Science.gov

Sample records for competition linking form

  1. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression. PMID:23595418

  2. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  3. Competitiveness mediates the link between personality and group performance.

    PubMed

    Graziano, W G; Hair, E C; Finch, J F

    1997-12-01

    The performance of individuals within groups, and of groups as units, is the product of immediate goal structures and personality differences pertinent to those goals among group members. A level-of-analysis approach linked the dimension of agreeableness to situated competitiveness and task performance in group settings. Hypotheses were (a) individual differences in self-rated and other-rated competitiveness are related (inversely) to the Big Five dimension of agreeableness, (b) immediately situated promotive and contrient goal structures influence self-ratings of competitiveness, (c) immediate goal structures differentially activate competitiveness to affect task performance in groups, and (d) agreeableness effects on task performance are partially mediated by competitiveness. Structural equation modeling corroborated hypotheses about the links among agreeableness, competitiveness, and task performance. PMID:9418284

  4. Telecom Link--A Competitive Simulated Design Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, J.; Allen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Telecom link is a structured design exercise concerned with building a telecommunications link between London and Amsterdam. Designed for A-level physics, the simulation requires a minimum of 10 hours. Aims of the exercise, design specifications and technical aspects, and summaries of four possible technologies used in the simulation are…

  5. Modelling the multidimensional niche by linking functional traits to competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Daniel S; Leonard, Kenneth E; Drake, John M; Hall, David W; Crowther, Thomas W; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-07-22

    Linking competitive outcomes to environmental conditions is necessary for understanding species' distributions and responses to environmental change. Despite this importance, generalizable approaches for predicting competitive outcomes across abiotic gradients are lacking, driven largely by the highly complex and context-dependent nature of biotic interactions. Here, we present and empirically test a novel niche model that uses functional traits to model the niche space of organisms and predict competitive outcomes of co-occurring populations across multiple resource gradients. The model makes no assumptions about the underlying mode of competition and instead applies to those settings where relative competitive ability across environments correlates with a quantifiable performance metric. To test the model, a series of controlled microcosm experiments were conducted using genetically related strains of a widespread microbe. The model identified trait microevolution and performance differences among strains, with the predicted competitive ability of each organism mapped across a two-dimensional carbon and nitrogen resource space. Areas of coexistence and competitive dominance between strains were identified,and the predicted competitive outcomes were validated in approximately 95% of the pairings. By linking trait variation to competitive ability, our work demonstrates a generalizable approach for predicting and modelling competitive outcomes across changing environmental contexts. PMID:26136444

  6. Linking the Production Possibilities Curve, the Supply Curve, and the Competitive Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosicki, George

    1991-01-01

    Recommends that economics instruction begin a synthesizing process early by connecting discussion of the production possibilities curve and the supply curve. Suggests that linking the two is logical for conveying integrated economic thinking to beginning students. Argues that such a link makes it easier to discuss the competitive norm. (DK)

  7. Forms of Competitive Attitude and Achievement Orientation in Relation to Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckle, Michelle A.; Ryckman, Richard M.; Gold, Joel A.; Thornton, Bill; Audesse, Roberta J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the differential contributions of two forms of competitive attitude to disordered eating in 198 female Caucasian college students. Results show that it is not competition per se that is a primary contributor to eating disorders but rather a hypercompetitiveness form of competitive attitude. (SLD)

  8. Cross linking molecular systems to form ultrathin dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Danqin

    Dehydrogenation leads to cross linking of polymer or polymer like formation in very different systems: self-assembled monolayers and in closo -carboranes leading to the formation of semiconducting and dielectric boron carbide. We find evidence of intermolecular interactions for a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed from a large molecular adsorbate, [1,1';4',1"-terphenyl]-4,4"-dimethanethiol, from the dispersion of the molecular orbitals with changing the wave vector k and from the changes with temperature. With the formation self assembled molecular (SAM) layer, the molecular orbitals hybridize to electronic bands, with indications of significant band dispersion of the unoccupied molecular orbitals. Although organic adsorbates and thin films are generally regarded as "soft" materials, the effective Debye temperature, indicative of the dynamic motion of the lattice normal to the surface, can be very high, e.g. in the multilayer film formed from [1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dimethanethiol (BPDMT). Depending on molecular orientation, the effective Debye temperature can be comparable to that of graphite due to the 'stiffness' of the benzene rings, but follows the expected Debye-Waller behavior for the core level photoemission intensities with temperature. This is not always the case. We find that a monomolecular film formed from [1,1';4',1"-terphenyl]-4,4"-dimethanethiol deviates from Debye-Waller temperature behavior and is likely caused by temperature dependent changes in molecular orientation. We also find evidence for the increase in dielectric character with polymerization (cross-linking) in spite of the decrease in the HOMO-LUMO gap upon irradiation of TPDMT. The changes in the HOMO-LUMO gap, with cross-linking, are roughly consistent with the band dispersion. The decomposition and cross-linking processes are also accompanied by changes in molecular orientation. The energetics of the three isomeric carborane cage compounds [ closo-1,2-orthocarborane, closo-1

  9. Mechanisms linking affective reactions to competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns in male martial artists

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, E; Barnett, A

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine affective linkages between competition-related and competition-extraneous concern domains. A secondary purpose was to establish the contributions of pre-competition affects to post-competition performance appraisals, independent of pre-competition performance expectations. Thirty-nine highly skilled male martial artists were assessed at five random times a day for a week and 1 h before a major competition on affective states and sources of concern. They also reported their performance expectations and post-competition performance appraisals. Affective states triggered by competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns persisted in time. Carry-over effects were stronger after reports of competition-related concerns, emphasizing the subjective importance of the competitive event. Although positive (enjoyment and surprise) and negative (sadness and guilt) affective spill-over was observed from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns, the reverse held true only for disgust. These findings may be due to the athletes' ability to regulate affective reactions within a sporting setting, in particular. Spill-over from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns is indicative of a lesser degree of control over work/study and family life. Given that average weekly negative affects and anger/disgust were independent predictors of post-competition performance appraisals, the phenomenon of spill-over and other affective linkage mechanisms in sport warrant further investigation. PMID:21917020

  10. Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2012-01-01

    Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

  11. Extended Interplanar Linking in Graphite Formed from Vacancy Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevethan, T.; Dyulgerova, P.; Latham, C. D.; Heggie, M. I.; Seabourne, C. R.; Scott, A. J.; Briddon, P. R.; Rayson, M. J.

    2013-08-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and related materials such as multilayer graphene depend strongly on the presence of defects in the lattice structure, particularly those which create links between adjacent planes. We present findings which suggest the existence of a new type of defect in the graphite or graphene structure which connects adjacent planes through continuous hexagonal sp2 bonding alone and can form through the aggregation of individual vacancy defects. The energetics and kinetics of the formation of this type of defect are investigated with atomistic density functional theory calculations. The resultant structures are then employed to simulate high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, which are compared to recent experimental images of electron irradiation damaged graphite.

  12. Analysis of quasifission competition in fusion reactions forming heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerton, Kalee; Kohley, Zachary; Morrissey, Dave; Wakhle, Aditya; Stiefel, Krystin; Hinde, David; Dasgupta, Mahananda; Williams, Elizabeth; Simenel, Cedric; Carter, Ian; Cook, Kaitlin; Jeung, Dongyun; Luong, Duc Huy; McNeil, Steven; Palshetkar, Chandani; Rafferty, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Heavy-ion fusion reactions have provided a mechanism for the production of superheavy elements allowing for the extension of both the periodic table and chart of the nuclides. However, fusion of the projectile and target, forming a compound nucleus, is hindered by orders of magnitude by the quasifission process in heavy systems. In order to fully understand this mechanism, and make accurate predictions for superheavy element production cross sections, a clear description of the interplay between the fusion-fission and quasifission reaction channels is necessary. The mass-angle distributions of fragments formed in 8 different Cr + W reactions were measured at the Australia National University in order to explore the N/Z dependence of the quasifission process. Two sets of data were measured: one at a constant energy relative to the fusion barrier and one at a constant compound nucleus excitation energy. The results of this analysis will provide insight into the effect of using more neutron-rich beams in superheavy element production reactions.

  13. Determination of xanthine oxidase in human serum by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Abbondanza, A; Musiani, S; Buonamici, L; Strocchi, P; Tazzari, P L; Gramantieri, L; Stirpe, F

    1999-03-01

    Xanthine oxidase was purified from human milk and used to immunise rabbits. A competitive immunoenzymatic assay with purified enzyme and rabbit antiserum was optimised to measure xanthine oxidase in human serum, the lowest detectable amount being 0.03 pmol of enzymatic protein. Thus, the test (i) is sensitive enough to determine xanthine oxidase in human serum, being more sensitive than the spectrophotometric method, (ii) it is more convenient for clinical laboratories than other sensitive tests and (iii) it has the advantage over the enzyme activity-based assays of also detecting inactive enzyme molecules. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum xanthine oxidase level in healthy donors and in patients with liver diseases, and it was found that any concentration below 1 mg/L is in the normal range. PMID:10217635

  14. [Development of direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of domoic acid].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Jin-Ping; Gao, Li-Li; Dong, Yu; Xi, Lei

    2012-02-01

    To develop a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of domoic acid concentrations, HRP (horse radish peroxidase) was successfully linked to DA using EDC. The concentration of DA was quantitatively analyzed on the basic of the specific immune responses between the DA- HRP and the monoclonal antibodies made in advance. Calibration curve were established after the optimization of reaction conditions such as the type of blocking solution, the blocking time and the incubation temperature. The results show that, the best reaction condition of the direct competitive ELISA is 1% gelatin, blocking 1 h at 37 degrees C, incubating 1 h at 37 degrees C after the monoclonal antibodies added. The detect limit is 3.58 ng x mL(-1), the coefficient of variation between the holes is below 15%, and the recovery is 80% - 120%. The whole analysis process could be completed within 1.5 h. It meets the requirements of rapid and batch detection of domoic acid. The method will have broad development prospects. PMID:22509610

  15. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic. PMID:9270222

  16. Linked Data: Forming Partnerships at the Data Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Arko, R. A.; Jones, M. B.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Krisnadhi, A.; Schildhauer, M.; Fils, D.; Narock, T.; Groman, R. C.; O'Brien, M.; Patton, E. W.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.

    2015-12-01

    The challenges presented by big data are straining data management software architectures of the past. For smaller existing data facilities, the technical refactoring of software layers become costly to scale across the big data landscape. In response to these challenges, data facilities will need partnerships with external entities for improved solutions to perform tasks such as data cataloging, discovery and reuse, and data integration and processing with provenance. At its surface, the concept of linked open data suggests an uncalculated altruism. Yet, in his concept of five star open data, Tim Berners-Lee explains the strategic costs and benefits of deploying linked open data from the perspective of its consumer and producer - a data partnership. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) addresses some of the emerging needs of its research community by partnering with groups doing complementary work and linking their respective data layers using linked open data principles. Examples will show how these links, explicit manifestations of partnerships, reduce technical debt and provide a swift flexibility for future considerations.

  17. Biotin-Streptavidin Competition Mediates Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard assay for detecting and identifying biomolecules using antibodies as the probe. Improving ELISA is crucial for detecting disease-causing agents and facilitating diagnosis at the early stages of disease. Biotinylated antibody and streptavidin-conjugated horse radish peroxide (streptavidin-HRP) often are used with ELISA to enhance the detection of various kinds of targets. In the present study, we used a competition-based strategy in which we pre-mixed free biotin with streptavidin-HRP to generate high-performance system, as free biotin occupies some of the biotin binding sites on streptavidin, thereby providing more chances for streptavidin-HRP to bind with biotinylated antibody. ESAT-6, which is a protein secreted early during tuberculosis infection, was used as the model target. We found that 8 fM of free biotin mixed with streptavidin-HRP anchored the higher detection level of ESAT-6 by four-fold compared with detection without free biotin (only streptavidin-HRP), and the limit of detection of the new method was 250 pM. These results suggest that biotin-streptavidin competition can be used to improve the diagnosis of analytes in other types of sensors. PMID:26954237

  18. Biotin-Streptavidin Competition Mediates Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard assay for detecting and identifying biomolecules using antibodies as the probe. Improving ELISA is crucial for detecting disease-causing agents and facilitating diagnosis at the early stages of disease. Biotinylated antibody and streptavidin-conjugated horse radish peroxide (streptavidin-HRP) often are used with ELISA to enhance the detection of various kinds of targets. In the present study, we used a competition-based strategy in which we pre-mixed free biotin with streptavidin-HRP to generate high-performance system, as free biotin occupies some of the biotin binding sites on streptavidin, thereby providing more chances for streptavidin-HRP to bind with biotinylated antibody. ESAT-6, which is a protein secreted early during tuberculosis infection, was used as the model target. We found that 8 fM of free biotin mixed with streptavidin-HRP anchored the higher detection level of ESAT-6 by four-fold compared with detection without free biotin (only streptavidin-HRP), and the limit of detection of the new method was 250 pM. These results suggest that biotin-streptavidin competition can be used to improve the diagnosis of analytes in other types of sensors. PMID:26954237

  19. Quantification of Sorafenib in Human Serum by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yuta; Noda, Satoshi; Shioya, Makoto; Hira, Daiki; Andoh, Akira; Morita, Shin-Ya; Terada, Tomohiro; Shin, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Here we have demonstrated the production of the first specific antibody against sorafenib. Anti-sorafenib serum was obtained by immunizing mice with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin and carboxylic modified 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-N-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide (AMPC) using the N-succinimidyl ester method. Enzyme labeling of sorafenib with horseradish peroxidase was similarly performed using carboxylic modified AMPC. A simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for sorafenib was developed using the principle of direct competition between sorafenib and the enzyme marker for anti-sorafenib antibody, which had been adsorbed by the plastic surface of a microtiter plate. Serum sorafenib concentrations lower than 0.04 µg/mL were reproducibly measurable using the ELISA. This ELISA was specific to sorafenib and showed very slight cross-reactivity (2.5%) with a major metabolite, sorafenib N-oxide. The values of serum sorafenib levels from 32 patients measured by this ELISA were comparable with those measured by HPLC, and there was a strong correlation between the values determined by the two methods (Y=1.016X-0.137, r=0.979). The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA for sorafenib should provide a valuable new tool for use in therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of sorafenib. PMID:26521829

  20. Enhancing Technology Education by Forming Links with Industry: A New Zealand Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunton, Margaret; Coll, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    The New Zealand technology curriculum suggests that schools should seek to develop links with industry as a means of providing real-world examples of technology practice. However, if a school is to form links, what form might such links take, and with whom should they be made? The case study research reported here represents an investigation into…

  1. Competition with and without priority control: linking rivalry to attention through winner-take-all networks with memory.

    PubMed

    Marx, Svenja; Gruenhage, Gina; Walper, Daniel; Rutishauser, Ueli; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Competition is ubiquitous in perception. For example, items in the visual field compete for processing resources, and attention controls their priority (biased competition). The inevitable ambiguity in the interpretation of sensory signals yields another form of competition: distinct perceptual interpretations compete for access to awareness. Rivalry, where two equally likely percepts compete for dominance, explicates the latter form of competition. Building upon the similarity between attention and rivalry, we propose to model rivalry by a generic competitive circuit that is widely used in the attention literature-a winner-take-all (WTA) network. Specifically, we show that a network of two coupled WTA circuits replicates three common hallmarks of rivalry: the distribution of dominance durations, their dependence on input strength ("Levelt's propositions"), and the effects of stimulus removal (blanking). This model introduces a form of memory by forming discrete states and explains experimental data better than competitive models of rivalry without memory. This result supports the crucial role of memory in rivalry specifically and in competitive processes in general. Our approach unifies the seemingly distinct phenomena of rivalry, memory, and attention in a single model with competition as the common underlying principle. PMID:25581077

  2. Competition with and without priority control: linking rivalry to attention through winner-take-all networks with memory

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Svenja; Gruenhage, Gina; Walper, Daniel; Rutishauser, Ueli; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Competition is ubiquitous in perception. For example, items in the visual field compete for processing resources, and attention controls their priority (biased competition). The inevitable ambiguity in the interpretation of sensory signals yields another form of competition: distinct perceptual interpretations compete for access to awareness. Rivalry, where two equally likely percepts compete for dominance, explicates the latter form of competition. Building upon the similarity between attention and rivalry, we propose to model rivalry by a generic competitive circuit that is widely used in the attention literature—a winner-take-all (WTA) network. Specifically, we show that a network of two coupled WTA circuits replicates three common hallmarks of rivalry: the distribution of dominance durations, their dependence on input strength (“Levelt's propositions”), and the effects of stimulus removal (blanking). This model introduces a form of memory by forming discrete states and explains experimental data better than competitive models of rivalry without memory. This result supports the crucial role of memory in rivalry specifically and in competitive processes in general. Our approach unifies the seemingly distinct phenomena of rivalry, memory, and attention in a single model with competition as the common underlying principle. PMID:25581077

  3. Competitive Upconversion-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Sensitive Detection of Diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Hlaváček, Antonín; Farka, Zdeněk; Hübner, Maria; Horňáková, Veronika; Němeček, Daniel; Niessner, Reinhard; Skládal, Petr; Knopp, Dietmar; Gorris, Hans H

    2016-06-01

    Photon-upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) emit light of shorter wavelength under near-infrared excitation and thus avoid optical background interference. We have exploited this unique photophysical feature to establish a sensitive competitive immunoassay for the detection of the pharmaceutical micropollutant diclofenac (DCF) in water. The so-called upconversion-linked immunosorbent assay (ULISA) was critically dependent on the design of the upconversion luminescent detection label. Silica-coated UCNPs (50 nm in diameter) exposing carboxyl groups on the surface were conjugated to a secondary anti-IgG antibody. We investigated the structure and monodispersity of the nanoconjugates in detail. Using a highly affine anti-DCF primary antibody, the optimized ULISA reached a detection limit of 0.05 ng DCF per mL. This performance came close to a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) without the need for an enzyme-mediated signal amplification step. The ULISA was further employed for analyzing drinking and surface water samples. The results were consistent with a conventional ELISA as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). PMID:27167775

  4. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  5. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark JA

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  6. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    PubMed

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  7. Structured landscapes formed by competition between forest, peat forming wetlands, and rivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. Such co-evolution driven flow path changes are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we investigate hydrological interactions and feedbacks within a boreal landscape with forests, peat forming wetlands and rivers during the holocene. We introduce a spatially distributed landscape co-evolution model that simulates interactions between vegetation, soil organic matter, groundwater and rivers under a wide range of climates. Typical interactions of this model are that a denser vegetation (forest) evaporates more than the low biomass vegetation of a wetland, making the forest dryer and the wetland wetter. Wet conditions favour peat formation with a high water content that further reduces groundwater fluctuations, making the landscape even more wet. At the same time these wet condition cause runoff creating incising rivers that drain the peat and favour tree growth. To understand how positive and stabilizing feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests, peat forming wetlands and rivers, we stepwise increase spatial connectivity within the model. This setup allows us to untangle the effects of climate, groundwater flow and stream erosion on landscape patterns and better understand observed landscape patterns.

  8. Competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for sialoglycoprotein of edible bird's nest in food and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwei; Lai, Xintian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yun; Li, Bifang; Huang, Xiuli; Zhang, Qinlei; Chen, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Guowu

    2012-04-11

    The proliferation of fake and inferior edible bird's nest (EBN) products has recently become an increasingly serious concern. To identify and classify EBN products, a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to quantitate sialoglycoprotein in EBN used in food and cosmetic applications. The characteristic sialoglycoprotein in EBN was found, extracted, purified, and analyzed. Sialoglycoprotein, considered the main carrier of sialic acid in EBN, consisted of 106 and 128 kDa proteins. A monoclonal antibody that could recognize both proteins was prepared. The heat-treated process did not change the affinity of sialoglycoprotein with the antibody. An optimized ELISA method was established with a cross-reactivity of less than 0.1% and an IC(50) of 3.3 μg/mL. On the basis of different food and cosmetic samples, the limits of detection (LOD) were 10-18 μg/g. Recoveries of fortified samples at levels of 20 and 80 μg/g ranged from 81.5 to 96.5%, respectively. The coefficients of variation were less than 8.0%. PMID:22439641

  9. Appearance- and Competition-Focused Performance Goals: Examining Their Links with Performance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We examined the utility of distinguishing between appearance- and competition-focused approach and avoidance performance goals to our understanding of motivation in physical education. Four achievement goals were tested composed of approach-avoidance and appearance-competition components. Three hundred and two pupils, aged 11-14 years, completed…

  10. Interaction of the cationic form of amphiphilic drugs with phosphatidylcholine model membranes. Competition with lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Westman, J; Eriksson, L E; Ehrenberg, A

    1984-01-01

    Model membranes (liposomes) of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine were exposed to the charged (cationic) form of amphiphilic drugs (procaine, tetracaine, metroprolol, alprenolol and propranolol). Drug analysis by ultraviolet light absorption of the bulk solution after centrifugation separation was used to determine the amount of drug bound to the membranes. Microelectrophoresis was employed to measure the change in the zeta-potential after drug adsorption. Binding constants were derived by simulating the experimental curves with a theoretical model which considers the electrostatic effects (Gouy-Chapman theory). Analogous experiments were carried out for the adsorption of Eu3+. Metal analysis was made by three different methods. Good agreement between the centrifugation and electrophoresis experiments was obtained for reasonable positions of the plane of shear relative to the positional plane of the bound ions. Displacement of Eu3+ from vesicles upon addition of drug cations was followed by 31P-NMR. The competition experiments were numerically simulated. The Eu3+ binding was assumed to obey a mass action type equilibrium, whereas the drug binding was described by a Henry's law partition. The binding constants for the drugs in the competition experiments followed the same order as in the absence of Eu3+. However, the numerical values had to be reduced. The effect of anions was studied. PMID:17005132

  11. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  12. Validation of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously developed competitive ELISA (cELISA) based on a species-specific, broadly conserved, and tandemly repeated B-cell epitope within the C-terminus of the rhoptry-associated protein-1 of Babesia bovis was refined and validated for use internationally. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) ...

