cláudia R; Silva Júnior, Arley; Gonçalves, Lúcio Souza; Garnica, Marcia; Maiolino, Angelo; Torres, Sandra R

2014-08-01

185

Mood fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study comparing the effects of intravenous and oral levodopa administration  

PubMed Central

Objectives Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with motor fluctuations that have been shown to improve when stable plasma levodopa levels are achieved with continuous levodopa infusions. Many patients also develop mood fluctuations. In this pilot study, we gathered preliminary information about the relationship between changing mood states and plasma levodopa levels. Methods Six patients with idiopathic PD and histories of motor and mood fluctuations participated in a double-blind levodopa infusion study. Subjects received active oral carbidopa/levodopa and a placebo levodopa infusion on one day and placebo oral carbidopa/levodopa and an active levodopa infusion on the other day, in a randomly determined order. Evaluations included serial plasma levodopa levels and assessments of mood and motor states. Results Only 4 of the 6 subjects demonstrated mood fluctuations on at least one of the treatment days. All subjects achieved more stable plasma levodopa levels on the active infusion day. Two subjects experienced fewer mood fluctuations on the active infusion day and two experienced fewer on the oral day. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that the relationship between mood state and plasma levodopa level may vary among PD patients.

Richard, Irene Hegeman; Frank, Samuel; LaDonna, Kori A; Wang, Hongkun; McDermott, Michael P; Kurlan, Roger

2005-01-01

186

Comparison of status epilepticus models induced by pilocarpine and nerve agents - a systematic review of the underlying aetiology and adopted therapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

Among potential radiological, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, cholinergic nerve agents from chemical weapons remain a realistic terrorist threat due to its combination of high lethality, demonstrated use and relative abundance of un-destroyed stockpiles in various militaries around the world. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute poisoning, effective neuroprotection in the field remains a challenge amongst subjects with established status epilepticus following nerve agent intoxication. Due to ethical, safety and surety issues, extensive preclinical and clinical research on cholinergic nerve agents is not possible. This may have been a contributory factor for the slow progress in uncovering new neuroprotectants for nerve agent casualties with established status epilepticus. To overcome this challenge, comparative research with surrogate chemicals that produce similar hypercholinergic toxicity but with less security concerns would be a useful approach forward. In this paper, we will systemically compare the mechanism of seizure generation, propagation and the subsequent clinical, hematologic, and metabolic, biochemical, neuroinflammatory changes and current therapeutic approaches reported in pilocarpine, soman, and sarin models of seizures. This review will be an important first step in closing this knowledge gap among different closely related models of seizures and neurotoxicity. Hopefully, it will spur further efforts in using surrogate cholinergic models by the wider scientific community to expedite the development of a new generation of antidotes that are better able to protect against delayed neurological effects inflicted by nerve agents. PMID:21182477

Tang, F R; Loke, W K; Ling, E A

2011-01-01

187

A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Results: Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments. Conclusion: Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin.

Thaker, Saket J.; Mehta, Dimple S.; Shah, Hiral A.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Kikani, Kunjan M.

2013-01-01

188

Additional antiepileptic mechanisms of levetiracetam in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats.  

PubMed

Several studies have addressed the antiepileptic mechanisms of levetiracetam (LEV); however, its effect on catecholamines and the inflammatory mediators that play a role in epilepsy remain elusive. In the current work, lithium (Li) pretreated animals were administered LEV (500 mg/kg i.p) 30 min before the induction of convulsions by pilocarpine (PIL). Li-PIL-induced seizures were accompanied by increased levels of hippocampal prostaglandin (PG) E2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-10. Moreover, it markedly elevated hippocampal lipid peroxides and nitric oxide levels, while it inhibited the glutathione content. Li-PIL also reduced hippocampal noradrenaline, as well as dopamine contents. Pretreatment with LEV protected against Li-PIL-induced seizures, where it suppressed the severity and delayed the onset of seizures in Li-PIL treated rats. Moreover, LEV reduced PGE2 and MPO, yet it did not affect the level of both cytokines in the hippocampus. LEV also normalized hippocampal noradrenaline, dopamine, glutathione, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide contents. In conclusion, alongside its antioxidant property, LEV anticonvulsive effect involves catecholamines restoration, as well as inhibition of PGE2, MPO, and nitric oxide. PMID:24098559

Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; El Sayeh, Bahia M; Abdallah, Dalaal M

2013-01-01

189

[Inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythm in rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy].  

PubMed

Epilepsy clinically has an inhibitory impact on cognitive function, but whether it is associated with epileptogenesis is unclear. Since the epileptic spike characterizes temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the present study was aimed to analyze the transient effects of sporadic spikes (SSs) on theta rhythm during epileptogenesis. The local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in CA1 area in four rats with the pilocarpine injections during exploration, and theta phase stability and power were globally estimated around SSs, also during prolonged period without SS (both as experiments) as well as pre-injections (control). Finally, the LFPs were simulated by changing the average excitatory and inhibitory synaptic gain values (including slow and fast inhibition loops) with the help of simplified dynamical model of CA1 networks, and then theta phase stability was evaluated in several cases. It was found that the SSs could have negative impacts on theta rhythm both transiently and persistently, which may be dependent on the temporal courses leading to epilepsy, being acuter in early stage than later stage, but even in latent stage, theta power was strong. The simulations partly demonstrated that the synaptic imbalance concomitant with the occurrence of SSs might be related to the dynamics of theta phase stability. The results indicate that the SSs might have persistent negative impacts on the cognition rhythm, and the effects might alter during epileptogenesis, leading to the cognitive dysfunction. PMID:24777401

Ge, Man-Ling; Guo, Bao-Qiang; Chen, Xue; Sun, Ying; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Sun, Wei

2014-04-25

190

Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail. PMID:23772453

Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

2013-03-01

191

Diagnostic Usefulness of the Serum-Specific IgE, the Skin Prick Test and the Atopy Patch Test Compared with That of the Oral Food Challenge Test  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is frequently associated with food allergies. In addition to the skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE, the atopy patch test (APT) has been introduced as a diagnostic procedure for food allergies. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the APT, the SPT and the serum-specific IgE levels compared with that of oral food challenge test against milk and egg in AD patients. Methods We conducted the SPT and APT, and determined the serum-specific IgE levels against milk and egg antigens for 101 patients. Oral food challenge tests were conducted for 86 out of 101 AD patients. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictable values were calculated for all the tests. Results Twenty-five patients were positive to oral food challenges. The sensitivity of the APT for milk was 66.7%, while the figures for the SPT and the serum-specific IgE were 35.5% and 14.2%. The sensitivity of the APT for egg was 50%, while that for the SPT and serum-specific IgE were 21.4% and 6.7%. Conclusion We were able to conclude that the APT test seems to be a valuable additional tool for the diagnostic method of food allergies in AD.

Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One; Lee, Cheol Heon

2010-01-01

192

Early effect of oral administration of omeprazole with mosapride as compared with those of omeprazole alone on the intragastric pH  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal medication for acid-related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and cause efficient resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to comparatively investigate the inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion of a single oral administration of omeprazole plus mosapride with that of omeprazole alone. Methods Ten Helicobacter pylori-negative male subjects participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 6 hours after a single oral administration of omeprazole 20 mg or that of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg (the omeprazole being administered one hour after the mosapride). Each administration was separated by a 7-days washout period. Results The average pH during the 6-hour period after administration of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg was higher than that after administration of omeprazole 20 mg alone (median: 3.22 versus 4.21, respectively; p = 0.0247). Conclusions In H. pylori -negative healthy male subjects, an oral dose of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg increased the intragastric pH more rapidly than omeprazole 20 mg alone.

2012-01-01

193

Switching to olanzapine long-acting injection from either oral olanzapine or any other antipsychotic: comparative post hoc analyses  

PubMed Central

Background A considerable proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia show suboptimal responses to oral antipsychotics due to inadequate adherence. Hence, they are likely to benefit from switching to a long-acting injectable formulation. These post hoc analyses assessed the clinical effects of switching to olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI) from either oral olanzapine (OLZ) or other antipsychotics (non-OLZ). Methods Post hoc analyses were done based on two randomized studies (one short-term, one long-term) conducted in patients suffering from schizophrenia and treated with OLAI. The short-term study was an 8-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in acute patients, and the long-term study was a 2-year, oral olanzapine-controlled, open-label, follow-up of stabilized outpatients. Results These analyses used data from 62 OLAI-treated patients (12 switched from OLZ, 50 from non-OLZ) from the short-term study and 190 OLAI-treated patients (56 switched from OLZ, 134 from non-OLZ) from the long-term study. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses of time to all-cause discontinuation of OLAI treatment did not differ significantly between OLZ and non-OLZ patients in the short-term study (P=0.209) or long-term study (P=0.448). Similarly, the proportions of OLZ and non-OLZ patients that discontinued OLAI were not statistically different in the short-term (16.7% versus 36.0%, respectively; P=0.198) or long-term (57.1% versus 47.8% respectively; P=0.238) studies. In the short-term study, no significant differences were detected between the patient groups in mean change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (?13.4 OLZ versus ?20.8 non-OLZ; P=0.166). In the long-term study, mean change in PANSS total score (3.9 OLZ versus ?3.6 non-OLZ; P=0.008) was significantly different between the non-OLZ and OLZ groups. Rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar in OLZ and non-OLZ groups per study. Conclusion These post hoc analyses suggest that no significant differences in clinical effectiveness were seen after switching from non-OLZ or OLZ to OLAI. However, these findings should be interpreted with care, due to small sample sizes and differences in patients’ clinical profiles.

Ciudad, Antonio; Anand, Ernie; Berggren, Lovisa; Casillas, Marta; Schacht, Alexander; Perrin, Elena

2013-01-01

194

Comparing aboral versus oral pouch with preserved duodenal passage after total gastrectomy: does the position of the gastric substitute reservoir count?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Total gastrectomy results in a significant weight loss, different postgastrectomy symptoms, and a reduction in quality of\\u000a life. Elaborate surgical reconstruction methods are evaluated to improve results. The present study compares two types of\\u000a reconstructions—an aboral pouch with preserved duodenal passage and an oral pouch with preserved duodenal passage—differing\\u000a only in the site of the pouch.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-eight patients entered the

Katalin Kalmár; Zsolt Káposztás; Gábor Varga; László Cseke; András Papp; Örs Péter Horváth

2008-01-01

195

Short and long-term anxiogenic effects induced by a single injection of subconvulsant doses of pilocarpine in rats: investigation of the putative role of hippocampal pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Behavioral consequences of convulsive episodes are well documented, but less attention was paid to changes that occur in response\\u000a to subconvulsant doses of drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We investigated short- and long-term effects of a single systemic injection of a subconvulsant dose of pilocarpine on the\\u000a behavior of rats as evaluated in the elevated plus maze.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Pilocarpine induced an anxiogenic-like profile

Filipe Silveira Duarte; Elaine Cristina Gavioli; Marcelo Duzzioni; Alexandre Ademar Hoeller; Newton Sabino Canteras; Thereza Christina Monteiro De Lima

2010-01-01

196

Septal GABAergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and chronic spontaneous seizures.  

PubMed

The septal region of the basal forebrain plays a critical role modulating hippocampal excitability and functional states. Septal circuits may also play a role in controlling abnormal hippocampal hyperexcitability in epilepsy. Both lateral and medial septal neurons are targets of hippocampal axons. Since the hippocampus is an important epileptogenic area in temporal lobe epilepsy, we hypothesize that excessive excitatory output will promote sustained neurodegeneration of septal region neurons. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was chosen as a model to generate chronic epileptic animals. To determine whether septal neuronal populations are affected by hippocampal seizures, immunohistochemical assays were performed in brain sections obtained from age-matched control, latent period (7 days post-SE) and chronically epileptic (more than one month post-SE survival) rats. An anti-NeuN (neuronal nuclei) antibody was used to study total neuronal numbers. Anti-ChAT (choline acetyltransferase), anti-GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) isoenzymes (65 and 67), and anti-glutamate antibodies were used to reveal cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, respectively. Our results revealed a significant atrophy of medial and lateral septal areas in all chronically epileptic rats. Overall neuronal density in the septum (medial and lateral septum), assessed by NeuN immunoreactivity, was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in chronically epileptic rats. The lessening of neuronal numbers in both regions was mainly due to the loss of GABAergic neurons (80-97% reduction in medial and lateral septum). In contrast, populations of cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons were spared. Overall, these data indicate that septal GABAergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to hippocampal hyperexcitability, and suggest that the processing of information in septohippocampal networks may be altered in chronic epilepsy. PMID:16934946

Garrido Sanabria, E R; Castańeda, M T; Banuelos, C; Perez-Cordova, M G; Hernandez, S; Colom, L V

2006-10-27

197

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment  

SciTech Connect

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

2013-01-01

198

A new era of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: comparing a new generation of oral anticoagulants with warfarin  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but data from large, multinational, prospective, randomized studies suggest that novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be suitable alternatives. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. These data showed that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was more effective at preventing stroke than warfarin, with similar rates of major bleeding, while rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily was noninferior to warfarin, with no difference in major bleeding rates. In addition, apixaban 5 mg twice daily was shown to be superior to warfarin for preventing stroke, with lower bleeding rates. Currently, edoxaban is still in clinical trials. NOACs offer more predictable anticoagulant effects than warfarin and do not require regular monitoring; however, different NOACs are associated with varied drug interactions and limitations related to use in certain patient populations. Overall, the clinical data suggest that these novel agents will offer new options for stroke prevention in patients with AF.

2013-01-01

199

Comparative Effectiveness Effective Health Care Oral Diabetes Medications for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. An Update. Executive Summary. Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 27.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Effective Health Care Programwas initiated in 2005 to provide valid evidence about the comparative effectiveness of different medical interventions. The object is to help consumers, health care providers, and others in making informed choices among tr...

2011-01-01

200

Progressive, potassium-sensitive epileptiform activity in hippocampal area CA3 of pilocarpine-treated rats with recurrent seizures.  

PubMed

Rat hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells synchronously discharge in rhythmic bursts of action potentials after acute disinhibition or convulsant treatment in vitro. These burst discharges resemble epileptiform activity, and are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms underlying limbic seizures. However, few studies have examined CA3 burst discharges in an animal model of epilepsy, because a period of prolonged, severe seizures (status epilepticus) is often used to induce the epileptic state, which can lead to extensive neuronal loss in CA3. Therefore, the severity of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was decreased with anticonvulsant treatment to reduce damage. Rhythmic burst discharges were recorded in the majority of slices from these animals, between two weeks and nine months after status epilepticus. The incidence and amplitude of bursts progressively increased with time after status, even after spontaneous behavioral seizures had begun. The results suggest that modifying the pilocarpine models of temporal lobe epilepsy to reduce neuronal loss leads to robust network synchronization in area CA3. The finding that these bursts increase long after spontaneous behavioral seizures begin supports previous arguments that temporal lobe epilepsy exhibits progressive pathophysiology. PMID:21880468

McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2011-11-01

201

Progressive, potassium-sensitive epileptiform activity in hippocampal area CA3 of pilocarpine-treated rats with recurrent seizures  

PubMed Central

Rat hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells synchronously discharge in rhythmic bursts of action potentials after acute disinhibition or convulsant treatment in vitro. These burst discharges resemble epileptiform activity, and are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms underlying limbic seizures. However, few studies have examined CA3 burst discharges in an animal model of epilepsy, because a period of prolonged, severe seizures (status epilepticus) is often used to induce the epileptic state, which can lead to extensive neuronal loss in CA3. Therefore, the severity of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was decreased with anticonvulsant treatment to reduce damage. Rhythmic burst discharges were recorded in the majority of slices from these animals, between two weeks and nine months after status epilepticus. The incidence and amplitude of bursts progressively increased with time after status, even after spontaneous behavioral seizures had begun. The results suggest that modifying the pilocarpine models of temporal lobe epilepsy to reduce neuronal loss leads to robust network synchronization in area CA3. The finding that these bursts increase long after spontaneous behavioral seizures begin supports previous arguments that temporal lobe epilepsy exhibits progressive pathophysiology.

McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

2011-01-01

202

Mossy cell axon synaptic contacts on ectopic granule cells that are born following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Granule cell neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newly born granule cells develop at abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic granule cells (EGCs) demonstrate regular bursts of action potentials that are synchronized with CA3 pyramidal cell burst discharges and the bursts of hilar neurons, including mossy cells. Such findings suggest that mossy cells may participate in circuits that activate EGCs. Electron microscopic immunolabeling was therefore used to determine if mossy cell axon terminals form synapses with hilar EGC dendrites, using animals that underwent pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Pilocarpine was administered to adult male rats, and those which developed status epilepticus were perfused 5-7 months later, after the period of EGC genesis. Hippocampal sections were processed for dual electron microscopic immunolabeling (using calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as a marker for mossy cells and calbindin (CaBP) as a marker for EGCs). Light microscopic analysis revealed large CGRP-immunoreactive cells in the hilus, with the appearance and distribution of mossy cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed numerous CaBP-immunoreactive dendrites in the hilus, some of which were innervated by CGRP-immunoreactive terminals. The results suggest that mossy cells participate in the excitatory circuits which activate EGCs, providing further insight into the network rearrangements that accompany seizure-induced neurogenesis in this animal model of epilepsy. PMID:17611032

Pierce, Joseph P; Punsoni, Michael; McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2007-07-11

203

[A double-blind randomized comparative study of oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CPA), and 5-FU + CPA in advanced breast cancer].  

