Science.gov

Sample records for competitive energy market

  1. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  2. Real options and asset valuation in competitive energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduntan, Adekunle Richard

    The focus of this work is to develop a robust valuation framework for physical power assets operating in competitive markets such as peaking or mid-merit thermal power plants and baseload power plants. The goal is to develop a modeling framework that can be adapted to different energy assets with different types of operating flexibilities and technical constraints and which can be employed for various purposes such as capital budgeting, business planning, risk management and strategic bidding planning among others. The valuation framework must also be able to capture the reality of power market rules and opportunities, as well as technical constraints of different assets. The modeling framework developed conceptualizes operating flexibilities of power assets as "switching options' whereby the asset operator decides at every decision point whether to switch from one operating mode to another mutually exclusive mode, within the limits of the equipment constraints of the asset. As a current decision to switch operating modes may affect future operating flexibilities of the asset and hence cash flows, a dynamic optimization framework is employed. The developed framework accounts for the uncertain nature of key value drivers by representing them with appropriate stochastic processes. Specifically, the framework developed conceptualizes the operation of a power asset as a multi-stage decision making problem where the operator has to make a decision at every stage to alter operating mode given currently available information about key value drivers. The problem is then solved dynamically by decomposing it into a series of two-stage sub-problems according to Bellman's optimality principle. The solution algorithm employed is the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. The developed valuation framework was adapted for a gas-fired thermal power plant, a peaking hydroelectric power plant and a baseload power plant. This work built on previously published real options valuation

  3. Certification and brand identity for energy efficiency in competitive energy services markets

    SciTech Connect

    Prindle, W.R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-07-01

    Resource commitments for energy efficiency from electricity companies are disappearing rapidly as the regulated Integrated Resource Planning and Demand-Side Management paradigms that fostered them give way to competitive power markets in a restructuring electricity industry. While free-market advocates claim that energy efficiency needs will be taken care of by competitive energy service providers, there is no assurance that efficiency will compete effectively with the panoply of other energy-related (and non-energy-related) services that are beginning to appear in early market offerings. This paper reports the results of a feasibility study for a certification and brand identity program for energy efficiency geared to competitive power markets. Funded by the Energy Foundation, this study involved a survey and personal interviews with stakeholders, plus a workshop to further the discussion. Stakeholders include independent power marketers and energy service companies, utility affiliate power marketers and energy service companies, government agencies, trade associations, non-profit organizations, equipment manufacturers, and consultants. The paper summarizes the study's findings on such key issues as: Whether a brand identity concept has a critical mass of interest and support; how qualification and certification could work in such a program; how a brand identity could be positioned in the market; how an efficiency brand identity could co-brand with renewable power branding programs and other green marketing efforts; and the resources and components needed to make such a program work on a national scale.

  4. Real options and asset valuation in competitive energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduntan, Adekunle Richard

    The focus of this work is to develop a robust valuation framework for physical power assets operating in competitive markets such as peaking or mid-merit thermal power plants and baseload power plants. The goal is to develop a modeling framework that can be adapted to different energy assets with different types of operating flexibilities and technical constraints and which can be employed for various purposes such as capital budgeting, business planning, risk management and strategic bidding planning among others. The valuation framework must also be able to capture the reality of power market rules and opportunities, as well as technical constraints of different assets. The modeling framework developed conceptualizes operating flexibilities of power assets as "switching options' whereby the asset operator decides at every decision point whether to switch from one operating mode to another mutually exclusive mode, within the limits of the equipment constraints of the asset. As a current decision to switch operating modes may affect future operating flexibilities of the asset and hence cash flows, a dynamic optimization framework is employed. The developed framework accounts for the uncertain nature of key value drivers by representing them with appropriate stochastic processes. Specifically, the framework developed conceptualizes the operation of a power asset as a multi-stage decision making problem where the operator has to make a decision at every stage to alter operating mode given currently available information about key value drivers. The problem is then solved dynamically by decomposing it into a series of two-stage sub-problems according to Bellman's optimality principle. The solution algorithm employed is the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. The developed valuation framework was adapted for a gas-fired thermal power plant, a peaking hydroelectric power plant and a baseload power plant. This work built on previously published real options valuation