  13. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of tetrastatin in body fluids and tumor extracts.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Deshorgue, A; Oudart, J B; Brassart, B; Deslee, G; Perotin, J M; Diebold, M D; Monboisse, J C; Ramont, L; Brassart-Pasco, S

    2015-08-01

    Basement membrane collagens or derived fragments are measured in biological fluids such as blood and urine of patients and appear to be useful for diagnosis, prognostication, or treatment monitoring as proposed for endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, or tumstatin, a fragment of collagen IV. Tetrastatin, the NC1 alpha 4 collagen IV domain, was previously reported to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to measure tetrastatin concentrations in human fluids. We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It allowed measuring tetrastatin levels in human serum, bronchial aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and lung tissue extracts. The tetrastatin level was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in healthy lung tissues. Tetrastatin competitive ELISA could be useful to quantify tetrastatin in tissues and biological fluids for the diagnosis or prognostication of diseases in which basement membrane metabolism may be altered, especially tumor progression. PMID:25935259

  14. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success. PMID:17183795

  15. Electrathon Competition: A Technology Club's Most Successful Project Links School and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copes, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his most successful electric vehicle project that links school and industry. Some people in the public school arena stereotype industrial technology as a dumping ground for underachieving students, and many of his students believed that they could not succeed in higher education classes. He challenged…

  16. A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

    2012-01-01

    ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

  17. Effects of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) on Inter-Specific Competition between Two Species of Marine Bloom-Forming Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2013-01-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a new kind of persistent organic pollutants, was selected to investigate its influence on population growth and inter-specific competition between two species of marine bloom-forming microalgae, Heterosigma akashiwo and Karenia mikimotoi. (1)BDE-209 showed acute toxic effects on both microalgae and H. akashiwo was more sensitive from view of 96 h-EC50 and the ultrastructure variation. (2)The microalgal population growth patterns in mono-culture were density-dependent and the growth of both species in the normal co-culture was significantly depressed by competition (P<0.05) with different initial biomass ratios. BDE-209 exposure significantly changed the growth. (3) Lotka-Volterra competition model was used to simulate the interaction between the microalgae. BDE-209 exposure broke the competitive balance to make competition gradually shift in favor of H. akashiwo. Results suggested BDE-209 did have toxic effects on either microalgal growth or the inter-specific competition, which was quite different from previous reports. Further exploration of the mechanism is needed. PMID:23555557

  18. Porcine respiratory coronavirus in Quebec: Serological studies using a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Jabrane, Ahmed; Elazhary, Youssef; Talbot, Brian G.; Ethier, Raymond; Dubuc, Claude; Assaf, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) was identified for the first time in Quebec, using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Unlike the virus neutralization test (VNT), this ELISA was able to distinguish transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) from PRCV. Among the 15 seropositive fattening herds from group A, sera containing PRCV antibodies represented 74.8%, whereas those with TGEV antibodies represented only 7.2%. In group B, which consisted of 15 sow herds, nine herds expressed only PRCV-specific antibodies while the other herds had animals positive for TGEV-specific antibodies. PMID:17424115

  19. Competition of bloom-forming marine phytoplankton at low nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanhua; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Competition of three bloom-forming marine phytoplankton (diatom Skeletonema costatum, and dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum and Alexandrium tamarense) was studied through a series of multispecies cultures with different nitrate (NaNO3) and phosphate (NaH2PO4) levels and excess silicate to interpret red tide algae succession. S. costatum outgrew the other two dinoflagellates in nitrate and phosphate replete cultures with 10 micromol/L Na2SiO3. Under nitrate limited (8.82 micromol/L NaNO3) conditions, the growth of S. costatum was also dominant when phosphate concentrations were from 3.6 to 108 micromol/L. Cell density of the two dinoflagellates only increased slightly, to less than 400 and 600 cells/mL, respectively. Cell density of S. costatum decreased with time before day 12, and then increased to 4000 cells/mL (1.5 mg/L dry biomass) at NaNO3 concentrations between 88.2 and 882 micromol/L with limited phosphate (0.36 micromol/L NaH2PO4) levels. In addition, P. minimum grew well with a maximal cell density of 1690-2100 cells/mL (0.5-0.6 mg/L dry biomass). Although S. costatum initially grew fast, its cell density decreased quickly with time later in the growth phase and the two dinoflagellates were dominant under the nitrate-limited and high nitrate conditions with limited phosphate. These results indicated that the diatom was a poor competitor compared to the two dinoflagellates under limited phosphate; however, it grew well under limited nitrate when growth of the dinoflagellates was near detection limits. PMID:21793409

  20. Linking Slow Dynamics and Local Structure in Simple Models of Glass-Forming Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coslovich, D.; Pastore, G.

    2008-07-01

    Establishing a relation between the dynamical features of supercooled liquids, their structural properties and the nature of intermolecular interactions is a key issue in the description of the glass transition. To investigate this point we perform molecular dynamics simulations for three model glass-forming liquids with different types of local order. Our results show that the roughness of the energy landscape, estimated from the amplitude of average energy barriers, and the localization of unstable modes provide useful means to rationalize the link between structure and dynamics in glass-forming liquids.

  1. Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards

    PubMed Central

    Blengini, Cecilia S; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C; Margarita, Chiaraviglio

    2014-01-01

    In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and velocity in two Tupinambis lizards in the context of sperm competition risk. Sperm traits showed substantial variation at all levels examined: between species, among males within species, and within the ejaculate of individual males. Sperm velocity was found to be positively correlated with flagellum: midpiece ratio, with relatively longer flagella associated with faster sperm. Our results document high variability in sperm form and function in lizards. PMID:25505535

  2. Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards.

    PubMed

    Blengini, Cecilia S; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C; Margarita, Chiaraviglio

    2014-11-01

    In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and velocity in two Tupinambis lizards in the context of sperm competition risk. Sperm traits showed substantial variation at all levels examined: between species, among males within species, and within the ejaculate of individual males. Sperm velocity was found to be positively correlated with flagellum: midpiece ratio, with relatively longer flagella associated with faster sperm. Our results document high variability in sperm form and function in lizards. PMID:25505535

  3. Models of genetic drift as limiting forms of the Lotka-Volterra competition model.

    PubMed

    Constable, George W A; McKane, Alan J

    2015-01-23

    The relationship between the Moran model and stochastic Lotka-Volterra competition (SLVC) model is explored via time scale separation arguments. For neutral systems the two are found to be equivalent at long times. For systems with selective pressure, their behavior differs. It is argued that the SLVC is preferable to the Moran model since in the SLVC population size is regulated by competition, rather than arbitrarily fixed as in the Moran model. As a consequence, ambiguities found in the Moran model associated with the introduction of more complex processes, such as selection, are avoided. PMID:25659024

  4. Models of Genetic Drift as Limiting Forms of the Lotka-Volterra Competition Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, George W. A.; McKane, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the Moran model and stochastic Lotka-Volterra competition (SLVC) model is explored via time scale separation arguments. For neutral systems the two are found to be equivalent at long times. For systems with selective pressure, their behavior differs. It is argued that the SLVC is preferable to the Moran model since in the SLVC population size is regulated by competition, rather than arbitrarily fixed as in the Moran model. As a consequence, ambiguities found in the Moran model associated with the introduction of more complex processes, such as selection, are avoided.

  5. Mechanics of semiflexible chains formed by poly(ethylene glycol)-linked paramagnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Sibani Lisa; Gast, Alice P

    2003-08-01

    Magnetorheological particles, permanently linked into chains, provide a magnetically actuated means to manipulate microscopic fluid flow. Paramagnetic colloidal particles form reversible chains by acquiring dipole moments in the presence of an external magnetic field. By chemically connecting paramagnetic colloidal particles, flexible magnetoresponsive chains can be created. We link the paramagnetic microspheres using streptavidin-biotin binding. Streptavidin coated microspheres are placed in a flow cell and a magnetic field is applied, causing the particles to form chains. Then a solution of polymeric linkers of bis-biotin-poly(ethylene glycol) molecules is added in the presence of the field. These linked chains remain responsive to a magnetic field; however, in the absence of an external magnetic field these chains bend and flex due to thermal motion. The chain flexibility is determined by the length of the spacer molecule between particles and is quantified by the flexural rigidity or bending stiffness. To understand the mechanical properties of the chains, we use a variety of optical trapping experiments to measure the flexural rigidity. Increasing the length of the poly(ethylene glycol) chain in the linker increases the flexibility of the chains. PMID:14524968

  6. Form Follows Function: can Tropical Mountain Forest Competition Drive the Growth of Topography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Willenbring, J. K.; Scatena, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    Forest succession theory maintains that trees drape existing landscapes as passive niche optimizers. Here, we explore the opposite view - that tree type can control the landscape morphology through canopy and soil structure differences between tree types. Using field observations combined with the analysis of a 1 m-resolution LiDAR DEM and cosmogenic nuclide geochemical techniques, we report links between topographic position, erosion rates, and tree distribution above 600 m in elevation in the pristine, tropical rainforest of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico. Above 600 m, flat ridges connect a subdued topographic surface and cap a relict landscape composed of 10s-of-meters-thick saprolite derived from a quartz dioritic bedrock. Erosion in the form of concave coves dissects this landscape, exposing the underlying corestones and bedrock and progressively creating a new landscape of greater local relief and higher erosion. To understand the origin of the increase in local relief we measured the respective contributions of ridges and coves to the stream signal by analyzing 10Be in soils and stream sediments. We find that, in the coves, erosion is systematically higher than on the ridges, confirming the increase in landscape dissection. Because the overall forest structure has not been altered by anthropogenic disturbances, the tree type represents a long-term feature of the landscape. We analyzed the distribution of tree associations over the LiDAR topography by classifying high-resolution multispectral images of the forest. Vegetation in the study area is dominated by Palm and Palo Colorado forests. We found an almost systematic association of the Palm forest with the coves and of the Palo Colorado with the ridges. These forest types vary in their potential to prevent or enhance soil erosion. The Palo Colorado generates greater soil coverage and rain interception rates. Therefore, we propose that soils are more vulnerable to erosion under the Palm

  7. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends' and Nonfriends' Behaviors with Children's Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and…

  8. Detection of Francisella tularensis-specific antibodies in patients with tularemia by a novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R(2) = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species. PMID:23114700

  9. Detection of Francisella tularensis-Specific Antibodies in Patients with Tularemia by a Novel Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species. PMID:23114700

  10. Hapten synthesis, monoclonal antibody production and development of a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for erythromycin in milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanhui; Mi, Tiejun; Beier, Ross C; Zhang, Huiyan; Sheng, Yajie; Shi, Weimin; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-03-15

    Erythromycin is an antibiotic used extensively in veterinary practice worldwide for treatment, prevention and growth promotion. In this work, monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against erythromycin were produced and used to develop a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for the determination of erythromycin in milk. A novel carboxyphenyl derivative of erythromycin (ERO-CMO) was synthesized and conjugated with bovine serum (BSA) for use as the immunogen or ovalbumin (OVA) as the coating antigen. Four hybridoma cell lines were isolated, which produced Mabs that competed with erythromycin. The 6C1 and 5B2 Mabs had IC50 values for erythromycin of 14.40 and 0.94 μg L(-)(1), respectively. These Mabs demonstrated high cross-reactivity to the macrolides containing 14-membered rings, but not to oleandomycin. No cross-reactivity was observed for 12 macrolides that contained 15 or 16-membered lactone rings or for 2 pleuromutilins. The ciELISA developed using the 5B2 Mab afforded recovery values that ranged from 76.9% to 85.7% with only a 10-fold sample dilution prior to analysis. PMID:25308648

  11. Abacavir forms novel cross-linking abacavir protein adducts in patients.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoli; Lawrenson, Alexandre S; Berry, Neil G; Maggs, James L; French, Neil S; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H; Naisbitt, Dean J; Park, B Kevin

    2014-04-21

    Abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions that are thought to involve the activation of CD8+ T cells in a HLA-B*57:01-restricted manner. Recent studies have claimed that noncovalent interactions of ABC with HLA-B*57:01 are responsible for the immunological reactions associated with ABC. However, the formation of hemoglobin-ABC aldehyde (ABCA) adducts in patients exposed to ABC suggests that protein conjugation might represent a pathway for antigen formation. To further characterize protein conjugation reactions, we used mass spectrometric methods to define ABCA modifications in patients receiving ABC therapy. ABCA formed a novel intramolecular cross-linking adduct on human serum albumin (HSA) in patients and in vitro via Michael addition, followed by nucleophilic adduction of the aldehyde with a neighboring protein nucleophile. Adducts were detected on Lys159, Lys190, His146, and Cys34 residues in the subdomain IB of HSA. Only a cysteine adduct and a putative cross-linking adduct were detected on glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP). These findings reveal that ABC forms novel types of antigens in all patients taking the drug. It is therefore vital that the immunological consequences of such pathways of haptenation are explored in the in vitro models that have been used by various groups to define new mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity exemplified by ABC. PMID:24571427

  12. Synthesis and characterization of monomolecular DNA G-quadruplexes formed by tetra-end-linked oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Giorgia; Amato, Jussara; Borbone, Nicola; Galeone, Aldo; Petraccone, Luigi; Varra, Michela; Piccialli, Gennaro; Mayol, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences are widely dispersed in the eukaryotic genome and are abundant in regions with relevant biological significance. They can form quadruplex structures stabilized by guanine quartets. These structures differ for number and strand polarity, loop composition, and conformation. We report here the syntheses and the structural studies of a set of interconnected d(TG(4)T) fragments which are tethered, with different orientations, to a tetra-end-linker in an attempt to force the formation of specific four-stranded DNA quadruplex structures. Two synthetic strategies have been used to obtain oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) strands linked with their 3'- or 5'-ends to each of the four arms of the linker. The first approach allowed the synthesis of tetra-end-linked ODN (TEL-ODN) containing the four ODN strands with a parallel orientation, while the latter synthetic pathway led to the synthesis of TEL-ODNs each containing antiparallel ODN pairs. The influence of the linker at 3'- or 5'-ODN, on the quadruplex typology and stability, in the presence of sodium or potassium ions, has been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), CD thermal denaturation, (1)H NMR experiments at variable temperature, and molecular modeling. All synthesized TEL-ODNs formed parallel G-quadruplex structures. Particularly, the TEL-ODN containing all parallel ODN tracts formed very stable parallel G-quadruplex complexes, whereas the TEL-ODNs containing antiparallel ODN pairs led to relatively less stable parallel G-quadruplexes. The molecular modeling data suggested that the above antiparallel TEL-ODNs can adopt parallel G-quadruplex structures thanks to a considerable folding of the tetra-end-linker around the whole quadruplex scaffold. PMID:16848394

  13. An approximate closed-form link loss model for non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication in noncoplanar geometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leijie; Xu, Zhengyuan; Sadler, Brian M

    2011-04-01

    Non-line-of-sight UV communication link path loss models have been explored for both coplanar and noncoplanar geometries, and these typically require numerical evaluation. In this Letter, we propose a closed-form and easily applied model to describe link behavior, applicable to noncoplanar geometry. The model is compared with a recently reported analytical model and shows good agreement. PMID:21479037

  14. Serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis by Neospora caninum monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Baszler, T V; Knowles, D P; Dubey, J P; Gay, J M; Mathison, B A; McElwain, T F

    1996-06-01

    Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, causes abortion and congenital infection in cattle. To investigate specific methods of antemortem diagnosis, the antibody responses of infected cows were evaluated by immunoblot assay and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA) by using a monoclonal antibody (MAb), MAb 4A4-2, against N. caninum tachyzoites. MAb 4A4-2 bound diffusely to the exterior surface of N. caninum tachyzoites and recognized a single 65-kDa band in immunoblots. MAb 4A4-2 was unreactive to antigens of two closely related apicomplexan protozoa, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis cruzi. Binding of MAb 4A4-2 was inhibited by mild periodate treatment of N. caninum antigen, demonstrating the carbohydrate nature of the epitope. Immunoblot analysis of N. caninum tachyzoite antigens with sera from cows with confirmed Neospora-induced abortion revealed at minimum 14 major antigens ranging from 11 to 175 kDa. Although the recognized antigens varied from cow to cow, antigens of 116, 65, and 25 kDa were detected in all cows with abortion confirmed to be caused by N. caninum. The binding of MAb 4A4-2 to N. caninum tachyzoite antigen was consistently inhibited by sera from Neospora-infected cows in a CI-ELISA format and was not inhibited by sera from Neospora antibody-negative cows. Furthermore, sera from cattle experimentally infected with T. gondii, S. cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis, or Sarcocystis hirsuta, which had cross-reactive antibodies recognizing multiple N. caninum antigens by immunoblot assay, did not inhibit binding of MAb 4A4-2 in the CI-ELISA. Thus, MAb 4A4-2 binds a carbohydrate epitope on a single N. caninum tachyzoite surface antigen that is recognized consistently and specifically by Neospora-infected cattle. PMID:8735092

  15. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis Among Wild Animals in Japan Using a Newly Developed Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis–seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild. PMID:24689989

  16. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis among wild animals in Japan using a newly developed competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis-seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild. PMID:24689989

  17. Rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Nah, Jin-Ju; Ko, Young-Joon; Kang, Shien-Young; Jo, Nam-In

    2005-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants that is of economic importance in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. We developed a rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rapid c-ELISA) for the diagnosis and surveillance of PPR. This assay detects PPR virus (PPRV) antibodies in serum samples by quantifying the amount of monoclonal antibody (MAb) P-3H12 after 30 min of incubation of a serum-MAb conjugate mixture on plates coated with a PPRV recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rPPRV-N). We tested 249 PPRV-positive serum samples and 733 PPRV-negative serum samples from field ruminants. The threshold of percent inhibition (PI) was determined to be <50 on the basis of the mean PI plus 3 standard deviations for sera from PPRV-negative ruminants. The relative specificity and sensitivity of the rapid c-ELISA were 98.5% (722 of 733 serum samples) and 93.4% (234 of 249 serum samples), respectively. The rapid c-ELISA sensitively detected PPRV antibodies in hyperimmune sera (virus neutralization test [VNT] titer, >512), even at dilutions > or = 512 in normal goat serum, and as early as 6 to 13 days postinfection from 12 goats, each of which was infected with one of the four PPRV lineages. Hyperimmune sera from animals experimentally vaccinated with rinderpest virus gave positive results by the rapid c-ELISA when the rinderpest virus VNT titers were >512, although the rapid c-ELISA titers were very low (2 to 16). However, the rapid c-ELISA was negative when the rinderpest virus VNT titer was < or = 128. The rapid c-ELISA developed in the present work provides a short turnaround time and could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of PPR and screening for PPRV in the field. PMID:15817764

  18. Magnetic-nanobead-based competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay for the analysis of oxytetracycline in food.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Tang, Zonggui; Liu, Changbin; Kang, Lichao; Sun, Fengxia

    2015-05-01

    This study presents a novel analytical method for the detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) in complex food matrices based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay and magnetic separation technology. In this protocol, free OTC competed with horseradish peroxidase labeled OTC (OTC-HRP) for binding to the OTC aptamer immobilized on magnetic beads. The parameters that can affect the response, such as avidin concentration, aptamer concentration, OTC-HRP concentration, incubation temperature, incubation time, blocking agent, and binding buffer, were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range for the OTC concentration detection is 0.5-100 ng mL(-1), with a concentration of OTC needed to obtain 50 % of the maximum signal of 14.47 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.88 and 3.40 ng mL(-1), respectively. There was no obvious cross-reactivity with most of the tetracycline pesticides. The recovery rates ranged from 71.0 to 91.2 % for the food samples, including chicken, milk, and honey, and the relative standard deviation was less than 15.0 %. The proposed method was applied to measure OTC in real samples, and was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. This method has the advantages of magnetic separation and the concentration effect of magnetic nanoparticles, the specificity of the aptamer, and the high-throughput of microtiter plates; it offers a promising approach for the screening of OTC because it is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and has low cost. PMID:25855149

  19. Antitrust and hospital mergers: does the nonprofit form affect competitive substance?

    PubMed

    Greaney, Thomas L

    2006-06-01

    Following a string of government losses in cases challenging hospital mergers in federal court, the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice issued their report on competition in health care seeking to set the record straight on a number of issues that underlie the judiciary's resolution of these cases. One such issue is the import of nonprofit status for applying antitrust law. This essay describes antitrust's role in addressing the consolidation in the hospital sector and the subtle influence that the social function of the nonprofit hospital has had in merger litigation. Noting that the political and social context in which these institutions operate is never far from the surface, it takes issue with the proposal to cabin merger doctrine so as to deny the significance of nonprofit status in merger analysis. Given the dynamic change in the regulatory climate and heterogeneity of local health care markets, it advises courts not to accept the FTC's preemptive standard regarding the significance of hospitals' nonprofit status and keep open the possibility of fashioning new presumptive rules tailored to more complete economic accounts of nonprofit firm behavior. PMID:16785295

  20. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  1. 76 FR 20976 - Wireline Competition Bureau Releases 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... preparing Form 499-A more user-friendly for filers. Many changes are intended to replace technical language with plain language to aid the filer. These non-substantive revisions include: (1) Revising the... to precedent as appropriate to better track the language in relevant Commission precedent....

  2. A repeat protein links Rubisco to form the eukaryotic carbon-concentrating organelle

    PubMed Central

    Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Meyer, Moritz T.; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Chen, Vivian K.; Mitchell, Madeline C.; Caspari, Oliver; Freeman Rosenzweig, Elizabeth S.; Pallesen, Leif; Reeves, Gregory; Itakura, Alan; Roth, Robyn; Sommer, Frederik; Geimer, Stefan; Mühlhaus, Timo; Schroda, Michael; Goodenough, Ursula; Stitt, Mark; Griffiths, Howard; Jonikas, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon fixation is a key step in the global carbon cycle that regulates the atmosphere's composition while producing the food we eat and the fuels we burn. Approximately one-third of global carbon fixation occurs in an overlooked algal organelle called the pyrenoid. The pyrenoid contains the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco and enhances carbon fixation by supplying Rubisco with a high concentration of CO2. Since the discovery of the pyrenoid more that 130 y ago, the molecular structure and biogenesis of this ecologically fundamental organelle have remained enigmatic. Here we use the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to discover that a low-complexity repeat protein, Essential Pyrenoid Component 1 (EPYC1), links Rubisco to form the pyrenoid. We find that EPYC1 is of comparable abundance to Rubisco and colocalizes with Rubisco throughout the pyrenoid. We show that EPYC1 is essential for normal pyrenoid size, number, morphology, Rubisco content, and efficient carbon fixation at low CO2. We explain the central role of EPYC1 in pyrenoid biogenesis by the finding that EPYC1 binds Rubisco to form the pyrenoid matrix. We propose two models in which EPYC1’s four repeats could produce the observed lattice arrangement of Rubisco in the Chlamydomonas pyrenoid. Our results suggest a surprisingly simple molecular mechanism for how Rubisco can be packaged to form the pyrenoid matrix, potentially explaining how Rubisco packaging into a pyrenoid could have evolved across a broad range of photosynthetic eukaryotes through convergent evolution. In addition, our findings represent a key step toward engineering a pyrenoid into crops to enhance their carbon fixation efficiency. PMID:27166422

  3. A repeat protein links Rubisco to form the eukaryotic carbon-concentrating organelle.

    PubMed

    Mackinder, Luke C M; Meyer, Moritz T; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Chen, Vivian K; Mitchell, Madeline C; Caspari, Oliver; Freeman Rosenzweig, Elizabeth S; Pallesen, Leif; Reeves, Gregory; Itakura, Alan; Roth, Robyn; Sommer, Frederik; Geimer, Stefan; Mühlhaus, Timo; Schroda, Michael; Goodenough, Ursula; Stitt, Mark; Griffiths, Howard; Jonikas, Martin C

    2016-05-24

    Biological carbon fixation is a key step in the global carbon cycle that regulates the atmosphere's composition while producing the food we eat and the fuels we burn. Approximately one-third of global carbon fixation occurs in an overlooked algal organelle called the pyrenoid. The pyrenoid contains the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco and enhances carbon fixation by supplying Rubisco with a high concentration of CO2 Since the discovery of the pyrenoid more that 130 y ago, the molecular structure and biogenesis of this ecologically fundamental organelle have remained enigmatic. Here we use the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to discover that a low-complexity repeat protein, Essential Pyrenoid Component 1 (EPYC1), links Rubisco to form the pyrenoid. We find that EPYC1 is of comparable abundance to Rubisco and colocalizes with Rubisco throughout the pyrenoid. We show that EPYC1 is essential for normal pyrenoid size, number, morphology, Rubisco content, and efficient carbon fixation at low CO2 We explain the central role of EPYC1 in pyrenoid biogenesis by the finding that EPYC1 binds Rubisco to form the pyrenoid matrix. We propose two models in which EPYC1's four repeats could produce the observed lattice arrangement of Rubisco in the Chlamydomonas pyrenoid. Our results suggest a surprisingly simple molecular mechanism for how Rubisco can be packaged to form the pyrenoid matrix, potentially explaining how Rubisco packaging into a pyrenoid could have evolved across a broad range of photosynthetic eukaryotes through convergent evolution. In addition, our findings represent a key step toward engineering a pyrenoid into crops to enhance their carbon fixation efficiency. PMID:27166422

  4. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Filho, Edismauro Garcia Freitas; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. PMID:27578923

  5. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. PMID:27578923

  6. Competition between surface adsorption and folding of fibril-forming polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ran; Kleijn, J. Mieke; Abeln, Sanne; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembly of polypeptides into fibrillar structures can be initiated by planar surfaces that interact favorably with certain residues. Using a coarse-grained model, we systematically studied the folding and adsorption behavior of a β -roll forming polypeptide. We find that there are two different folding pathways depending on the temperature: (i) at low temperature, the polypeptide folds in solution into a β -roll before adsorbing onto the attractive surface; (ii) at higher temperature, the polypeptide first adsorbs in a disordered state and folds while on the surface. The folding temperature increases with increasing attraction as the folded β -roll is stabilized by the surface. Surprisingly, further increasing the attraction lowers the folding temperature again, as strong attraction also stabilizes the adsorbed disordered state, which competes with folding of the polypeptide. Our results suggest that to enhance the folding, one should use a weakly attractive surface. They also explain the recent experimental observation of the nonmonotonic effect of charge on the fibril formation on an oppositely charged surface [C. Charbonneau et al., ACS Nano 8, 2328 (2014), 10.1021/nn405799t].