PubMed

A randomized trial was performed comparing the effects of oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 300 mg/day, cyclophosphamide (CPA), 150 mg/day and 5-FU + CPA in advanced breast cancer. Some 181 patients were entered in the trial, with 1 ineligible, and 14 incomplete cases. Then 166 were evaluated for their rates of response in the treatment groups: 14.0% (8/57) in 5-FU, 23.6% (13/55) in CPA, and 37.0% (20/54) in 5-FU + CPA, with a P value of 0.019. The difference in response rates between 5-FU and 5-FU + CPA was shown to be significant (p = 0.005). When long NC was included in the comparison, there was a significant difference (p = 0.006) between the groups. A higher incidence of adverse effects was noted in the combination group. A significant difference was noted in TTP (time to progression) among the 3 groups (p = 0.0144), and between 5-FU and 5-FU + CPA (p = 0.0061). There were no significant differences in the overall survival among the groups (p = 0.6808). In conclusion, the combination oral treatment of 5-FU and CPA appears effective as a first line therapy for advanced breast cancer, and also in the postoperative adjuvant setting. PMID:10660736

Takayama, T; Nomura, Y

2000-01-01

204

Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Material and Methods: Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Results: Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bisphosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. Conclusion: In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ. PMID:24608203

Pelaz, A; Junquera, L; Gallego, L; García-Consuegra, L; Junquera, S; Gómez, C

2014-01-01

205

Synthetic bone substitute material comparable with xenogeneic material for bone tissue regeneration in oral cancer patients: First and preliminary histological, histomorphometrical and clinical results  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was first to evaluate the material-specific cellular tissue response of patients with head and neck cancer to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute NanoBone (NB) in comparison with a deproteinized bovine bone matrix Bio-Oss (BO) after implantation into the sinus cavity. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with tumor resection for oral cancer and severely resorbed maxillary bone received materials according to a split mouth design for 6 months. Bone cores were harvested prior to implantation and analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically. Implant survival was followed-up to 2 years after placement. Results: Histologically, NB underwent a higher vascularization and induced significantly more tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP-positive) multinucleated giant cells when compared with BO, which induced mainly mononuclear cells. No significant difference was observed in the extent of new bone formation between both groups. The clinical follow-up showed undisturbed healing of all implants in the BO-group, whereas the loss of one implant was observed in the NB-group. Conclusions: Within its limits, the present study showed for the first time that both material classes evaluated, despite their induction of different cellular tissue reactions, may be useful as augmentation materials for dental and maxillofacial surgical applications, particularly in patients who previously had oral cancer.

Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Stuebinger, Stefan; Seitz, Oliver; Landes, Constantin; Kovacs, Adorjan F.; Kirkpatrick, Charles J.; Sader, Robert A.

2013-01-01

206

A comparative study between Gd-DTPA and oral magnetic particles (OMP) as gastrointestinal (GI) contrast agents for MRI of the abdomen.  

PubMed

In the present study we compared two gastrointestinal contrast agents--Gd-DTPA, a positive signal, and oral magnetic particles (OMP), a negative signal contrast agent--in patients who were referred for MR imaging of the abdomen. Altogether 60 patients were examined with the former and 28 patients with the latter contrast before and after the administration of contrast media. Gd-DTPA was given either per os or per rectum. In comparing the results, it was shown that the diagnostic accuracy of postcontrast MRI in both groups was more or less similar to CT but much higher as compared with plain MRI. In the OMP series, first the contrast between the GI-filled lumen and the surrounding fat was much superior to that of the Gd-DTPA and, second, there was no evidence of any artifacts from bowel motion. However, the overall accuracy of the Gd-DTPA group was better compared with that of the OMP group. This was due to underfilling of the distal bowel because the OMP in those patients was administered only per os. Finally, Gd-DTPA had a more pleasant taste and fewer side effects. It is concluded that both contrast media are suitable for the upper abdomen because the results are comparable, whereas for the lower abdomen Gd-DTPA is superior because it can be used from both routes. PMID:7934658

Vlahos, L; Gouliamos, A; Athanasopoulou, A; Kotoulas, G; Claus, W; Hatziioannou, A; Kalovidouris, A; Papavasiliou, C

1994-01-01

207

Mossy fibers are the primary source of afferent input to ectopic granule cells that are born after pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newborn GCs develop in abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic GCs (EGCs) display robust spontaneous and evoked excitatory activity. However, the pattern of afferent input they receive has not been fully defined. This study used electron microscopic immunolabeling to quantitatively evaluate mossy fiber (MF) input to EGCs since MFs densely innervate the hilus normally and undergo sprouting in many animal models of epilepsy. EGC dendrites were examined in tissue from epileptic rats that had initially been treated with pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus and subsequently had spontaneous seizures. MF terminals were labeled with a zinc transporter-3 antibody, and calbindin immunoreactivity was used to label hilar EGCs and GC layer GCs. The pattern of input provided by sprouted MF terminals to EGC dendrites was then compared to the pattern of MF input to GC dendrites in the inner molecular layer (IML), where most sprouted fibers are thought to project. Analysis of EGC dendrites demonstrated that MF terminals represented their predominant source of afferent input: they comprised 63% of all terminals and, on average, occupied 40% and 29% of the dendritic surface in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus, respectively, forming frequent synapses. These measures of connectivity were significantly greater than comparable values for MF innervation of GC dendrites located in the IML of the same tissue sections. Thus, EGCs develop a pattern of synaptic connections that could help explain their previously identified predisposition to discharge in epileptiform bursts and suggest that they play an important role in the generation of seizure activity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:16342370

Pierce, Joseph P; Melton, Jay; Punsoni, Michael; McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2005-12-01

208

Pathogenesis and pharmacology of epilepsy in the lithium-pilocarpine model.  

PubMed

To try to identify the critical structures during epileptogenesis, we used the lithium-pilocarpine model that reproduces most clinical and neuropathological features of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We used imaging techniques as well as a disease modifying approach and pharmacological strategy. With [14C]-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, we assessed changes in cerebral glucose utilization. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 4.7 T) allowed follow-up of structures involved in epileptogenesis. A potential disease-modifying effect was studied using preconditioning with brief seizures (amygdala kindling, maximal electroshocks) and pharmacological strategies including vigabatrin (250 mg/kg), caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water), topiramate (10-60 mg/kg), pregabalin (50 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg), or RWJ-333369 (10-120 mg/kg). In adult and PN21 rats that became epileptic, entorhinal, and piriform cortices were the initial structures exhibiting significant signal changes on MRI scans, from 6 h after status epilepticus (SE) onset, reflecting neuronal death. In PN21 rats that did not become epileptic, no signal occurred in parahippocampal cortices. In hippocampus, MRI signal change appeared 36-48 h after SE, and progressively worsened to sclerosis. During the latent and chronic phases, the metabolic level in the hilus of adult and PN21 epileptic rats was normal although neuronal loss reached 60-75%. Protection limited to CA1 and/or CA3 (caffeine, topiramate, vigabatrin, amygdala kindling) did not affect the latency to spontaneous seizures. Protection limited to the entorhinal and piriform cortices (pregabalin) delayed epileptogenesis. The combined protection of Ammon's horn and parahippocampal cortices (RWJ-333369) prolonged the latency before the onset of seizures in a dose-dependent manner or, in some cases, prevented the epilepsy. The entorhinal and piriform cortices are critically involved in the early phase of the epileptogenesis while the hilus may initiate and/or maintain epileptic seizures. Pharmacological protection of the basal cortices is necessary for a beneficial disease-modifying effect but this must be combined with protection of the hippocampus to prevent epileptogenesis in this model of TLE. PMID:17910580

André, Véronique; Dubé, Céline; François, Jennifer; Leroy, Claire; Rigoulot, Marie-Aude; Roch, Catherine; Namer, Izzie J; Nehlig, Astrid

2007-01-01

209

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HPV 16 AND HPV 18 ANTIBODY DETECTION IN SERUM, CERVICAL MUCUS, AND ORAL MUCOSAL TRANSUDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring HPV exposure relies on detection of HPV type-specific antibodies, but methods are not standardized. Additionally, there is little information on the best sample type for HPV antibody detection. This study validated pseudovirion neutralization (PVN) assay for HPV antibody detection and compared it to IgG ELISA. Both assays were applied to paired serum and cervical mucus samples. Additionally, PVN assay

Emily L. Blalock

210

Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia  

SciTech Connect

Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (?g Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ? 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ? 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ? Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ? Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ? Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ? Species-specific and divergent changes are consistent with species-specific tumors.

Kopec, Anna K. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX 77494 (United States)] [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2012-07-15

211

Behavioral and cognitive alterations, spontaneous seizures, and neuropathology developing after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Many patients with epilepsy suffer from psychiatric comorbidities including depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders, cognitive, and personality changes, but the mechanisms underlying the association between epilepsy and psychopathology are only incompletely understood. Animal models of epilepsy, such as the pilocarpine model of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are useful to study the relationship between epilepsy and behavioral dysfunctions. In the present study, we examined behavioral and cognitive alterations, spontaneous seizures, and neuropathology developing after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the C57BL/6 (B6) inbred strain of mice, which is commonly used as background strain for genetically modified mice. For this study, we used the same pilocarpine ramping-up dosing protocol and behavioral test battery than in a previous study in NMRI mice, thus allowing direct comparison between these two mouse strains. All B6 mice that survived SE developed epilepsy with spontaneous recurrent seizures. Epileptic B6 mice exhibited significant increases of anxiety-related behavior in the open field and light-dark box, increased locomotor activity in the open field, elevated plus maze, hole board, and novel object exploration tests, and decreased immobility in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, spatial learning and memory were severely impaired in the Morris water maze, although hippocampal damage was much less severe than previously determined in NMRI mice. B6 mice in which pilocarpine did not induce SE but only single seizures did not exhibit any detectable neurodegeneration, but differed behaviorally from sham controls in several tests of the test battery used. Our data indicate that the pilocarpine model of TLE in B6 mice is ideally suited to study the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the association between seizures, brain damage and psychopathology. PMID:19500573

Müller, Christine J; Gröticke, Ina; Bankstahl, Marion; Löscher, Wolfgang

2009-09-01

212

The antidiabetic activity of the herbal preparation ADD-199 in mice: a comparative study with two oral hypoglycaemic drugs.  

PubMed

The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the herbal preparation ADD-199 were investigated in STZ-induced diabetic C(3)H mice and results were compared with two allopathic hypoglycaemic drugs, glibenclamide and metformin. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipids as well as liver glycogen, lipids and lipid peroxidation were measured following treatment for 8 weeks. The results indicated that plasma insulin levels in normal controls at termination were about 76 micromol/L compared to trace levels in untreated diabetic mice. Glibenclamide and ADD-199 increased insulin levels in diabetic mice up to 70% of levels in untreated non-diabetic mice whilst metformin had no effect. Basal plasma glucose levels in diabetic controls (18.8 mM) were reduced to 14.0 mM by 100 mg/kg ADD-199 in <2 weeks compared to 4 and 6 weeks for glibenclamide and metformin, respectively. This hypoglycaemic effect of ADD-199 appeared to be associated with the alkaloidal content of the extract. Treatment with ADD-199 or the hypoglycaemic agents reversed the observed elevation in plasma lipids but increased hepatic glycogen, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels. Treatment also increased glucose uptake by isolated diaphragms and attenuated hepatic lipid peroxidation. These antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant actions of ADD-199 at a dose of 100mg/kg/day are comparable to those of the maximum daily therapeutic doses of glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) and metformin (50 mg/kg). These could explain the basis for use of this plant extract to manage diabetes mellitus (DM). PMID:15652271

Okine, L K N; Nyarko, A K; Osei-Kwabena, N; Oppong, I V; Barnes, F; Ofosuhene, M

2005-02-10

213

The antidiabetic activity of the herbal preparation ADD199 in mice: a comparative study with two oral hypoglycaemic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the herbal preparation ADD-199 were investigated in STZ-induced diabetic C3H mice and results were compared with two allopathic hypoglycaemic drugs, glibenclamide and metformin. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipids as well as liver glycogen, lipids and lipid peroxidation were measured following treatment for 8 weeks. The results indicated that plasma insulin levels in normal controls

L. K. N. Okine; A. K. Nyarko; N. Osei-Kwabena; I. V. Oppong; F. Barnes; M. Ofosuhene

2005-01-01

214

Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia.  

PubMed

Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3-520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose-response modeling resulted in similar median EC??s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (?g Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ? 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ~2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. PMID:22561333

Kopec, Anna K; Thompson, Chad M; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L; Zacharewski, Timothy R

2012-07-15

215

A Comparative Efficacy of Low-Dose Combined Oral Contraceptives Containing Desogestrel and Drospirenone in Premenstrual Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare the efficacy of low-dose COC containing desogestrel (DSG) with drospirenone (DRSP) in the changes of premenstrual symptoms. Methods. In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 90 women with premenstrual syndrome who required COC were randomly recruited and allocated equally to receive either 6 cycles of 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE)/150 micrograms DSG (DSG group) or 20 micrograms EE/3?mg DRSP (DRSP group) in 24/4 extended regimen. Analysis of covariance and repeated analysis of variance were used to determine the difference of mean Women's Health Assessment Questionnaire (WHAQ) scores changes between groups, within group, and in premenstrual, menstrual, and postmenstrual phases. Results. Baseline characteristics and WHAQ scores were comparable. At the ends of the 3rd and the 6th cycles, mean WHAQ scores of all the 3 phases in DRSP group showed significant reduction and were significantly lower than those in DSG group. DSG group showed significant reduction in both premenstrual and menstrual phases after the 6th cycle. Adverse effects were comparable in both groups. In conclusion, low-dose COC containing either DSG or DRSP reduced premenstrual symptoms, but the latter showed greater efficacy and earlier reduction.

Wichianpitaya, Jirath; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2013-01-01

216

Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Phase 2 Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Solithromycin (CEM-101) to Those of Oral Levofloxacin in the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Solithromycin, a new macrolide, and the first fluoroketolide in clinical development, with activity against macrolide-resistant bacteria, was tested in 132 patients with moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase 2 study. Patients were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to either 800 mg solithromycin orally (PO) on day 1, followed by 400 mg PO daily on days 2 to 5, or 750 mg levofloxacin PO daily on days 1 to 5. Efficacy outcome rates of clinical success at the test-of-cure visit 4 to 11 days after the last dose of study drug were comparable in the intent-to-treat (ITT) (84.6% for solithromycin versus 86.6% for levofloxacin) and microbiological-intent-to-treat (micro-ITT) (77.8% for solithromycin versus 71.4% for levofloxacin) populations. Early response success rates at day 3, defined as improvement in at least two cardinal symptoms of pneumonia, were also comparable (72.3% for solithromycin versus 71.6% for levofloxacin). More patients treated with levofloxacin than with solithromycin experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the study (45.6% versus 29.7%). The majority of TEAEs were mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms and included nausea (1.6% for solithromycin; 10.3% for levofloxacin), diarrhea (7.8% for solithromycin; 5.9% for levofloxacin), and vomiting (0% for solithromycin; 4.4% for levofloxacin). Six patients, all of whom received levofloxacin, discontinued the study drug due to an adverse event. Solithromycin demonstrated comparable efficacy and favorable safety relative to levofloxacin. These findings support a phase 3 study of solithromycin for the treatment of CABP. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01168713.)

Oldach, David; Clark, Kay; Schranz, Jennifer; Das, Anita; Craft, J Carl; Scott, Drusilla; Jamieson, Brian D.

2013-01-01

217

Patient compliance with once-daily and twice-daily oral formulations of 5-isosorbide mononitrate: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This study compares patient compliance with once- and twice-daily formulations of 5-isosorbide mononitrate. A total of 31 patients (20 men and 11 women) with stable angina pectoris were randomized to receive either 60 mg 5-isosorbide mononitrate in a controlled release formulation once daily, or 20 mg 5-isosorbide mononitrate twice daily. The results indicated that compliance assessed using the electronic Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) was better with the once-daily than with the twice-daily formulation; patients on the once-daily regimen performed better with respect to the total number of bottle openings, the number of openings per day, the timing of openings and the intervals between openings. The apparently superior compliance with the once-daily regimen appeared to be reflected in better efficacy; patients on the once-daily regimen experienced fewer angina attacks (a mean of 1.7 per 7 days, compared with 3.3 per 7 days for patients on the twice-daily regimen) and used fewer nitroglycerin tablets than those on the twice-daily regimen. PMID:7867871

Brun, J

1994-01-01

218

Spontaneous recurrent seizures after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus activate calbindin-immunoreactive hilar cells of the rat dentate gyrus.  

PubMed

Although it is now established that neurogenesis of dentate gyrus granule cells increases after experimental seizures, little is currently known about the function of the new granule cells. One question is whether they become integrated into the network around them. Recent experiments that focused on the newly born granule cells in the hilus showed that indeed the new cells appear to become synchronized with host hippocampal neurons [Scharfman et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20, 6144-6158]. To address this issue further, we asked whether the new hilar granule cells were active during spontaneous limbic seizures that follow status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine injection. Thus, we perfused rats after spontaneous seizures and stained sections using antibodies to c-fos, a marker of neural activity, and calbindin, a marker of the newly born hilar granule cells [Scharfman et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20, 6144-6158]. We asked whether calbindin-immunoreactive hilar neurons were also c-fos-immunoreactive.C-fos was highly expressed in calbindin-immunoreactive hilar neurons. Approximately 23% of hilar cells that expressed c-fos were double-labeled for calbindin. In addition, other types of hilar neurons, i.e. those expressing parvalbumin or neuropeptide Y, also expressed c-fos. Yet other hippocampal neurons, including granule cells and pyramidal cells, had weak expression of c-fos at the latency after the seizure that hilar neuron expression occurred. In controls, there was very little c-fos or calbindin expression in the hilus.These results indicate that calbindin-immunoreactive hilar cells are activated by spontaneous seizures. Based on the evidence that many of these cells are likely to be newly born, the data indicate that new cells can become functionally integrated into limbic circuits involved in recurrent seizure generation. Furthermore, they appear to do so in a manner similar to many neighboring hilar neurons, apparently assimilating into the local environment. Finally, the results show that a number of hilar cell types are activated during chronic recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model, a surprising result given that many hilar neurons are thought to be damaged soon after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. PMID:11955713

Scharfman, H E; Sollas, A L; Goodman, J H

2002-01-01

219

Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail.

Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

2011-01-01

220

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of chlorogenic acid after oral administration of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Shuang-Huang-Lian in normal and febrile rats.  