  5. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. The emerging roles of energy storage in a competitive power market: Summary of a DOE Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.P.; Falcone, P.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the workshop, {open_quotes}The Emerging Roles of Energy Storage in a Competitive Power Market,{close_quotes} which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Pleasanton, California on December 6-7, 1994. More than 70 people attended, representing government agencies, national laboratories, equipment vendors, electric utilities and other energy providers, venture capital interests, and consultants. Many types of energy storage were discussed, including electrical (batteries and superconducting magnets), mechanical (flywheels and pumped hydro), hydrogen, compressed air, and thermal energy storage. The objectives of the workshop were to communicate within the energy storage community regarding the costs, benefits, and technical status of various technology options; to explore and elucidate the evolving roles of energy storage in a more dynamic and competitive power and energy marketplace; and to discuss the optimum federal role in this area. The goals of the workshop were fully realized through knowledgeable and insightful presentations and vigorous discussion, which are summarized.

  7. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  8. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Competitiveness and potentials of UCG-CCS on the European energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, T.; Nakaten, N.; Schlüter, R.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    The world-wide coal reserves can satisfy the world's primary energy demand for several hundred years. However, deep coal deposits with seams of low thickness and structural complexity do currently not allow an economic exploitation of many deposits. Here, underground coal gasification (UCG) can offer an economical approach for coal extraction. The intended overall process relies on coal deposit exploitation using directed drillings located at the coal seam base and the subsequent in situ coal conversion into a synthesis gas. The resulting synthesis gas is used for electricity generation in a combined cycle plant at the surface. A reduction of the CO2 emissions resulting from the combined process is realized by subsequent CO2 capture and its injection into the previously gasified coal seams. The scope of the present study was the investigation of UCG-CCS competitiveness on the European energy market and the determination of the impacting factors. For that purpose, a modular model for calculation of UCG-CCS electricity generation costs was implemented and adapted to the most relevant process parameters. Furthermore, the range of energy supply coverage was estimated based on different German energy generation scenarios.

  10. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  12. Competitive Equilibrium and Classroom Pit Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffle, Bradley J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a pit-market experiment using the work of Charles A. Holt to illustrate to students the real world relevance of the competitive equilibrium concept. Explains how to set up and conduct a pit-market experiment, discusses features of the data, and provides accompanying materials. (JEH)

  13. Competition in the Training Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom, Ed.; Beddie, Francesca, Ed.; Dawe, Susan, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) commissioned six leading thinkers to offer insights into what is meant by a training market, constraints upon that market and the areas for improvement in the system which would allow consumers greater choice. These papers, along with responses and an introduction by NCVER's Managing…

  14. Marketing and nursing in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Kingma, M

    1998-01-01

    Marketing can no longer be considered vulgar commercialism. Ethically applied, marketing is in fact one of the necessary building stones and development tools for the future development of nursing. In the new competitive environment being created in health sectors to improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the nursing profession must learn to use marketing techniques to survey the needs, identify gaps in services and develop products and services that will be relevant for today's empowered consumer. PMID:9553822

  15. Nurse education in competitive markets: the case for relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P M

    1998-10-01

    Since the National Health Service reforms of the late 1980s, nurse education has been increasingly subject to market forces. This new competitive environment presents not only threat, but also challenge and opportunity. Providers of nurse education who recognize the need for market orientation and develop responsive marketing strategies will maximize their potential for market retention and growth. Traditional marketing strategies have considerable limitations for public sector services. The new and growing field of relationship marketing offers nurse education an opportunity to retain and develop profitable relationships with both internal and external markets. This paper reviews the marketing arena in nurse education and proposes context-based qualitative research to ascertain definitive constructs of service quality. Such constructs might then be rooted in a theoretical framework of service quality measurement, and be measured within the disconfirmation paradigm of relationship marketing. PMID:9887753