  7. Cross-linking to an interrupted polypurine sequence with a platinum-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Meghan A; Miller, Paul S

    2009-08-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind specifically to polypurine sequences in double-stranded DNA. A single interruption of this polypurine tract can greatly destabilize triplex formation. The stability of triplexes can be significantly enhanced by covalently linking the TFO to its DNA target with reactive functional groups conjugated to the TFO. Covalently cross-linked TFOs are effective inhibitors of transcription of the target DNA sequence. We have designed a TFO with a platinum-modified base that can interact with and cross-link to a cytosine interruption in the polypurine tract of a target DNA duplex. The TFO contains an N(4)-(aminoalkyl)cytosine derivatized with cis-diamminediaquaplatinum(II) or trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). When bound to its target, the tethered platinum of the TFO can reach across the major groove and form an adduct with the guanine N7 of the interrupting C.G base pair. The optimal tether length is five methylene groups, and cross-linking is most efficient when the tether is modified with trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). Cross-linking requires that the TFO is bound to its designated DNA target. Addition of cyanide to the cross-linked TFO product reversed the cross-link, behavior that is consistent with the presence of a platinum-guanine adduct. The kinetics of the cross-linking reaction were studied and the half-life of the cross-linking reaction was approximately 3 h. Our results demonstrate that platinum-conjugated TFOs can be designed to cross-link with DNA targets that contain a single pyrimidine interruption. Modifications of this type may prove useful for expanding the DNA sequences that can be targeted by TFOs and increasing the stability of the resulting triplexes. PMID:19350290

  8. Addressing the Struggle to Link Form and Understanding in Fractions Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osana, Helena P.; Pitsolantis, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although making explicit links between procedures and concepts during instruction in mathematics is important, it is still unclear the precise moments during instruction when such links are best made. Aims: The objective was to test the effectiveness of a 3-week classroom intervention on the fractions knowledge of grade 5/6 students.…

  9. Validation of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Babesia bigemina Antibodies in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A competitive ELISA (cELISA) based on a broadly conserved, species-specific, B-cell epitope within the C-terminus of Babesia bigemina rhoptry-associated protein-1a was validated for international use. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed 16% inhibition as the threshold for a neg...

  10. Quantification of aggrecan and link-protein mRNA in human articular cartilage of different ages by competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, M C; Dudhia, J; Bayliss, M T

    1996-01-01

    A competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay has been developed for the quantification of particular mRNA species in human articular cartilage. Competitor RNA species were synthesized that differed from the amplified target sequence only by the central insertion of an EcoRI restriction site. By using known amounts of synthetic target and competitor RNA, it was shown that competitor RNA molecules designed in this way are reverse-transcribed and amplified with equal efficiency to the target of interest. Furthermore quantification could be performed during the plateau phase of the PCR, which was necessary when using ethidium bromide fluorescence as a detection system. The inhibition of aggrecan and link-protein mRNA expression by interleukin 1 or tumour necrosis factor in monolayers of human articular chondrocytes quantified by this competitive RT-PCR method compared favourably with Northern hybridization studies. The main advantage of this technique is that it can be used to quantify levels of mRNA with RNA extracted directly from 100 mg wet weight of human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in aggrecan and link-protein mRNA were therefore quantified in human articular cartilage directly after dissection from the joint. The concentration of link-protein mRNA was higher in immature cartilage than in mature cartilage when expressed relative to the amount of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA, but no age-related changes were observed in aggrecan mRNA expression. The ratio of aggrecan to link-protein mRNA was higher in mature cartilage than in immature tissue. These age-related differences in the molecular stoichiometry of aggrecan and link-protein mRNA might have implications with respect to the regulation of the formation and the stability of the proteoglycan aggregates in cartilage. PMID:8912686

  11. The role of growth form and correlated traits in competitive ranking of six perennial ruderal plant species grown in unbalanced mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Hansjörg; Steinlein, Thomas; Ullmann, Isolde

    1998-02-01

    The competitive abilities of six perennial ruderal plants of three different growth forms were compared via yield measures using an additive diallel experimental design with unbalanced mixtures (9:3 or 3:9 plants per pot, respectively). Thus, in a given mixture species A was grown in two configurations: three individuals in centre position of the pot together with nine plants of species B in border position and vice versa. Effect competitive abilities as well as response competitive abilities of the species were significantly related to canopy height and plant biomass. The species with lower rosette growth form and smaller biomasses were weaker competitors than the species possessing elevated canopies along with higher biomasses, whereas total leaf area was not significantly correlated with competitive ability between species. Species differences in competitive ability were stronger between the plants grown in the central position than between those grown in the border position. Furthermore, interactions between species-specific traits and configuration could be observed, indicating the importance of species proportions and arrangement patterns for evaluation of competitive outcome in the field. The degree of complete transitivity of the competitive network of the six ruderal species, which was significantly higher than expected under the null model in our experimental design, also seemed to depend on species proportions in mixture. Shifts in root:shoot ratio of the centre plants when faced with competition by the border plants were in the direction of higher shoot allocation for the weak competitors with rosette growth form irrespective of the neighbour species, except for Bunias orientalis, which showed a more plastic response. The stronger competitors showed higher root allocation ( Urtica dioica) or were hardly affected at all. Consistent with the results of our experiment, the weaker competitors occur at rather frequently disturbed and therefore transient

  12. Use of Continuous Exponential Families to Link Forms via Anchor Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-11-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Yan, Duanli

    2011-01-01

    Continuous exponential families are applied to linking test forms via an internal anchor. This application combines work on continuous exponential families for single-group designs and work on continuous exponential families for equivalent-group designs. Results are compared to those for kernel and equipercentile equating in the case of chained…

  13. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-01-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand

  14. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-04-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a "size-advantage" hypothesis - that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition - that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density - as well as local density of just reproductive individuals - was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had - in the following growing season - a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a 'reproductive-economy-advantage' - that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring - and hence

  15. The Respiratory Syncytial Virus M2-1 Protein Forms Tetramers and Interacts with RNA and P in a Competitive Manner▿

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Lan; Castagné, Nathalie; Dubosclard, Virginie; Noinville, Sylvie; Koch, Emmanuelle; Moudjou, Mohammed; Henry, Céline; Bernard, Julie; Yeo, Robert Paul; Eléouët, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M2-1 protein is an essential cofactor of the viral RNA polymerase complex and functions as a transcriptional processivity and antitermination factor. M2-1, which exists in a phosphorylated or unphosphorylated form in infected cells, is an RNA-binding protein that also interacts with some of the other components of the viral polymerase complex. It contains a CCCH motif, a putative zinc-binding domain that is essential for M2-1 function, at the N terminus. To gain insight into its structural organization, M2-1 was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to >95% homogeneity by using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag. The GST-M2-1 fusion proteins were copurified with bacterial RNA, which could be eliminated by a high-salt wash. Circular dichroism analysis showed that M2-1 is largely α-helical. Chemical cross-linking, dynamic light scattering, sedimentation velocity, and electron microscopy analyses led to the conclusion that M2-1 forms a 5.4S tetramer of 89 kDa and ∼7.6 nm in diameter at micromolar concentrations. By using a series of deletion mutants, the oligomerization domain of M2-1 was mapped to a putative α-helix consisting of amino acid residues 32 to 63. When tested in an RSV minigenome replicon system using a luciferase gene as a reporter, an M2-1 deletion mutant lacking this region showed a significant reduction in RNA transcription compared to wild-type M2-1, indicating that M2-1 oligomerization is essential for the activity of the protein. We also show that the region encompassing amino acid residues 59 to 178 binds to P and RNA in a competitive manner that is independent of the phosphorylation status of M2-1. PMID:19386701

  16. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for murine hepcidin-1: correlation with hepatic mRNA expression in established and novel models of dysregulated iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gutschow, Patrick; Schmidt, Paul J.; Han, Huiling; Ostland, Vaughn; Bartnikas, Thomas B.; Pettiglio, Michael A.; Herrera, Carolina; Butler, James S.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas; Fleming, Mark D.; Westerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Mice have been essential for distinguishing the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis. Currently, investigators monitor levels of murine hepatic hepcidin-1 mRNA as a surrogate marker for the bioactive hepcidin protein itself. Here, we describe and validate a competitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that quantifies hepcidin-1 in mouse serum and urine. The assay exhibits a biologically relevant lower limit of detection, high precision, and excellent linearity and recovery. We also demonstrate correlation between serum and urine hepcidin-1 values and validate the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by analyzing plasma hepcidin response of mice to physiological challenges, including iron deficiency, iron overload, acute blood loss, and inflammation. Furthermore, we analyze multiple murine genetic models of iron dysregulation, including β-thalassemia intermedia (Hbbth3/+), hereditary hemochromatosis (Hfe−/−, Hjv−/−, and Tfr2Y245X/Y245X), hypotransferrinemia (Trfhpx/hpx), heterozygous transferrin receptor 1 deficiency (Tfrc+/−) and iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (Tmprss6−/− and Tmprss6hem8/hem8). Novel compound iron metabolism mutants were also phenotypically characterized here for the first time. We demonstrate that serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with liver hepcidin mRNA expression, transferrin saturation and non-heme liver iron. In some circumstances, serum hepcidin-1 more accurately predicts iron parameters than hepcidin mRNA, and distinguishes smaller, statistically significant differences between experimental groups. PMID:25425686

  17. Serological Evaluation of Immunity to the Varicella-Zoster Virus Based on a Novel Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Ye, Xiangzhong; Jia, Jizong; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Lina; Chen, Chunye; Yang, Lianwei; Wang, Yongmei; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jianghui; Li, Yimin; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a highly contagious agent of varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella can be lethal to immunocompromised patients, babies, HIV patients and other adults with impaired immunity. Serological evaluation of immunity to VZV will help determine which individuals are susceptible and evaluate vaccine effectiveness. A collection of 110 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were obtained by immunization of mice with membrane proteins or cell-free virus. The mAbs were well characterized, and a competitive sandwich ELISA (capture mAb: 8H6; labelling mAb: 1B11) was established to determine neutralizing antibodies in human serum with reference to the FAMA test. A total of 920 human sera were evaluated. The competitive sandwich ELISA showed a sensitivity of 95.6%, specificity of 99.77% and coincidence of 97.61% compared with the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test. The capture mAb 8H6 was characterized as a specific mAb for VZV ORF9, a membrane-associated tegument protein that interacts with glycoprotein E (gE), glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein C (gC). The labelling mAb 1B11 was characterized as a complement-dependent neutralizing mAb specific for the immune-dominant epitope located on gE, not on other VZV glycoproteins. The established competitive sandwich ELISA could be used as a rapid and high-throughput method for evaluating immunity to VZV. PMID:26853741

  18. Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kohno, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life. PMID:27093250

  19. Thermally Reversible Physically Cross-Linked Hybrid Network Hydrogels Formed by Thermosensitive Hairy Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Henn, Daniel M; Zhao, Bin

    2016-08-18

    This Article reports on thermally induced reversible formation of physically cross-linked, three-dimensional network hydrogels from aqueous dispersions of thermosensitive diblock copolymer brush-grafted silica nanoparticles (hairy NPs). The hairy NPs consisted of a silica core, a water-soluble polyelectrolyte inner block of poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium iodide), and a thermosensitive poly(methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (PDEGMMA) outer block synthesized by sequential surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerizations and postpolymerization quaternization of tertiary amine moieties. Moderately concentrated dispersions of these hairy nanoparticles in water underwent thermally induced reversible transitions between flowing liquids to self-supporting gels upon heating. The gelation was driven by the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition of the PDEGMMA outer block, which upon heating self-associated into hydrophobic domains acting as physical cross-linking points for the gel network. Rheological studies showed that the sol-gel transition temperature decreased with increasing hairy NP concentration, and the gelation was achieved at concentrations as low as 3 wt %. PMID:27455167

  20. Microstructured Films Formed on Liquid Substrates via Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Cross-Linked Polymers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Laura C; Gupta, Malancha

    2015-07-28

    We studied the formation of microstructured films at liquid surfaces via vapor phase polymerization of cross-linked polymers. The films were composed of micron-sized coral-like structures that originate at the liquid-vapor interface and extend vertically. The growth mechanism of the microstructures was determined to be simultaneous aggregation of the polymer on the liquid surface and wetting of the liquid on the growing aggregates. We demonstrated that we can increase the height of the microstructures and increase the surface roughness of the films by either decreasing the liquid viscosity or decreasing the polymer deposition rate. Our vapor phase method can be extended to synthesize functional, free-standing copolymer microstructured thin films for potential applications in tissue engineering, electrolyte membranes, and separations. PMID:26176742

  1. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  2. Linking Outcomes from Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Forms Using Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan; Rice, Mabel L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present work describes how vocabulary ability as assessed by 3 different forms of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT; Dunn & Dunn, 1997) can be placed on a common latent metric through item response theory (IRT) modeling, by which valid comparisons of ability between samples or over time can then be made. Method: Responses from…

  3. Learning Site Analysis Form. Reference Guide. Connections: Linking Work and Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Education and Work Program.

    The Learning Site Analysis Form (LSAF) helps teachers and other school staff collaborate with employers to identify opportunities for students to learn at the workplace. This reference guide is designed to help school staff and employers use the LSAF and apply its results to structure experiences that connect classroom learning to the world of…

  4. FOXO links wing form polyphenism and wound healing in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinda; Yao, Yun; Wang, Bo; Lavine, Mark D; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenisms such as wing dimorphisms and caste determination are important in allowing animals to adapt to changing environments. The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, one of the most serious insect agricultural pests, includes two wing forms, the long wing form (macropterous) and the short wing form (brachypterous). Long wings are specialized for migration, while short wings are found in individuals specialized for reproduction. While studying wing form polyphenism in the brown planthopper, we excised single wing pads from 4th instar nymphs in order to preserve transcriptional records to correlate with adult wing form. Surprisingly, we found that excision of one wing pad from a pair of the forewings changed the wing morph of the other wing after development to the adult, resulting in the short wing morph. Further experiments showed that not only excision or slicing of the wing pad, but also needle punctures in the abdomen all caused a significant increase in the proportion of nymphs developing into short winged adults. Thus wounding appears to cause a shift to short wing development. We then tested the transcriptional expression in N. lugens of the transcription factor FOXO, which has been shown to help mediate both wing polyphenism in brown planthoppers and wound healing in mice, after excision of the wing pad. Both NlFOXO and its downstream target Nl4EBP increased significantly after wing pad excision. These results indicate that FOXO mediates both wing development and wound healing in N. lugens, which results in an interesting linkage of these two physiological processes. PMID:26696545

  5. A sensitive and robust competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa L.) detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2009-01-28

    Undeclared Brazil nut residue in food products is of great concern because it can trigger life-threatening allergic reactions in sensitive patients. A rabbit polyclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (IC(50) = 23.2 +/- 9 ng/mL, n = 76) with good sensitivity, detection range of 10-90 ng/mL, was developed. The ELISA could detect Brazil nut seed proteins over a pH range of 5-12. The optimal pH range for the detection assay was 7-10. Among the 66 tested foods/ingredients, only cinnamon exhibited statistically significant interference (1.36%, p = 0.05). Exposing Brazil nut seeds to processing did not adversely affect the nut seed protein detection using the assay. Brazil nut seed protein recovery from 100 mg of foods spiked with 10 and 1 microg of soluble Brazil nut proteins or 100 and 10 microg of defatted Brazil nut flour exhibited a wide recovery range, 63-315%, indicating protein-food matrix interaction. PMID:19113944

  6. Competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of serum antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: diagnostic tool for successful eradication.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; McGuire, Travis C; Adams, D Scott; Hutton, Melinda M; Gavin, William G; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-03-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Ozyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGuire, M. Hutton, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:44-51, 2001). Two hundred serum samples from goats in the United States were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA based on the immunoprecipitation (IP) of [(35)S]methionine-labeled viral antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA was defined as >33.2% inhibition of MAb 74A binding based on 2 standard deviations above the mean percent inhibition of 140 IP-negative serum samples. At this cutoff value, there were 0 of 60 false-negative sera (100% sensitivity) and 5 of 140 false-positive sera (96.4% specificity). Additional studies utilized IP-monitored cELISA to establish a CAEV-free herd of 1,640 dairy goats. PMID:12626453

  7. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shuai E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Stolpe, Moritz E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf; Evenson, Zach; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kruzic, Jamie J.

    2015-05-04

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T{sub g}. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure.

  8. Antimicrobial Protegrin-1 Forms Amyloid-Like Fibrils with Rapid Kinetics Suggesting a Functional Link

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Mustata, Mirela; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Capone, Ricardo; Nussinov, Ruth; Lal, Ratnesh

    2011-01-01

    Protegrin-1 (PG-1) is an 18 residues long, cysteine-rich β-sheet antimicrobial peptide (AMP). PG-1 induces strong cytotoxic activities on cell membrane and acts as a potent antibiotic agent. Earlier we reported that its cytotoxicity is mediated by its channel-forming ability. In this study, we have examined the amyloidogenic fibril formation properties of PG-1 in comparison with a well-defined amyloid, the amyloid-β (Aβ1–42) peptide. We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin-T staining to investigate the kinetics of PG-1 fibrils growth and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the underlying mechanism. AFM images of PG-1 on a highly hydrophilic surface (mica) show fibrils with morphological similarities to Aβ1–42 fibrils. Real-time AFM imaging of fibril growth suggests that PG-1 fibril growth follows a relatively fast kinetics compared to the Aβ1–42 fibrils. The AFM results are in close agreement with results from thioflavin-T staining data. Furthermore, the results indicate that PG-1 forms fibrils in solution. Significantly, in contrast, we do not detect fibrillar structures of PG-1 on an anionic lipid bilayer 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; only small PG-1 oligomers can be observed. Molecular dynamics simulations are able to identify the presence of these small oligomers on the membrane bilayer. Thus, our current results show that cytotoxic AMP PG-1 is amyloidogenic and capable of forming fibrils. Overall, comparing β-rich AMPs and amyloids such as Aβ, in addition to cytotoxicity and amyloidogenicity, they share a common structural motif, and are channel forming. These combined properties support a functional relationship between amyloidogenic peptides and β-sheet-rich cytolytic AMPs, suggesting that amyloids channels may have an antimicrobial function. PMID:21463591

  9. Congenital Sodium Diarrhea: A Form of Intractable Diarrhea, With a Link to Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Janecke, Andreas R; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Congenital diarrheal disorders (CDDs) represent a group of challenging clinical conditions for pediatricians because of the severity of the presentation and the broad range of possible differential diagnoses. CDDs arise from alterations in the transport of nutrients and electrolytes across the intestinal mucosa, from enterocyte and enteroendocrine cell differentiation and/or polarization defects, and from the modulation of the intestinal immune response. Advances were made recently in deciphering the etiology and pathophysiology of one of these disorders, congenital sodium diarrhea (CSD). CSD refers to an intractable diarrhea of intrauterine onset with high fecal sodium loss. CSD is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. A syndromic form of CSD features choanal and intestinal atresias as well as recurrent corneal erosions. Small bowel histology frequently detects an epithelial "tufting" dysplasia. It is autosomal recessively inherited, and caused by SPINT2 mutations. The nonsyndromic form of CSD can be caused by dominant activating mutations in GUCY2C, encoding intestinal receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C), and by autosomal recessive SLC9A3 loss-of-function mutations. SLC9A3 encodes Na/H antiporter 3, the major intestinal brush border Na/H exchanger, and a downstream target of GC-C. A number of patients with GUCY2C and SLC9A3 mutations developed inflammatory bowel disease. Both the number of recognized CDD forms as well as the number of underlying disease genes are gradually increasing. Knowledge of these CDD genes enables noninvasive, next-generation gene panel-based testing to facilitate an early diagnosis in CDD. Primary Na/H antiporter 3 and GC-C malfunction is implicated as a predisposition for inflammatory bowel disease in subset of patients. PMID:26835907

  10. Ordered ferrimagnetic form of ferrihydrite reveals links among structure, composition, and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, F. Marc; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Morales, María P.; Serna, Carlos J.; Boily, Jean-François; Liu, Qingsong; Ambrosini, Andrea; Cismasu, A. Cristina; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.

    2010-11-19

    The natural nanomineral ferrihydrite is an important component of many environmental and soil systems and has been implicated as the inorganic core of ferritin in biological systems. Knowledge of its basic structure, composition, and extent of structural disorder is essential for understanding its reactivity, stability, and magnetic behavior, as well as changes in these properties during aging. Here we investigate compositional, structural, and magnetic changes that occur upon aging of '2-line' ferrihydrite in the presence of adsorbed citrate at elevated temperature. Whereas aging under these conditions ultimately results in the formation of hematite, analysis of the atomic pair distribution function and complementary physicochemical and magnetic data indicate formation of an intermediate ferrihydrite phase of larger particle size with few defects, more structural relaxation and electron spin ordering, and pronounced ferrimagnetism relative to its disordered ferrihydrite precursor. Our results represent an important conceptual advance in understanding the nature of structural disorder in ferrihydrite and its relation to the magnetic structure and also serve to validate a controversial, recently proposed structural model for this phase. In addition, the pathway we identify for forming ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite potentially explains the magnetic enhancement that typically precedes formation of hematite in aerobic soil and weathering environments. Such magnetic enhancement has been attributed to the formation of poorly understood, nano-sized ferrimagnets from a ferrihydrite precursor. Whereas elevated temperatures drive the transformation on timescales feasible for laboratory studies, our results also suggest that ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite could form naturally at ambient temperature given sufficient time.

  11. Ordered ferrimagnetic form of ferrihydrite reveals links among structure, composition, and magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Michel, F. Marc; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Morales, María P.; Serna, Carlos J.; Boily, Jean-François; Liu, Qingsong; Ambrosini, Andrea; Cismasu, A. Cristina; Brown, Gordon E.