PubMed

Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe containing Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), Forsythiae Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix, is clinically used for the treatment of fever and acute upper respiratory tract infection. In this research, a comparative study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic difference of chlorogenic acid (ChA) after oral administration of LJF and SHL to normal and febrile rats with approximately the same dose of 60 mg/kg, and the antipyrexia effect of LJF and SHL on rectal temperature changes induced by Baker's yeast was investigated. The results indicated that AUC(0-t) and plasma concentrations of ChA in the febrile rats were significantly higher than normal rats whether in the extract of LJF or SHL. In addition, SHL increased the values of AUC of ChA in both febrile and normal rats compared with LJF alone (p < 0.05), and SHL showed better antipyrexia effect than LJF. These results indicate that fever could play an important role in pharmacokinetic process of ChA. Meanwhile, the combined formula SHL exhibits higher bioavailability of ChA and superior antipyrexia effect than the single herb. PMID:23447366

Gao, Ru; Lin, Yining; Liang, Ge; Yu, Boyang; Gao, Yuan

2014-01-01

221

A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed. PMID:23086987

Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia

2013-09-01

222

Costs and effects of paliperidone extended release compared with alternative oral antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in Greece: A cost effectiveness study  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the costs and effects of paliperidone extended release (ER), a new pharmaceutical treatment for the management of schizophrenia, with the most frequently prescribed oral treatments in Greece (namely risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and ziprasidone) over a 1-year time period. Methods A decision tree was developed and tailored to the specific circumstances of the Greek healthcare system. Therapeutic effectiveness was defined as the annual number of stable days and the clinical data was collected from international clinical trials and published sources. The study population was patients who suffer from schizophrenia with acute exacerbation. During a consensus panel of 10 psychiatrists and 6 health economists, data were collected on the clinical practice and medical resource utilisation. Unit costs were derived from public sources and official reimbursement tariffs. For the comparators official retail prices were used. Since a price had not yet been granted for paliperidone ER at the time of the study, the conservative assumption of including the average of the highest targeted European prices was used, overestimating the price of paliperidone ER in Greece. The study was conducted from the perspective of the National Healthcare System. Results The data indicate that paliperidone ER might offer an increased number of stable days (272.5 compared to 272.2 for olanzapine, 265.5 f risperidone, 260.7 for quetiapine, 260.5 for ziprasidone and 258.6 for aripiprazole) with a lower cost compared to the other therapies examined (€7,030 compared to €7,034 for olanzapine, €7,082 for risperidone, €8,321 for quetiapine, €7,713 for ziprasidone and €7,807 for aripiprazole). During the sensitivity analysis, a ± 10% change in the duration and frequency of relapses and the economic parameters did not lead to significant changes in the results. Conclusion Treatment with paliperidone ER can lead to lower total cost and higher number of stable days in most of the cases examined.

Geitona, Maria; Kousoulakou, Hara; Ollandezos, Markos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Papanicolaou, Sotiria; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

2008-01-01

223

Comparable efficacy of a topical 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray and oral ciclosporin in treating canine atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

This study compared the efficacy of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) spray (Cortavance(®); Virbac SA) and ciclosporin (Atopica(®); Novartis Animal Health) in canine atopic dermatitis in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Dogs received HCA (two sprays/100 cm(2); n=24) or ciclosporin (5 mg/kg; n=21). Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03, pruritus (visual analog scale with grade descriptors) and owner scores (5-point scales) were recorded every 28 days for 84 days. Intention-to-treat data were analysed. CADESI-03 and pruritus significantly decreased over time (P<0.0001), but there was no difference between the treatment groups (P=0.91 and P=0.52, respectively). Similar proportions of HCA- and ciclosporin-treated dogs achieved ?50% reductions in CADESI-03 and pruritus scores at 28 days (CADESI-03 58.3 and 57.1%, P=0.76; pruritus 33.3 and 38.1%, P=1.0), 56 days (CADESI-03 70.8 and 81.0%, P=1.0; pruritus 62.5 and 57.1%, P=1.0) and 84 days (CADESI-03 75 and 85.7%, P=0.72; pruritus 65.2 and 57.1%, P=0.76). The CADESI-03 and pruritus scores were close to equivalence (0.47 and 0.51, respectively). By 84 days, every-other-day or twice-weekly therapy was achieved in 13 of 24 HCA- and 12 of 21 ciclosporin-treated dogs (P=0.85). There were no significant differences in scores for efficacy (P=0.82), tolerance (P=0.62) and ease of administration (P=0.25). Scores for tolerance (0.49) and administration (0.46) were close to equivalence. The score for efficacy favoured HCA (0.68). Mild adverse events were noted in six of 21 ciclosporin and none of 24 HCA dogs (P=0.008). Five HCA-treated dogs and three ciclosporin-treated dogs were prematurely withdrawn (P=0.7). In conclusion, HCA and ciclosporin proved equally effective in treating canine atopic dermatitis for up to 84 days. PMID:21718368

Nuttall, Tim J; McEwan, Neil A; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Cornegliani, Luisa; Löwenstein, Christine; Rčme, Christophe A

2012-02-01

224

Altered expression and localization of hippocampal A-type potassium channel subunits in the pilocarpine-induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of 2-3 weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:18727953

Monaghan, M M; Menegola, M; Vacher, H; Rhodes, K J; Trimmer, J S

2008-10-15

225

Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 ?g levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 ?g ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 ?g EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 ?g LNG/30 ?g EE [Treatment 2] or 150 ?g desogestrel [DSG]/30 ?g EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days' hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18-40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [- 18.3 pmol/L] > - 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. Chinese Abstract 91?150?g[levonorgestrel?LNG]/30?g[ethinylestradiol?EE]84?10?g EE 7[1]?21/7?21150?g LNG/30?g EE [2]150?g[desogestrel?DSG]/30?g EE [3]?7?? 18-40???6F1+2? 187?6F1+2?12?170 pmol/L158 pmol/L?3?592 pmol/L?12?3?95%[ -18.3 pmol/L] ? -130 pmol/L?? LNG/EEF1+2?LNG/EEDSG/EE? PMID:24923685

Nappi, Rossella E; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

2014-08-01

226

The prevalence of human herpes viruses in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to oral health providers and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The causative agents in periodontal disease are periopathogenic bacteria; however, viruses have been implicated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different HHVs in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and to compare it to two groups of healthy controls. Three groups were included: chronic periodontitis patients (CP), periodontally healthy patients (NP) and oral health providers with a healthy periodontium (NPOHP). For each subject, 1 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and mixed with 2 ml lysis buffer. HHVs assays were performed using real-time PCR. Fifteen percent of the subjects in the CP group tested positive for CMV compared to none in the NP and NPOHP groups (p = 0.04). Recurrent herpes was more frequent in females (51.7 %) than in males (33.3 %), and this was statistically significant (p = 0.038). The higher prevalence of CMV in the unstimulated saliva of CP patients suggests that CMV may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:23381395

Bilder, Leon; Elimelech, Rina; Szwarcwort-Cohen, Moran; Kra-Oz, Zipi; Machtei, Eli E

2013-06-01

227

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Berberine, Palmatine and Jatrorrhizine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine in rat plasma. Target compounds, together with the internal standard (metronidazole), were extracted from rat plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (1:2, v/v). Chromatography was carried out using a C18 column (150 × 4.6mm, 5?m) under isocratic elution with water (containing 0.3% formic acid)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in positive ionization mode. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/mL for all components. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 14.7% and the deviations were within ± 9.0%. The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were significantly different between different groups. PMID:24250523

Yan, Rui; Wang, Yin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

2012-01-01

228

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Berberine, Palmatine and Jatrorrhizine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine in rat plasma. Target compounds, together with the internal standard (metronidazole), were extracted from rat plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (1:2, v/v). Chromatography was carried out using a C18 column (150 × 4.6mm, 5?m) under isocratic elution with water (containing 0.3% formic acid)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in positive ionization mode. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/mL for all components. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 14.7% and the deviations were within ± 9.0%. The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were significantly different between different groups.

Yan, Rui; Wang, Yin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

2012-01-01

229

The relationship of genetic aberrations detected by comparative genomic hybridization to DNA ploidy and tumor size in human oral squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

We have examined genetic alterations in 11 surgically removed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and laser scanning cytometry (LSC), which allow quantitative analysis of chromosomal abnormalities. CGH analysis revealed gains and/or losses of DNA sequence copy number in all tumors. Gains in DNA sequence copy number were detected frequently for chromosome arms 3q25-28 (6/11), 5p (6/11) and 8q (5/11), and losses in chromosome arms 18q (4/11), 19q (4/11), 17p (3/11), and 19p (3/11). Amplification of 5p was observed in two tumors. LSC detected DNA aneuploidy with DNA indices ranging from 1.30 to 1.82 in 6 of 11 tumors. The number of chromosomal aberrations was higher in DNA aneuploid tumors than in diploid tumors (8.17 vs 3.60/tumor, P<0.05). Furthermore, the average number of chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher in stage T2 tumors and larger tumors than in stage T1 tumors (7.71 vs 3.25/tumor, P<0.05). Our results suggest that DNA aneuploidy and large tumor size reflect an underlying chromosomal instability. PMID:10801040

Okafuji, M; Ita, M; Oga, A; Hayatsu, Y; Matsuo, A; Shinzato, Y; Shinozaki, F; Sasaki, K

2000-05-01

230

Molecular and functional changes in voltage-dependent na + channels following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat dentate granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status epilepticus (S.E.) is known to lead to a large number of changes in the expression of voltage-dependent ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. In the present study, we examined whether an episode of S.E. induced by pilocarpine in vivo alters functional properties and expression of voltage-gated Na+ channels in dentate granule cells (DGCs) of the rat hippocampus.Using patch-clamp recordings in

R. K. Ellerkmann; S. Remy; J. Chen; D. Sochivko; C. E. Elger; B. W. Urban; A. Becker; H. Beck

2003-01-01

231

Itraconazole Oral Solution for Primary Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancy and Profound Neutropenia: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Placebo, Multicenter Trial Comparing Itraconazole and Amphotericin B  

PubMed Central

Systemic and superficial fungal infections are a major problem among immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancy. A double-blind, double-placebo, randomized, multicenter trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution (2.5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day) with amphotericin B capsules (500 mg orally four times a day) for prophylaxis of systemic and superficial fungal infection. Prophylactic treatment was initiated on the first day of chemotherapy and was continued until the end of the neutropenic period (>0.5 × 109 neutrophils/liter) or up to a maximum of 3 days following the end of neutropenia, unless a systemic fungal infection was documented or suspected. The maximum treatment duration was 56 days. In the intent-to-treat population, invasive aspergillosis was noted in 5 (1.8%) of the 281 patients assigned to itraconazole oral solution and in 9 (3.3%) of the 276 patients assigned to oral amphotericin B; of these, 1 and 4 patients died, respectively. Proven systemic fungal infection (including invasive aspergillosis) occurred in 8 patients (2.8%) who received itraconazole, compared with 13 (4.7%) who received oral amphotericin B. Itraconazole significantly reduced the incidence of superficial fungal infections as compared to oral amphotericin B (2 [1%] versus 13 [5%]; P = 0.004). Although the incidences of suspected fungal infection (including fever of unknown origin) were not different between the groups, fewer patients were administered intravenous systemic antifungals (mainly intravenous amphotericin B) in the group receiving itraconazole than in the group receiving oral amphotericin B (114 [41%] versus 132 [48%]; P = 0.066). Adequate plasma itraconazole levels were achieved in about 80% of the patients from 1 week after the start of treatment. In both groups, the trial medication was safe and well tolerated. Prophylactic administration of itraconazole oral solution significantly reduces superficial fungal infection in patients with hematological malignancies and neutropenia. The incidence of proven systemic fungal infections, the number of deaths due to deep fungal infections, and the use of systemic antifungals tended to be lower in the itraconazole-treated group than in the amphotericin B-treated group, without statistical significance. Itraconazole oral solution is a broad-spectrum systemic antifungal agent with prophylactic activity in neutropenic patients, especially for those at high risk of prolonged neutropenia.

Harousseau, J. L.; Dekker, A. W.; Stamatoullas-Bastard, A.; Fassas, A.; Linkesch, W.; Gouveia, J.; De Bock, R.; Rovira, M.; Seifert, W. F.; Joosen, H.; Peeters, M.; De Beule, K.

2000-01-01

232

Epilepsy and Oral Contraception  

PubMed Central

A controlled cross-over trial in 20 epileptic women, receiving regular anticonvulsant therapy showed that an oral contraceptive with a low oestrogen/ progestogen content had no significant effect on the average frequency of fits compared with identical dummy tablets.

Espir, Michael; Walker, M. E.; Lawson, June P.

1969-01-01

233

Status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine in the immature rat does not change the long-term susceptibility to seizures.  

PubMed

The causal relationship between early seizures and subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy has not yet been established. Prospective clinical studies reported that seizures occurring early in life rarely result in hippocampal sclerosis. Likewise, in most experimental models, early seizures occurring before the end of the second postnatal week do not lead to neuronal damage and subsequent epilepsy. In some models, this early event decreases latency sensitivity and threshold to seizures. In the present study, we induced lithium and pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) in 10-day-old (P10) rats. The goal of this study was to determine whether this early life SE altered the sensitivity to convulsants such as pentylenetetrazol (20 and 25 mg/kg), picrotoxin (2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg) and kainate (5 and 8 mg/kg) during adulthood. The occurrence of electrographic seizures (spike-and-wave discharges, SWD) and/or of behavioral seizures was monitored. There was no difference in latency to and duration of SWDs and seizures between lithium-saline and lithium-pilocarpine exposed rats. Thus, SE induced by lithium and pilocarpine early in life does not change the sensitivity to limbic seizures or seizures induced by GABA(A) antagonists during adulthood. PMID:12350394

Nehlig, Astrid; Dubé, Céline; Koning, Estelle

2002-09-01

234

A prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the clinical safety, effectiveness, and cost of oral ofloxacin\\/clindamycin vs intravenous clindamycin\\/gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endomyometritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this prospective, randomized, clinical study was to compare the safety, clinical and microbiologic efficacy, and cost of oral ofloxacin in combination with clindamycin vs intravenous (IV) clindamycin\\/gentamicin in the early empiric treatment for hospitalized patients with mild to moderate postpartum endomyometritis. The secondary objective is to reduce total hospital and patient treatment cost. Postpartum endomyometritis

Marcello Pietrantoni; Sherree Goss; Stanley A. Gall

1998-01-01

235

An open, comparative, multicentre clinical study of combined oral therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS for treating Chinese patients with erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of combined oral therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS compared to sildenafil monotherapy in treating Chinese patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH\\/LUTS). The trial was conducted in hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Wuhan and Guangzhou, five major cities in China.

Zhe Jin; Zhi-Chao Zhang; Ji-Hong Liu; Jun Lu; Yu-Xin Tang; Xiang-Zhou Sun; Wei-Dong Song; Bing Gao; Ying-Lu Guo; Zhong-Cheng Xin

2011-01-01

236

Basal Supported Oral Therapy with Insulin Glargine Results in Longer Persistence and Lower Costs Compared with Insulin Detemir in Type 2 Diabetics in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate the persistence of basal supported oral therapy (BOT) with either insulin glargine (GLA) or insulin detemir (DET) in type 2 diabetics and to assess long-term costs associated with the initiation of respective treatment regimens.

Martin Pfohl; Franz-Werner Dippel; Karel Kostev; Sabine Fuchs; Wioletta Kotowa

2011-01-01

237

Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration. PMID:24325541

Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

2014-06-01

238

Results of a randomized trial comparing sequential intravenous/oral treatment with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole to imipenem/cilastatin for intra-abdominal infections. The Intra-Abdominal Infection Study Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was compared with imipenem/cilastatin for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. A secondary objective was to demonstrate the ability to switch responding patients from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Intra-abdominal infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Antimicrobial therapy often includes a 7- to 10-day intravenous course. The use of oral antimicrobials is a recent advance due to the availability of agents with good tissue pharmacokinetics and potent aerobic gram-negative activity. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously (CIP/MTZ IV) or imipenem intravenously (IMI IV) throughout their treatment course, or ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously and treatment with oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole when oral feeding was resumed (CIP/MTZ IV/PO). RESULTS: Among 671 patients who constituted the intent-to-treat population, overall success rates were as follows: 82% for the group treated with CIP/MTZ IV; 84% for the CIP/MTZ IV/PO group; and 82% for the IMI IV group. For 330 valid patients, treatment success occurred in 84% of patients treated with CIP/MTZ IV, 86% of those treated with CIP/MTZ IV/PO, and 81% of the patients treated with IMI IV. Analysis of microbiology in the 30 patients undergoing intervention after treatment failure suggested that persistence of gram-negative organisms was more common in the IMI IV-treated patients who subsequently failed. Of 46 CIP/MTZ IV/PO patients (active oral arm), treatment success occurred in 96%, compared with 89% for those treated with CIP/MTZ IV and 89% for those receiving IMI IV. Patients who received intravenous/oral therapy were treated, overall, for an average of 8.6 +/- 3.6 days, with an average of 4.0 +/- 3.0 days of oral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate statistical equivalence between CIP/MTZ IV and IMI IV in both the intent-to-treat and valid populations. Conversion to oral therapy with CIP/MTZ appears as effective as continued intravenous therapy in patients able to tolerate oral feedings.