  16. Health plan competition in local markets.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, J M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the structure of local health insurance markets and the strategies health plans were using to respond to competitive pressures in local markets in 1996/1997. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Community Tracking Study site visits conducted between May 1996 and April 1997 in 12 U.S. markets selected to be nationally representative. STUDY DESIGN: In each site, 36 to 60 interviews on local health system change were conducted with healthcare industry informants representing health plans, providers, and purchasers. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHOD: Relevant data for this article were abstracted from standardized protocols administered to multiple respondents in each site. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the competitive threat from national plans was pervasive, local plans in most sites continued to retain strong, often dominant, positions in historically concentrated markets. In all sites, in response to purchaser pressures for stable premiums and provider choice, and the threat of entry and to plans were using three strategies to increase market share and market power: (1) consolidation/geographic expansion, (2) price competition, and (3) product line/segment diversification that focused on broad networks and open-access products. In most markets, in response to the demand for provider choice, the trend was away from ownership and exclusive arrangements with providers. CONCLUSIONS: Although local plans were moving to become full-service regional players, there was uncertainty about the abilities of all plans to sustain growth strategies at the expense of margins and organizational stability, and to effectively manage care with broad networks. PMID:10778822

  17. Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P.

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

  18. 75 FR 58293 - Promoting a Competitive Market for Capacity Reassignment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission lifts the price cap for all electric transmission customers reassigning transmission capacity based on the Commission's experience to date and a two-year study, released April 15, 2010. The removal of the price cap is intended to help facilitate the development of a market for electric transmission capacity reassignments as a competitive alternative to......

  19. The Power Scorecard: Helping consumers use the power of choice in new competitive electricity markets to choose the clean energy they want

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.; Marston, J.; Hirsh, N.; Carter, S.; Grant, W.; Smiley, S.B.

    1999-07-01

    The Pace Energy Project and the Green Group environmental organizations have developed the Power Scorecard, an environmental rating tool that ranks, on a scale of zero to ten, the relative environmental quality of electricity products. The Power Scorecard will provide consumers facing retail electricity choice with objective information on the relative environmental quality of all electricity products available in competitive retail markets. It enables consumers who value superior environmental quality to find clean electricity products. It enables service providers selling clean products, including especially those with grid connected PV supplies, to show consumers the environmental advantages of their products. Power Scorecard addresses eight environmental impact air, water and land issue based criteria. Power Scorecard scores are assigned to products based on the proportion of the product's mix provided by each generating resource. Plans are in place to apply the Power Scorecard initially to retail markets in California and Pennsylvania in 1999.

  20. Measuring competition in health care markets.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, L C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Measuring competition is increasingly important for analysis of health care markets and policies. Measurement of competition in health care is made complex by the breadth of potential issues under study, by the lack of necessary data, and by rapid changes in health care financing and delivery. This study reviews key issues in the measurement of competition and is designed to familiarize researchers and policymakers interested in competition measurement, but not steeped in its practice, with key concepts, data sources, and ways of adapting measures to fit ongoing changes in health care markets. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Attention to several key issues will strengthen measurement. Important components of successful measurement are: careful identification of the products and market areas for study; selection of Herfindahl-Hirschman or other indices to fit the issues being considered; consideration of econometric problems, like endogeneity, with common measures; and attention to the ways that current marketplace changes, like growth in managed care, affect the performance of classic measures. Data needed for constructing measures are also frequently scarce, insufficient, or both. Measurement could be improved with access to better data. PMID:11327175