    2010-01-01

    The natural nanomineral ferrihydrite is an important component of many environmental and soil systems and has been implicated as the inorganic core of ferritin in biological systems. Knowledge of its basic structure, composition, and extent of structural disorder is essential for understanding its reactivity, stability, and magnetic behavior, as well as changes in these properties during aging. Here we investigate compositional, structural, and magnetic changes that occur upon aging of “2-line” ferrihydrite in the presence of adsorbed citrate at elevated temperature. Whereas aging under these conditions ultimately results in the formation of hematite, analysis of the atomic pair distribution function and complementary physicochemical and magnetic data indicate formation of an intermediate ferrihydrite phase of larger particle size with few defects, more structural relaxation and electron spin ordering, and pronounced ferrimagnetism relative to its disordered ferrihydrite precursor. Our results represent an important conceptual advance in understanding the nature of structural disorder in ferrihydrite and its relation to the magnetic structure and also serve to validate a controversial, recently proposed structural model for this phase. In addition, the pathway we identify for forming ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite potentially explains the magnetic enhancement that typically precedes formation of hematite in aerobic soil and weathering environments. Such magnetic enhancement has been attributed to the formation of poorly understood, nano-sized ferrimagnets from a ferrihydrite precursor. Whereas elevated temperatures drive the transformation on timescales feasible for laboratory studies, our results also suggest that ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite could form naturally at ambient temperature given sufficient time. PMID:20133643

  12. Quantification of Ponceau 4R in Foods by Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (icELISA).

    PubMed

    Dong, Yaqing; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Yue; Song, Zhaorui; Wang, Yufen; Meng, Meng; Deng, Chuan; Tong, Zhongsheng; Yin, Yongmei; Xi, Rimo

    2015-07-22

    As one of the rarely allowable azo dyes, ponceau 4R can be added in some foods in some countries. However, it is necessary to develop a credible and rapid analytical method for its monitoring, because of its potentially harmful risk. The hapten of ponceau 4R was first designed and synthesized by introducing a primary amine group into the structure of ponceau 4R. Based on the well-prepared hapten, the immunogen of ponceau 4R was prepared using glutaraldehyde to link ponceau 4R to the carrier protein. The triggered polyclonal antibody was obtained and tested by ELISA to optimize the proper dilution. An icELISA was developed for ponceau 4R, and the IC50 of the method is 36.82 ng/mL. The limit of detection is 0.80 ng/mL, and the linear range is 1-10000 ng/mL. Five selected structural analogues have no cross-reactivity with the anti-ponceau 4R polyclonal antibody (<0.3). In three food samples (grape juice, carbonated beverage, and RIO cocktail), the assay exhibits good stability and reproducibility with a recovery range of 93.87-103.77%, and the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were <11.73%. The results indicate that the proposed icELISA is sensitive, accurate, specific, and simple, which provides an alternative for the detection of ponceau 4R in foods. PMID:26138666

  13. Hydraulic integration and shrub growth form linked across continental aridity gradients.

    PubMed

    Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Goedhart, Christine M; Nordenstahl, Marisa; Cabrera, Hugo I Martinez; Jones, Cynthia S

    2008-08-12

    Both engineered hydraulic systems and plant hydraulic systems are protected against failure by resistance, reparability, and redundancy. A basic rule of reliability engineering is that the level of independent redundancy should increase with increasing risk of fatal system failure. Here we show that hydraulic systems of plants function as predicted by this engineering rule. Hydraulic systems of shrubs sampled along two transcontinental aridity gradients changed with increasing aridity from highly integrated to independently redundant modular designs. Shrubs in humid environments tend to be hydraulically integrated, with single, round basal stems, whereas dryland shrubs typically have modular hydraulic systems and multiple, segmented basal stems. Modularity is achieved anatomically at the vessel-network scale or developmentally at the whole-plant scale through asymmetric secondary growth, which results in a semiclonal or clonal shrub growth form that appears to be ubiquitous in global deserts. PMID:18678893

  14. Mutations in PNPLA6 are linked to photoreceptor degeneration and various forms of childhood blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kmoch, S.; Majewski, J.; Ramamurthy, V.; Cao, S.; Fahiminiya, S.; Ren, H.; MacDonald, I.M.; Lopez, I.; Sun, V.; Keser, V.; Khan, A.; Stránecký, V.; Hartmannová, H.; Přistoupilová, A.; Hodaňová, K.; Piherová, L.; Kuchař, L.; Baxová, A.; Chen, R.; Barsottini, O.G.P.; Pyle, A.; Griffin, H.; Splitt, M.; Sallum, J.; Tolmie, J.L.; Sampson, J.R.; Chinnery, P.; Canada, Care4Rare; Banin, E.; Sharon, D.; Dutta, S.; Grebler, R.; Helfrich-Foerster, C.; Pedroso, J.L.; Kretzschmar, D.; Cayouette, M.; Koenekoop, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Blindness due to retinal degeneration affects millions of people worldwide, but many disease-causing mutations remain unknown. PNPLA6 encodes the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein 6, also known as neuropathy target esterase (NTE), which is the target of toxic organophosphates that induce human paralysis due to severe axonopathy of large neurons. Mutations in PNPLA6 also cause human spastic paraplegia characterized by motor neuron degeneration. Here we identify PNPLA6 mutations in childhood blindness in seven families with retinal degeneration, including Leber congenital amaurosis and Oliver McFarlane syndrome. PNPLA6 localizes mostly at the inner segment plasma membrane in photo-receptors and mutations in Drosophila PNPLA6 lead to photoreceptor cell death. We also report that lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid levels are elevated in mutant Drosophila. These findings show a role for PNPLA6 in photoreceptor survival and identify phospholipid metabolism as a potential therapeutic target for some forms of blindness. PMID:25574898

  15. Hydraulic integration and shrub growth form linked across continental aridity gradients

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, H. Jochen; Espino, Susana; Goedhart, Christine M.; Nordenstahl, Marisa; Cabrera, Hugo I. Martinez; Jones, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    Both engineered hydraulic systems and plant hydraulic systems are protected against failure by resistance, reparability, and redundancy. A basic rule of reliability engineering is that the level of independent redundancy should increase with increasing risk of fatal system failure. Here we show that hydraulic systems of plants function as predicted by this engineering rule. Hydraulic systems of shrubs sampled along two transcontinental aridity gradients changed with increasing aridity from highly integrated to independently redundant modular designs. Shrubs in humid environments tend to be hydraulically integrated, with single, round basal stems, whereas dryland shrubs typically have modular hydraulic systems and multiple, segmented basal stems. Modularity is achieved anatomically at the vessel-network scale or developmentally at the whole-plant scale through asymmetric secondary growth, which results in a semiclonal or clonal shrub growth form that appears to be ubiquitous in global deserts. PMID:18678893

  16. Linking Satellites Via Earth "Hot Spots" and the Internet to Form Ad Hoc Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Grosvenor, Sandra; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix; Lee, Richard Q.; Romanofsky, Robert; Zaman, Afoz; Popovic, Zoya

    2004-01-01

    As more assets are placed in orbit, opportunities emerge to combine various sets of satellites in temporary constellations to perform collaborative image collections. Often, new operations concepts for a satellite or set of satellites emerge after launch. To the degree with which new space assets can be inexpensively and rapidly integrated into temporary or "ad hoc" constellations, will determine whether these new ideas will be implemented or not. On the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite, a New Millennium Program mission, a number of experiments were conducted and are being conducted to demonstrate various aspects of an architecture that, when taken as a whole, will enable progressive mission autonomy. In particular, the target architecture will use adaptive ground antenna arrays to form, as close as possible, the equivalent of wireless access points for low earth orbiting satellites. Coupled with various ground and flight software and the Internet. the architecture enables progressive mission autonomy. Thus, new collaborative sensing techniques can be implemented post-launch. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and highlight details of both the research effort being conducted in

  17. Dimeric Ube2g2 simultaneously engages donor and acceptor ubiquitins to form Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weixiao; Shang, Yongliang; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Chao; Li, Yanchang; Zhai, Linhui; Wang, Pan; Lou, Jizhong; Xu, Ping; Ye, Yihong; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cellular adaptation to proteotoxic stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depends on Lys48-linked polyubiquitination by ER-associated ubiquitin ligases (E3s) and subsequent elimination of ubiquitinated retrotranslocation products by the proteasome. The ER-associated E3 gp78 ubiquitinates misfolded proteins by transferring preformed Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains from the cognate E2 Ube2g2 to substrates. Here we demonstrate that Ube2g2 synthesizes linkage specific ubiquitin chains by forming an unprecedented homodimer: The dimerization of Ube2g2, mediated primarily by electrostatic interactions between two Ube2g2s, is also facilitated by the charged ubiquitin molecules. Mutagenesis studies show that Ube2g2 dimerization is required for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In addition to E2 dimerization, we show that a highly conserved arginine residue in the donor Ube2g2 senses the presence of an aspartate in the acceptor ubiquitin to position only Lys48 of ubiquitin in proximity to the donor E2 active site. These results reveal an unanticipated mode of E2 self-association that allows the E2 to effectively engage two ubiquitins to specifically synthesize Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains. PMID:24366945

  18. Competition in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin; DeVitis, Joseph L.

    This book discusses various major aspects of competition in education. It identifies competition within educational policies, programs, and practices, as well as the problems that certain forms of competition create. It also traces the influences of American competitive values on education. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the…

  19. Warming off southwestern Japan linked to distributional shifts of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kouki; Taino, Seiya; Haraguchi, Hiroko; Prendergast, Gabrielle; Hiraoka, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To assess distributional shifts of species in response to recent warming, historical distribution records are the most requisite information. The surface seawater temperature (SST) of Kochi Prefecture, southwestern Japan on the western North Pacific, has significantly risen, being warmed by the Kuroshio Current. Past distributional records of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds (Laminariales and Fucales) exist at about 10-year intervals from the 1970s, along with detailed SST datasets at several sites along Kochi's >700 km coastline. In order to provide a clear picture of distributional shifts of coastal marine organisms in response to warming SST, we observed the present distribution of seaweeds and analyzed the SST datasets to estimate spatiotemporal SST trends in this coastal region. We present a large increase of 0.3°C/decade in the annual mean SST of this area over the past 40 years. Furthermore, a comparison of the previous and present distributions clearly showed the contraction of temperate species' distributional ranges and expansion of tropical species' distributional ranges in the seaweeds. Although the main temperate kelp Ecklonia (Laminariales) had expanded their distribution during periods of cooler SST, they subsequently declined as the SST warmed. Notably, the warmest SST of the 1997–98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event was the most likely cause of a widespread destruction of the kelp populations; no recovery was found even in the present survey at the formerly habitable sites where warm SSTs have been maintained. Temperate Sargassum spp. (Fucales) that dominated widely in the 1970s also declined in accordance with recent warming SSTs. In contrast, the tropical species, S. ilicifolium, has gradually expanded its distribution to become the most conspicuously dominant among the present observations. Thermal gradients, mainly driven by the warming Kuroshio Current, are presented as an explanation for the successive changes in both temperate and

  20. Warming off southwestern Japan linked to distributional shifts of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kouki; Taino, Seiya; Haraguchi, Hiroko; Prendergast, Gabrielle; Hiraoka, Masanori

    2012-11-01

    To assess distributional shifts of species in response to recent warming, historical distribution records are the most requisite information. The surface seawater temperature (SST) of Kochi Prefecture, southwestern Japan on the western North Pacific, has significantly risen, being warmed by the Kuroshio Current. Past distributional records of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds (Laminariales and Fucales) exist at about 10-year intervals from the 1970s, along with detailed SST datasets at several sites along Kochi's >700 km coastline. In order to provide a clear picture of distributional shifts of coastal marine organisms in response to warming SST, we observed the present distribution of seaweeds and analyzed the SST datasets to estimate spatiotemporal SST trends in this coastal region. We present a large increase of 0.3°C/decade in the annual mean SST of this area over the past 40 years. Furthermore, a comparison of the previous and present distributions clearly showed the contraction of temperate species' distributional ranges and expansion of tropical species' distributional ranges in the seaweeds. Although the main temperate kelp Ecklonia (Laminariales) had expanded their distribution during periods of cooler SST, they subsequently declined as the SST warmed. Notably, the warmest SST of the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event was the most likely cause of a widespread destruction of the kelp populations; no recovery was found even in the present survey at the formerly habitable sites where warm SSTs have been maintained. Temperate Sargassum spp. (Fucales) that dominated widely in the 1970s also declined in accordance with recent warming SSTs. In contrast, the tropical species, S. ilicifolium, has gradually expanded its distribution to become the most conspicuously dominant among the present observations. Thermal gradients, mainly driven by the warming Kuroshio Current, are presented as an explanation for the successive changes in both temperate and

  1. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zwerts, J. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J. M.; de Boer, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  2. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  3. Development and field application of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Phan, L V; Park, M-J; Kye, S-J; Kim, J-Y; Lee, H-S; Choi, K-S

    2013-08-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) using a baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen (rNDV-N) and an rNDV-N-specific monoclonal antibody (5B3) was developed for the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. The specificity and sensitivity of the C-ELISA was found to be 98.4 and 98.9%, respectively, for chickens, and 98.2 and 97.9% for ducks. However, the C-ELISA showed weak cross-reaction with hyperimmune antisera to some other avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In all experimentally vaccinated chickens, seroconversion rates at 7 d postinoculation were 100 and 40% when measured by C-ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI), respectively. In field trials, the C-ELISA showed positive results in 98.9% of HI-positive sera and 40.8% of HI-negative sera from NDV-vaccinated chickens (n = 705). In domestic ducks (n = 158) from NDV-positive duck farms (n = 8), the positive rates according to C-ELISA were significantly higher than those according to the HI test. At the same time, 98.1% of ducks (n = 209) from NDV-negative duck farms (n = 11) were also negative by C-ELISA. Our results indicate that C-ELISA could be a useful alternative to HI testing for detecting NDV antibodies in different avian species such as chickens and ducks. PMID:23873550

  4. Monoclonal antibody production and indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid based on novel haptens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guopeng; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Li, Jiaying; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Tiangang; Zhou, Xilong; Ji, Baoping; Ren, Wanpeng

    2016-10-15

    Two novel immunizing haptens of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) were synthesized and conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with above conjugates, splenocytes were fused with Sp2/0 cells to produce monoclonal antibody. Compared with previous studies, antibodies raised in this work showed higher sensitivity. Meantime, a novel heterologous coating hapten was also prepared. The indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the optimum condition showed an IC50 of 3.1μg/kg (ppb), and the linear range of 0.46-10.5ppb for MQCA. The limit of detect (LOD) of MQCA in swine muscle, swine liver and chicken was 0.32, 0.54, and 0.28ppb, respectively. The LOD of this assay can satisfy the minimum required performance levels (4ppb) for MQCA. These results indicated that the proposed ELISA, with high sensitivity and specificity, as well as good reproducibility and accuracy, is suitable for determination of MQCA residues in food samples. PMID:27173564

  5. Production of a baculovirus-derived gp50 protein and utilization in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serodiagnosis of pseudorabies virus.

    PubMed Central

    Prud'homme, I; Zhou, E M; Traykova, M; Trotter, H; Chan, M; Afshar, A; Harding, M J

    1997-01-01

    The pseudorabies virus (PRV) gp50 envelope glycoprotein gene was cloned and expressed in a recombinant baculovirus. An anti-gp50 Mab (1842) recognized a protein of approximately 40 kDa in immunoblotting assays from infected insect cell lysates, while this product was not present in cells infected with wild-type baculovirus. The recombinant protein was purified by lectin affinity chromatography, utilizing lectins specific for O-linked oligosaccharides (Artocarpus integrifolia and Glycine max). Competitive (c) ELISAs, using either crude or lectin-purified antigen, were devised for the detection of antibodies to PRV in sera, and were capable of monitoring sero-conversion by day 14 post-infection. Furthermore, a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 98% (crude lysate antigen) or 96% (lectin-purified antigen) was found for a panel of 80 swine sera, using the cELISA, as compared to a serum neutralization (SN) test. These studies demonstrated that recombinant PRV gp50 protein shows promise as a cELISA antigen, for serodetection of PRV. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9342453

  6. Structural Basis of Competition Between PINCH1 and PINCH2 for Binding to the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of Integrin-linked Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Chiswell, B.; Steigler, A; Razinia, Z; Nalibotski, E; Boggon, T; Calderwood, D

    2010-01-01

    Formation of a heterotrimeric IPP complex composed of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), the LIM domain protein PINCH, and parvin is important for signaling through integrin adhesion receptors. Mammals possess two PINCH genes that are expressed simultaneously in many tissues. PINCH1 and PINCH2 have overlapping functions and can compensate for one another in many settings; however, isoform-specific functions have been reported and it is proposed that association with a PINCH1- or PINCH2-containing IPP complex may provide a bifurcation point in integrin signaling promoting different cellular responses. Here we report that the LIM1 domains of PINCH1 and PINCH2 directly compete for the same binding site on the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of ILK. We determined the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the PINCH2 LIM1 domain complexed with the ARD of ILK, and show that disruption of this interface by point mutagenesis reduces binding in vitro and alters localization of PINCH2 in cells. These studies provide further evidence for the role of the PINCH LIM1 domain in association with ILK and highlight direct competition as one mechanism for regulating which PINCH isoform predominates in IPP complexes. Differential regulation of PINCH1 and PINCH2 expression may therefore provide a means for altering cellular integrin signaling pathways.

  7. Learning letters in adulthood: direct visualization of cortical plasticity for forming a new link between orthography and phonology.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2004-04-22

    To identify which brain regions in adults show plasticity for learning letters, Hangul letters were experimentally associated with either speech sounds (HS condition) or nonspeech sounds (HN condition) in fMRI sessions over two consecutive days. Selective activations under the HS condition were found in several regions including the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (PITG) and the parieto-occipital cortex (PO), as compared with activations under a condition for familiar letters and speech sounds, and with those under the HN condition. The left PITG showed a selective activation increase under the HS condition over two days, the degree of which predicted individual performance improvement. Further, functional connectivity between the left PITG and the left PO was selectively enhanced under the HS condition. These results demonstrate that a new link between orthography and phonology is formed by the plasticity of a functional system involving the left PITG in association with the left PO. PMID:15091345

  8. The myotubular myopathies: differential diagnosis of the X linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms and present state of DNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallgren-Pettersson, C; Clarke, A; Samson, F; Fardeau, M; Dubowitz, V; Moser, H; Grimm, T; Barohn, R J; Barth, P G

    1995-01-01

    Clinical differences exist between the three forms of myotubular myopathy. They differ regarding age at onset, severity of the disease, and prognosis, and also regarding some of the clinical characteristics. The autosomal dominant form mostly has a later onset and milder course than the X linked form, and the autosomal recessive form is intermediate in both respects. These differences are, however, quantitative rather than qualitative. Muscle biopsy studies of family members are useful in some cases, and immunohistochemical staining of desmin and vimentin may help distinguish between the X linked and autosomal forms. Determining the mode of inheritance and prognosis in individual families, especially those with a single male patient, still poses a problem. Current molecular genetic results indicate that the gene for the X linked form is located in the proximal Xq28 region. Further molecular genetic studies are needed to examine the existence of genetic heterogeneity in myotubular myopathy and to facilitate diagnosis. Images PMID:8544184

  9. Detection of serum antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus in sheep by using a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; Marshall, Katherine L; McGuire, Travis C; Hutton, Melinda M; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-09-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:267-271, 2003). The cELISA utilizes CAEV-63 SU captured on microtiter plates using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measures competitive displacement of binding of the anti-CAEV MAb GPB 74A by goat serum. The present study evaluated the CAEV cELISA for detection of antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in sheep. Three hundred thirty-two sera were randomly selected from 21,373 sheep sera collected throughout the United States to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) based on immunoprecipitation (IP) of [35S]methionine-labeled OPPV antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA test was defined as >20.9 percent inhibition (% I) of MAb 74A binding based on two standard deviations above the mean % I of 191 IP-negative sheep sera. At this cutoff, there were 2 of 141 false-negative sera (98.6% sensitivity) and 6 of 191 false-positive sera (96.9% specificity). Sensitivity and specificity values for IP-monitored AGID were comparable to those for cELISA for 314 of 332 sera with unambiguous AGID results. Concordant results by cELISA and IP resolved 16 of the 18 sera that were indeterminate by AGID. Additional studies evaluated cELISA by using 539 sera from a single OPPV-positive flock. Based on IP of 36 of these sera, there was one false-negative by cELISA among 21 IP-positive sera (95.5% sensitivity) and 0 of 15 false-positives (100% specificity). We conclude that the CAEV cELISA can be applied to detection of OPPV antibodies in sheep with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:12965917

  10. An indirect competitive biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui Y; Zhuang, Hui S

    2015-01-01

    After the "plasticizer event" in Taiwan, phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been listed in "Inedible materials possibly added into food illegally" and "Commonly abused food additives." As one of the PAEs family, DMP has long been a problem of great concern due to its potential impacts on human health. In order to detect DMP with high sensitivity and specificity, a sensitive indirect competitive biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) has been established in this study. A high-titer rabbit polyclonal antibody (pAb-DMP) targeting DMP was obtained, and the procedures of BA-ELISA were optimized for the determination of DMP in milk and milk products. Under optimal conditions, good linearity was achieved within a range of 0.024 to 6.027 μg L(-1), with low cross-reactivity values for DMP structural analogues (lower than 10%). The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.356 μg L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.0082 μg L(-1). Finally, the concentrations of DMP in milk and milk products ranged from 1.03 μg kg(-1) to 7.23 μg kg(-1) by BA-ELISA. Satisfactory recoveries (90.26-112.38%) and coefficient of variation (CV) values (5.08-8.46%) were obtained. These results were consistent with those using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which further confirmed that the proposed BA-ELISA was accurate, specific, reliable and rapid for routine monitoring trace DMP residues in foodstuff, especially milk and milk products. PMID:25714459

  11. Development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against the 3B protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Parida, Satya; Salo, Tim; Hole, Kate; Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Clavijo, Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most highly contagious and economically devastating diseases, and it severely constrains the international trade of animals. Vaccination against FMD is a key element in the control of FMD. However, vaccination of susceptible animals raises critical issues, such as the differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. The current study developed a reliable and rapid test to detect antibodies against the conserved, nonstructural proteins (NSPs) of the FMD virus (FMDV) to distinguish infected animals from vaccinated animals. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the FMDV NSP 3B was produced. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for FMDV/NSP antibody detection was developed using a recombinant 3ABC protein as the antigen and the 3B-specific MAb. Sera collected from naive, FMDV experimentally infected, vaccinated carrier, and noncarrier animals were tested using the 3B cELISA. The diagnostic specificity was 99.4% for naive animals (cattle, pigs, and sheep) and 99.7% for vaccinated noncarrier animals. The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for experimentally inoculated animals and 64% for vaccinated carrier animals. The performance of this 3B cELISA was compared to that of four commercial ELISA kits using a panel of serum samples established by the World Reference Laboratory for FMD at The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, United Kingdom. The diagnostic sensitivity of the 3B cELISA for the panel of FMDV/NSP-positive bovine serum samples was 94%, which was comparable to or better than that of the commercially available NSP antibody detection kits. This 3B cELISA is a simple, reliable test to detect antibodies against FMDV nonstructural proteins. PMID:25651918