Solomkin, J S; Reinhart, H H; Dellinger, E P; Bohnen, J M; Rotstein, O D; Vogel, S B; Simms, H H; Hill, C S; Bjornson, H S; Haverstock, D C; Coulter, H O; Echols, R M

1996-01-01

239

A prospective randomised study comparing oral 13C-bicarbonate tracer technique versus indirect calorimetry for measurement of energy expenditure in adults  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important in guiding nutritional therapy but current methods are unsatisfactory. This study compared the oral 13C-bicarbonate tracer (BT) technique using the IRIS® system (Wagner, Germany) against indirect calorimetry (IC, ventilated-hood) to measure CO2 output (VCO2) and thus estimate EE. Methods Ten overnight-fasted healthy male volunteers were randomised to studies at rest or mild exercise in a crossover manner. During each study BT-IRIS® and IC were used simultaneously to measure VCO2 and thus EE. Participants ingested a drink labelled with 50mg 13C-bicarbonate and breath samples were collected every 5 min for 180 min and analysed using IRIS®. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between the two techniques in measurements of VCO2 (L/day) and estimates of EE (kJ/day). Results Mean ± SE age and BMI of participants were 21.1 ± 1.1 yrs and 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2. Both at rest and exercise, there was small bias but overall poor agreement between the two techniques as evident by the wide 95% limits of agreement in measurements of VCO2 and EE: rest VCO2 (bias 1.4, SD 93, 95% limits of agreement ?180 to 183), rest EE (?8.3, 1830, ?3595 to 3578), exercise VCO2 (49.3, 66.1, ?80.4 to 178.9) and exercise EE (1083, 1944, ?2727 to 4893). Furthermore, there was also evidence of systematic error in these measurements. Conclusion Prior to clinical application, further optimisation of the BT-IRIS® system should be undertaken, given the poor agreement with IC in measuring VCO2 and estimating EE.

Awad, Sherif; Cui, Helen; Wright, Jeff W; Jackson, Sarah; Macdonald, Ian A; Lobo, Dileep N

2014-01-01

240

Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE). Methods In a randomised, open-label study, 121 healthy women, 18-50 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 ?g/30 ?g) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 for all indices. Results All parameters were similar at baseline between the two groups. Over six cycles, NOMAC/E2 had less effect on most haemostatic indices than LNG/EE. Lipids were essentially unchanged with NOMAC/E2, whereas with LNG/EE high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides slightly increased. NOMAC/E2 induced negligible changes in glucose and insulin parameters, in contrast to LNG/EE. A much smaller increase in CRP was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. Conclusions The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE.

Agren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Maenpaa-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

2011-01-01

241

Comparative evaluation of live marker vaccine candidates "CP7_E2alf" and "flc11" along with C-strain "Riems" after oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Due to the tremendous socio-economic impact of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks, emergency vaccination scenarios are continuously under discussion. Unfortunately, all currently available vaccines show restrictions either in terms of marker capacities or immunogenicity. Recent research efforts were therefore directed at the design of new modified live marker vaccines. Among the most promising candidates the chimeric pestiviruses "CP7_E2alf" and "flc11" were identified. Within an international research project, these candidates were comparatively tested in challenge experiments after a single oral vaccination. Challenge infection was carried out with highly virulent CSF virus strain "Koslov", 14 or 21 days post vaccination (dpv), respectively. Safety, efficacy, and marker potential were addressed. All assessments were done in comparison with the conventional "gold standard" C-strain "Riems" vaccine. In addition to the challenge trials, multiple vaccinations with both candidates were performed to further assess their marker vaccine potential. All vaccines were safe and yielded full protection upon challenge 21 days post vaccination. Neither serological nor virological investigations showed major differences among the three vaccines. Whereas CP7_E2alf also provided clinical protection upon challenge at 14 days post vaccination, only 50% of animals vaccinated with flc11, and 83% vaccinated with C-strain "Riems" survived challenge at this time point. No marked differences were seen in protected animals. Despite the fact that all multiple-vaccinated animals stayed sero-negative in the accompanying marker test, the discriminatory assay remains a weak point due to delayed or inexistent detection of some of the vaccinated and subsequently infected animals. Nevertheless, the potential as live marker vaccines could be confirmed for both vaccine candidates. Future efforts will therefore be directed at the licensing of "Cp7_E2alf" as the first live marker vaccine for CSF. PMID:22397931

Blome, Sandra; Aebischer, Andrea; Lange, Elke; Hofmann, Martin; Leifer, Immanuel; Loeffen, Willie; Koenen, Frank; Beer, Martin

2012-07-01

242

Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis  

PubMed Central

In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day 28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)- methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups.

Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

2011-01-01

243

Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17?-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study.  

PubMed

Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. NOMAC/E2 is a new monophasic OC that combines nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a highly selective progestogen, with 17?-estradiol (E2). The study objective was to compare the effects on markers of haemostasis of NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) versus the second-generation OC, levonorgestrel (LNG)/EE (100 ?g/20 ?g). Healthy women (age 18-38 years) received once-daily treatment for three consecutive 28-day cycles in a double-blind, randomised study: either NOMAC/E2 for 24 days with a four-day placebo interval (n=45) or LNG/EE for 21 days with a seven-day placebo interval (n=45) per cycle. Mean changes from baseline to end-of-treatment in coagulation markers, including prothrombin fragment 1+2 (primary endpoint), fibrinolysis markers and platelet functions were assessed. Mean prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels (primary endpoint) did not increase with NOMAC/E2 compared with LNG/EE ( -0.02 vs. +0.08 nM, p<0.01). Other significant differences between NOMAC/E2 and LNG/EE were mean changes in antithrombin (+0.3% vs. -4.4%, p<0.001), activated protein C resistance - normalised ratio (+0.20 vs. +0.46, p<0.01), D-dimer ( -53 vs. +43 ng/ml, p<0.001), plasminogen (+6% vs. +30%, p<0.0001) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( -3.1 vs. -8.0 ng/ml, p<0.001). There was no effect of either treatment on platelet aggregation. The NOMAC/E2 pill regimen has fewer adverse effects on blood biological coagulation and fibrinolysis markers than LNG/EE. This suggests that NOMAC/E2 could have a more favourable venous thromboembolism risk profile than LNG/EE; further epidemiological data are required to confirm this. PMID:21225090

Gaussem, Pascale; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Remones, Veronique; Ali, Fouad Dali; Aiach, Martine; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

2011-03-01

244

Comparative bioavailability study of triflusal oral solution vs. triflusal capsules in healthy subjects. A single, randomized, two-way cross-over, open-label phase I study.  

PubMed

Triflusal (CAS 322-79-2) is an antiplatelet agent that irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase isoform 1 (COX-1) and therefore inhibits thromboxane biosynthesis. The main metabolite of triflusal, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid (HTB), possesses also antiaggregant activity. Recently a new oral 600 mg (10 ml) solution form of triflusal has been developed. The purpose of this clinical trial was to study the relative bioavailability of the new oral solution of triflusal versus the capsules formulation, both administered as a single dose. This was a randomized, two-way, cross-over, open-label, single-site phase I clinical trial, in 24 healthy volunteers who received triflusal as 600 mg oral solution and as two 300 mg capsules in a single administration separated by a washout period of at least 17 days. Blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of HTB were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters used for bioequivalence assessment included AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and Cmax were within the predetermined equivalence range (80% to 125%). Tolerability was based on the recording of adverse events (AEs), physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory tests. The parameters for bioequivalence, mean [SD] values were as follows: AUC(0-t) (microg x h/ml): 3574.08 [628.17] for triflusal oral solution and 3901.78 [698.43] for triflusal capsules; AUC(0-infinity) (microg x h/ml): 4089.21 [842.54] for triflusal oral solution and 4471.33 [905.93] for triflusal capsules; Cmax, (microg/ml): 91.24 [12.88] for triflusal oral solution and 88.61 [13.46] for triflusal capsules; Cmax/AUC(0-infinity) (h(-1)): 0.03 (0.00) for triflusal oral solution and 0.02 (0.00) for triflusal capsules. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio experimental/control by analysis of variance after log transformed AUC(0-infinity), AUC(0-t), and Cmax were within 80% to 125%. Similar results were found for the data without log transformation. All adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity and all subjects recovered. Nine and 12 subjects reported at least one adverse event during treatment with triflusal oral solution and with triflusal capsules, respectively. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and dizziness. It was concluded that the 600-mg solution of triflusal appeared to be bioequivalent to the reference formulation capsules. Both formulations were well tolerated. PMID:20184225

Izquierdo, Ińaki; Borja, Javier; Rovira, Sandra; Pelagio, Pilar; Torres, Ferran; Cebrecos, Jesus; García-Rafanell, Julián

2010-01-01

245

Astroglial loss and edema formation in the rat piriform cortex and hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

In the present study we analyzed aquaporin-4 (AQP4) immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex (PC) and the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model to elucidate the roles of AQP4 in brain edema following status epilepticus (SE). In non-SE-induced animals, AQP4 immunoreactivity was diffusely detected in the PC and the hippocampus. AQP4 immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the endfeet of astrocytes. Following SE the AQP4-deleted area was clearly detected in the PC, not in the hippocampus. Decreases in dystrophin and ?-syntrophin immunoreactivities were followed by reduction in AQP4 immunoreactivity. These alterations were accompanied by the development of vasogenic edema and the astroglial loss in the PC. In addition, acetazolamide (an AQP4 inhibitor) treatment exacerbated vasogenic edema and astroglial loss both in the PC and in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that SE may induce impairments of astroglial AQP4 functions via disruption of the dystrophin/?-syntrophin complex that worsen vasogenic edema. Subsequently, vasogenic edema results in extensive astroglial loss that may aggravate vasogenic edema. PMID:20886625

Kim, Ji-Eun; Yeo, Seong-Il; Ryu, Hea Jin; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Duk-Soo; Jo, Seung-Mook; Kang, Tae-Cheon

2010-11-15

246

Cost Effectiveness of Insulin Glargine plus Oral Antidiabetes Drugs Compared with Premixed Insulin Alone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several treatment options are available for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are making the transition from oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) to insulin. Two options currently recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Association for initiating insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes who are no longer responsive to OADs alone are insulin glargine plus OADs, and premixed insulin

Sandra L. Tunis; Luc Sauriol; Michael E. Minshall

2010-01-01

247

Activity of ICI 195,739, a new oral triazole, compared with that of ketoconazole in the therapy of experimental murine blastomycosis.  

PubMed Central

ICI 195,739, a novel orally active triazole, proved 50 times as potent as ketoconazole, produced a clinical cure, and completely eradicated residual infection in a murine model of pulmonary blastomycosis. No other previously tested azole has shown similar activity. Fungicidal activity against Blastomyces dermatitidis was seen in vitro at concentrations 1/40 of those achieved in serum with protective doses.

Tucker, R M; Hanson, L H; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A

1989-01-01

248

Oral tolerance.  

PubMed

Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. Oral (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or oral myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of oral GA are underway. Oral insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of oral insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553

Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

2005-08-01

249

Herbal treatment following post-seizure induction in rat by lithium pilocarpine: Scutellaria lateriflora (Skullcap), Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium) and Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) may prevent development of spontaneous seizures.  

PubMed

About 1 week after the induction of status epilepticus in male rats by a single systemic injection of lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 g/kg), rats were continuously administered one of three herbal treatments through the water supply for 30 days. A fourth group received colloidal minerals and diluted food grade hydrogen peroxide in tap water, while a fifth group of rats received only tap water (control). Herbal treatments were selected for their historical antiseizure activities and sedative actions on the nervous system. The numbers of spontaneous seizures per day during a 15 min observation interval were recorded for each rat during the treatment period and during an additional 30 days when only tap water was given. Rats that received a weak solution of the three herbal fluid extracts of Scutellaria lateri flora (Skullcap), Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium) and Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) displayed no seizures during treatment while all the other groups were not seizure-free. However, when this treatment was removed, the rats in this group displayed numbers of spontaneous seizures comparable to the controls. Although there is no proof that herbal remedies can control limbic or temporal lobe epilepsy, the results of this experiment strongly suggest that the appropriate combination of herbal compounds may be helpful as adjunctive interventions. PMID:15478209

Peredery, Oksana; Persinger, Michael A

2004-09-01

250

Comparative study on the excretion of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside in mice after oral and intravenous administration by using HPLC.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize the excretion of pure vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VOG) in mice following oral and intravenous administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A sensitive and specific HPLC method with hespridin as internal standard, a Diamonsil C18 column protected with a KR C18 guard column and a mixture consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.1% glacial acetic acid (6:2:18:74, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was developed and validated for quantitative analysis in biological samples. VOG could be excreted as prototype in excreta including urine and feces after both routes of administration, and the cumulative excretion of VOG was 24.31?±?11.10% (17.97?±?5.59% in urinary excretion; 6.34?±?5.51% in fecal excretion) following oral dosing and 5.66?±?3.94% (4.78?±?3.13% in urinary excretion; 0.88?±?0.81% in fecal excretion) following intravenous dosing. The results showed that the elimination of VOG after the two routes was fairly low, which meant that VOG was metabolized as other forms and the elimination after oral dosing was almost 4.3-fold that after intravenous dosing. For both routes of administration, VOG excreted as prototype in urine was much more than that in feces, nearly 2.83-fold for oral administration and 5.43-fold for intravenous administration, which should be attributed to enterohepatic circulation. Taken together, renal excretion was the dominant path of elimination of VOG for oral and intravenous administration in mice and biliary excretion contributed less. PMID:23760836

Cai, Shuang; Chen, Yinghui; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang

2013-11-01

251

Neuronal degeneration is observed in multiple regions outside the hippocampus after lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat.  

PubMed

Although hippocampal sclerosis is frequently identified as a possible epileptic focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, neuronal loss has also been observed in additional structures, including areas outside the temporal lobe. The claim from several researchers using animal models of acquired epilepsy that the immature brain can develop epilepsy without evidence of hippocampal neuronal death raises the possibility that neuronal death in some of these other regions may also be important for epileptogenesis. The present study used the lithium pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy in immature animals to assess which structures outside the hippocampus are injured acutely after status epilepticus. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were implanted with surface EEG electrodes, and status epilepticus was induced at 20 days of age with lithium pilocarpine. After 72 h, brain tissue from 12 animals was examined with Fluoro-Jade B, a histochemical marker for degenerating neurons. All animals that had confirmed status epilepticus demonstrated Fluoro-Jade B staining in areas outside the hippocampus. The most prominent staining was seen in the thalamus (mediodorsal, paratenial, reuniens, and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei), amygdala (ventral lateral, posteromedial, and basomedial nuclei), ventral premammillary nuclei of hypothalamus, and paralimbic cortices (perirhinal, entorhinal, and piriform) as well as parasubiculum and dorsal endopiriform nuclei. These results demonstrate that lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the immature rat brain consistently results in neuronal injury in several distinct areas outside of the hippocampus. Many of these regions are similar to areas damaged in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, thus suggesting a possible role in epileptogenesis. PMID:23896573

Scholl, E A; Dudek, F E; Ekstrand, J J

2013-11-12

252

A ketogenic diet did not prevent effects on the ectonucleotidases pathway promoted by lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

A Ketogenic Diet (KD) mimics the anticonvulsant effects of fasting, which are known to suppress seizures. The purinergic system has been investigated in the matter of epilepsy development, especially the nucleoside adenosine, which has been considered a natural brain anticonvulsant. During epileptic seizures, extracellular adenosine concentration rises rapidly to micromolar levels. Adenosine can exert its anticonvulsant functions, after its release by nucleoside bidirectional transport, or by production through the sequential catabolism of ATP by ectonucleotidases, such as E-NTPDases (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Here, we have investigated the effect of a ketogenic diet on the nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDases expression in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy. For the induction of Status Epileticus (SE), 21-day-old female Wistar rats received an i.p. injection of lithium chloride (127 mg/kg) and 18-19 h later an i.p. injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg). The control groups received an injection of saline. After induction of SE, the control and Li-Pilo groups received standard or ketogenic diets for 6 weeks. The lithium-pilocarpine exposure affected the ATP (a decrease of between 8 % and 16 %) and ADP (an increase of between 18 % and 22 %) hydrolysis in both groups whereas the diet did not impact the nucleotide hydrolysis. NTPDase2 and 3 mRNA expressions decreased in the Li-Pilo group (41 % and 42 %). This data highlights the participation of the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of this model of epilepsy, since nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase expressions were altered by Li-Pilo exposure, with no significant effects of the ketogenic diet. However, the interaction between purinergic signaling and a ketogenic diet on epilepsy still needs to be better elucidated. PMID:22945235

da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; da Silva, Rosane Souza; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Figueiró, Fabrício; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos Luis Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

2012-12-01

253

Comparative pharmacokinetics of baicalin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae extract and Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is an important “heat-clearing” multiherb remedy of traditional Chinese medicine, and Radix scutellariae (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Labiatae) is a key ingredient herb in it. Baicalin and wogonoside are two main effective ingredients enriched in Radix scutellariae. In the present study, pharmacokinetic differences of baicalin following oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae extract, baicalin co-administrated with extract of

Tong Lu; Jue Song; Fang Huang; Yuanxiong Deng; Lin Xie; Guangji Wang; Xiaodong Liu

2007-01-01

254

Comparing the visual analogue scale and the pediatric quality of life inventory for measuring health-related quality of life in children with oral clefts.  

PubMed

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), in measuring overall health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with oral clefts relative to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQLTM) Generic Core Scales, one of the most validated and commonly used methods to measure pediatric HRQoL. Methods: The study included a population-based sample of 307 children aged 5 to 10 years who were born in Iowa, New York, and Arkansas with non-syndromic oral clefts. Data on HRQoL were obtained using a VAS and PedsQLTM via self-administered interviews with the parents. We evaluated the correlations between the VAS and PedsQLTM total scores, and the correlations of each of these two scales with a series of child health and wellbeing indicators. Results: The VAS and PedsQLTM scores were well-correlated (r = 0.67). There were no prominent differences between the correlations of VAS and PedsQLTM with the selected indicators of child health and wellbeing; differences in correlations were less than 0.1. Differences in HRQoL by cleft type were more pronounced on the PedsQLTM. Conclusions: Our study finds the VAS to perform relatively well in measuring overall HRQoL among children with oral clefts. The VAS may be useful as a screening tool to identify children with oral clefts at risk of low HRQoL for referral into more comprehensive evaluations and for measuring average HRQoL across a sample of children. PMID:24743844

Wehby, George L; Naderi, Hodad; Robbins, James M; Ansley, Timothy N; Damiano, Peter C

2014-01-01

255

A randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous ferric carboxymaltose with oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency anaemia of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Iron deficiency is a common cause of anaemia and hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. Current intravenous iron agents cannot be administered in a single high dose because of adverse effects. Ferric carboxymaltose, a non-dextran parenteral iron preparation, can be rapidly administered in high doses. Methods. This open-label trial randomized 255 subjects with glomerular filtration rates ??45 mL/min/1.73 m2, haemoglobin ??11 g/dL, transferrin saturation ??25%, ferritin ??300 ng/mL, and stable ESA dose to either intravenous ferric carboxymaltose 1000 mg over 15 min (with up to two additional doses of 500 mg at 2-week intervals) or oral ferrous sulphate 325 mg thrice daily for a total of 195 mg elemental iron daily for 56 days. Results. In the modified intent-to-treat population, the proportion of subjects achieving a haemoglobin increase ??1 g/dL at any time was 60.4% with ferric carboxymaltose and 34.7% with oral iron (P < 0.001). At Day 42, mean increase in haemoglobin was 0.95 ± 1.12 vs 0.50 ± 1.23 g/dL (P = 0.005), mean increase in ferritin was 432 ± 189 ng/mL vs 18 ± 45 ng/mL (P < 0.001) and mean increase in transferrin saturation was 13.6 ± 11.9% vs 6.1 ± 8.1% (P < 0.001). Treatment-related adverse events were significantly fewer with ferric carboxymaltose than with oral iron (2.7% and 26.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions. We conclude that 1000 mg ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered, is more effective and is better tolerated than oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency in ND-CKD patients.