  1. The role of DSM in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    The author appreciates the opportunity to participate in this NARUC conference and to offer some thoughts on the implications for demand side management (DSM) resulting from increased competition in the electricity and gas businesses. The dominant theme of almost every professional conference in both gas and electricity is that the markets are becoming increasingly competitive and furthermore that increased competition benefits customers and affords opportunities to providers of energy services. However, only part of the effects of increased competition occur through utility DSM programs. A competitive marketplace for electricity and gas would indeed have an effect on utility conservation programs and on utility customers. The following are some of the implications of a competitive market. My presentation is an explanation and defense of these five propositions. (1) Economic efficiency will be enhanced - which increases the level of economic well being of customers and increases the productivity of the U. S. economy. (2) Energy efficiency will decrease, which may also increase our level of economic well-being and economic productivity. (3) Some DSM conservation programs will end, because they fail to pass the market test of competition. Those DSM programs that contribute to the efficient use of energy resources will prosper under competition. (4) The economic well-being of lower and middle income customers will be enhanced, first, by abolishing the DSM based subsidies to high income customers and second by pricing separately the reliability of electric services. (5) Policy goals will have to be justified on their merits - which is the worst fear of some, but the best outcome as viewed by others.

  2. Financial methods in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijie

    The restructuring of electric power industry has become a global trend. As reforms to the electricity supply industry spread rapidly across countries and states, many political and economical issues arise as a result of people debating over which approach to adopt in restructuring the vertically integrated electricity industry. This dissertation addresses issues of transmission pricing, electricity spot price modeling, as well as risk management and asset valuation in a competitive electricity industry. A major concern in the restructuring of the electricity industries is the design of a transmission pricing scheme that will ensure open-access to the transmission networks. I propose a priority-pricing scheme for zonal access to the electric power grid that is uniform across all buses in each zone. The Independent System Operator (ISO) charges bulk power traders a per unit ex ante transmission access fee based on the expected option value of the generated power with respect to the random zonal spot prices. The zonal access fee depends on the injection zone and a self-selected strike price determining the scheduling priority of the transaction. Inter zonal transactions are charged (or credited) with an additional ex post congestion fee that equals the zonal spot price difference. The unit access fee entitles a bulk power trader to either physical injection of one unit of energy or a compensation payment that equals to the difference between the realized zonal spot price and the selected strike price. The ISO manages congestion so as to minimize net compensation payments and thus, curtailment probabilities corresponding to a particular strike price may vary by bus. The rest of the dissertation deals with the issues of modeling electricity spot prices, pricing electricity financial instruments and the corresponding risk management applications. Modeling the spot prices of electricity is important for the market participants who need to understand the risk factors in

  3. Essays on competition in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Salvagno, Ricardo Javier

    The first chapter shows how technology decisions affect entry in commodity markets with oligopolistic competition, like the electricity market. I demonstrate an entry deterrence effect that works through cost uncertainty. Technology's cost uncertainty affects spot market expected profits through forward market trades. Therefore, incentives to engage in forward trading shape firms' decisions on production technologies. I show that high-cost but low-risk technologies are adopted by risk-averse incumbents to deter entry. Strategic technology adoption can end in a equilibrium where high-cost technologies prevail over low-cost but riskier ones. In the case of incumbents who are less risk-averse than entrants, entry deterrence is achieved by choosing riskier technologies. The main results do not depend on who chooses their technology first. Chapter two examines the Chilean experience on auctions for long-term supply contracts in electricity markets from 2006 to 2011. Using a divisible-good auction model, I provide a theoretical framework that explains bidding behavior in terms of expected spot prices and contracting positions. The model is extended to include potential strategic behavior on contracting decisions. Empirical estimations confirm the main determinants of bidding behavior and show heterogeneity in the marginal cost of over-contracting depending on size and incumbency. Chapter three analyzes the lag in capacity expansion in the Chilean electricity market from 2000 to 2004. Regarded as a result of regulatory uncertainty, the role of delays in the construction of a large hydro-power plant has been overlooked by the literature. We argue that those delays postponed projected investment and gave small windows of opportunity that only incumbents could take advantage of. We are able to retrace the history of investments through real-time information from the regulator's reports and a simple model enables us to explain the effect of those delays on suggested and under