  12. Development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the multiepitope peptide for the synchronous detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and G proteins in milk.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mingyan; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Xuelan; Fan, Yanan; Xia, Shenglin; Xiang, Yiqing; Liu, Ziqi; Jinnian, Li

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most common foodborne diseases, results from ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. In our previous studies, we found that SEA and SEG were two predominant SE proteins produced by milkacquired S. aureus isolates. Here, a tandemly arranged multiepitope peptide (named SEAGepis) was designed with six linear B-cell epitopes derived from SEA or SEG and was heterologously expressed. The SEAGepis-specific antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbit with rSEAGepis. Then, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) based on rSEAGepis and the corresponding antibody was developed to simultaneously detect SEA and SEG. Under the optimized conditions, the ic-ELISA standard curve for rSEAGepis was constructed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 512 ng/ml, and the average coefficients of variation of intra- and interassay were 4.28 and 5.61% during six standard concentrations. The average half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 5.07 ng/ml, and the limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.52 ng/ml. The anti-rSEAGepis antibody displayed over 90% cross-reactivity with SEA and SEG but less than 0.5% cross-reactivity with other enterotoxins. Artificially contaminated milk with different concentrations of rSEAGepis, SEA, and SEG was detected by the established ic-ELISA; the recoveries of rSEAGepis, SEA, and SEG were 91.1 to 157.5%, 90.3 to 134.5%, and 89.1 to 117.5%, respectively, with a coefficient of variation below 12%. These results demonstrated that the newly established ic-ELISA possessed high sensitivity, specificity, stability, and accuracy and could potentially be a useful analytical method for synchronous detection of SEA and SEG in milk. PMID:25710152

  13. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the screening of tylosin and tilmicosin in muscle, liver, milk, honey and eggs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Ye, Shengqiang; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-01-11

    Incorrect use of tylosin and tilmicosin could result in allergy and select resistance. To monitor the illegal use of these antibiotics in animals, a monoclonal-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) has been established. Several haptens were synthesized and conjugated to carrier protein. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated with the four different conjugates to produce monoclonal antibodies according to the schemes of immunization. Aftercell fusion and culture several times, nine hybridoma cell lines were isolated. Only one, 3C4 that has isotype IgG2a, was selected for detailed study. The cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody 3C4 to tylosin and tilmicosin was 100% and 51% respectively. The standard curves based on the tylosin and tilmicosin matrix calibration ranged from 2.5 to 40 μg L(-1), with an IC(50) value of 6.1 μg L(-1) and 12.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The limits of detection of the ic-ELISA ranged from 5.1 μg kg(-1) to 13.8 μg kg(-1) in edible animal tissues. The recoveries were 74.1% to 120.7% with less than 18.6% of the coefficient of variation when tylosin and tilmicosin were spiked in various biological matrices with the concentrations of 25.0-200.0 μg kg(-1). Good correlations between the results of the ic-ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography were observed in the incurred tissues. These results suggest that the ic-ELISA is a sensitive, accurate and low-cost method that would be a useful tool for the screening of the residues of tylosin and tilmicosin in muscle, liver, milk, honey and eggs. PMID:22136611

  14. Enzyme mechanism-based, oxidative DNA-protein cross-links formed with DNA polymerase β in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Jason L; Thapar, Upasna; Yu, Kefei; Fang, Qingming; Sobol, Robert William; Demple, Bruce

    2015-07-14

    Free radical attack on the C1' position of DNA deoxyribose generates the oxidized abasic (AP) site 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). Upon encountering dL, AP lyase enzymes such as DNA polymerase β (Polβ) form dead-end, covalent intermediates in vitro during attempted DNA repair. However, the conditions that lead to the in vivo formation of such DNA-protein cross-links (DPC), and their impact on cellular functions, have remained unknown. We adapted an immuno-slot blot approach to detect oxidative Polβ-DPC in vivo. Treatment of mammalian cells with genotoxic oxidants that generate dL in DNA led to the formation of Polβ-DPC in vivo. In a dose-dependent fashion, Polβ-DPC were detected in MDA-MB-231 human cells treated with the antitumor drug tirapazamine (TPZ; much more Polβ-DPC under 1% O2 than under 21% O2) and even more robustly with the "chemical nuclease" 1,10-copper-ortho-phenanthroline, Cu(OP)2. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts challenged with TPZ or Cu(OP)2 also incurred Polβ-DPC. Nonoxidative agents did not generate Polβ-DPC. The cross-linking in vivo was clearly a result of the base excision DNA repair pathway: oxidative Polβ-DPC depended on the Ape1 AP endonuclease, which generates the Polβ lyase substrate, and they required the essential lysine-72 in the Polβ lyase active site. Oxidative Polβ-DPC had an unexpectedly short half-life (∼ 30 min) in both human and mouse cells, and their removal was dependent on the proteasome. Proteasome inhibition under Cu(OP)2 treatment was significantly more cytotoxic to cells expressing wild-type Polβ than to cells with the lyase-defective form. That observation underscores the genotoxic potential of oxidative Polβ-DPC and the biological pressure to repair them. PMID:26124145

  15. Enzyme mechanism-based, oxidative DNA–protein cross-links formed with DNA polymerase β in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Jason L.; Thapar, Upasna; Yu, Kefei; Fang, Qingming; Sobol, Robert William; Demple, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Free radical attack on the C1′ position of DNA deoxyribose generates the oxidized abasic (AP) site 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). Upon encountering dL, AP lyase enzymes such as DNA polymerase β (Polβ) form dead-end, covalent intermediates in vitro during attempted DNA repair. However, the conditions that lead to the in vivo formation of such DNA–protein cross-links (DPC), and their impact on cellular functions, have remained unknown. We adapted an immuno-slot blot approach to detect oxidative Polβ-DPC in vivo. Treatment of mammalian cells with genotoxic oxidants that generate dL in DNA led to the formation of Polβ-DPC in vivo. In a dose-dependent fashion, Polβ-DPC were detected in MDA-MB-231 human cells treated with the antitumor drug tirapazamine (TPZ; much more Polβ-DPC under 1% O2 than under 21% O2) and even more robustly with the “chemical nuclease” 1,10-copper-ortho-phenanthroline, Cu(OP)2. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts challenged with TPZ or Cu(OP)2 also incurred Polβ-DPC. Nonoxidative agents did not generate Polβ-DPC. The cross-linking in vivo was clearly a result of the base excision DNA repair pathway: oxidative Polβ-DPC depended on the Ape1 AP endonuclease, which generates the Polβ lyase substrate, and they required the essential lysine-72 in the Polβ lyase active site. Oxidative Polβ-DPC had an unexpectedly short half-life (∼30 min) in both human and mouse cells, and their removal was dependent on the proteasome. Proteasome inhibition under Cu(OP)2 treatment was significantly more cytotoxic to cells expressing wild-type Polβ than to cells with the lyase-defective form. That observation underscores the genotoxic potential of oxidative Polβ-DPC and the biological pressure to repair them. PMID:26124145

  16. Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO2 decline in the Late Palaeozoic era.

    PubMed

    Beerling, D J; Osborne, C P; Chaloner, W G

    2001-03-15

    The widespread appearance of megaphyll leaves, with their branched veins and planate form, did not occur until the close of the Devonian period at about 360 Myr ago. This happened about 40 Myr after simple leafless vascular plants first colonized the land in the Late Silurian/Early Devonian, but the reason for the slow emergence of this common feature of present-day plants is presently unresolved. Here we show, in a series of quantitative analyses using fossil leaf characters and biophysical principles, that the delay was causally linked with a 90% drop in atmospheric pCO2 during the Late Palaeozoic era. In contrast to simulations for a typical Early Devonian land plant, possessing few stomata on leafless stems, those for a planate leaf with the same stomatal characteristics indicate that it would have suffered lethal overheating, because of greater interception of solar energy and low transpiration. When planate leaves first appeared in the Late Devonian and subsequently diversified in the Carboniferous period, they possessed substantially higher stomatal densities. This observation is consistent with the effects of the pCO2 on stomatal development and suggests that the evolution of planate leaves could only have occurred after an increase in stomatal density, allowing higher transpiration rates that were sufficient to maintain cool and viable leaf temperatures. PMID:11268207

  17. Chemical and structural characterization of interstrand cross-links formed between abasic sites and adenine residues in duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nathan E.; Catalano, Michael J.; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2015-01-01

    A new type of interstrand DNA–DNA cross-link between abasic (Ap) sites and 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA) residues was recently reported, but the chemical structure and properties of this lesion were not rigorously established. Here we characterized the nucleoside cross-link remnant released by enzymatic digestion of duplex DNA containing the dA-Ap cross-link. A synthetic standard was prepared for the putative nucleoside cross-link remnant 6 in which the anomeric carbon of the 2-deoxyribose residue was connected to the exocyclic N6-amino group of dA. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the synthetic material 6 matched the authentic cross-link remnant released by enzymatic digestion of cross-linked DNA. These findings establish the chemical structure of the dA-Ap cross-link released from duplex DNA and may provide methods for the detection of this lesion in cellular DNA. Both the nucleoside cross-link remnant 6 and the cross-link in duplex DNA were quite stable at pH 7 and 37°C, suggesting that the dA-Ap cross-link could be a persistent lesion with the potential to block the action of various DNA processing enzymes. PMID:25779045

  18. Adaptations of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies to influenza a virus in horse sera for use in wild aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Skerratt, L F; Garland, S; Burgess, G W; Selleck, P

    2012-12-01

    We applied a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies for influenza A in equine sera to their detection in sera from wild aquatic birds. Suboptimal results were obtained for the optical density (OD) of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) control and reproducibility between duplicate analyses in the initial assessment. It was therefore necessary to modify the assay to deliver increased reliability and reproducibility while maintaining adequate sensitivity. We optimized reagent concentrations to obtain optimal OD values (close to 2) for the monoclonal antibody control and used 2, 2'-Azino-bis: 3-Benzthiazoline-6-Sulphonic Acid as an alternative chromogen to potentially reduce variability in duplicate analyses. The original assay was compared with the optimized versions, with and without post coating, for the detection of avian influenza viral antibodies in 240 sera obtained from wild plumed whistling ducks. A separate analytical sensitivity study on diluted positive field sera of plumed whistling ducks and a test of antigen stability after post coating were also performed. Some quantitative differences were detected between the original and modified assays. The original assay recorded higher percentage inhibition results which were potentially indicative of increased sensitivity. However, when reagent concentrations were increased in the original assay to the same levels as used in the modified versions, there were no quantitative differences for practical purposes. The original assay produced a median (OD) value of 0.81 for the (MAb) controls that is at the limit of acceptability. By contrast, the modified assays always produced acceptable optical density values for MAb controls. Our overall results indicated the modified assays were potentially more reliable (OD values close to 2), and of adequate sensitivity compared to the original assay in the detection of avian influenza viral antibodies in wild bird sera. Although further

  19. Cultural and Gender Differences in the Implications of Competition for Early Adolescent Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Woodburn, Sharon; del Pilar Soteras del Toro, Maria; Udvari, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Harry Stack Sullivan maintained that competition between friends in early adolescence would generally destroy their friendship. Working with early adolescent samples in Canada, Costa Rica, and Cuba, we found that hypercompetitiveness--a form of competition involving the need to prove one?s own superiority--was linked with conflict between friends,…

  20. COMPETITIVE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY BASED ON A RHOPTRY-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1 EPITOPE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIES BABESIA BOVIS-INFECTED CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitive ELISA (cELISA) format has proven to be an accurate, reliable, easily standardized, and high throughput method to detect hemoparasite infections. In this study, a specied-specific, broadly conserved, and tandemly repeated B-cell epitope within the C-terminus of the rhoptry associated ...

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  2. Trapping of a Cross-link Formed by a Major Purine Adduct of a Metabolite of the Carcinogen N-Nitrosomorpholine by Inorganic and Biological Reductants

    PubMed Central

    Koissi, Niangoran; Fishbein, James C.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroperoxy-N-nitrosomorpholine in buffered aqueous media in the presence of calf thymus DNA was treated with a phosphine reductant to generate the transient α-hydroxynitrosamine and subsequent diazonium ion that alkylated the DNA, as previously reported. Subsequent addition of hydride donors, for 30 min, followed by acid hydrolysis of the mixture allowed detection and quantification of 6-(2-(2-((9H-purin-6-yl)amino)ethoxy)ethoxy)-9H-purin-2-amine, the reduced cross-link formed from deposition, via the diazonium ion, of a 3-oxa-pentanal fragment on O6-Gua, and condensation with N6-Ade, presumably in the vicinity. Decreasing temperature of the reactions and decreasing pH modestly increased the yields of trapped crosslink. Among three borohydride reductants, NaNCBH3 is superior, being ∼4 times more effective on a molar basis, as opposed to a hydride equivalent basis, than NaBH4 or Na(AcO)3BH. For trapping with NaNCBH3, it is deduced that the reaction likely occurs with the iminium ion that is in protonic equilibrium with its conjugate base imine. In an experiment in which the hydroperoxide was decomposed and NaNCBH3 was introduced after various times, the amount of cross-link was observed to increase, nearly linearly, by about four-fold over one week. These data indicate that there are a minimum of 2 populations of cross-links, one that forms rapidly, in minutes, and another that grows in with time, over days. Reduced nicotinamide co-factors and ascorbate are observed to effect reduction (over 3 days) of the cross-links confirming the possibility that otherwise reversible cross-links might be immortalized under biological conditions. PMID:23587048

  3. Solution structure of the reduced form of human peroxiredoxin-6 elucidated using zero-length chemical cross-linking and homology modelling.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Santiago, Roland F; Harper, Sandra L; Zhou, Suiping; Sriswasdi, Sira; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B; Speicher, David W

    2015-05-15

    Peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) is an unusual member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes that has only one evolutionarily conserved cysteine. It reduces oxidized lipids and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidation of the active-site cysteine (Cys(47)) to a sulfenic acid, but the mechanism for conversion back to a thiol is not completely understood. Moreover, it has phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in addition to its peroxidase activity. Interestingly, some biochemical data are inconsistent with a known high-resolution crystal structure of the catalytic intermediate of the protein, and biophysical data indicate that the protein undergoes conformational changes that affect enzyme activity. In order to further elucidate the solution structure of this important enzyme, we used chemical cross-linking coupled with high-resolution MS (CX-MS), with an emphasis on zero-length cross-links. Distance constraints from high confidence cross-links were used in homology modelling experiments to determine a solution structure of the reduced form of the protein. This structure was further evaluated using chemical cross-links produced by several homo-bifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagents, which helped to confirm the solution structure. The results show that several regions of the reduced version of human PRDX6 are in a substantially different conformation from that shown for the crystal structure of the peroxidase catalytic intermediate. The differences between these two structures are likely to reflect catalysis-related conformational changes. These studies also demonstrate that CX-MS using zero-length cross-linking is a powerful strategy for probing protein conformational changes that is complementary to alternative methods such as crystallographic, NMR and biophysical studies. PMID:25748205

  4. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part II. Meeting the Challenge of Change: Basic Skills for a Competitive Workforce. A Work in America Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 2 in a 3-year study, establishes the need for job-linked literacy programs that respond to technological and organizational change, outlines the character of successful programs, and demonstrates these programs' potential value. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case studies. The introduction to the…

  5. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. PMID:27262203

  6. A CENSUS OF OXYGEN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: AN EMPIRICAL MODEL LINKING METALLICITIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Dima, G. I.; Kewley, L. J.; Erb, D. K.; Dave, R.

    2012-09-20

    In this contribution, we present the first census of oxygen in star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We examine three samples of galaxies with metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) at z = 0.07, 0.8, and 2.26, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey. We infer the total mass of oxygen produced and mass of oxygen found in the gas-phase from our local SDSS sample. The star formation history is determined by requiring that galaxies evolve along the relation between stellar mass and SFR observed in our three samples. We show that the observed relation between stellar mass and SFR for our three samples is consistent with other samples in the literature. The mass-metallicity relation is well established for our three samples, and from this we empirically determine the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies. Thus, we are able to simultaneously constrain the SFRs and metallicities of galaxies over cosmic time, allowing us to estimate the mass of oxygen locked up in stars. Combining this work with independent measurements reported in the literature, we conclude that the loss of oxygen from the interstellar medium of local star-forming galaxies is likely to be a ubiquitous process with the oxygen mass loss scaling (almost) linearly with stellar mass. We estimate the total baryonic mass loss and argue that only a small fraction of the baryons inferred from cosmological observations accrete onto galaxies.

  7. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for two forms of vitellogenin in Japanese common goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus).

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Adachi, Shinji; Hara, Akihiko; Hotta, Komei; Nakamura, Yukio; Matsubara, Takahiro

    2003-05-01

    Two vitellogenins (Vgs) were detected in serum from estradiol-17beta (E(2))-injected Japanese common goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus). Vitellogenins with molecular masses of 530 kDa (Vg-530) and 320 kDa (Vg-320) were purified, and used to raise specific antisera in rabbits. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for Vg-530 and Vg-320 were developed using the antisera and the isolated Vgs. The sensitivity ranges of these ELISAs were 1.25-160 ng/ml for Vg-530 and 0.26-66 ng/ml for Vg-320, and very low cross-reactivity was found with the alternate Vg in each assay. Treatment of male gobys with E(2) by injection and immersion induced both Vgs in sera in a dose-dependent manner. The mean concentrations of the Vgs increased from 10 ng/L E(2) exposure for three weeks. Serum concentrations of the two Vgs in field-collected maturing females increased in accordance with increment of E(2) level and ovarian development, and the mean concentrations of Vg-530 were higher than those of Vg-320 in maturing female. These results indicate that the sandwich ELISAs for Vg-530 and Vg-320 developed in the present study is useful as an assay system for surveys of estrogenic activity in coastal areas of Japan. PMID:12714018

  8. Cross-Linking the Fibers of Supramolecular Gels Formed from a Tripodal Terpyridine Derived Ligand with d-Block Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Oxana; Daly, Ronan; dos Santos, Cidália M G; Kruger, Paul E; Boland, John J; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2015-08-17

    The tripodal terpyridine ligand, L, forms 1D helical supramolecular polymers/gels in H2O-CH3OH solution mediated through hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. These gels further cross-link into 3D supramolecular metallogels with a range of metal ions (M) such as Fe(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ru(III); the cross-linking resulting in the formation of colored or colorless gels. The fibrous morphology of these gels was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the self-assembly processes between L and M were investigated by absorbance and emission spectroscopy from which their binding constants were determined by using a nonlinear regression analysis. PMID:26222397

  9. Distributed piezoelectric vibration control for a flexible-link manipulator based on an observer in the form of partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongjun; Liu, Jinkun

    2016-02-01

    This paper mainly focuses on designing a distributed observer-based controller for a flexible-link manipulator bonded with piezoelectric actuators. The dynamic model of the link can be taken as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and takes on the form of partial differential equations (PDEs). The proposed observer, which is proven exponentially stable, has the ability to estimate infinite dimensional states, and only the boundary practical measurement values are needed. A novel distributed observer-based controller is subsequently developed to make the joint position track a desired trajectory and rapidly regulate vibrations on the whole beam, which is the main contribution of the paper. The closed-loop system is guaranteed exponentially stable by theoretical analysis and its favorable performance is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  10. Novel form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss with cochlear malformation caused by a mutation in the type IV collagen gene COL4A6

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Simone; Bach, Elisa; Neuner, Cordula; Nanda, Indrajit; Dysek, Sandra; Bittner, Reginald E; Keller, Alexander; Bartsch, Oliver; Mlynski, Robert; Haaf, Thomas; Müller, Clemens R; Kunstmann, Erdmute

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss is the most common human sensorineural disorder. Genetic causes are highly heterogeneous, with mutations detected in >40 genes associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, to date. Whereas autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant inheritance is prevalent, X-linked forms of nonsyndromic hearing impairment are extremely rare. Here, we present a Hungarian three-generation family with X-linked nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and the underlying genetic defect. Next-generation sequencing and subsequent segregation analysis detected a missense mutation (c.1771G>A, p.Gly591Ser) in the type IV collagen gene COL4A6 in all affected family members. Bioinformatic analysis and expression studies support this substitution as being causative. COL4A6 encodes the alpha-6 chain of type IV collagen of basal membranes, which forms a heterotrimer with two alpha-5 chains encoded by COL4A5. Whereas mutations in COL4A5 and contiguous X-chromosomal deletions involving COL4A5 and COL4A6 are associated with X-linked Alport syndrome, a nephropathy associated with deafness and cataract, mutations in COL4A6 alone have not been related to any hereditary disease so far. Moreover, our index patient and other affected family members show normal renal and ocular function, which is not consistent with Alport syndrome, but with a nonsyndromic type of hearing loss. In situ hybridization and immunostaining demonstrated expression of the COL4A6 homologs in the otic vesicle of the zebrafish and in the murine inner ear, supporting its role in normal ear development and function. In conclusion, our results suggest COL4A6 as being the fourth gene associated with X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss. PMID:23714752

  11. Novel form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss with cochlear malformation caused by a mutation in the type IV collagen gene COL4A6.

    PubMed

    Rost, Simone; Bach, Elisa; Neuner, Cordula; Nanda, Indrajit; Dysek, Sandra; Bittner, Reginald E; Keller, Alexander; Bartsch, Oliver; Mlynski, Robert; Haaf, Thomas; Müller, Clemens R; Kunstmann, Erdmute

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary hearing loss is the most common human sensorineural disorder. Genetic causes are highly heterogeneous, with mutations detected in >40 genes associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, to date. Whereas autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant inheritance is prevalent, X-linked forms of nonsyndromic hearing impairment are extremely rare. Here, we present a Hungarian three-generation family with X-linked nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and the underlying genetic defect. Next-generation sequencing and subsequent segregation analysis detected a missense mutation (c.1771G>A, p.Gly591Ser) in the type IV collagen gene COL4A6 in all affected family members. Bioinformatic analysis and expression studies support this substitution as being causative. COL4A6 encodes the alpha-6 chain of type IV collagen of basal membranes, which forms a heterotrimer with two alpha-5 chains encoded by COL4A5. Whereas mutations in COL4A5 and contiguous X-chromosomal deletions involving COL4A5 and COL4A6 are associated with X-linked Alport syndrome, a nephropathy associated with deafness and cataract, mutations in COL4A6 alone have not been related to any hereditary disease so far. Moreover, our index patient and other affected family members show normal renal and ocular function, which is not consistent with Alport syndrome, but with a nonsyndromic type of hearing loss. In situ hybridization and immunostaining demonstrated expression of the COL4A6 homologs in the otic vesicle of the zebrafish and in the murine inner ear, supporting its role in normal ear development and function. In conclusion, our results suggest COL4A6 as being the fourth gene associated with X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss. PMID:23714752

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. Mapping of a possible X-linked form of familial developmental dysphasia (FDD) in a single large pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, P.W.; Doody, R.S.; Epstein, H.F.