Qunibi, Wajeh Y.; Martinez, Carlos; Smith, Mark; Benjamin, Joseph; Mangione, Antoinette; Roger, Simon D.

2011-01-01

256

Comparing the Visual Analogue Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Oral Clefts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), in measuring overall health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with oral clefts relative to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQLTM) Generic Core Scales, one of the most validated and commonly used methods to measure pediatric HRQoL. Methods: The study included a population-based sample of 307 children aged 5 to 10 years who were born in Iowa, New York, and Arkansas with non-syndromic oral clefts. Data on HRQoL were obtained using a VAS and PedsQLTM via self-administered interviews with the parents. We evaluated the correlations between the VAS and PedsQLTM total scores, and the correlations of each of these two scales with a series of child health and wellbeing indicators. Results: The VAS and PedsQLTM scores were well-correlated (r = 0.67). There were no prominent differences between the correlations of VAS and PedsQLTM with the selected indicators of child health and wellbeing; differences in correlations were less than 0.1. Differences in HRQoL by cleft type were more pronounced on the PedsQLTM. Conclusions: Our study finds the VAS to perform relatively well in measuring overall HRQoL among children with oral clefts. The VAS may be useful as a screening tool to identify children with oral clefts at risk of low HRQoL for referral into more comprehensive evaluations and for measuring average HRQoL across a sample of children.

Wehby, George L.; Naderi, Hodad; Robbins, James M.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Damiano, Peter C.

2014-01-01

257

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of paeoniflorin after oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, extract of Cortex Moutan and Shuang-Dan prescription to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shuang-Dan (SD) is a traditional Chinese prescription containing Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. Paeoniflorin is a main effective ingredient of Cortex Moutan and the pharmacokinetic differences of paeoniflorin following oral administration of pure paeoniflorin, Cortex Moutan extract and SD decoction to rats were studied with approximately the same dose of 30mg\\/kg paeoniflorin.

Hao Wu; Zhenyu Zhu; Guoqing Zhang; Liang Zhao; Hai Zhang; Dongliang Zhu; Yifeng Chai

2009-01-01

258

The delta opioid receptor agonist, SNC80, has complex, dose-dependent effects on pilocarpine-induced seizures in Sprague–Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delta opioid receptor (DOR) selective agonists hold promise clinically as analgesics, but their effects on seizures remain controversial. In this study we examined the effects of the DOR agonist, (+)-4-[(alpha R)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethyl-benzamide (SNC80), on behavioral seizures and hippocampal histopathology in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Systemic administration of SNC80 (30 or 60 mg\\/kg) alone elicited brief seizures within minutes

Suzanne B. Bausch; Joshua P. Garland; Jaclyn Yamada

2005-01-01

259

Description and computational modeling of the whole course of status epilepticus induced by low dose lithium-pilocarpine in rats.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study were (1) to describe the whole course of status epilepticus induced by a low dose lithium-pilocarpine model in rats, including depth-EEG from the hippocampus, ECoG from cortex and gross behaviors, and (2) to investigate the possible changes of the intrinsic neural network in the hippocampus during the status epilepticus by model simulation. The course of the induced status epilepticus was divided into baseline, pre-ictal, episodic, onset, continuous, and convalescence stages. At the pre-ictal stage, the main component of the spectrum of the depth-EEG shifted before seizure activity first appeared in the hippocampus at the episodic stage and propagated to the cortex at the onset stage. Model simulation indicated that the changes of depth-EEG of the whole course could be simulated by changes of the loop gains and the inputs of the neural network. The excitatory and inhibitory loops were first enhanced in the pre-ictal stage. The isolated seizures in the episodic stage were caused by variations of inputs from other pyramidal cells. The gain of slow inhibitory loop gradually decreased, leading to the onset of status epilepticus. Different types of waveforms in the status epilepticus corresponded to the different ratio of excitatory and inhibitory influence, caused by different levels of inhibition. Finally, in the convalescence stage, the gains of the excitatory loop and the inhibitory loop both changed toward the base line, recovering the balance. The changes of the parameters in the model were compatible with the experimental results in the literature. PMID:21911214

Chiang, Chia-Chu; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

2011-10-12

260

Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx  

MedlinePLUS

... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer Expand All Collapse All Mortality ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the ...

261

Oral feeding.  

PubMed

Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

2013-01-01

262

A Prospective Study Comparing the Long-term Effectiveness of Injectable Risperidone Long-acting Therapy and Oral Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular assessments, and other design issues limited generalizability and interpretation relative to the study hypothesis.

Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.

2010-01-01

263

NDEL1 was decreased in the CA3 region but increased in the hippocampal blood vessel network during the spontaneous seizure period after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Nuclear distribution factor E homolog like 1 (NDEL1) plays an important role in mitosis, neuronal migration, and microtubule organization during brain development by binding to disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) or lissencephaly (LIS1). Although some evidence has suggested that DISC1 expression is altered in epilepsy, few studies have reported the relationship between NDEL1 and the etiology of epilepsy. In present study, we first investigated the expression of NDEL1 and its binding protein DISC1 after pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in male C57BL/6 mice. Data revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of NDEL1 and DISC1 in the whole hippocampus increased during the spontaneous seizure period after status epilepticus (SE). Interestingly, however, the expression of NDEL1 was decreased in the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG) regions. Moreover, SE also increased the number of blood vessels that fed the CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus and increased the incidence of abnormalities in capillary network formation where NDEL1 protein was expressed positively. Meanwhile, the expression of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) was also increased during the spontaneous seizure period, with a similar expression pattern as NDEL1 and DISC1. Based on these results, we hypothesize that NDEL1 might interact with DISC1 to activate ERK signaling and function as a potential protective factor during the spontaneous seizure period after pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:24680936

Wu, Q; Li, Y; Shu, Y; Feng, L; Zhou, L; Yue, Z W; Luo, Z H; Wu, Z G; Xiao, B

2014-05-30

264

Stereological methods reveal the robust size and stability of ectopic hilar granule cells after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the adult rat.  

PubMed

Following status epilepticus in the rat, dentate granule cell neurogenesis increases greatly, and many of the new neurons appear to develop ectopically, in the hilar region of the hippocampal formation. It has been suggested that the ectopic hilar granule cells could contribute to the spontaneous seizures that ultimately develop after status epilepticus. However, the population has never been quantified, so it is unclear whether it is substantial enough to have a strong influence on epileptogenesis. To quantify this population, the total number of ectopic hilar granule cells was estimated using unbiased stereology at different times after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The number of hilar neurons immunoreactive for Prox-1, a granule-cell-specific marker, was estimated using the optical fractionator method. The results indicate that the size of the hilar ectopic granule cell population after status epilepticus is substantial, and stable over time. Interestingly, the size of the population appears to be correlated with the frequency of behavioral seizures, because animals with more ectopic granule cells in the hilus have more frequent behavioral seizures. The hilar ectopic granule cell population does not appear to vary systematically across the septotemporal axis, although it is associated with an increase in volume of the hilus. The results provide new insight into the potential role of ectopic hilar granule cells in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:17042797

McCloskey, Daniel P; Hintz, Tana M; Pierce, Joseph P; Scharfman, Helen E

2006-10-01

265

The combination of topiramate and diazepam is partially neuroprotective in the hippocampus but not antiepileptogenic in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Lithium-pilocarpine induces status epilepticus (SE), leading to extensive damage and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic effects of topiramate (TPM) associated with diazepam (DZP) were investigated in this model. SE was induced by LiCl and pilocarpine. TPM (10, 30 or 60 mg/kg) was injected at the onset of SE and 10h later and DZP (2.5 and 1.25mg/kg) at 2 and 10h after SE. TPM treatment was continued twice daily for 6 days. Other rats received two injections of DZP on the day of SE. Cell counting was performed on thionine-stained sections 14 days after SE and after 2 months of epilepsy. Occurrence and frequency of SRS were video-recorded. The MRI T2-weighted signal was quantified in hippocampus and ventral cortices. DZP-TPM treatment induced partial neuroprotection in CA1 and hilus, and tended to increase the percentage of rats with protected neurons in layer III/IV of the ventral entorhinal cortex. The latency to and frequency of SRS were not modified by DZP-TPM. T2-weighted signal was decreased in hippocampus 3 days after SE at all TPM doses and in ventral hippocampus after epilepsy onset. In conclusion, although DZP-TPM treatment was able to partially protect two areas critical for epileptogenesis, the hippocampus and ventral entorhinal cortex, it was not sufficient to prevent epileptogenesis. PMID:16945504

François, Jennifer; Koning, Estelle; Ferrandon, Arielle; Nehlig, Astrid

2006-12-01

266

HPLC method for comparative study on tissue distribution in rat after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza.  

PubMed

A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to determine the prototype of salvianolic acid B and the metabolites of phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and ferulic acid) in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids and salvianolic acid B extracted from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, respectively. The tissue samples were treated with a simple liquid-liquid extraction prior to HPLC. Analysis of the extract was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.05% trifluoracetic acid. The calibration curves for the four phenolic acids were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations in the measurement of quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range of 88-115%. The average recoveries of all the tissues ranged from 78.0 to 111.8%. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the distribution of the four phenolic acids in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids of Salvia miltiorrhiza or salvianolic acid B and the possible metabolic pathway was illustrated. PMID:17549679

Xu, Man; Fu, Gang; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, Hui; Liu, Ai-Hua; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Guo, De-An

2007-10-01

267

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Baicalin, Wogonoside, Baicalein and Wogonin in Plasma after Oral Administration of Pure Baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae Couple Extracts in Normal and Ulcerative Colitis Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts were administered and the pharmacokinetics profiles were compared between normal and ulcerative colitis rats. The plasma concentrations of the four flavonoids were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (ulcerative colitis and normal groups). Each group contained three subgroups: pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts subgroup. Each group received oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts at the same dose of 200 mg/kg baicalin. The results showed that wogonoside, possibily as a methylated product of baicalin, was found in plasma after oral administration of pure baicalin or formulas to rats. Baicalin and wogonoside demonstrated bimodal phenomenon. Baicalin and wogonoside in Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extract had shown better absorption than which in pure baicalin and Radix Scutellariae extract. Whether oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae or Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts, ulcerative colitis rats showed better absorption than normal rats. For example AUC(0–t) of baicalin were: (41.46 ± 0.62), (59.12 ± 6.42) and (104.87 ± 0.86) (?g/mL)·h in UC groups vs (17.77 ± 0.66), (28.04 ± 4.06) and (49.01 ± 4.61) (?g/mL)·h in normal groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetics properties of the four flavonoids differed between ulcerative colitis and normal rats, including AUC(0–t) and Cmax (p < 0.05).

Zhang, Zhen-Qiu; Liua, Wei; Zhuang, Li; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shuai

2013-01-01

268

Comparative pharmacokinetics of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin in plasma after oral administration of pure baicalin, radix scutellariae and scutellariae-paeoniae couple extracts in normal and ulcerative colitis rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts were administered and the pharmacokinetics profiles were compared between normal and ulcerative colitis rats. The plasma concentrations of the four flavonoids were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (ulcerative colitis and normal groups). Each group contained three subgroups: pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts subgroup. Each group received oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts at the same dose of 200 mg/kg baicalin. The results showed that wogonoside, possibily as a methylated product of baicalin, was found in plasma after oral administration of pure baicalin or formulas to rats. Baicalin and wogonoside demonstrated bimodal phenomenon. Baicalin and wogonoside in Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extract had shown better absorption than which in pure baicalin and Radix Scutellariae extract. Whether oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae or Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts, ulcerative colitis rats showed better absorption than normal rats. For example AUC (0-t) of baicalin were: (41.46 ± 0.62), (59.12 ± 6.42) and (104.87 ± 0.86) (?g/mL)·h in UC groups vs (17.77 ± 0.66), (28.04 ± 4.06) and (49.01 ± 4.61) (?g/mL)·h in normal groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetics properties of the four flavonoids differed between ulcerative colitis and normal rats, including AUC ( 0-t ) and Cmax (p < 0.05). PMID:24250647

Zhang, Zhen-Qiu; Liua, Wei; Zhuang, Li; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shuai

2013-01-01

269

Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash "Jack Pro Spülung plus" ("rheodol-Spülung plus") on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study.  

PubMed

Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as "rheodol-Spülung plus") is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02-0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004-0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02-0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive oral mucosa, e.g., in cases of aggressive cancer therapy or for patients with tracheostoma. PMID:24653972

Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

2014-01-01

270

Immune Responses to the O-Specific Polysaccharide Antigen in Children Who Received a Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine Compared to Responses following Natural Cholera Infection in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower levels of protective efficacy and shorter durations of protection in young children than in adults. Immunity against cholera is serogroup specific, and immune responses to Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the antigen that mediates serogroup-specific responses, are associated with protection against disease. Despite this, responses against V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), a key component of the LPS responsible for specificity, have not been characterized in children. Here, we report a comparison of polysaccharide antibody responses in children from a region in Bangladesh where cholera is endemic, including infants (6 to 23 months, n = 15), young children (24 to 59 months, n = 14), and older children (5 to 15 years, n = 23) who received two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine 14 days apart. We found that infants and young children receiving the vaccine did not mount an IgG, IgA, or IgM antibody response to V. cholerae OSP or LPS, whereas older children showed significant responses. In comparison to the vaccinees, young children with wild-type V. cholerae O1 Ogawa infection did mount significant antibody responses against OSP and LPS. We also demonstrated that OSP responses correlated with age in vaccinees, but not in cholera patients, reflecting the ability of even young children with wild-type cholera to develop OSP responses. These differences might contribute to the lower efficacy of protection rendered by vaccination than by wild-type disease in young children and suggest that efforts to improve lipopolysaccharide-specific responses might be critical for achieving optimal cholera vaccine efficacy in this younger age group.

Uddin, Taher; Xu, Peng; Aktar, Amena; Johnson, Russell A.; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Bufano, Meagan Kelly; Eckhoff, Grace; Wu-Freeman, Ying; Yu, Yanan; Sultana, Tania; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraf I.; Charles, Richelle C.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Kovac, Pavol; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.

2013-01-01

271

Impacts of oral disorders in the United Kingdom and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Surveys of oral health have not previously compared national adult populations using measures of subjective oral health.Aims To compare subjective oral health of adults in the UK and Australian populations.Methods Cross sectional studies were conducted of people aged 18+ years in the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health Survey and the 1999 Australian National Dental Telephone Interview Survey. Subjective oral

N Nuttall; A E Sanders; J G Steele; P F Allen; S Lahti; G D Slade

2005-01-01

272

A Phase III, randomized, open-label trial of ferumoxytol compared with iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia worldwide. Although oral iron is used as first-line treatment, many patients are unresponsive to or cannot take oral iron. This Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol, a rapid, injectable intravenous (IV) iron product with low immunological reactivity and minimal detectable free iron, with IV iron sucrose in adults with IDA of any cause. Patients (N = 605) were randomized 2:1 to receive ferumoxytol (n = 406, two doses of 510 mg 5 ± 3 days apart) or iron sucrose (n = 199, five doses of 200 mg on five nonconsecutive days over 14 days) and followed for 5 weeks. Ferumoxytol demonstrated noninferiority to iron sucrose at the primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin increase of ?2 g dL(-1) at any time from Baseline to Week 5 (ferumoxytol, 84.0% [n = 406] vs. iron sucrose, 81.4% [n = 199]), with a noninferiority margin of 15%. Ferumoxytol was superior to iron sucrose (2.7 g dL(-1) vs. 2.4 g dL(-1) ) in the mean change in hemoglobin from Baseline to Week 5 (the alternative preplanned primary endpoint) with P = 0.0124. Transferrin saturation, quality-of-life measures, and safety outcomes were similar between the two treatment groups. Overall, ferumoxytol demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy to iron sucrose, suggesting that ferumoxytol may be a useful treatment option for patients with IDA in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or could not be used. PMID:24639149

Hetzel, David; Strauss, William; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Urboniene, Audrone; Allen, Lee F

2014-06-01

273

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irčne Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

274

Oral Warts  

MedlinePLUS

... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

275

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... t heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

276

Oral Tumours  

PubMed Central

The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8

Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

1988-01-01

277

Oral Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2011-01-01

278

Muscarinic inhibition of [3H]-noradrenaline release on rabbit iris in vitro: effects of stimulation conditions on intrinsic activity of methacholine and pilocarpine.  