  4. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  5. [University clinics in the competitive hospital market].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C E; Möller, J; Hesslau, U; Bauer, M; Gabbert, T; Kremer, B

    2005-07-01

    In recent years Germany has faced a growing economization and competition among hospitals. To protect their interests hospitals have to operate similarly to other commercial businesses. Academic hospitals face difficult circumstances in this competition. They have to facilitate research and education activities which require additional financial and personnel resources but also provide maximum acute care treatment at all times. This causes additional disadvantages in terms of financial resources, compared to private hospital chains. Such examples of financial shortcomings have led to the privatization of academic research centres in Germany. An alternative strategy to privatization of academic acute care hospitals is the change of their legal status into a capital company or into a foundation, according to US experiences. Public private partnerships (PPPs) may also represent a potential alternative, as they have already produced a growing number of successful examples in the public sector in Germany. Academic acute care hospitals can also choose a strategic reorganization of their targets, similar to their privately held competitors in the market. Potential economies in scale may be achieved in areas such as medical treatment, research and personnel planning.However, it is vital that academic acute care hospitals start to act productively and also individually. This article provides a number of managerial pathways and options to maintain and strengthen operational competitiveness. PMID:15942750

  6. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  7. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  8. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv;

    2013-05-29

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  9. Effects of market position and competition on rural hospital closures.

    PubMed Central

    Succi, M J; Lee, S Y; Alexander, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dynamic effects of competition and hospital market position on rural hospital closures. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: Analysis of all rural community hospitals operating between 1984 and 1991, with the exception of sole-provider hospitals. Data for the study are obtained from four sources: the AHA Annual Surveys of Hospitals, the HCFA Cost Reports, the Area Resource File, and a hospital address file constructed by Geographic Inc. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Variables are merged to construct pooled, time-series observations for study hospitals. Hospital closure is specified as a function of hospital market position, market level competition, and control variables. Discrete-time logistic regressions are used to test hypotheses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rural hospitals operating in markets with higher density had higher risk of closure. Rural hospitals that differentiated from others in the market on the basis of geographic distance, basic services, and high-tech services had lower risks of closure. Effects of market density on closure disappeared when market position was included in the model, indicating that differentiation in markets should be taken into account when evaluating the effects of competition on rural hospital closure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that rural hospitals can reduce competitive pressures through differentiation and that accurate measures of competition in geographically defined market areas are critical for understanding competitive dynamics among rural hospitals. PMID:9018211

  10. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Andersson, B.

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such ``market barriers`` suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  11. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B. ); Andersson, B. )

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such market barriers'' suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  12. Natural gas contracts in an emerging competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-11-01

    Natural gas is being viewed by many as the fuel of the 1990s and beyond because of its environmental qualities, relatively low cost and significant domestic resource base. However, in the Fall of 1991, a group of electric utility executives met with then Deputy Secretary of Energy Henson Moore and asserted that an inability to obtain long term gas contracts meant that supplies are unreliable and construction of gas-fueled generating stations is being discouraged. This study was requested by the Deputy Secretary to address the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts and supply reliability. The relationship between supply reliability and contracts is explained in terms of the number of buyers and sellers in a market. With the appropriate state regulatory policies, utilities can contract for gas and obtain reliable supplies at competitive market prices. Public utility commissioners are encouraged to permit utilities a free choice in signing gas contracts, but to allow only competitive market prices to be reflected in allowable fuel costs.

  13. Natural gas contracts in an emerging competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is being viewed by many as the fuel of the 1990s and beyond because of its environmental qualities, relatively low cost and significant domestic resource base. However, in the Fall of 1991, a group of electric utility executives met with then Deputy Secretary of Energy Henson Moore and asserted that an inability to obtain long term gas contracts meant that supplies are unreliable and construction of gas-fueled generating stations is being discouraged. This study was requested by the Deputy Secretary to address the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts and supply reliability. The relationship between supply reliability and contracts is explained in terms of the number of buyers and sellers in a market. With the appropriate state regulatory policies, utilities can contract for gas and obtain reliable supplies at competitive market prices. Public utility commissioners are encouraged to permit utilities a free choice in signing gas contracts, but to allow only competitive market prices to be reflected in allowable fuel costs.