    1994-09-01

    Children diagnosed with developmental dysphasia develop speech very late without exhibiting sensory or motor dysfunction, and when they do begin to speak their grammar is abnormal. A large three-generation British pedigree was recently identified in which 16 out of 30 members were diagnosed as dysphasic. Assuming a dominant mode of inheritance with homogeneous phenotypic expression and complete penetrance among affected members, we showed by simulation analysis that this pedigree has the power to detect linkage to marker loci with an average maximum LOD score of 3.67 at {theta}=0.1. Given the absence of male-to-male transmission and a ratio of female to male affecteds (10/6) in this pedigree within the expected range for an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance, we decided to begin a genome-wide linkage analysis with microsatellite markers on the human X chromosome. Fifteen individuals (10 affected) from three generations were genotyped with 35 polymorphic STS`s (Research Genetics) which were approximately uniformly distributed along the X chromosome. Two-point linkage was assessed using the MLINK and ILINK programs from the LINKAGE package. Markers DXS1223, DXS987, DXS996 and DXS1060 on Xp22 showed consistent linkage to the disease locus with a maximum LOD score of 0.86 at a distance of 22 cM for DXS1060. If further analysis with additional markers and additional family members confirms X-linkage, such a localization would provide support for Lehrke`s hypothesis for X-linkage of major intellectual traits including verbal functioning.

  14. Optical properties and oxidation of carbonized and cross-linked structures formed in polycarbonate by plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosobrodova, E.; Kondyurin, A.; Chrzanowski, W.; McCulloch, D. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2014-06-01

    At ion fluences higher than 5 · 1015 ions/cm2, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of polycarbonate (PC) results in a formation of a carbonized surface layer. The thickness of this layer is close to the depth of ion penetration. A comparison of PIII treated, spin-coated PC films with pre-treatment thicknesses designed to match and exceed the carbonized layer thickness is employed to study the properties of the carbonised layer independently from the less modified underlying structure. At ion fluencies higher than 1016 ions/cm2, the thinner PC film is completely transformed into an amorphous carbon-like material with no traces of the initial PC structure. The thicker films, however, incorporated two layers: a top carbonised layer and a cross-linked layer below. Compared to the two-layered PC film, the completely carbonized layer was found to have a much higher concentration of Cdbnd O bonds and much lower concentration of O-H bonds after exposure to atmospheric oxygen. The refractive index of the thicker PC films PIII treated with high ion fluencies is close to the refractive index of diamond-like carbon. Anomalous dispersion of the refractive index of the thicker PC films is observed after formation of the carbonised layer. The refractive index of the thinner PC film has normal dispersion at all ion fluences. At ion fluences of 2 · 1016 ions/cm2, both PC films were found to have the same etching rate as polystyrene. Washing in dichloromethane had no effect on the carbonised layer but affected the underlying material in the case of the thicker PC films leading to a wrinkled structure up to ion fluences of 2 · 1016 ions/cm2. At this and higher fluence, areas of an ordered island-like structure were observed.

  15. Virus-based Photo-Responsive Nanowires Formed By Linking Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Chemical Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Murali; Abbineni, Gopal; Nimmo, Susan L.; Cao, Binrui; Mao, Chuanbin

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the genetic flexibility and error-free bulk production, bio-nanostructures such as filamentous phage showed great potential in materials synthesis, however, their photo-responsive behaviour is neither explored nor unveiled. Here we show M13 phage genetically engineered with tyrosine residues precisely fused to the major coat protein is converted into a photo-responsive organic nanowire by a site-specific chemical reaction with an aromatic amine to form an azo dye structure on the surface. The resulting azo-M13-phage nanowire exhibits reversible photo-responsive properties due to the photo-switchable cis-trans isomerisation of the azo unit formed on the phage. This result shows that site-specific display of a peptide on bio-nanostructures through site-directed genetic mutagenesis can be translated into site-directed chemical reaction for developing advanced materials. The photo-responsive properties of the azo-M13-phage nanowires may open the door for the development of light controllable smart devices for use in non-linear optics, holography data storage, molecular antenna, and actuators. PMID:23673356

  16. Virus-based photo-responsive nanowires formed by linking site-directed mutagenesis and chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Murali; Abbineni, Gopal; Nimmo, Susan L; Cao, Binrui; Mao, Chuanbin

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the genetic flexibility and error-free bulk production, bio-nanostructures such as filamentous phage showed great potential in materials synthesis, however, their photo-responsive behaviour is neither explored nor unveiled. Here we show M13 phage genetically engineered with tyrosine residues precisely fused to the major coat protein is converted into a photo-responsive organic nanowire by a site-specific chemical reaction with an aromatic amine to form an azo dye structure on the surface. The resulting azo-M13-phage nanowire exhibits reversible photo-responsive properties due to the photo-switchable cis-trans isomerisation of the azo unit formed on the phage. This result shows that site-specific display of a peptide on bio-nanostructures through site-directed genetic mutagenesis can be translated into site-directed chemical reaction for developing advanced materials. The photo-responsive properties of the azo-M13-phage nanowires may open the door for the development of light controllable smart devices for use in non-linear optics, holography data storage, molecular antenna, and actuators. PMID:23673356

  17. Virus-based Photo-Responsive Nanowires Formed By Linking Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, Murali; Abbineni, Gopal; Nimmo, Susan L.; Cao, Binrui; Mao, Chuanbin

    2013-05-01

    Owing to the genetic flexibility and error-free bulk production, bio-nanostructures such as filamentous phage showed great potential in materials synthesis, however, their photo-responsive behaviour is neither explored nor unveiled. Here we show M13 phage genetically engineered with tyrosine residues precisely fused to the major coat protein is converted into a photo-responsive organic nanowire by a site-specific chemical reaction with an aromatic amine to form an azo dye structure on the surface. The resulting azo-M13-phage nanowire exhibits reversible photo-responsive properties due to the photo-switchable cis-trans isomerisation of the azo unit formed on the phage. This result shows that site-specific display of a peptide on bio-nanostructures through site-directed genetic mutagenesis can be translated into site-directed chemical reaction for developing advanced materials. The photo-responsive properties of the azo-M13-phage nanowires may open the door for the development of light controllable smart devices for use in non-linear optics, holography data storage, molecular antenna, and actuators.

  18. Competition, Competitive Repulsion, and Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manuscript is concerned with concepts rather than abstruse details or mathematics. Discussed are: competition; extended competition, proposed for competition in the strict sense, extended and modified by all related interactions including predation, parasitism, disease, and even cooperation, all of which can be “weapons of competition”; competitive repulsion, proposed for the sum of forces that determine spacings, including ecologic spacings, of individuals and populations; Darwin (biotic) equilibriums; competitive extinction, Gause's principle, limited and limiting resources, and single-resource competition; de facto coexistence of competing species, exemplified by green plants competing for sunlight; niche competition; the two concepts of competitive exclusion; devision of resources and of their utilizers; cause and effect in real situations; and niches, niche overlap, and coexistence. Stressed is the complexity of the real world, and the confusion that can and does arise from modeling it too simply. PMID:4508308

  19. Linking pre- and proto-stellar objects in the intermediate-/high-mass star forming region IRAS 05345+3157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Zhang, Q.; Caselli, P.; Bourke, T. L.

    2009-05-01

    Context: To better understand the initial conditions of the high-mass star formation process, it is crucial to study at high angular resolution the morphology, the kinematics, and the interactions of the coldest condensations associated with intermediate-/high-mass star forming regions. Aims: This paper studies the cold condensations in the intermediate-/high-mass proto-cluster IRAS 05345+3157, focusing on the interaction with the other objects in the cluster. Methods: We performed millimeter high-angular resolution observations, both in the continuum and several molecular lines, with the PdBI and the SMA. In a recent paper, we published part of these data. The main finding of that work was the detection of two cold and dense gaseous condensations, called N and S (masses ˜ 2 and ˜ 9 M_⊙), characterised by high values of deuterium fractionation (˜ 0.1 in both cores) obtained from the column density ratio N(N{2}D+)/N(N{2}H+). In this paper, we present a full report of the observations, and a complete analysis of the data obtained. Results: The millimeter maps reveal the presence of 3 cores inside the interferometer primary beam, called C1-a, C1-b and C2. None of them are associated with cores N and S. C1-b is very likely associated with a newly formed early-B ZAMS star embedded inside a hot core, while C1-a is more likely associated with a class 0 intermediate-mass protostar. The nature of C2 is unclear. Both C1-a and C1-b are good candidates as driving sources of a powerful 12CO outflow, which strongly interacts with N, as demonstrated by the velocity gradient of the gas along this condensation. The N{2}H+ linewidths are between ˜ 1 and 2 km s-1 in the region where the continuum cores are located, and smaller (˜ 0.5-1.5 km s-1) towards N and S, indicating that the gas in the deuterated condensations is more quiescent than that associated with the continuum sources. This is consistent with the fact that they are still in the pre-stellar phase and hence the

  20. Detailed study of sequence-specific DNA cleavage of triplex-forming oligonucleotides linked to 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Inoue, H; Ohtsuka, E

    1994-01-18

    We introduced eight bases, including four base analogs, into 15-mer triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) [d-psTTTCTTTNTTTTCTT; ps = thiophosphate; N = A, G, C, T, 2'-deoxyinosine (I), 2'-deoxyxanthosine (X), 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m5C), or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(br5U)] to investigate the Hoogsteen-like hydrogen bonding to the base in the target 34-mer strand (d-TGAGTGAGTAAAGAAARAAAAGAATGAGTGCCAA.d-TTGGCACTCATTCTTTTYTTTCT TTACTCACTCA; RY = AT, GC, TA, or CG). We examined the thermal stability of 15-mer triplexes in buffer containing 100 mM sodium acetate and 1 M NaCl at pH 5.0. The triplexes with typical triplets of T.AT (51.3 degrees C), br5U.AT (52.4 degrees C), C+.GC (66.7 degrees C), and m5C+.GC (66.8 degrees C) at the central position showed relatively higher Tm values, as expected. The relatively high stability of the X.AT triplex (39.8 degrees C) was observed. Among the N.TA triplets, G.TA (44.8 degrees C) was thermally the most stable, and moreover, the data showed that the N.TA triplet was also stabilized by I in the N position (40.7 degrees C). Furthermore, the TFOs were converted to DNA-cleaving molecules by introducing a newly synthesized 1,10-phenanthroline (OP) derivative on the thiophosphate group at the 5' end. Cleavage reactions of the 32P-labeled DNA (34-mer) were carried out. The cleavage efficiencies were compared to the Tm values of triplexes with or without an OP derivative. Results showed that the increased cleavage yields reflect the higher thermal stability of the triplex formed in most cases, but a few exceptional cases existed. Especially, the G-containing TFO did not show the above correlation between thermal stability and cleavage yield.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8286392

  1. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition...

  2. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition...

  3. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition...

  4. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition...

  5. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition...

  6. The Effects of Scleral Collagen Cross-Linking Using Glyceraldehyde on the Progression of Form-Deprived Myopia in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yanhua; Cheng, Zhaohui; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Guo, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of collagen cross-linking using glyceraldehyde on the biomechanical properties of the sclera and the axial elongation of form-deprived myopia in the guinea pig. Thirty-six guinea pigs were randomly assigned to four groups: FDM (form-deprived myopia); FDMG (form-deprived myopia treated with glyceraldehyde); FDMS (form-deprived myopia treated with 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride); and normal control (free of form-deprivation). FDM was achieved in the right eye using a latex facemask. The right eye in FDMG was treated with a posterior subtenon injection of 0.5 M glyceraldehyde; 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride was administered to the right eye in FDMS group using the same method. Axial length, refraction, and stress-strain of the sclera were measured at scheduled time points. The treated eyes were also examined histologically by light microscopy. It was found that glyceraldehyde treatment significantly increased the stiffness of the sclera in the FDM eyes and abnormalities have not been observed in the retina and optic nerve of the treated eyes. But the development of myopia was not affected. PMID:27504195

  7. The Effects of Scleral Collagen Cross-Linking Using Glyceraldehyde on the Progression of Form-Deprived Myopia in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yanhua; Cheng, Zhaohui; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Guo, Haixia; Han, Quanhong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of collagen cross-linking using glyceraldehyde on the biomechanical properties of the sclera and the axial elongation of form-deprived myopia in the guinea pig. Thirty-six guinea pigs were randomly assigned to four groups: FDM (form-deprived myopia); FDMG (form-deprived myopia treated with glyceraldehyde); FDMS (form-deprived myopia treated with 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride); and normal control (free of form-deprivation). FDM was achieved in the right eye using a latex facemask. The right eye in FDMG was treated with a posterior subtenon injection of 0.5 M glyceraldehyde; 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride was administered to the right eye in FDMS group using the same method. Axial length, refraction, and stress-strain of the sclera were measured at scheduled time points. The treated eyes were also examined histologically by light microscopy. It was found that glyceraldehyde treatment significantly increased the stiffness of the sclera in the FDM eyes and abnormalities have not been observed in the retina and optic nerve of the treated eyes. But the development of myopia was not affected. PMID:27504195

  8. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part II. Quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.

    PubMed

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. Validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. However, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. Continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in performance. For this purpose, several charting methods have been developed and implemented. This paper compares the Shewhart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts with respect to the day to day monitoring of internal quality control samples for the foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both chart types are equally sensitive to shifts, but the EWMA method seems to provide the best balance between false rejection and false acceptance. PMID:16642771

  9. Triplex staples: DNA double-strand cross-linking at internal and terminal sites using psoralen-containing triplex-forming oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Broughton-Head, Victoria J; Peng, Guomei; Powers, Vicki E C; Ovens, Matthew J; Fox, Keith R; Brown, Tom

    2006-01-01

    A method has been developed to attach 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen to the 5 position of thymine bases during solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. UV irradiation of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) containing internally attached psoralens produces photoadducts at TpA steps within target duplexes, thus relaxing the constraints on selection of psoralen target sequences. Photoreaction of TFOs containing two psoralens, located at the 5'- and 3'-ends, has been used to create double-strand cross-links (triplex staples) at both termini of the TFO. Such complexes have no free single-stranded ends. TFOs containing 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, 3-methyl-2-aminopyridine, and 5-(3-aminoprop-2-ynyl)deoxyuridine formed photoadducts with target duplexes under near-physiological conditions. PMID:17105237

  10. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster: the link between molecular gas, atomic gas, and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Corbelli, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Giovanardi, C.; Bomans, D.; Coelho, B.; De Looze, I.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Hunt, L. K.; Leonardo, E.; Madden, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Pappalardo, C.; Riguccini, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) observations of a sample of 20 star-forming dwarfs selected from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, with oxygen abundances ranging from 12 + log (O / H) ~ 8.1 to 8.8. CO emission is observed in ten galaxies and marginally detected in another one. CO fluxes correlate with the FIR 250 μm emission, and the dwarfs follow the same linear relation that holds for more massive spiral galaxies extended to a wider dynamical range. We compare different methods to estimate H2 molecular masses, namely a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and one dependent on H-band luminosity. The molecular-to-stellar mass ratio remains nearly constant at stellar masses ≲ 109 M⊙, contrary to the atomic hydrogen fraction, MHI/M∗, which increases inversely with M∗. The flattening of the MH2/M∗ ratio at low stellar masses does not seem to be related to the effects of the cluster environment because it occurs for both Hi-deficient and Hi-normal dwarfs. The molecular-to-atomic ratio is more tightly correlated with stellar surface density than metallicity, confirming that the interstellar gas pressure plays a key role in determining the balance between the two gaseous components of the interstellar medium. Virgo dwarfs follow the same linear trend between molecular gas mass and star formation rate as more massive spirals, but gas depletion timescales, τdep, are not constant and range between 100 Myr and 6 Gyr. The interaction with the Virgo cluster environment is removing the atomic gas and dust components of the dwarfs, but the molecular gas appears to be less affected at the current stage of evolution within the cluster. However, the correlation between Hi deficiency and the molecular gas depletion time suggests that the lack of gas replenishment from the outer regions of the disc is lowering the star formation activity. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany

  11. Targeted cross-linking of the human beta-globin gene in living cells mediated by a triple helix forming oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Kazi Abdus; Majumdar, Alokes; Alam, Rowshon; Liu, Su-Ting; Kuan, Jean Y; Sui, Xuifen; Cuenoud, Bernard; Glazer, Peter M; Miller, Paul S; Seidman, Michael M

    2006-02-14

    Triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) may have utility as gene targeting reagents for "in situ" gene therapy of genetic disorders. Triplex formation is challenged by negative charge repulsion between third strand and duplex phosphates, and destabilizing positive charge repulsion between adjacent protonated cytosines within pyrimidine motif third strands. Here we describe the synthesis of TFOs designed to target a site in the human beta-globin gene, which is the locus for mutations that underlie the beta-globinopathies, including sickle cell anemia. The target is an uninterrupted polypurine:polypyrimidine sequence, containing four adjacent cytosines, next to a psoralen cross-link site. Pyrimidine motif TFOs that contained four adjacent cytosines or 5-methylcytosines did not form stable triplexes at physiological pH, despite the introduction of otherwise stabilizing base and sugar analogues. We synthesized a series of pso-TFOs containing 2'-O-methyl (OMe) and 2'-O-aminoethoxy substitutions (AE), as well as 8-oxo-adenine (A8) and 2'-O-methylpseudoisocytidine (P) as neutral cytosine replacements. Thermal stability measurements indicated that TFOs with A8 did not meet criteria established in previous work. However, TFOs with P did form triplexes with appropriate T(m) and k(ON) values. A pso-TFO with AE and P residues was sufficiently active to permit the determination of targeting in living cells by direct measurement of cross-link formation at the target site. Our results validate the modification format described in our previous studies and indicate that P substitutions are an effective solution to the problem of targeting genomic sequences containing adjacent cytosines. PMID:16460044

  12. Transglutaminse 2 and EGGL, the Protein Cross-Link Formed by Transglutaminse 2, As Therapeutic Targets for Disabilities of Old Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the protein matrix that surrounds and penetrates the tissues and binds the body together, contributes significantly to functional aging of tissues. ECM proteins become increasingly cross-linked with age, and this cross-linking is probably important in the decline of the ECM's function. This article reviews the role of ε-(γ-glutamyl)-lysine (EGGL), a cross-link formed by transglutaminase enzymes, and particularly the widely expressed isozyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2), in the aging ECM. There is little direct data on EGGL accumulation with age, and no direct evidence of a role of EGGL in the aging of the ECM with pathology. However, several lines of circumstantial evidence suggest that EGGL accumulates with age, and its association with pathology suggests that this might reflect degradation of ECM function. TG activity increases with age in many circumstances. ECM protein turnover is such that some EGGL made by TG is likely to remain in place for years, if not decades, in healthy tissue, and both EGGL and TG levels are enhanced by age-related diseases. If further research shows EGGL does accumulate with age, removing it could be of therapeutic benefit. Also reviewed is the blockade of TG and active removal of EGGL as therapeutic strategies, with the conclusion that both have promise. EGGL removal may have benefit for acute fibrotic diseases, such as tendinopathy, and for treating generalized decline in ECM function with old age. Extracellular TG2 and EGGL are therefore therapeutic targets both for specific and more generalized diseases of aging. PMID:23968147

  13. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change. PMID:17477218

  14. A lysine-63-linked ubiquitin chain-forming conjugase, UBC13, promotes the developmental responses to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    Iron-deficiency responses comprise molecular, physiological and developmental adjustments, ultimately leading to an improved cellular Fe homeostasis. By using a proteomic approach, we identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13 as being highly responsive to the Fe regime at the post-transcriptional level in the tips of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots. UBC13 has been shown to catalyze non-canonical Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains, playing important roles in signal transduction among eukaryotes. Ectopic expression of the cucumber UBC13 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana led to a more pronounced and Fe-responsive formation of branched root hairs, a key response of Arabidopsis roots to Fe deficiency. Plants carrying a mutation in the Arabidopsis ortholog UBC13A were unable to form branched root hairs upon Fe deficiency and showed a perturbed expression of Fe-regulated genes. Mutants defective in both Arabidopsis UBC13 genes, UBC13A and UBC13B, showed a marked reduction in root hair density. Mutations in the cognate E3 ligases RGLG2 and RGLG1 caused the constitutive formation of branched root hairs independent of the Fe supply, indicating the involvement of polyubiquitination in the altered differentiation of rhizodermal cells. It is concluded that UBC13, probably via the formation of Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains, has a critical function in epidermal cell differentiation and is crucial for the regulation of Fe-responsive genes and developmental responses to Fe deficiency. PMID:20113438

  15. Interspecific Competition Underlying Mutualistic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Deok-Sun

    2012-03-01

    Multiple classes of interactions may exist affecting one another in a given system. For the mutualistic networks of plants and pollinating animals, it has been known that the degree distribution is broad but often deviates from power-law form more significantly for plants than animals. To illuminate the origin of such asymmetry, we study a model network in which links are assigned under generalized preferential-selection rules between two groups of nodes and find the sensitive dependence of the resulting connectivity pattern on the model parameters. The nonlinearity of preferential selection can come from interspecific interactions among animals and among plants. The model-based analysis of real-world mutualistic networks suggests that a new animal determines its partners not only by their abundance but also under the competition with existing animal species, which leads to the stretched-exponential degree distributions of plants.

  16. Linking sediment connectivity to remotely sensed, reach-scale morphology identifies correlations between network-scale sediment regimes and local river forms and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2015-12-01

    Connectivity describes the transport between sediment sources and sinks in fluvial networks, defining source-sink relations in the domains of sediment flux, delivery times, and supplied grain sizes. Connectivity embalms both sediment deliveries to individual reaches and sediment transport regimes on the network scale, and is a central driver behind fluvial biotic and abiotic processes, and related ecosystem services. Yet, river basin management is missing quantitative tools for studying connectivity in larger fluvial networks. With the CASCADE (Catchment Sediment Connectivity and Delivery) model we recently introduced a framework that quantifies sediment deliveries from each sediment source to all the connected sinks as individual cascading processes. This allows quantifying all domains of sediment connectivity at the reach scale as well as analyzing the resulting network-scale sediment regimes. CASCADE is applicable also for very large and poorly monitored river networks. We implement CASCADE for a large river network (7500 km) in SE Asia and quantify all domains of connectivity for all reaches in the network. We derive some relevant river morphological features for a subset of reaches in the network from high resolution satellite imagery and find significant links between observed forms and sediment connectivity information derived from CASCADE. CASCADE opens up novel opportunities to clarify the link between network scale sediment regimes and local morphologic processes and forms. This is of concrete interest for river basin management because CASCADE allows to assess impacts of anthropic disturbance on river sediment regimes and to anticipate resulting changes in local fluvial processes and related eco-system services.

  17. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-06-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  18. Exploring the link between urban form and work related transportation using combined satellite image and census information: Case of the Great lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Sun, Krista

    2016-05-01

    Aspects of urban transportation have significant implications for resource consumption and environmental quality. The level of travel activity, the viability of various modes of transportation and hence the level of transportation-related emissions are influenced by the structure of cities, i.e., their urban forms. While it is widely recognized that satellite remote sensing can provide spatial information on urban land cover and land use, its effective use for understanding impacts of urban form on issues such as transportation requires that this information be integrated with relevant demographic information. A comprehensive bi-national urban database, the Great Lakes Urban Survey (GLUS), comprising all cities with populations in excess of 200,000 has been created from Landsat imagery and national census and transportation survey information from Canada and the United States. A suite of analysis tools are proposed to utilize information sets such as GLUS to investigate the link between urban form and work-related travel. A new indicator, the Employment Deficit Measure (EDM), is proposed to quantify the balance between employment and worker availability at different transit horizons and hence to assess the viability of alternate modes of transportation. It is argued that the high degree of residential and commercial/industrial land uses greatly impact travel to work mode options as well as commute distance. A spatial interaction model is developed and found to accurately predict travel distance aggregated at the census tract level. We argue that this model could also be used to explore the relative levels of travel activity associated with different urban forms.