PubMed

1. Rabbit isolated irides were loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline and superfused with Tyrode solution. The inhibition by the muscarinic agonists (+/-)-methacholine and pilocarpine of the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow into the superfusate evoked by field stimulation (pulses of 1 ms duration, 75 mA) was measured as an index of activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors. 2. The fractional rate of release per pulse during the first stimulation period (S1) was low with 360 pulses at 3 Hz, intermediate with 360 pulses at 10 Hz and high with 1200 pulses at 10 Hz. Upon repetitive stimulation (7 periods at 20 min intervals), the fractional rates of release per pulse during S7 no longer differed, suggesting a 'long-term' regulation of [3H]-noradrenaline release depending on the stimulation conditions. 3. The evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow was depressed by (+/-)-methacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 ranged from 0.29 to 0.42 microM. Methacholine nearly abolished the transmitter release evoked at 3 Hz but reduced that induced at 10 Hz by only 50%. Under the latter condition the methacholine concentration-inhibition curve was bell-shaped and no muscarinic inhibition was observed in the presence of methacholine 30 microM. After washout of methacholine the evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release was temporarily enhanced. 4. Atropine 0.1 microM enhanced the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow (evoked by stimulation with 360 or 1200 pulses at 10 Hz), probably antagonizing a presynaptic inhibition by endogenous acetylcholine. The inhibition by methacholine was competitively antagonized by atropine 0.1 microM (apparent -log KB = 8.5-9.0). 5. Depending on the concentration, pilocarpine reduced the [3H]-noradrenaline overflow evoked by 360 pulses at 3 Hz up to 63%. However, at 10 Hz stimulation frequency the compound was inactive as an agonist but competitively antagonized the presynaptic inhibition induced by methacholine. The KB under the latter condition (0.95 microM) was very close to the EC50 value determined at 3 Hz (0.85 microM). 6. The results demonstrate a muscarinic inhibition of noradrenaline release from the rabbit isolated iris. The activation by pilocarpine of the presynaptic receptors provides an alternative explanation for the miosis induced in the rabbit in vivo, which might be the result of a decreased sympathetic tone in the iris dilator muscle. PMID:3052680

Bognar, I T; Pallas, S; Fuder, H; Muscholl, E

1988-07-01

279

Disparities in Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Site Index Share Compartir Disparities in Oral Health Oral health disparities are profound in the United ... individual's ability to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

280

Stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation in France: comparative cost-effectiveness of new oral anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban), warfarin, and aspirin.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: To conduct an economic evaluation of the currently prescribed treatments for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) including warfarin, aspirin, and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) from a French payer perspective. Methods: A previously published Markov model was adapted in accordance to the new French guidelines of the Commission for Economic Evaluation and Public Health (CEESP), to adopt the recommended efficiency frontier approach. A cohort of patients with NVAF eligible for stroke preventive treatment was simulated over lifetime. Clinical events modeled included strokes, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds, and myocardial infarction. Efficacy and bleeding data for warfarin, apixaban, and aspirin were obtained from ARISTOTLE and AVERROES trials, whilst efficacy data for other NOACs were from published indirect comparisons. Acute medical costs were obtained from a dedicated analysis of the French national hospitalization database (PMSI). Long-term medical costs and utility data were derived from the literature. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model projections. Results: Warfarin and apixaban were the two optimal treatment choices, as the other five treatment strategies including aspirin, dabigatran 110?mg, dabigatran in sequential dosages, dabigatran 150?mg, and rivaroxaban were strictly dominated on the efficiency frontier. Further, apixaban was a cost-effective alternative vs warfarin with an incremental cost of €2314 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.189, corresponding to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €12,227/QALY. Conclusions: Apixaban may be the most economically efficient alternative to warfarin in NVAF patients eligible for stroke prevention in France. All other strategies were dominated, yielding apixaban as a less costly yet more effective treatment alternative. As formally requested by the CEESP, these results need to be verified in a French clinical setting using stroke reduction and bleeding safety observed in real-life patient cohorts using these anticoagulants. PMID:24831811

Lanitis, T; Cotté, F E; Gaudin, A F; Kachaner, I; Kongnakorn, T; Durand-Zaleski, I

2014-08-01

281

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

282

Survival of dentate hilar mossy cells after pilocarpine-induced seizures and their synchronized burst discharges with area CA3 pyramidal cells.  

PubMed

The clinical and basic literature suggest that hilar cells of the dentate gyrus are damaged after seizures, particularly prolonged and repetitive seizures. Of the cell types within the hilus, it appears that the mossy cell is one of the most vulnerable. Nevertheless, hilar neurons which resemble mossy cells appear in some published reports of animal models of epilepsy, and in some cases of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Therefore, mossy cells may not always be killed after severe, repeated seizures. However, mossy cell survival in these studies was not completely clear because the methods did allow discrimination between mossy cells and other hilar cell types. Furthermore, whether surviving mossy cells might have altered physiology after seizures was not examined. Therefore, intracellular recording and intracellular dye injection were used to characterize hilar cells in hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated rats that had status epilepticus and recurrent seizures ('epileptic' rats). For comparison, mossy cells were also recorded from age-matched, saline-injected controls, and pilocarpine-treated rats that failed to develop status epilepticus. Numerous hilar cells with the morphology, axon projection, and membrane properties of mossy cells were recorded in all three experimental groups. Thus, mossy cells can survive severe seizures, and those that survive retain many of their normal characteristics. However, mossy cells from epileptic tissue were distinct from mossy cells of control rats in that they generated spontaneous and evoked epileptiform burst discharges. Area CA3 pyramidal cells also exhibited spontaneous and evoked bursts. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from mossy cells and pyramidal cells demonstrated that their burst discharges were synchronized, with pyramidal cell discharges typically beginning first. From these data we suggest that hilar mossy cells can survive status epilepticus and chronic seizures. The fact that mossy cells have epileptiform bursts, and that they are synchronized with area CA3, suggest a previously unappreciated substrate for hyperexcitability in this animal model. PMID:11440806

Scharfman, H E; Smith, K L; Goodman, J H; Sollas, A L

2001-01-01

283

Comparative bioavailability of two oral L-thyroxine formulations after multiple dose administration in patients with hypothyroidism and its relation with therapeutic endpoints and dissolution profiles.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of the two most commonly prescribed L-thyroxine (monsodium L-thyroxine hydrate, CAS 25416-65-3) formulations in Brazil in patients treated for hypothyroidism. Twenty-four patients received 100 micrograms L-thyroxine daily of either Puran T4 (test) or the Brazilian reference formulation (reference) during 42 days, in a two-period crossover design. Serum samples obtained over a 24-h interval were analyzed for their total T4 concentration by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Content and uniformity of the tablets and dissolution studies were also assessed according to USP 24 monograph using an isocratic HPLC-UV system and a rotating-paddle method. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters for total T4, expressed as geometric means (CV), for the test and reference were, respectively: Cmax (microgram/dl) 9.8 (14.3%) and 10.8 (14.9%); AUC0-24 h (microgram/dl.h) 206.8 (13.9%) and 230.4 (14.9%). Median values (90% CI) for Tmax (h) were 3 (2-3) and 2 (2-4) for the test and reference, respectively. 90% CI for ratios of LogCmax and LogAUC0-24 h were 86.6-94.9 and 86.3-93.4, respectively. Although the test exhibited values of Cmax and AUC0-24 h around 10% lower than the reference, these formulations must be considered bioequivalent since the 90% CI for both Cmax and AUC0-24 h mean ratio were within the 80-125% interval as proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration and the Brazilian legislation. TSH dosages within the normal range further support therapeutic equivalence between the two formulations. Dissolution data were roughly in agreement with in vivo results since both formulations comply with the USP dissolution criteria although the test tablets had a slower dissolution rate than the reference tablets. As a conclusion, the two oral formulations of L-thyroxine are both bioequivalent and therapeutically equivalent although presenting a small difference in their extent of absorption. Noteworthy, the dissolution profiles of the tablets correlate well with their bioavailability in the present experimental conditions. PMID:11304941

Vaisman, M; Spina, L D; Eksterman, L F; dos Santos, M J; Lima, J S; Volpato, N M; da Silva, R L; de Brito, A P; Noël, F

2001-01-01

284

Estimates of the effect on hepatic iron of oral deferiprone compared with subcutaneous desferrioxamine for treatment of iron overload in thalassemia major: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Beta thalassemia major requires regular blood transfusions and iron chelation to alleviate the harmful accumulation of iron. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of the available agents, desferrioxamine and deferiprone, is derived from small, non-comparative, heterogeneous observational studies. This evidence was reviewed to quantitatively compare the ability of these chelators to reduce hepatic iron. Methods The literature was searched using Medline and all reports addressing the effect of either chelator on hepatic iron were considered. Data were abstracted independently by two investigators. Analyses were performed using reported individual patient data. Hepatic iron concentrations at study end and changes over time were compared using ANCOVA, controlling for initial iron load. Differences in the proportions of patients improving were tested using ?2. Results Eight of 11 reports identified provided patient-level data relating to 30 desferrioxamine- and 68 deferiprone-treated patients. Desferrioxamine was more likely than optimal dose deferiprone to decrease hepatic iron over the average follow-up of 45 months (odds ratio, 19.0, 95% CI, 2.4 to 151.4). The degree of improvement was also larger with desferrioxamine. Conclusions This analysis suggests that desferrioxamine is more effective than deferiprone in lowering hepatic iron. This comparative analysis – despite its limitations – should prove beneficial to physicians faced with the challenge of selecting the optimal treatment for their patients.

Caro, J Jaime; Huybrechts, Krista F; Green, Traci C

2002-01-01

285

A prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing ertapenem and ceftriaxone followed by appropriate oral therapy for complicated urinary tract infections in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of ertapenem, a new once-daily parenteral beta-lactam, with that of ceftriaxone for the initial empiric treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs).Methods. In a multicenter, prospective, double-blind study, patients with cUTIs were stratified as to whether they had acute pyelonephritis or other cUTIs (without pyelonephritis) and randomized to receive ertapenem, 1

Fernando Jimenez-Cruz; Abel Jasovich; Jaime Cajigas; Qi Jiang; Danielle Imbeault; Gail L Woods; Richard M Gesser

2002-01-01

286

Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered safe, their long-term efficacy for osteoarthritis has been suspect. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of topical diclofenac (TDiclo) in a vehicle solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in 775 subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee. This 5-arm study compared TDiclo with a placebo solution, the DMSO

Lee S. Simon; Lisa M. Grierson; Zahid Naseer; Arthur A. M. Bookman; J. Zev Shainhouse

2009-01-01

287

Screening South Asians for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes: (1) comparing oral glucose tolerance and haemoglobin A1c test results and (2) comparing the two sets of metabolic profiles of individuals diagnosed with these two tests  

PubMed Central

Background The glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level may be used for screening for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes instead of a more burdensome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, among the high-risk South Asian population, little is known about the overlap of the methods or about the metabolic profiles of those disconcordantly diagnosed. Methods We included 944 South Asians (18–60 years old), whom we screened with the HbA1c level and the OGTT in The Hague, the Netherlands. We calculated the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC) with a 95% confidence interval of HbA1c using the American Diabetes Association classifications, and determined the sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals at different thresholds. Moreover, we studied differences in metabolic characteristics between those identified by HbA1c and by the OGTT alone. Results The overlap between HbA1c and OGTT classifications was partial, both for diabetes and prediabetes. The AUROC of HbA1c for OGTT defined diabetes was 0.86 (0.79–0.93). The sensitivity was 0.46 (0.29–0.63); the specificity 0.98 (0.98–0.99). For prediabetes, the AUROC was 0.73 (0.69–0.77). Each of the 31 individuals with diabetes and 353 with prediabetes identified with the HbA1c level had a high body mass index, large waist circumference, high blood pressure, and low insulin sensitivity, all of which were similar to the values shown by those among the 19 with diabetes or 62 with prediabetes who only met the OGTT criteria, but not the HbA1c criteria. Conclusions The HbA1c level identified a partially different group than the OGTT did. However, both those identified with the HbA1c level and those identified with the OGTT alone were at increased metabolic risk. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR1499

2013-01-01

288

The DURABLE Trial Study Design: Comparing the Safety, Efficacy, and Durability of Insulin Glargine to Insulin Lispro Mix 75/25 Added to Oral Antihyperglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background While studies have compared the safety and efficacy of starter insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes, none have evaluated regimen durability (length of time a patient can maintain glycemic control) or the safety and efficacy of subsequent intensification regimens in a large, multinational cohort. Methods The DURABLE (Assessing the DURAbility of Basal vs Lispro Mix 75/25 Insulin Efficacy) trial will compare the ability of glargine once daily vs lispro mix 75/25 (75% insulin lispro protamine suspension, 25% lispro) twice daily added to oral antihyperglycemic agents to achieve and maintain hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goals. This randomized, open label, parallel study will enroll over 2000 insulin-naďve patients with type 2 diabetes from 11 countries, ages 30 to 80, with HbA1c >7.0% on at least two oral antihyperglycemic agents. At the completion of the 6-month initiation phase, safety and efficacy of the two regimens will be compared. Patients who achieve an HbA1c ?7.0% at 6 months will continue into the 24-month maintenance phase to evaluate durability. In a substudy, patients not achieving HbA1c ?7.0% at 6 months may be randomized to one of two intensification comparisons: patients previously on glargine will receive lispro mix 75/25 twice daily or basal/bolus therapy (glargine + thrice-daily mealtime lispro) and patients previously on lispro mix 75/25 will receive lispro mix 50/50 (50% insulin lispro protamine suspension, 50% lispro) thrice daily or basal/bolus therapy. Results Upon completion, this trial will provide new information about starter insulin durability, defined as the length of time patients can maintain HbA1c control (HbA1c ?7.0%, or >7.0% but with an increase of <0.4% from the most recent HbA1c ?7.0%). Additionally, the study will provide comparative data on HbA1c, blood glucose profiles, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, hypoglycemic episodes, weight change, and insulin dose for starter insulin regimens following 6 and 24 months of treatment, as well as intensified insulin via the 6-month substudy. Conclusion This trial aims to broaden clinicians' understanding of the ability of starter insulin and insulin intensification regimens to achieve and maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Fahrbach, Jessie; Jacober, Scott; Jiang, Honghua; Martin, Sherry

2008-01-01

289

NWP06, an Extended-Release Oral Suspension of Methylphenidate, Improved Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Compared with Placebo in a Laboratory Classroom Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NWP06, a novel extended-release (ER) liquid formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), compared with placebo in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a laboratory school. Methods A total of 45 subjects ages 6–12 years were enrolled in this dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study. Following open-label dose optimization, subjects received 2 weeks of double-blind treatment (1 week of NWP06 and 1 week of placebo). The treatment sequence (NWP06/placebo or placebo/NWP06) was randomly assigned with the last day of each week-long treatment occurring on the laboratory school test day. Efficacy measures included Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) mathematics tests measured at pre-dose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dose on each laboratory classroom day. Safety assessments included physical examination, screening electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event measures, and assessment of suicidality with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results NWP06 resulted in significant (p<0.0001) improvements in the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dose (mean=7.12) as compared with placebo (mean=19.58) in the completers (n=39). Significant separation from placebo occurred at each time point tested (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours), with onset of action of NWP06 at 45 minutes post-dose and duration of efficacy extending to 12 hours post-dose. Adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs following NWP06 treatment were generally mild and consistent with the known safety profile of MPH. The most common AEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (55.6%), upper abdominal pain (42.2%), affect lability (26.7%), initial insomnia (22.2%), insomnia (17.8%), and headache (17.8%). Conclusions NWP06 treatment effectively reduced symptoms of ADHD in children beginning at 45 minutes and continuing for 12 hours post-dose. NWP06 was well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00904670. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00904670.

Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Belden, Heidi W.

2013-01-01

290

Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience.  

PubMed

Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

2014-01-01

291

Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.  

PubMed

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland

2013-01-16

292

Oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

Leukoplakia has evolved as a clinico-pathologic concept over many years, with the current clinical designation being accepted worldwide. Reflective of the biology of leukoplakia is the concept of cellular atypia and epithelial dysplasia. Adding to a better understanding of leukoplakia in general has been the definition of relevant clinical subsets which, in some cases, includes etiology (snuff), while in other cases a verrucous clinical appearance will suggest a more aggressive anticipated behavior pattern. Tobacco usage, in many of its forms, remains the prime etiologic factor; however, other considerations also apply. More recently, the potential etiologic role of Candida albicans has been stressed, as well as its possible role in carcinogenesis. So-called oral hairy leukoplakia has been defined in relation to a possible Epstein-Barr viral infection, usually in the immunosuppressed patient. Other viruses, human papilloma virus in particular, have been implicated in leukoplakia, while genetic alterations involving tumor suppressor elements (p53) have also been investigated. Finally, the management of this common condition remains a variable and includes local, topical, and systemic therapies such as anti-oxidants, carotenoids, and retinoids. PMID:7548621

Sciubba, J J

1995-01-01

293

Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice  

SciTech Connect

RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H/He mice was 80 mg/kg (0.38 mmol/kg) ip but 320 mg/kg (1.5 mmol/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg/kg (0.94 mmol/kg) ip and 1 g/kg (2.67 mmol/kg) po. Toxicity of RSU 1069 toward bone marrow stem cells was also less after po administration than after ip administration; 0.1 mmol/kg ip RSU 1069 and 0.38 mmol/kg po RSU 1069 both reduced the surviving fraction of clonogenic CFU-A cells by 50%. Oral administration of RSU 1069 resulted in lower spermatogenic toxicity. No loss of intestinal crypts was detected after ip or po administration of RSU 1069. Some nephrotoxicity was observed in half of the mice given the highest po dose of 1.5 mmol/kg of RSU 1069; this was not observed following the highest ip dose of drug. For RSU 1069 and RB 6145, administered by either route, the maximum hypoxic cell radiosensitization in murine KHT sarcomas, occurred when the drugs were given 45-60 min before 10 Gy of X rays. The degree of radiosensitization produced by a particular dose of either compound was largely independent of the route of administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, using 3H-RSU 1069, suggested that anti-tumor efficacy correlated with peak blood level of label and concentration in the tumor at the time of irradiation, which were not reduced by po compared with ip administration. Normal tissue toxicity tended to correlate with total exposure over time, which was reduced approximately two-fold by po administration. Oral administration of RSU 1069 or RB 6145, as well as being convenient, may give therapeutic benefit since dose-limiting toxicity in mice was reduced compared with parenteral administration, whereas radiosensitizing activity was less affected.

Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Bowler, J.; Nolan, J.; Wright, E.G.; Lorimore, S.A.; Adams, G.E. (Medical Research Council, Radiobiology Unit, Didcot, Oxon (England))

1991-07-01

294

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

295

Impairment of GABA release in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

The alterations in GABA release have not yet been systematically measured along the natural course of temporal lobe epilepsy. In this work, we analyzed GABA extracellular concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high K(+)-evoked conditions) and loss of two GABA interneuron populations (parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons) in the ventral hippocampus at different time-points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat, i.e. during development and progression of epilepsy. We found that (i) during the latent period between the epileptogenic insult, status epilepticus, and the first spontaneous seizure, basal GABA outflow was reduced to about one third of control values while the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was reduced by about 50% and that of somatostatin-positive cells by about 25%; nonetheless, high K(+) stimulation increased extracellular GABA in a proportionally greater manner during latency than under control conditions; (ii) at the time of the first spontaneous seizure (i.e., when the diagnosis of epilepsy is made in humans) this increased responsiveness to stimulation disappeared, i.e. there was no longer any compensation for GABA cell loss; (iii) thereafter, this dysfunction remained constant until a late phase of the disease. These data suggest that a GABAergic hyper-responsiveness can compensate for GABA cell loss and protect from occurrence of seizures during latency, whereas impaired extracellular GABA levels can favor the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and the maintenance of an epileptic state. PMID:24768627

Soukupová, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Roncon, Paolo; Palma, Eleonora; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Simonato, Michele

2014-07-01

296

Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar ratio  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery systems for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery systems exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar ratio in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations.

Lai, Jui-Yang

2013-01-01

297

An open, comparative, multicentre clinical study of combined oral therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS for treating Chinese patients with erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

This study sought to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of combined oral therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS compared to sildenafil monotherapy in treating Chinese patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/LUTS). The trial was conducted in hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Wuhan and Guangzhou, five major cities in China. A total of 250 patients diagnosed with ED and BPH/LUTS aged 50-75 years, and who had International Index of Erection Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores ?21 and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ?10 points, were enrolled and randomly divided into Group A (168 cases; doxazosin GITS 4 mg once daily plus sildenafil 25-100 mg on demand) and Group B (82 cases; sildenafil 25-100 mg on demand). Efficacies were evaluated by IIEF-5 and IPSS scores and a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire, and adverse effects were evaluated during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant differences in mean age, and IIEF-5, IPSS and QoL scores pre-treatment between the two groups. After treatment, IIEF-5, IPSS and QoL scores were significantly improved in Group A, while only IIEF-5 scores were significantly improved in Group B compared with pre-treatment. There were no significant differences in side effects between the two groups. The results indicated that combined therapy with sildenafil and doxazosin GITS for the treatment of ED and BPH/LUTS is safe and effective compared to sildenafil monotherapy. PMID:21602833

Jin, Zhe; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Ji-Hong; Lu, Jun; Tang, Yu-Xin; Sun, Xiang-Zhou; Song, Wei-Dong; Gao, Bing; Guo, Ying-Lu; Xin, Zhong-Cheng

2011-07-01

298

Simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III and four ginsenosides by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat and beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A fast, selective, and quantitative ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rg1 in the plasma of rat and beagle dog after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. After addition of the internal standard, salidroside, the plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with methanol/0.01% acetic acid water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in a switching ionization mode. The method was examined, and found to be precise and accurate with the linearity range of the compounds. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of the analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard were all >75.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat and beagle dog plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of ginsenoside Rg1, while the others had significant differences, which may due to the different mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. PMID:24610822

Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiaowen; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

2014-05-01

299

Oral candida: is dummy carriage the culprit?  

PubMed Central

Oral candida in subjects who sucked dummies was almost double that of controls. Although the carriage of Candida albicans on silicone dummies was significantly reduced compared with latex dummies, oral colonisation was unaffected, suggesting that dummy carriage is not the cause of the observed increase. Images Figure

Sio, J O; Minwalla, F K; George, R H; Booth, I W

1987-01-01

300

Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.  

PubMed

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

2014-01-01

301

Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence.

Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

2014-01-01

302

Reseach SummaryPerceived oral health in the UK and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Surveys of oral health have not previously compared national adult populations using measures of subjective oral health.Aims To compare subjective oral health of adults in the UK and Australian populations.Methods Cross sectional studies were conducted of people aged 18+ years in the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health Survey and the 1999 Australian National Dental Telephone Interview Survey. Subjective oral

Peter G Robinson

2005-01-01

303

RELATIONSHIPS OF ORAL IMAGERY TO YIELDING BEHAVIOR AND BIRTH ORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC HYPOTHESIS THAT ORAL DEPENDENT PEOPLE ARE DEPENDENT AND NEED SUPPORT AND APPROVAL FROM OTHERS WAS TESTED BY COMPARING THE ORAL IMAGERY SHOWN ON THE RORSCHACH TEST OF 23 UNDERGRADUATE MALE YIELDERS AND 21 MALE NONYIELDERS IN AN ASCH CONFORMITY EXPERIMENT. AS PREDICTED, THE YIELDERS GAVE MORE ORAL DEPENDENT RESPONSES ON THE RORSCHACH THAN THE NONYIELDERS (P = .025).

JOSEPH MASLING; LILLIE WEISS; BERTRAM ROTHSCHILD

1968-01-01

304

Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested.

de Araujo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araujo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paco-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitai, Daniel Leite Goes

2014-01-01

305

Hospitalized mental health patients and oral health.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review of the literature is to present a contemporary perspective related to the nursing care of hospitalized mental health patients who have risk of developing oral health issues. Mental illness is a major health concern worldwide. Compounding this health issue, mental health patients/clients demonstrate avoidant behaviours related to oral health, and the symptoms of mental illness can be a compounding factor. Oral health and oral inflammatory disease are the result of lifestyle and behaviour and mental disorders affect both lifestyle and behaviour. The search used the search terms oral health AND nursing AND mental illness AND Published Date 2005 to 2010. For those who experience mental illness oral health assessment is not routinely practised by clinicians. The importance of special attention to dental problems for people with mental disorders has also been stressed by researchers since the lifespan of people with serious mental disorders is shortened compared to the general population. Oral health care is an important part of treatment. Routine oral care for hospitalized patients is imperative, and this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. PMID:22070464

Edward, K-L; Felstead, B; Mahoney, A-M

2012-06-01

306

Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?  

PubMed Central

Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized.

Fonte, Pedro; Araujo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

2013-01-01

307

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

308

Oral Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Support - Advocacy Research... and Hope About About The Foundation About Us Bruce Paltrow Fund Press Releases TV ... Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public ...

309

Oral Cancer Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... in a localized intra oral area. Besides the metastasis, at these later stages, the primary tumor has ... oral cancers. Added to decrease the possibility of metastasis, to sensitize the malignant cells to radiation, to ...

310

Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.  

PubMed

Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections. PMID:22236342

Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

2013-01-01

311

Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin and comparison of its efficacy with that of oral artesunate in falciparum malaria patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of oral artemisinin and oral artesunate as well as artemisinin pharmacokinetics during and after resolution of falciparum malaria. Forty adults with symptomatic falciparum malaria were allocated at random to treatment with either oral artemisinin (500 mg single dose on day 1 followed by 250 mg twice daily for 4 d and then

M. Hassan Alin; M. Ashton; C. M. Kihamia; G. J. B. Mtey; A. Björkman

1996-01-01

312

What Is an Oral Piercing?  

MedlinePLUS

... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? Oral ... strenuous activity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Oral Piercings A Fatal Fad? Tongue Studs Cause More Problems ...

313

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs.

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

314

Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation alone and associated with a sub-effective dose of diazepam on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and subsequent neuronal damage in rats.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) applied via tripolar concentric ring electrodes, alone and associated with a sub-effective dose of diazepam (DZP) on the expression of status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine (LP) and subsequent neuronal damage in the hippocampus. Immediately before pilocarpine injection, male Wistar rats received TFS (300Hz, 200-?s biphasic square charge-balanced 50-mA constant current pulses for 2min) alone or combined with a sub-effective dose of DZP (0.41mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast with DZP or TFS alone, DZP plus TFS reduced the incidence of, and enhanced the latency to, mild and severe generalized seizures and SE induced by LP. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the number of degenerated neurons in the hippocampus. The present study supports the notion that TFS combined with sub-effective doses of DZP may represent a therapeutic tool to induce anticonvulsant effects and reduce the SE-induced neuronal damage. PMID:23886585

Besio, Walter; Cuellar-Herrera, Manola; Luna-Munguia, Hiram; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Rocha, Luisa

2013-09-01

315

Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves  

PubMed Central

The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation.

Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

2014-01-01

316

Microbial basis of oral malodor development in humans.  

PubMed

To better understand the microbial basis of oral malodor development in humans, we used a cross-sectional and longitudinal study design and the pyrosequencing approach to track and compare the tongue microbiota associated with oral malodor in 29 Chinese adults who underwent a consecutive three-day evaluation for the amount of H2S excreted orally. Three levels of the oral malodor state (healthy, oral malodor, and severe oral malodor) were defined based on the H2S level. Community structure of the tongue plaques was more sensitive to changes of malodor state than to interpersonal variations or differences in sampling times. Within each individual, the structure of microbiota was relatively stable, while their variations were correlated with the change in the H2S level. Severe oral malodor microbiota were the most conserved in community structure, whereas the healthy ones were relatively varied. Oral-malodor-associated bacteria were identified. The relative abundance of Leptotrichia and Prevotella was positively correlated with oral malodor severity, whereas Hemophilus and Gemella exhibited a negative relationship with oral malodor severity. Our study provides one of the first landscapes of oral microbiota changes associated with oral malodor development and reveals microbes potentially useful to the evaluation and control of oral malodor. PMID:24101743

Yang, F; Huang, S; He, T; Catrenich, C; Teng, F; Bo, C; Chen, J; Liu, J; Li, J; Song, Y; Li, R; Xu, J

2013-12-01

317

Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion: A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students.

Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

2014-01-01

318

Health-oriented electronic oral health record: development and evaluation.  

PubMed

This study aims to develop and evaluate a new Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record that implements the health-oriented status and intervention index. The index takes the principles of holistic oral healthcare and applies them to the design and implementation of the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. We designed an experiment using focus groups and a consensus (Delphi process) method to develop a new health-oriented status and intervention index and graphical user interface. A comparative intervention study with qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compare an existing Electronic Oral Health Record to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record, focusing on dentist satisfaction, accuracy, and completeness of oral health status recording. The study was conducted by the dental staff of the Inter-country Center for Oral Health collaborative hospitals in Thailand. Overall, the user satisfaction questionnaire had a positive response to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. The dentists found it easy to use and were generally satisfied with the impact on their work, oral health services, and surveillance. The dentists were significantly satisfied with the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record compared to the existing Electronic Oral Health Record (p < 0.001). The accuracy and completeness values of the oral health information recorded using the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record were 97.15 and 93.74 percent, respectively. This research concludes that the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record satisfied many dentists, provided benefits to holistic oral healthcare, and facilitated the planning, managing, and evaluation of the healthcare delivery system. PMID:24810725

Wongsapai, Mansuang; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Beach, Daryl; Kawaguchi, Sachiko

2014-06-01

319

Comparing pain control and ability to eat and drink with standard therapy vs Gelclair: a preliminary, double centre, randomised controlled trial on patients with radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of the work  Oral mucositis (OM) is a functionally destructive complication of aggressive head and neck cancer therapy, often resulting\\u000a in intense pain, an inability to eat and drink and secondary malnutrition and dehydration. The barrier-forming properties\\u000a of Gelclair have shown promise in relieving such symptoms. The aim of this randomised-controlled trial was to evaluate the\\u000a efficacy of Gelclair, as

Claire Barber; Roy Powell; Annie Ellis; Julie Hewett

2007-01-01

320

Oral Delivery of Taxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low oral bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof orally administered paclitaxel.Additional studies

Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens

2001-01-01

321

Happiness, subjective and objective oral health status, and oral health behaviors among Korean elders.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. METHODS: The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). RESULTS: The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. PMID:23398395

Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok

2013-02-10

322

Auditory Motor Integration in Oral and Manual Effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensorimotor integration of auditory feedback for oral and manual force control was compared in 10 healthy participants. Based on the notion that auditory-to-motor integration is a more typical form of feedback for oral articulators given their role in speech and singing, it was predicted that oral force generation would be more accurate and less variable on an auditory-motor task compared

Torrey M. J. Loucks; Edward Ofori; Christopher M. Grindrod; Luc F. De Nil; Jacob J. Sosnoff

2010-01-01

323

Oral Rivaroxaban for Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide a simple, fixed-dose regimen for treating acute deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and for continued treatment, without the need for laboratory monitoring. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, event-driven, noninferiority study that compared oral rivaroxaban alone (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily) with subcutaneous enoxaparin followed

R. Bauersachs; S. D. Berkowitz; B. Brenner; H. R. Büller; H. Decousus; A. S. Gallus; A. W. Lensing; F. Misselwitz; M. H. Prins; G. E. Raskob; A. Segers; P. Verhamme; P. Wells; G. Agnelli; H. Bounameaux; A. Cohen; B. L. Davidson; F. Piovella; S. Schellong

2010-01-01

324

IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self-efficacy and net benefits. Discussion IQuaD will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing periodontal disease in dentate adults in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners and patients in treatment decision making. Trial registration Protocol ID: ISRCTN56465715

2013-01-01

325

Grape products and oral health.  

PubMed

Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

Wu, Christine D

2009-09-01

326

Early deficits in social behavior and cortical rhythms in pilocarpine-induced mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Many patients with epilepsy are afflicted with psychiatric comorbidities including social dysfunction. However, although social deficits have been a major concern in epilepsy treatment, the relationship between social behavioral pathogenesis and the time course of epileptogenesis is not well defined. To address this, we investigated social behavioral alterations and cortical rhythms during two distinct periods in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE): 1) a seizure-free, latent period after status epilepticus and 2) the subsequent, chronic period characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). We found that severe social impairments, such as reduced sociability/social novelty preference, social interaction, social learning, and enhanced defensiveness, appeared during the latent period in mice with TLE. The social dysfunctions in the latent-period mice were nearly comparable to those in the chronic-period mice. We also found that both the latent- and chronic-period mice showed similar aberrant neural activities. They showed enhanced delta-band (1-4 Hz) activity and reduced alpha- (8.5-12 Hz) and gamma-band (30-55 Hz) activity during baseline behavior. Interestingly, concomitant increases in alpha- and gamma-band activities during social behavior, which were characteristic in control mice, were not observed in either latent- or chronic-period mice. Our results indicate that social deficits and abnormal neural activities appear at an earlier stage in epileptogenesis regardless of SRS occurrence. These findings may help to understand behavioral pathogenesis in patients with TLE and at-risk patients with initial insults that develop into TLE. PMID:23220251

Seo, Jinsoo; Jung, Seungmoon; Lee, So-Young; Yang, Hyunwoo; Kim, Byung Sun; Choi, Jiye; Bang, Minji; Shin, Hee-Sup; Jeon, Daejong

2013-03-01

327

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

328

Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness. PMID:11695759

Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

2001-10-01

329

Keeping Pace With Oral Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Although the rising number of oral chemotherapy agents offers many patients with cancer a more convenient and less invasive treatment option compared with infusion therapy, multiple risks and challenges have been identified with the oral regimen, including dosing errors, drug interactions, and nonadherence or overadherence. Until recently, cancer care providers had maintained a considerable amount of control, including the certainty that the right drug was being administered in the right dose, via the right route, at the right time, and to the right patient—all of which were meticulously documented in patient records. In contrast, oral chemotherapy takes much of the control out of the clinician's hands and places tremendous responsibility on the patient, raising a number of adherence and control issues. Studies regarding oral hormonal therapy for breast cancer have described adherence rates ramping down from 83% to 77% within the first 2 years of therapy. These figures continue to decrease over time to a range of 50% to 64% within 4 to 5 years. On the basis of these data and a literature review, we developed a program to promote adherence to oral anticancer protocols. Methods: Our team took a proactive, team-focused approach and established protocols at a time when oral chemotherapies were still at a low volume. In addition to infrastructures, policies, and procedures promoting collaborative communications among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, we developed an in-depth educational component that provides the linchpin for ensuring an effective oral chemotherapy program. Our program focuses on three key pillars: education, communication, and follow-up. Our project team first conducted an inclusive review of available literature, with the objective of designing processes that would help our program directly address existing risks and challenges. Then we introduced concepts for the formalized program to our cancer center physicians, whose support was paramount to successful implementation. The next step was to start the program with a mandatory in-service for all clinical staff, which included a presentation of the research evidence that prompted the creation of this model for oral chemotherapy. To enhance patient understanding, our team provides printed materials, individualized calendars, and in some cases preloaded pillboxes to assist patients. Concurrently, our nurses provide weekly telephone intervention for the second and third months and monthly phone interventions thereafter. Communication is key to the success of the program. This includes the use of a translation service to ensure effective communication with all non–English-speaking patients. We intervene early for those patients with financial barriers and offer a variety of referrals and resources for emotional, nutritional, and patient support services, including transportation issues. Results: Since the inception of the program, the in-service has been incorporated into our new employee orientation. At the same time, a growing number of cancer center physicians are embracing the program. The program has received the attention of the Oncology Roundtable, which developed a Webinar around the topic, and been described in a feature article in an oncology journal. Finally, our team has been tapped to educate other pharmacists regarding oral agents, toxicity profiles, and safe handling. Conclusion: By combining safeguards, patient education strategies, intensive follow-up, and a system of effective checks and balances, our center is taking significant steps to maximize patient safety and oral chemotherapy treatment effectiveness, while keeping pace with the rapidly occurring changes in oncology practice.

Barefoot, Jeanette; Blecher, Carol S.

2012-01-01

330

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today.

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

331

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus U....

2010-10-12

332

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

333

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

334

Recent innovations in oral contraception.  