  19. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  20. Poor competitive fitness of transgenically mitigated tobacco in competition with the wild type in a replacement series.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Galili, Shmuel; Gressel, Jonathan

    2005-10-01

    Transgenic crops can interbreed with other crop cultivars or with related weeds, increasing the potential of the hybrid progeny for competition. To prevent generating competitive hybrids, we previously tested tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) as a model for validating the transgenic mitigation (TM) concept using tandem constructs where a gene of choice is linked to mitigating genes that are positive or neutral to the crop, but deleterious to a recipient under competition. Here, we examine the efficacy of the TM concept at various ratios of transgenically mitigated tobacco in competition with the wild type tobacco in an ecological replacement series. The dwarf/herbicide-resistant TM transgenic plants cultivated alone under self-competition grew well and formed many more flowers than the tall wild type, which is an indication of greater reproductivity. In contrast to the wild type, TM flowering was almost completely suppressed in mixed cultures at most TM/wild type ratios up to 75% transgenic, as the TM plants were extremely unfit to reproduce. In addition, homozygous TM progeny had an even lower competitive fitness against the wild type than hemizygous/homozygous TM segregants. Thus, the TM technology was effective in reducing the risk of transgene establishment of intraspecific transgenic hybrids at different competitive levels, at the close spacing typical of weed populations. PMID:15931502

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  2. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  3. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  4. Adult-onset cerebello-brainstem dominant form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as multiple system atrophy: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Kotaro; Koga, Shunsuke; Aoki, Naoya; Lin, Wenlang; Suzuki, Kinuko; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-02-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder and is caused by ABCD1 mutations. A cerebello-brainstem dominant form that mainly involves the cerebellum and brainstem is summarized in a review of the literature, with autopsy-confirmed cases exceedingly rare. We report a 69-year-old White man who was diagnosed with this rare disorder and describe neuropathologic, ultrastructural and genetic analyses. He did not have adrenal insufficiency or a family history of X-ALD or Addison's disease. His initial symptom was temporary loss of eyesight at age 34 years. His major symptoms were chronic and progressive gait disorder, weakness in his lower extremities and spasticity, as well as autonomic failure and cerebellar ataxia suggesting possible multiple system atrophy (MSA). He also had seizures, hearing loss and sensory disturbances. His brain MRI showed no obvious atrophy or significant white matter pathology in cerebrum, brainstem or cerebellum. He died at age 69 years with a diagnosis of MSA. Microscopic analysis showed mild, patchy myelin rarefaction with perivascular clusters of PAS-positive, CD68-positive macrophages in the white matter most prominent in the cerebellum and occipital lobe, but also affecting the optic tract and internal capsule. Electron microscopy of cerebellar white matter showed cleft-like trilamellar cytoplasmic inclusions in macrophages typical of X-ALD, which prompted genetic analysis that revealed a novel ABCD1 mutation, p.R163G. Given the relatively mild pathological findings and long disease duration, it is likely that the observed pathology was the result of a slow and indolent disease process. We described a patient who had sporadic cerebello-brainstem dominant form of X-ALD with long clinical course, mild pathological findings, and an ABCD1 p.R163G substitution. We also review a total of 34 cases of adult-onset cerebello-brainstem dominant form of X-ALD. Although rare, X-ALD should be considered in the

  5. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  6. Serum Antibodies from a Subset of Horses Positive for Babesia caballi by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Demonstrate a Protein Recognition Pattern That Is Not Consistent with Infection

    PubMed Central

    Awinda, Peter O.; Mealey, Robert H.; Williams, Laura B. A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Packham, Andrea E.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Grause, Juanita F.; Pelzel-McCluskey, Angela M.; Chung, Chungwon; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; Kappmeyer, Lowell S.; Howe, Daniel K.; Ness, SallyAnne L.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens that cause persistent infection are of major concern to the livestock industry because of transmission risk from persistently infected animals and the potential economic losses they pose. The recent reemergence of Theileria equi in the United States prompted a widespread national survey resulting in identification of limited distribution of equine piroplasmosis (EP) in the U.S. horse population. This program identified Babesia caballi-seropositive horses using rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1)–competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), despite B. caballi being considered nonendemic on the U.S. mainland. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of RAP-1–cELISA as a single serological test to determine the infection status of B. caballi in U.S. horses. Immunoblotting indicated that sera from U.S. horses reacted with B. caballi lysate and purified B. caballi RAP-1 protein. Antibody reactivity to B. caballi lysate was exclusively directed against a single ∼50-kDa band corresponding to a native B. caballi RAP-1 protein. In contrast, sera from experimentally and naturally infected horses from regions where B. caballi is endemic bound multiple proteins ranging from 30 to 50 kDa. Dilutions of sera from U.S. horses positive by cELISA revealed low levels of antibodies, while sera from horses experimentally infected with B. caballi and from areas where B. caballi is endemic had comparatively high antibody levels. Finally, blood transfer from seropositive U.S. horses into naive horses demonstrated no evidence of B. caballi transmission, confirming that antibody reactivity in cELISA-positive U.S. horses was not consistent with infection. Therefore, we conclude that a combination of cELISA and immunoblotting is required for the accurate serodiagnosis of B. caballi. PMID:24049108

  7. Development of 2 types of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to the rinderpest virus using a monoclonal antibody for a specific region of the hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Khamehchian, S; Madani, R; Rasaee, M J; Golchinfar, F; Kargar, R

    2007-06-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) has been developed and standardized for the detection of antibodies to the rinderpest virus (RPV) in sera from cattle, sheep, and goats. The test is specific for rinderpest because it does not detect antibodies to peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). The test depends on the ability of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the hemagglutinin (H) protein of RPV to compete with the binding of RPV antibodies in the positive serum to the H protein of this virus. This MAb recognized a region from amino acids 575 to 583 on the H protein of RPV that is unique to the RPV H protein and is not present on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of PPRV. Another C-ELISA (peptide C-ELISA) was set up using this specific region as an antigen. A threshold value of 64.4% inhibition was established for the RPV C-ELISA, with 90 known RPV-negative and 30 RPV-positive serum samples. Using common serum samples, a cutoff value of 43.0% inhibition for the peptide C-ELISA was established. Based on statistical analysis, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the RPV C-ELISA, relative to those of a commercial kit, were found to be 90.00% and 103.33%, respectively. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the peptide C-ELISA were found to be 180.00% and 73.33%, respectively. Although a common MAb in 2 new C-ELISA systems was used, variation in their percent inhibition, due to the use of different antigens, was observed. Taking into consideration the difference in percent inhibition of the 2 described assays and the commercial kit (50%), it was found that the RPV C-ELISA and the peptide C-ELISA are more specific and sensitive tools than the commercial kit for assessing herd immune status and for epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:17668032

  8. Development and validation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of total plasma immunoglobulins in healthy loggerhead sea (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Amy J; Stacy, Nicole I; Jacobson, Elliott; Le-Bert, Carolina R; Nollens, Hendrik H; Origgi, Francesco C; Green, Linda G; Bootorabi, Shadi; Bolten, Alan; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of circulating plasma immunoglobulins represents a valuable diagnostic tool in human and veterinary immunology, although its application is very limited in reptile medicine to date. The objectives of our study were the development and standardization of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the measurement of total plasma immunoglobulins (Igs; both IgM and IgY) in loggerhead sea turtles (LST; Caretta caretta; n = 254) and green turtles (GT; Chelonia mydas; n = 111), the establishment of reference intervals for Ig for both species, and the examination of associations between Ig and total protein (TP), condition index, and water temperature. The cELISA for Ig was successfully developed and optimized. Reference intervals for Ig were 0.38-0.94 g/dL in LST (median: 0.59 g/dL; range: 0.16-2.15 g/dL) and 0.40-0.85 g/dL in GT (median: 0.58 g/dL; range: 0.18-1.80 g/dL). In LST, there were positive linear relationships of Ig with TP, and TP with Ig and condition index, and a negative relationship of Ig with condition index. The positive linear relationships of Ig with TP, and TP with Ig were also identified in GT. These positive associations of Ig and TP were expected, as Ig represents fractions of TP, and TP reportedly increases with straight carapace length and weight. The negative association of Ig with condition index may indicate potential biological variations. The cELISA and reference intervals for total Ig of LST and GT presented herein have the potential to be useful as a diagnostic and research tool for sea turtle immunology. PMID:26699523

  9. Deep intronic mutation in OFD1, identified by targeted genomic next-generation sequencing, causes a severe form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP23).

    PubMed

    Webb, Tom R; Parfitt, David A; Gardner, Jessica C; Martinez, Ariadna; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Davidson, Alice E; Zito, Ilaria; Thiselton, Dawn L; Ressa, Jacob H C; Apergi, Marina; Schwarz, Nele; Kanuga, Naheed; Michaelides, Michel; Cheetham, Michael E; Gorin, Michael B; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2012-08-15

    X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is genetically heterogeneous with two causative genes identified, RPGR and RP2. We previously mapped a locus for a severe form of XLRP, RP23, to a 10.71 Mb interval on Xp22.31-22.13 containing 62 genes. Candidate gene screening failed to identify a causative mutation, so we adopted targeted genomic next-generation sequencing of the disease interval to determine the molecular cause of RP23. No coding variants or variants within or near splice sites were identified. In contrast, a variant deep within intron 9 of OFD1 increased the splice site prediction score 4 bp upstream of the variant. Mutations in OFD1 cause the syndromic ciliopathies orofaciodigital syndrome-1, which is male lethal, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 and Joubert syndrome. We tested the effect of the IVS9+706A>G variant on OFD1 splicing in vivo. In RP23 patient-derived RNA, we detected an OFD1 transcript with the insertion of a cryptic exon spliced between exons 9 and 10 causing a frameshift, p.N313fs.X330. Correctly spliced OFD1 was also detected in patient-derived RNA, although at reduced levels (39%), hence the mutation is not male lethal. Our data suggest that photoreceptors are uniquely susceptible to reduced expression of OFD1 and that an alternative disease mechanism can cause XLRP. This disease mechanism of reduced expression for a syndromic ciliopathy gene causing isolated retinal degeneration is reminiscent of CEP290 intronic mutations that cause Leber congenital amaurosis, and we speculate that reduced dosage of correctly spliced ciliopathy genes may be a common disease mechanism in retinal degenerations. PMID:22619378

  10. The UV–Optical Color Gradients in Star-forming Galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.5: Origins and Link to Galaxy Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. S.; Jiang, Dongfei; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Zheng, Xianzhong; Yesuf, Hassen M.; Barro, Guillermo; Li, Yao; Li, Dingpeng; Wang, Weichen; Mao, Shude; Fang, Jerome J.

    2016-05-01

    The rest-frame UV–optical (i.e., NUV ‑ B) color index is sensitive to the low-level recent star formation and dust extinction, but it is insensitive to the metallicity. In this Letter, we have measured the rest-frame NUV ‑ B color gradients in ∼1400 large (r e > 0.″18), nearly face-on (b/a > 0.5) main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between redshift 0.5 and 1.5 in the CANDELS/GOODS-S and UDS fields. With this sample, we study the origin of UV–optical color gradients in the SFGs at z ∼ 1 and discuss their link with the buildup of stellar mass. We find that the more massive, centrally compact, and more dust extinguished SFGs tend to have statistically more negative raw color gradients (redder centers) than the less massive, centrally diffuse, and less dusty SFGs. After correcting for dust reddening based on optical-spectral energy distribution fitting, the color gradients in the low-mass (M * < 1010 M ⊙) SFGs generally become quite flat, while most of the high-mass (M * > 1010.5 M ⊙) SFGs still retain shallow negative color gradients. These findings imply that dust reddening is likely the principal cause of negative color gradients in the low-mass SFGs, while both increased central dust reddening and buildup of compact old bulges are likely the origins of negative color gradients in the high-mass SFGs. These findings also imply that at these redshifts the low-mass SFGs buildup their stellar masses in a self-similar way, while the high-mass SFGs grow inside out.

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  12. G-quadruplex structures formed by expanded hexanucleotide repeat RNA and DNA from the neurodegenerative disease-linked C9orf72 gene efficiently sequester and activate heme.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Jason C; Shumayrikh, Nisreen; Sen, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of a (G(4)C(2))n repeat within the human C9orf72 gene has been causally linked to a number of neurodegenerative diseases, most notably familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recent studies have shown that the repeat expansion alters gene function in four ways, disrupting the gene's normal cellular roles and introducing toxic gain of function at the level of both DNA and RNA. (G(4)C(2))n DNA, as well as the RNA transcribed from it, are found to fold into four-stranded G-quadruplex structures. It has been shown that the toxicity of the RNA G-quadruplexes, often localized in intracellular RNA foci, lies in their ability to sequester many important RNA binding proteins. Herein we propose that a distinct toxic property of such RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes from the C9orf72 gene may arise from their ability to bind and oxidatively activate cellular heme. We show that G-quadruplexes formed by both (G(4)C(2))(4) RNA and DNA not only complex tightly with heme but also enhance its intrinsic peroxidase and oxidase propensities. By contrast, the antisense (C(4)G(2))(4) RNA and DNA neither bind heme nor influence its oxidative activity. Curiously, the ability of C9orf72 DNA and transcripts to bind and activate heme mirror similar properties that have been reported for the Aβ peptide and its oligomers in Alzheimer's disease neurons. It is therefore conceivable that C9orf72 RNA G-quadruplex tangles play roles in sequestering intracellular heme and promoting oxidative damage in ALS and FTD analogous to those proposed for Aβ peptide and its tangles in Alzheimer's Disease. Given that neurodegenerative diseases in general are characterized by mitochondrial and respiratory malfunctions, the role of C9orf72 DNA and RNA in heme sequestration as well as its inappropriate activation in ALS and FTD neurons may warrant examination. PMID:25207541

  13. Forming trifluoromethylmetallates: competition between decarboxylation and C-F bond activation of group 11 trifluoroacetate complexes, [CF3CO2ML]-.

    PubMed

    Rijs, Nicole J; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2012-03-28

    A combination of gas-phase 3D quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to examine the mechanism of thermal decomposition of fluorinated coinage metal carboxylates. The precursor anions, [CF(3)CO(2)MO(2)CCF(3)](-) (M = Cu, Ag and Au), were introduced into the gas-phase via electrospray ionization. Multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) experiments were conducted utilizing collision-induced dissociation, yielding a series of trifluoromethylated organometallic species and fluorides via the loss of CO(2), CF(2) or "CF(2)CO(2)". Carboxylate ligand loss was insignificant or absent in all cases. DFT calculations were carried out on a range of potentially competing fragmentation pathways for [CF(3)CO(2)MO(2)CCF(3)](-), [CF(3)CO(2)MCF(3)](-) and [CF(3)CO(2)MF](-). These shed light on possible products and mechanisms for loss of "CF(2)CO(2)", namely, concerted or step-wise loss of CO(2) and CF(2) and a CF(2)CO(2) lactone pathway. The lactone pathway was found to be higher in energy in all cases. In addition, the possibility of forming [CF(3)MCF(3)](-) and [CF(3)MF](-), via decarboxylation is discussed. For the first time the novel fluoride complexes [FMF](-), M = Cu, Ag and Au have been experimentally observed. Finally, the decomposition reactions of [CF(3)CO(2)ML](-) (where L = CF(3) and CF(3)CO(2)) and [CH(3)CO(2)ML](-) (where L = CH(3) and CH(3)CO(2)) are compared. PMID:22310991

  14. Inhibition of Coxsackie B Virus Infection by Soluble Forms of Its Receptors: Binding Affinities, Altered Particle Formation, and Competition with Cellular Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Ian G.; Evans, David J.; Blom, Anna M.; Kerrigan, Dave; Miners, J. Scott; Morgan, B. Paul; Spiller, O. Brad

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that soluble decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) blocked coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis in mice, but only soluble CAR blocked CVB3-mediated pancreatitis. Here, we report that the in vitro mechanisms of viral inhibition by these soluble receptors also differ. Soluble DAF inhibited virus infection through the formation of reversible complexes with CVB3, while binding of soluble CAR to CVB induced the formation of altered (A) particles with a resultant irreversible loss of infectivity. A-particle formation was characterized by loss of VP4 from the virions and required incubation of CVB3-CAR complexes at 37°C. Dimeric soluble DAF (DAF-Fc) was found to be 125-fold-more effective at inhibiting CVB3 than monomeric DAF, which corresponded to a 100-fold increase in binding affinity as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Soluble CAR and soluble dimeric CAR (CAR-Fc) bound to CVB3 with 5,000- and 10,000-fold-higher affinities than the equivalent forms of DAF. While DAF-Fc was 125-fold-more effective at inhibiting virus than monomeric DAF, complement regulation by DAF-Fc was decreased 4 fold. Therefore, while the virus binding was a cooperative event, complement regulation was hindered by the molecular orientation of DAF-Fc, indicating that the regions responsible for complement regulation and virus binding do not completely overlap. Relative contributions of CVB binding affinity, receptor binding footprint on the virus capsid, and induction of capsid conformation alterations for the ability of cellular DAF and CAR to act as receptors are discussed. PMID:16140777

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of the surface glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: potential application to competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies in goat sera.

    PubMed

    Ozyörük, F; Cheevers, W P; Hullinger, G A; McGuire, T C; Hutton, M; Knowles, D P

    2001-01-01

    Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79-63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromatography, whereas none reacted with denatured and reduced SU. All MAbs reacted in Western blots with purified CAEV-63 SU or the SU component of whole-virus lysate following denaturation in the absence of reducing agent, indicating that intramolecular disulfide bonding was essential for epitope integrity. Peptide-N-glycosidase F digestion of SU abolished the reactivities of MAbs 74A and F7-299, whereas treatment of SU with N-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase (sialidase A) under nonreducing conditions enhanced the reactivities of all MAbs as well as polyclonal goat sera. MAbs 29A and F7-299 were cross-reactive with the SU of an independent strain of CAEV (CAEV-Co). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the reactivities of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated MAbs 16A and 29A with homologous CAEV-63 SU were <10% of that of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A. The reactivity of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A was blocked by sera from goats immunized with CAEV-63 SU or infected with CAEV-63. The reactivity of MAb 74A was also blocked by sera from goats infected with a CAEV-Co molecular clone, although MAb 74A did not react with CAEV-Co SU in Western blots. Thus, goats infected with either CAEV-63 or CAEV-Co make antibodies that inhibit binding of MAb 74A to CAEV-63 SU. A competitive-inhibition ELISA based on displacement of MAb 74A reactivity has potential applicability for the serologic diagnosis of CAEV infection. PMID:11139194

  16. Malaysian competition

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-11-01

    Two years ago, the first tentative steps were taken to privatize the Malaysian electricity supply industry with the flotation of 25 percent of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. At the same time the terms were defined for independent power generation, and plans were drawn up for six projects. Now, with six independent power producer projects under construction adding more capacity than the partly privatized TNB, the utility`s station managers are concerned they will be at a competitive disadvantage unless they can operate under the same type of power sales agreement.

  17. Interstrand cross-links are preferentially formed at the d(GC) sites in the reaction between cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and DNA.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, M A; Schwartz, A; Rahmouni, A R; Leng, M

    1991-03-01

    A DNA restriction fragment with convergent SP6 and T7 promoters has undergone reaction with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) and was then used as a template for RNA synthesis in vitro. The T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases generate fragments of defined sizes. Analysis of the RNA fragments shows that the polymerases are mainly blocked at the level of the d(GG) and d(AG) sites and to a lesser extent at the level of the d(GC) sites. The adducts at the d(GC) sites are more resistant to cyanide ion attack than those at the major sites and are identified as interstrand cross-links. The formation of an interstrand cross-link between the N-7 atoms of two guanine residues at the d(GC) sites was further confirmed by chemical modifications. PMID:2000402

  18. Crystal structure of a nucleoside model for the inter-strand cross-link formed by the reaction of 2'-de-oxy-guanosine and an abasic site in duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Michael J; Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Barnes, Charles L; Gates, Kent S

    2016-05-01

    The title compound, 9-[(2R,4S,5R)-4-hy-droxy-5-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl]-2-{[(2R,4S,5R)-4-meth-oxy-5-(meth-oxy-meth-yl)tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl]amino}-1H-purin-6(9H)-one, C17H25N5O7, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the guanosine moieties of mol-ecules A and B are linked by N-H⋯N and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, forming ribbons which are stacked to form columns along [100]. These columns are then linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the ribose moieties and numerous C-H⋯O inter-actions to complete the three-dimensional structure. PMID:27308004

  19. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  20. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  1. Autonomy Support and Its Links to Physical Activity and Competitive Performance: Mediations through Motivation, Competence, Action Orientation and Harmonious Passion, and the Moderator Role of Autonomy Support by Perceived Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Ulstad, Svein Olav; Bagoien, Tor Egil; Skjesol, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) process model in relation to involvement in physical activity and competitive performance among students (N = 190). In this model, perceived autonomy support from teachers and coaches was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation, perceived competence,…

  2. Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major surface protein 5–glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA. Three hundred and eight sera with significant MBP antibody binding (=30%I) in Anaplasma negative herds was 1...

  3. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  4. 47 CFR 1.2103 - Competitive bidding design options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive bidding design options. 1.2103... design options. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 48528, August 15, 2014. (a) The Commission will... forth as follows: § 1.2103 Competitive bidding design options. (a) Public notice of competitive...

  5. Mental retardation, acromegalic face, and megalotestes in two half-brothers: a specific form of X-linked mental retardation without fra(X) (q)?