PubMed

Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone. PMID:20391327

Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

2010-03-01

335

HIV shedding in the oral cavity: an assessment of HIV type, immunovirologic, demographic and oral factors  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify the prevalence and burden of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) and HIV-1 RNA in the oral cavity of antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected Senegalese individuals and to identify correlates of oral HIV viral loads. Design A cross-sectional study of 163 HIV-1 and 27 HIV-2-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive Senegalese adults. Methods Participants received clinical and oral exams and provided blood and oral wash samples for viral load and plasma CD4 count ascertainment. Logistic and interval regression models were used to identify univariate and multivariable associations between presence and level of oral HIV RNA and various immunovirologic, local and demographic factors. Results Presence of detectable oral HIV RNA was less common in HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-1-infected study participants (33% vs 67%, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.59). HIV type was no longer associated with oral shedding of HIV when plasma viral load was considered. Detection of oral HIV RNA was associated with increased plasma viral load in both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals (HIV-1, OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.61; HIV-2, OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.39). Oral HIV-1 detection was also associated with periodontal disease (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.16 to 7.87). Conclusions Oral shedding of HIV-2 RNA is less common than HIV-1 RNA, a likely consequence of lower overall viral burden. Both systemic and local factors may contribute to shedding of HIV in the oral cavity.

Pavlinac, Patricia B; Hawes, Stephen E; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Gaye, Awa; N'Diaye, Charlotte F; Critchlow, Cathy W; Sow, Papa Salif; Feng, Qinghua; Kiviat, Nancy B

2014-01-01

336

Association of oral manifestations with ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Aim The study aims to document the oral lesions in patients with UC. Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of two chronic, tissue-destructive and clinical entities including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are immunologically based. Patients and methods The population of the study includes fifty patients with UC, as the experimental group, and fifty patients without gastrointestinal disease as the control group. All patients had an oral examination and completed the relevant questionnaire. Results There was a significant statistical relationship among tongue coating (<0.0001), halitosis (<0.0001), and oral ulceration (0.001) in patients suffering from severe UC compared to the control group. Also there was a higher prevalence of oral manifestations in patients with moderate UC compared to that of control group; but taste change (0.001) was the only significant factor. Acidic taste and taste change were among the symptoms more commonly found in patients suffering from pancolitis (40% each). Conclusion The results of the present study show that patients with UC had more oral signs and symptoms than the patients in the normal group. Further researches on oral lesions in UC are also recommended so that these diseases can be better understood.

Elahi, Maryam; Samadi, Vahid; Vakili, Hadi

2012-01-01

337

[Oral kinesiology and the quality of life].  

PubMed

In a comparative study, the influence of oral health on the quality of life was investigated for people with temporomandibular pain, people with tooth wear and people with complete dentures. To this end, the study made use of the Oral Health Impact Profile. Both the total score and the scores on 4 of the 7 domains of the Oral Health Impact Profile were significantly higher in the research group with temporomandibular pain than in the research groups with tooth wear and complete dentures. These results suggest that among people with temporomandibular pain the influence of oral health on the quality of life is more negative than among people with tooth wear and among people with complete dentures. This result can probably be linked with the general finding that patients with temporomandibular pain bear a relatively high psycho-social burden. PMID:21491765

Papagianni, C E; van der Meulen, M J; Naeije, M; Lobbezoo, F

2011-03-01

338

Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-09-01

339

Huli oral health.  

PubMed

The Tari oral health study was conducted in 1985 and aimed to provide an oral health profile of a rural highlands community. The sample was selected from the database of the Tari Research Unit, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea and consisted of 815 Huli people aged from 3 to 64 years, in seven age groups, who were examined for oral health status and had completed an interview-questionnaire. A wide range of oral health status was seen, ranging from excellent to very poor. Dental caries and periodontal disease were common in the population. Oral habits such as smoking and betelnut chewing were associated with an increase in leukoplakia, which may lead to oral cancer in some people. Dental caries varied in prevalence and severity. Higher decayed, missing and filled teeth scores in the primary teeth of young children were associated with defective tooth formation (hypoplasia) linked to maternal and childhood illnesses and nutritional deficiencies. Older adults had the worst oral health, with the 45-64 year old group having a caries prevalence of 95% and a decayed, missing and filled teeth score of 14.7. Root surface caries, seen as a consequence of poor oral hygiene and gum recession, was the major site of caries attack in the older Hull. The public oral health services are unable to reach a large proportion of the rural population, and people continue to use traditional herbal and folk remedies. Many seek the skills of local tooth extractors who use six-inch nails with no anaesthetic. PMID:14658829

Newell, Paul L

2002-01-01

340

Generic and oral quality of life is affected by oral mucosal diseases  

PubMed Central

Background The generic and oral health-related quality of life (QoL) has provided opportunity for investigation of the interrelations among generic health, oral health, and related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the generic and oral QoL in the patients with oral mucosal disease (OMD). Methods Five hundred and thirty-eight OMDs were recruited in this study. The instruments applied were Chinese version of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) and the short-form of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results The mean score of sum OHIP-14 was significantly higher in the patients with OMD (10.81 ± 9.01) compared with those in the healthy subjects (HS) (6.55 ± 6.73) (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). 56.51% of the OMD patients and 12.94% of the HS reported at least one oral negative impact (p < 0.001, Chi-square test). The overall mean score of SF-36 was significantly lower in the patients with OMD (74.54 ± 12.77) compared with those in the HS (77.97 ± 12.39) (p = 0.021, t-test). Conclusions Administration of specific and generic questionnaires of QoL can provide us a detailed picture of the impact of OMDs on patients, and both generic and oral QoL were impaired in the patients with OMD.

2012-01-01

341

A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover bioequivalence study comparing a fixed-dose pediatric combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension with individual liquid formulations in healthy adult male volunteers.  

PubMed

Lamivudine (CAS 134678-17-4) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. Stavudine (CAS 3056-17-5) is a synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue, active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lamivudine and stavudine in combination with other antiretroviral (ARV) agents are indicated for the treatment of HIV infection. As there are no suitable pediatric ARVs, adult fixed-dose ARVs are commonly used in children. This practice poses concerns about dose inaccuracy, which may lead to resistance or toxicity. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet for oral suspension, containing lamivudine 40 mg and stavudine 10 mg has been developed. An open-label, balanced, randomised, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted following administration of a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension (test formulation) and innovator products (reference formulations) in healthy, adult, male human subjects under fasting condition. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 36 h post dose. Plasma concentrations of lamivudine and stavudine were assayed using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence was assessed using a mixed effect ANOVA model. The ratio of the least-square means (FDC to individual products) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) for lamivudine and stavudine were all within 80.00-125.00%, suggesting a similar rate and extent of ARVs exposure in the bloodstream. The FDC and individual products were equally safe and well tolerated. The current FDC of lamivudine and stavudine is expected to provide a similar efficacy/safety profile as co-administration of the individual products, a better adherence to treatment, and considerable cost savings in the treatment of HIV in children. PMID:19338141

Monif, Tausif; Reyar, Simrit; Tiwari, Hari Krishan; Tippabhotla, Sudhakar Koundinya; Khuroo, Arshad; Thudi, Nageshwar Rao; Ahmed, Sarfaraz; Raghuvanshi, Rajeev

2009-01-01

342

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

343

A comparative study of pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and tissue distribution of platinum in rats following a single-dose oral administration of two platinum(IV) complexes LA12 ( OC -6-43)-bis(acetato)(1-adamantylamine)amminedichloroplatinum(IV) and satraplatin ( OC -6-43)-bis(acetato)amminedichloro(cyclohexylamine)platinum(IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study compared the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and urinary excretion of platinum in rats after single oral\\u000a doses of LA-12 and satraplatin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Both platinum derivatives were administered to male Wistar rats as suspensions in methylcellulose at four equimolar doses\\u000a within the range of 37.5–300 mg LA-12\\/kg body weight. Blood sampling was performed until 72 h, and plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate\\u000a were separated.

Petr Sova; Adolf Mistr; Ales Kroutil; Martin Semerád; Hana Chlubnová; Veronika Hrusková; Jirina Chládková; Jaroslav Chládek

2011-01-01

344

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida albicans . Candida overgrowth can lead to vaginal (yeast) infections, diaper ... oral thrush. Most people (including infants) naturally have Candida in their mouths and digestive tracts, which is ...

345

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... v Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

346

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes HIV/AIDS Order Free Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

347

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

348

Oral and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

2014-01-01

349

Comparison of perceived oral health in patients with temporomandibular disorders and dental anxiety using oral health-related quality of life profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments provide information beyond what is represented in their summary scores.\\u000a Individual item information also provides useful insight into patient-related oral health problems. Our study aim was to compare\\u000a patients’ perceived impact from temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and from dental anxiety on oral health using item profiles\\u000a contained within the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP).

Oliver Schierz; Mike T. John; Daniel R. Reißmann; Mats Mehrstedt; András Szentpétery

2008-01-01

350

Genomic DNA copy number alterations from precursor oral lesions to oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is a multifactorial disease in which both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the aetiopathogenesis. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a higher incidence among Melanesian and South Asian countries. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to determine common genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) and their frequency by including 12 studies that have been conducted on OSCCs using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, we reviewed the literature dealing with CNAs that drive oral precursor lesions to the invasive tumors. Results showed a sequential accumulation of genetic changes from oral precursor lesions to invasive tumors. With the disease progression, accumulation of genetic changes increases in terms of frequency, type and size of the abnormalities, even on different regions of the same chromosome. Gains in 3q (36.5%), 5p (23%), 7p (21%), 8q (47%), 11q (45%), 20q (31%) and losses in 3p (37%), 8p (18%), 9p (10%) and 18q (11%) were the most common observations among those studies. However, losses are less frequent than gains but it appears that they might be the primary clonal events in causing oral cancer. PMID:24613650

Salahshourifar, Iman; Vincent-Chong, Vui King; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Zain, Rosnah Binti

2014-05-01

351

Benefits and Risks of Third-Generation Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risks and benefits of third-generation oral contraceptives. DATA SOURCES A medlinesearch was done for English language articles published from 1985 through 1998 relating to the side-effect profile of third-generation oral contraceptives or their association with cardiovascular or thromboembolic disease. All articles containing original data were included. DATA SYNTHESIS The risk of venous thromboembolism appears to be 1.5- to 2.7-fold greater in users of third-generation, compared with second-generation, oral contraceptives. Compared with nonusers, women who use third-generation oral contraceptives may have a 4.8- to 9.4-fold greater risk of venous thromboembolism. Users of third-generation oral contraceptives do not appear to have an increased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonusers and may have risk of myocardial infarction of 0.26 to 0.7 compared with second-generation users. Whether third-generation oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased stroke risk is still not clear. CONCLUSIONS Although third-generation oral contraceptives most likely increase a user's risk of venous thromboembolism, their improved side-effect profile and their possible decreased association with myocardial infarction and stroke may make them a useful new class of oral contraceptives for most women except those at increased risk of venous thrombosis.

LeBlanc, Erin S; Laws, Ami

1999-01-01

352

Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

Steele, Sara C.

2012-01-01

353

Prevention of oral mucositis in paediatric patients treated with chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of two protocols for oral care using either chlorhexidine or benzydamine as oral rinses to alleviate mucositis in children undergoing chemotherapy. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either protocol for 3 weeks in a two-period crossover design. The occurrence of ulcerative lesions and severity of mucositis were measured at baseline and twice weekly, using the

K. K. F Cheng; A. M Chang; M. P Yuen

2004-01-01

354

Oral or vaginal misoprostol for induction of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare vaginal versus oral misoprostol for induction of labor. Method: Induction of labor was carried out in 40 women near term in two equal and randomized groups (according to a computer generated table) using misoprostol. Group I received vaginal misoprostol (100 ?g) every 3 h while group II patients were given the same dose via the oral route.

M. K. Toppozada; M. Y. M. Anwar; H. A. Hassan; W. S. El-Gazaerly

1997-01-01

355

Communication among Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities.

Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

2002-01-01

356

Investigation of the oral infections and manifestations seen in patients with advanced cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: A prospective, observational study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of oral infection among the patients with advanced malignancies, and to investigate the effects of therapy strategies and risk factors on the incidence of oral infection. Methods: The patients with advanced malignancies were enrolled into the study. The incidence of oral infection with different malignant tumor groups or different treatment methods and the diagnoses of oral infection were confirmed. Demographic data on age, gender, bed rest time, nutritional status, smoking habit and the presence of oral prosthesis were also recorded. Results: Oral infection was prevalent in 46% (391/850) of all cancer patients, with the highest rate in oral and maxillofacial cancer group (67%), followed by Hematological malignancy group (58.6%) and other groups (ranging from 43.3% to 35.3%). Oral candidiasis, oral herpes simplex, and oral mucositis were the popular infectious diseases in the patients. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, especially combined radio- and chemotherapy, resulted in more oral infections compared with palliative care and surgery. Poor nutritional status and oral prosthesis were identified as independent risk factors associated with oral infection. Conclusion: Oral infection is prevalent among advanced cancer patients and associated with therapy methods and risk factors. More oral health care should be carried out for the patients with advanced malignant tumor.

Xu, Lihua; Zhang, Hualin; Liu, Jinsong; Chen, Xiaowei

2013-01-01

357

Oral and intravenous rehydration of children.  

PubMed Central

We compared oral rehydration therapy (ORT) with rapid intravenous rehydration (IV) in 42 young children with mild to moderate dehydration due to diarrhea. Overall, treatment was successful for 82% of the ORT patients and for 78% of the IV patients. Many physicians in hospitals are unfamiliar with the use of ORT for treating dehydration.

Issenman, R. M.; Leung, A. K.

1993-01-01

358

Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

Matz, Karl A.

359

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

360

Oral heparin: status review.  

PubMed

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials. PMID:16686945

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

361

Oral heparin: status review  

PubMed Central

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

362

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

363

Discoloration of Provisional Restorations after Oral Rinses  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (?E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). A* values were found to be significantly higher with oral rinses (p<0.05), except Protemp II immersed in benzydamine HCl or alcohol-containing mouthwash. Conclusions: The type of the oral rinse did not affect the discoloration process. For long-term esthetic results, choosing MMA-based materials for provisional restorations appears to be more effective.

Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, K?vanc Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

2013-01-01

364

Oral myiasis in children  

PubMed Central

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

2012-01-01

365

Oral myiasis: case report.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939

Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M

2013-01-01

366

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

367

Immunohistochemical detection of p53 and p63 in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

AIM: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may be preceded by potentially malignant disorders such as leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). p63 in concert with p53 regulates cell proliferation and differentiation and may have a role in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the expression of p53 and p63 proteins in OSCC, leukoplakia, and OSF by immunohistochemistry (IHC). METHODS: Tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), leukoplakia (n = 20), OSF (n = 20) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10) were stained with p53 and p63 antibodies by IHC. Mean labeling index (LI) among the study groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: The mean LI of p53 for OSCC, leukoplakia, OSF, and normal mucosa were 56.9 ± 21.3, 37.6 ± 12.6, 34.6 ± 8.7 and 15.1 ± 9, while mean LI of p63 were 56.8 ± 19.6, 42.3 ± 10.5, 32.8 ± 12.1, and 26.4 ± 9.4. The mean LI of p53 and p63 were significantly higher in OSCC, leukoplakia and OSF compared to normal mucosa (P < 0.01; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The significant increase in expression of p53 and p63 proteins in OSCC, leukoplakia, and OSF suggests their role as surrogate markers of malignant transformation. PMID:23776093

Varun, B R; Ranganathan, K; Rao, Umadevi K; Joshua, Elizabeth

2013-06-18

368

A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the i.art. injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition, the serum naproxen pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds, administered at the highest equimolar doses, were obtained during the first 6 h after dosing. Results At the two highest tested doses, both naproxen and ATB-346 reduced edema and pain score (measured 3 and 5 h after CGN; P?

2013-01-01

369

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

370

Global Oral Health Inequalities: Oral Infections–Challenges and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four oral mucosal infections were identified as Global Oral Health Priorities: (a) HIV and associated viral, bacterial, and fungal infections; (b) tuberculosis; (c) NOMA; and (d) sexually transmitted diseases. Huge global inequalities exist in all four. HIV-associated infections constitute the major challenge. Oral manifestations of AIDS can be specifically diagnostic, indicating a significant role for dentists within health teams. The

S. Challacombe; M. Chidzonga; M. Glick; T. Hodgson; M. Magalhăes; C. Shiboski; F. Owotade; R. Ranganathan; S. Naidoo

2011-01-01

371

Oral biofilms, oral and periodontal infections, and systemic disease.  

PubMed

Purpose: Oral biofilms harbor several hundreds of species of bacteria as well as spirochetes, protozoa, fungi and viruses. The composition of the oral biofilm varies from health to disease. It is the source of microorganisms that cause dental and periodontal infections. Oral infections and periodontal disease have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of several important chronic systemic diseases. PMID:24479275

Maddi, Abhiram; Scannapieco, Frank A

2013-10-01

372

Oral manifestations in HIV infection: fungal and bacterial infections, Kaposi's sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral candidiasis (OC) is a frequent oral manifestation of HIV infection, is a marker disease and occurs as a pseudomembranous, erythematous or rarely hyperplastic variant; angular cheilitis is also seen. Candida albicans is frequently isolated but other species such as C. krusei and C. dublienensis are emerging. Resistance against fluconazole is common. Bacterial oral infections are comparatively rare and are

Peter A. Reichart

2003-01-01

373

A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the varying degrees to which learners of Spanish at the intermediate and advanced levels use paragraph-like structure in their answers during a simulated oral proficiency exam. Subjects were 24 students preparing for the Spanish Texas Oral Proficiency Test. Data from simulated oral proficiency interviews were compared to a model…

Koike, Dale April; Hinojosa, Fanny

1998-01-01

374

Oral malodor in children and volatile sulfur compound- producing bacteria in saliva: preliminary microbiological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined and compared levels of salivary bacteria which produced volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in young children with and without oral malodor. Methods: Clinic populations of children aged two to seven years, whose parents presented with an unsolicited major complaint of oral malodor in their child (OM+), or aged-matched controls in whom oral malodor was not detected by

Fariba Paryavi-Gholami; Glenn E. Minah; Foo Turng

1999-01-01

375