    PubMed

    Tariverdian, G; Froster-Iskenius, U; Deuschl, G; Wolff, G

    1991-01-01

    We describe a family with two half-brothers affected with severe mental retardation. The phenotype in the affected individuals is characterized by apparent acromegaly, profound mental retardation, and hyperactivity. The mother has analogous but less severe facial anomalies and mild mental impairment. Screening for fra(X) (q) was negative in peripheral lymphocytes using methotrexate for fra(X) enhancement. The clinical findings in our patients are similar to those described by Fryns et al. [1986] in two patients with acquired lesions of the central nervous system. CT investigations in one of our patients showed areas of hyperdensity in the pontine region and a small subarachnoid cyst. The pedigree suggests X-linked inheritance. The association of apparent acromegaly, CNS anomalies, megalotestes, and mental retardation in this family supports the hypothesis that a distinct syndrome may exist with phenotype anomalies more severe than those characteristic for the Martin-Bell syndrome but without fragile X. PMID:2018059

  6. Competition in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual introduction to this issue focuses on two questions: why study competition and what is a competitive market. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Choosing Competitors." This preschool and kindergarten unit involves students in competitive games (naming colors), role playing competitive behaviors, comparing toys, and…

  7. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel. The link between water gas and ice in protostellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzl, M.; Visser, R.; Walsh, C.; Albertsson, T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Our aim is to determine the critical parameters in water chemistry and the contribution of water to the oxygen budget by observing and modelling water gas and ice for a sample of eleven low-mass protostars, for which both forms of water have been observed. Methods: A simplified chemistry network, which is benchmarked against more sophisticated chemical networks, is developed that includes the necessary ingredients to determine the water vapour and ice abundance profiles in the cold, outer envelope in which the temperature increases towards the protostar. Comparing the results from this chemical network to observations of water emission lines and previously published water ice column densities, allows us to probe the influence of various agents (e.g., far-ultraviolet (FUV) field, initial abundances, timescales, and kinematics). Results: The observed water ice abundances with respect to hydrogen nuclei in our sample are 30-80 ppm, and therefore contain only 10-30% of the volatile oxygen budget of 320 ppm. The keys to reproduce this result are a low initial water ice abundance after the pre-collapse phase together with the fact that atomic oxygen cannot freeze-out and form water ice in regions with Tdust ≳ 15 K. This requires short prestellar core lifetimes ≲0.1 Myr. The water vapour profile is shaped through the interplay of FUV photodesorption, photodissociation, and freeze-out. The water vapour line profiles are an invaluable tracer for the FUV photon flux and envelope kinematics. Conclusions: The finding that only a fraction of the oxygen budget is locked in water ice can be explained either by a short pre-collapse time of ≲0.1 Myr at densities of nH ~ 104 cm-3, or by some other process that resets the initial water ice abundance for the post-collapse phase. A key for the understanding of the water ice abundance is the binding energy of atomic oxygen on ice. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  8. Eaf5/7/3 form a functionally independent NuA4 submodule linked to RNA polymerase II-coupled nucleosome recycling

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, Dorine; Cramet, Myriam; Wang, Alice Y; Steunou, Anne-Lise; Lacoste, Nicolas; Schulze, Julia M; Côté, Valérie; Monnet-Saksouk, Julie; Piquet, Sandra; Nourani, Amine; Kobor, Michael S; Côté, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex is required for gene regulation, cell cycle progression, and DNA repair. Dissection of the 13-subunit complex reveals that the Eaf7 subunit bridges Eaf5 with Eaf3, a H3K36me3-binding chromodomain protein, and this Eaf5/7/3 trimer is anchored to NuA4 through Eaf5. This trimeric subcomplex represents a functional module, and a large portion exists in a native form outside the NuA4 complex. Gene-specific and genome-wide location analyses indicate that Eaf5/7/3 correlates with transcription activity and is enriched over the coding region. In agreement with a role in transcription elongation, the Eaf5/7/3 trimer interacts with phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and helps its progression. Loss of Eaf5/7/3 partially suppresses intragenic cryptic transcription arising in set2 mutants, supporting a role in nucleosome destabilization. On the other hand, loss of the trimer leads to an increase of replication-independent histone exchange over the coding region of transcribed genes. Taken together, these results lead to a model where Eaf5/7/3 associates with elongating polymerase to promote the disruption of nucleosomes in its path, but also their refolding in its wake. PMID:24843044

  9. Antisense Proline-Arginine RAN dipeptides linked to C9ORF72-ALS/FTD form toxic nuclear aggregates that initiate in vitro and in vivo neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xinmei; Tan, Wenzhi; Westergard, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; ShamamandriMarkandaiah, Shashirekha; Shi, Yingxiao; Lin, Shaoyu; Shneider, Neil A.; Monaghan, John; Pandey, Udai B.; Pasinelli, Piera; Ichida, Justin K.; Trotti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Expanded GGGGCC nucleotide repeats within the C9ORF72 gene are the most common genetic mutation associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Sense and antisense transcripts of these expansions are translated to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DRPs). We employed primary cortical and motor neuron cultures, live-cell imaging, and transgenic fly models and found that the arginine-rich dipeptides, in particular Proline-Arginine (PR), are potently neurotoxic. Factors that anticipated their neurotoxicity included aggregation in nucleoli, decreased number of processing bodies, and stress granules formation, implying global translational dysregulation as path accountable for toxicity. Nuclear PR aggregates were also found in human-induced motor neurons and postmortem spinal cord tissues from C9ORF72 ALS and ALS/FTD patients. Intronic G4C2 transcripts, but not loss of C9ORF72 protein, are also toxic to motor and cortical neurons. Interestingly, G4C2 transcript-mediated neurotoxicity synergizes with that of PR aggregates, suggesting convergence of mechanisms. PMID:25521377

  10. Hierarchical competitions subserving multi-attribute choice.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Laurence T; Dolan, Raymond J; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2014-11-01

    Valuation is a key tenet of decision neuroscience, where it is generally assumed that different attributes of competing options are assimilated into unitary values. Such values are central to current neural models of choice. By contrast, psychological studies emphasize complex interactions between choice and valuation. Principles of neuronal selection also suggest that competitive inhibition may occur in early valuation stages, before option selection. We found that behavior in multi-attribute choice is best explained by a model involving competition at multiple levels of representation. This hierarchical model also explains neural signals in human brain regions previously linked to valuation, including striatum, parietal and prefrontal cortex, where activity represents within-attribute competition, competition between attributes and option selection. This multi-layered inhibition framework challenges the assumption that option values are computed before choice. Instead, our results suggest a canonical competition mechanism throughout all stages of a processing hierarchy, not simply at a final choice stage. PMID:25306549

  11. Below ground competition among invading detritivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna. However, competition frequently has been suggested as an important communi...

  12. Crystal structure of a nucleoside model for the inter­strand cross-link formed by the reaction of 2′-de­oxy­guanosine and an abasic site in duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Michael J.; Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Barnes, Charles L.; Gates, Kent S.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, 9-[(2R,4S,5R)-4-hy­droxy-5-(hy­droxy­meth­yl)tetra­hydro­furan-2-yl]-2-{[(2R,4S,5R)-4-meth­oxy-5-(meth­oxy­meth­yl)tetra­hydro­furan-2-yl]amino}-1H-purin-6(9H)-one, C17H25N5O7, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the guanosine moieties of mol­ecules A and B are linked by N—H⋯N and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, forming ribbons which are stacked to form columns along [100]. These columns are then linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the ribose moieties and numerous C—H⋯O inter­actions to complete the three-dimensional structure. PMID:27308004

  13. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interference on, the other species) and in the broad sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, but can experience an increase in growth rate via interference on, the other species). Coexistence cannot occur under classical interference competition even when the species inferior at resource exploitation is superior at interference. Such a trade-off can, however, change the mechanism of competitive exclusion from dominance by the superior resource exploiter to a priority effect. Now the inferior resource exploiter can exclude the superior resource exploiter provided it has a higher initial abundance. By contrast, when interference is beneficial to the interacting species, coexistence is possible via a trade-off between exploitation and interference. These results hold regardless of whether the resource is biotic or abiotic, indicating that the outcome of exploitative and interference competition does not depend on the exact nature of resource dynamics. The model makes two key predictions. First, species that engage in costly interference mechanisms (e.g. territoriality, overgrowth or undercutting, allelopathy and other forms of chemical competition) should not be able to coexist unless they also engage in beneficial interference mechanisms (e.g. predation or parasitism). Second, exotic invasive species that displace native biota should be superior resource exploiters that have strong interference effects on native species with little

  14. Cooperation Improves Success during Intergroup Competition: An Analysis Using Data from Professional Soccer Tournaments.

    PubMed

    David, Gwendolyn Kim; Wilson, Robbie Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The benefit mutually gained by cooperators is considered the ultimate explanation for why cooperation evolved among non-relatives. During intergroup competition, cooperative behaviours within groups that provide a competitive edge over their opposition should be favoured by selection, particularly in lethal human warfare. Aside from forming larger groups, three other ways that individuals within a group can cooperate to improve their chances of gaining a mutual benefit are: (i) greater networking, (ii) contributing more effort, and (iii) dividing labour. Greater cooperation is expected to increase the chances of gaining a group benefit by improving proficiency in the tasks critical to success-yet empirical tests of this prediction using real-world cases are absent. In this study, we used data derived from 12 international and professional soccer competitions to test the predictions that: 1) greater levels of cooperative behaviour are associated with winning group contests, 2) the three forms of cooperation differ in relative importance for winning matches, 3) competition and tournament-type affect the levels of cooperation and shooting proficiency in matches, and 4) greater levels of networking behaviour are associated with increased proficiency in the most critical task linked with winning success in soccer-shooting at goal. Winners were best predicted by higher shooting proficiency, followed by greater frequencies of networking interactions within a team but unexpectedly, fewer networking partners and less division of labour. Although significant variation was detected across competitions and tournament-types, greater levels of networking behaviour were consistently associated with increased proficiency in shooting at goal, which in turn was linked with winning success. This study empirically supports the idea that intergroup competition can favour cooperation among non-relatives. PMID:26313929

  15. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  16. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  17. In Defence of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  18. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  19. Sexual and social competition: broadening perspectives by defining female roles.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2012-08-19

    Males figured more prominently than females in Darwin's view of sexual selection. He considered female choice of secondary importance to male-male competition as a mechanism to explain the evolution of male ornaments and armaments. Fisher later demonstrated the importance of female choice in driving male trait evolution, but his ideas were largely ignored for decades. As sexual selection came to embrace the notions of parent-offspring and sexual conflict, and experimental tests of female choice showed promise, females began to feature more prominently in the framework of sexual selection theory. Recent debate over this theory has centred around the role of females, not only over the question of choice, but also over female-female competition. Whereas some have called for expanding the sexual selection framework to encompass all forms of female-female competition, others have called for subsuming sexual selection within a broader framework of social selection, or replacing it altogether. Still others have argued for linking sexual selection more clearly to other evolutionary theories such as kin selection. Rather than simply debating terminology, we must take a broader view of the general processes that lead to trait evolution in both sexes by clearly defining the roles that females play in the process, and by focusing on intra- and inter-sexual interactions in males and females. PMID:22777013

  20. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes. PMID:27008785

  1. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  2. Link Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  3. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity. PMID:10187248

  4. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  5. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  6. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  7. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  8. The relative importance of seed competition, resource competition and perturbations on community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, K.; Dyke, J. G.; Pavlick, R.; Reineking, B.; Reu, B.; Kleidon, A.

    2011-05-01

    While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities. Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE (Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation), a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition. The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence. Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.

  9. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    PubMed

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants. PMID:27547325

  10. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  11. Linked Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

  12. Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, David; Morrison, William

    2003-01-01

    Our focus is the evolution of business strategies and network structure decisions in the commercial passenger aviation industry. The paper reviews the growth of hub-and-spoke networks as the dominant business model following deregulation in the latter part of the 20 century, followed by the emergence of value-based airlines as a global phenomenon at the end of the century. The paper highlights the link between airline business strategies and network structures, and examines the resulting competition between divergent network structure business models. In this context we discuss issues of market structure stability and the role played by competition policy.

  13. Utah Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Linda, Comp.

    Background materials and guidelines for secondary students and educators in Utah who wish to participate in the state-wide mock trial competition are provided. Many parts of the publication can be used by educators in other states who are using mock trials in their classrooms or who are developing a state-wide mock trial competition. The manual…

  14. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  15. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  16. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance. PMID:21524840

  17. The genes encoding gonadal and nongonadal forms of 3[beta]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/[Delta][sup 5]-[Delta][sup 4] isomerase are closely linked on mouse chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, P.A.; Meisler, M.H.; Payne, A.H. ); Taylor, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the gonads and adrenal glands requires the activities of the enzyme 3[beta]-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenanse/isomerase (3[beta]HSD) which catalyzes the NAD[sup +]-dependant dehydrogenation and subsequent [Delta][sup 5] [r arrow] [Delta][sup 4] isomerization of[Delta][sup 5]-3[beta]-hydroxysteriods to [Delta][sup 4]-3-ketosteroids. The mouse expresses four isoforms of 3[beta]HSD. 3[beta]HSD I is expressed in gonads and adrenal glands and appears to be the major steroidogenic form, 3[beta]HSDs II and III are expressed in both liver and kidneys, and 3[beta]HSD IV has been detected only in kidneys. To determine the genetic relationship between the 3[beta]HSD isoforms, the authors have mapped the chromosomal locations of the four genes by linkage analysis using gene-specific process derived from the 3[prime] untranslated regions of 3 [beta]HSD cDNA clones. The four 3[beta]HSD structural genes (Hsd3b) are closely linked within a segment of chromosome 3 that is conserved on human chromosome 1. The order of markers on Chr 3 surrounding Hsd3b is: centromere-Gba-(4.4 [+-] 2.2)-Hsd3b-(3.3 [+-] 1.9)-Tshb-(6.7 [+-] 2.7)-Amy-1. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Matrix models for quantifying competitive intransitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Werner; Soliveres, Santiago; Kryszewski, Wojciech; Maestre, Fernando T.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of intransitive competition networks in nature has been difficult because it requires a large number of pairwise competition experiments linked to observed field abundances of interacting species. Here we introduce metrics and statistical tests for evaluating the contribution of intransitivity to community structure using two kinds of data: competition matrices derived from the outcomes of pairwise experimental studies (C matrices) and species abundance matrices. We use C matrices to develop patch transition matrices (P) that predict community structure in a simple Markov chain model. We propose a randomization test to evaluate the degree of intransitivity from these P matrices in combination with empirical or simulated C matrices. Benchmark tests revealed that the methods could correctly detect intransitive competition networks, even in the absence of direct measures of pairwise competitive strength. These tests represent the first tools for estimating the degree of intransitivity in competitive networks from observational datasets. They can be applied to both spatio-temporal data sampled in homogeneous environments or across environmental gradients, and to experimental measures of pairwise interactions. To illustrate the methods, we analyzed empirical data matrices on the colonization of slug carrion by necrophagous flies and their parasitoids. PMID:25914427

  19. Competition promotes the persistence of populations in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Duan, Jinqiao; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Competition is one of the most common form in ecological systems, which plays important roles in population dynamics. However, the influences of competition on persistence of populations remain unclear when space effect is included. In this paper, we investigated a predator-prey model with competition and spatial diffusion. Based on pattern formations and time series of populations, we found that competitions induce the persistence of populations, which denies competitive exclusion principle. Moreover, we testify the robustness of these effects. Our results also suggest that space may lead to the emergence of new phenomenon in ecosystems. PMID:27460143

  20. Competition promotes the persistence of populations in ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Duan, Jinqiao; Liu, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Competition is one of the most common form in ecological systems, which plays important roles in population dynamics. However, the influences of competition on persistence of populations remain unclear when space effect is included. In this paper, we investigated a predator-prey model with competition and spatial diffusion. Based on pattern formations and time series of populations, we found that competitions induce the persistence of populations, which denies competitive exclusion principle. Moreover, we testify the robustness of these effects. Our results also suggest that space may lead to the emergence of new phenomenon in ecosystems.

  1. Competition promotes the persistence of populations in ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Duan, Jinqiao; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Competition is one of the most common form in ecological systems, which plays important roles in population dynamics. However, the influences of competition on persistence of populations remain unclear when space effect is included. In this paper, we investigated a predator-prey model with competition and spatial diffusion. Based on pattern formations and time series of populations, we found that competitions induce the persistence of populations, which denies competitive exclusion principle. Moreover, we testify the robustness of these effects. Our results also suggest that space may lead to the emergence of new phenomenon in ecosystems. PMID:27460143

  2. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    Middle Eastern Mediterranean grasslands have evolved 8000-9000 years before present (BP). These grasslands were prehistorically subject to persistent pressure from grazing domesticated animals. Grazing and competition are the central factors affecting grassland communities, linking their maintenance, productivity, and management to biodiversity and livestock production. Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean grassland is a rich source of valuable forages for grazing livestock production systems in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. Competition treatments (absence/presence of neighbors) were combined with three defoliation ( as surrogate to grazing) intensities (0%, 30% and 60%) in a factorial design. Relative interaction index (RII) was used to measure competition intensity. RII standardizes the reduction in growth of one species due to presence of neighbor species. Competition reduced grass biomass by approximately 10-15% for final and cumulative biomass. Competition role was eliminated under heavy defoliation or under harsh environmental conditions. Defoliation showed variable results on final and cumulative biomass. While heavy defoliation (60% clipping intensity) greatly reduced final grass biomass, light-moderate defoliation (30%) has increased cumulative biomass. Results showed that competition may limit the direct effect of defoliation on dominant grass species. Further, competition effect on dominant annual grasses showed positive and negative effects in relation to site productivity and best explained by a sinusoidal model. This hypothesized sinusoidal model suggests that facilitation and competition are alternatively affecting grassland communities along productivity gradient. The nature of interaction changes with changing community productivity revealing a cyclic pattern. The reflection points where interaction switches from facilitation to competition may explain the mechanism of maintaining high species diversity at intermediate level of

  3. Potential Competitive Dynamics of Acoustic Ecology.

    PubMed

    Radford, C A; Montgomery, J C

    2016-01-01

    The top predators in coastal marine ecosystems, such as whales, dolphins, seabirds, and large predatory fishes (including sharks), may compete with each other to exploit food aggregations. Finding these patchy food sources and being first to a food patch could provide a significant competitive advantage. Our hypothesis is that food patches have specific sound signatures that marine predators could detect and that acoustic sources and animal sensory capabilities may contribute to competition dynamics. Preliminary analysis shows that diving gannets have a distinct spectral signature between 80 and 200 Hz, which falls within the hearing sensitivity of large pelagic fishes. Therefore, we suggest that diving birds may contribute to the sound signatures of food aggregations, linking competition dynamics both above and below the water surface. PMID:26611047

  4. Virtual Rural Community Development: Human Links That Sustain Web Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Evans, Wayne H.; Marmet, Kathy

    Outmigration in the rural Upper Midwest prompted a group of citizens and University of South Dakota faculty to form the Center for the Advancement of Rural Communities (ARC). ARC considers how to stimulate traditionally competitive and isolated South Dakota peoples to collaborate for economic, social, educational, political, and cultural gains. As…

  5. Developing a competitive benefits program.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Offering your employees the right fringe benefits can help staff morale soar, foster loyalty, and increase the chances that a top-notch job applicant will say yes to your job offer. This article suggests practical ways to offer a competitive benefits program without breaking the bank. It includes guidance about specific benefits and suggests a dozen more extra benefits employees value and a sample cafeteria-style fringe benefits plan. Finally, the article includes guidelines about creating and using your own benefits statement with your staff; along with a model statement form you can use or adapt to your needs. PMID:15779518

  6. The characteristics of spontaneously forming physically cross-linked hydrogels composed of two water-soluble phospholipid polymers for oral drug delivery carrier I: hydrogel dissolution and insulin release under neutral pH condition.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwangwoo; Watanabe, Junji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2004-11-01

    Hydrogels bearing a phospholipid polar group, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), were prepared from two aqueous solutions of polymers, water-soluble poly[MPC-co-methacrylic acid (MA)] (PMA) and poly[MPC-co-n-butyl methacrylate (BMA)] (PMB). The hydrogel, which was formed by physical cross-linking spontaneously without any chemical reactions and/or any physical stimuli, showed a controllable insulin release through a pH change in the medium by changing the hydrogen bonds. In this study, the mechanical strength, erosion of the hydrogel caused by polymer dissociation, and the release of insulin were examined with attention to the following three parameters of the MPC polymer: molecular weight of the polymers, composition of PMA and PMB (PMA/PMB ratio), and polymer concentration inside the hydrogel. The hydrogel with the highest mechanical strength was obtained at a PMA/PMB ratio = 3/7 (v/v, by volume ratio) while the hydrogel with the slowest dissolution was obtained at a ratio of 5/5 (v/v). The release was in good match with the dissolution and followed anomalous transport for all, but the diffusion exponent n changed according to the PMA/PMB ratio. An increase in the polymer concentration inside the hydrogel caused an increase in the mechanical strength of the hydrogel. When the polymer concentration was more than 20 wt.%, the absorption of water under neutral pH condition (pH 6.8) was observed. The release of insulin was suppressed below 10% during the swelling process of the hydrogel under neutral pH condition, while release was accelerated during the erosion process of the hydrogel. The relationship between erosion of the hydrogel and the release of the insulin depended on the erosion process of the hydrogel but differed according to the PMA/PMB ratio. PMID:15489127

  7. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  8. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  9. Revising the Competitiveness Index using factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Houston, John; Harris, Paul; McIntire, Sandra; Francis, Dientje

    2002-02-01

    The Competitiveness Index is a 20-item true-false measure designed to assess the desire to win in interpersonal situations. To develop a more psychometrically sound form of the scale, 213 undergraduates were administered the original form and a modified version containing a 5-point Likert-type scale. An initial principal component analysis using a varimax rotation of the modified version yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 54.5% of the explained variance. Based on a subsequent reliability analysis. six items were dropped from the modified scale. A second analysis produced a two-factor solution accounting for 54.1% of the explained variance. Both factors (Enjoyment of Competition and Contentiousness) formed reliable subscales. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index had high internal consistency and was positively correlated with the original Competitiveness Index, the competitiveness subscales of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire, the Sports Orientation Questionnaire, and the Nach Naff measure of Need for Achievement. PMID:11899003

  10. Environmental stress, facilitation, competition, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-12-01

    The major theories regarding the combined influence of the environment and species interactions on population and community dynamics appear to conflict. Stress/ disturbance gradient models of community organization, such as the stress gradient hypothesis, emphasize a diminished role for competition in harsh environments whereas modern coexistence theory does not. Confusion about the role of species interactions in harsh environments is perpetuated by a disconnect between population dynamics theory and data. We linked theory and data using response surface experiments done in the field to parameterize mathematical, population-dynamic competition models. We replicated our experiment across two environments that spanned a common and important environmental stress gradient for determining community structure in benthic marine systems. We generated quantitative estimates of the effects of environmental stress on population growth rates and the direction and strength of intra- and interspecific interactions within each environment. Our approach directly addressed a perpetual blind spot in this field by showing how the effects of competition can be intensified in stressful environments even though the apparent strength of competition remains unchanged. Furthermore, we showed how simultaneous, reciprocal competitive and facilitative effects can stabilize population dynamics in multispecies communities in stressful environments. PMID:24597219

  11. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  12. Transatlantic link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  13. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  14. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  15. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  16. Competitive strategy for providers.

    PubMed

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market. PMID:10164226

  17. Demography and language competition.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Attempts to describe language competition and extinction in a mathematical way have enjoyed increased popularity recently. In this paper I review recent modeling approaches and, based on these findings, propose a model of reaction-diffusion type. I analyze the dynamics of interactions of a population with two monolingual groups and a group that is bilingual in these two languages. The results show that demographic factors, such as population growth or population dispersal, play an important role in the competition dynamic. Furthermore, I consider the impact of two strategies for language maintenance: adjusting the status of the endangered language and adjusting the availability of monolingual and bilingual educational resources. PMID:19943743

  18. Competitive Speech and Debate: How Play Influenced American Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartanen, Michael D.; Littlefield, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors identify competitive speech and debate as a form of play that helped democratize American citizenship for the poor, who used what they learned through the practice to advance their personal social and economic goals. In addition, this competitive activity led to the development of speech communication as an academic discipline and…

  19. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  20. Cost and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1994-11-01

    The growth of private power is part of the movement away from administrative regulation and toward competitive control of prices for electricity. Despite the substantial success of the private power industry, this process is far from complete. Utility regulators, who preside over the power purchase contracting process, are responsible for assuring that the prices which are presented to them for approval are reasonable.

  1. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  2. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  3. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  4. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  5. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  6. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  7. A Winning Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kim; Franchini, Elease

    2012-01-01

    As a high school physics teacher, Kim Geddes is constantly searching for new experiences to challenge, motivate, and engage students. Last year, she incorporated ExploraVision into the energy unit of her school's physics curriculum with the help of their media specialist (Elease Franchini). ExploraVision is a competition offered through a…

  8. Competition in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Discusses five ways (high school newspaper and yearbook advertising, summer jobs, internships, contests, and student-run advertising agencies) students can start to prepare for a career in the competitive field of advertising while still in high school and college. (SR)

  9. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  10. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062