  14. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  15. Wind Generation in the Future Competitive California Power Market

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.

    1998-03-01

    The goal of this work is to develop improved methods for assessing the viability of wind generation in competitive electricity markets. The viability of a limited number of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development, and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using a site-specific development cost calculation and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is to develop data characterizing wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models, such as Elfin, that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission (CE C) in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, the Elfin model is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Under best guess assumptions, including prohibition of new nuclear and coal capacity, moderate increase in gas prices and some decline in

  16. The Effects of Nurse Staffing on Hospital Financial Performance: Competitive Versus Less Competitive Markets

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Damian; Neff, Donna; Al-Amin, Mona; Nogle, June; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitals facing financial uncertainty have sought to reduce nurse staffing as a way to increase profitability. However, nurse staffing has been found to be important in terms of quality of patient care and nursing related outcomes. Nurse staffing can provide a competitive advantage to hospitals and as a result better financial performance, particularly in more competitive markets Purpose In this study we build on the Resource-Based View of the Firm to determine the effect of nurse staffing on total profit margin in more competitive and less competitive hospital markets in Florida. Methodology/Approach By combining a Florida statewide nursing survey with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Area Resource File, three separate multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine the effect of nurse staffing on financial performance while accounting for market competitiveness. The analysis was limited to acute care hospitals. Findings Nurse staffing levels had a positive association with financial performance (β=3.3; p=0.02) in competitive hospital markets, but no significant association was found in less competitive hospital markets. Practice Implications Hospitals in more competitive hospital markets should reconsider reducing nursing staff, as these cost cutting measures may be inefficient and negatively affect financial performance. PMID:22543824

  17. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  18. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: "Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?" PMID:21230150

  19. Multiple Openings and Competitiveness of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, José Luis; Kujal, Praveen; Rassenti, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule are also very competitive. These results hold for both duopolies and quadropolies. PMID:27442516

  20. Multiple Openings and Competitiveness of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José Luis; Kujal, Praveen; Rassenti, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule are also very competitive. These results hold for both duopolies and quadropolies. PMID:27442516

  1. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  2. Overemphasis on Perfectly Competitive Markets in Microeconomics Principles Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roderick; Myatt, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Microeconomic principles courses focus on perfectly competitive markets far more than other market structures. The authors examine five possible reasons for this but find none of them sufficiently compelling. They conclude that textbook authors should place more emphasis on how economists select appropriate models and test models' predictions…

  3. Contribution to hospital performance: market orientation vs. marketing effort and lack of competition.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Marketing is still viewed with some skepticism by some hospital administrators who wonder if marketing is needed when the hospital is in a benign competitive environment. This research seeks to investigate the contribution of a marketing orientation to hospital performance beyond what can be achieved by merely spending money on promotion or not facing stiff competition. Findings reveal that having an authentic market orientation makes a significant contribution to a hospital's success above what can be achieved through promotional budgets and lack of competition. PMID:12569991

  4. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  5. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  6. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  7. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  8. Competitive marketing strategies. A challenge for academic practices.

    PubMed

    Sinioris, M E

    1985-01-01

    A special challenge has been presented to academic medical practices by the new healthcare environment. While increased competition for patients and resources affects all medical groups, it is the academic practices who are responsible for training the physicians of tomorrow. Not only must they sharpen their students' awareness of the new environment and teach them to incorporate effective management strategies into their practices, but they must set an example in effective management as well. The basic concepts of competitive marketing strategy, along with helpful exhibits, are presented here, and strategies for effectively maximizing position are discussed from the viewpoints of product mix, process market, and financing. PMID:10269475

  9. Wind Energy Markets, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the global market for wind energy, including a concise look at wind energy development in key markets including installations, government incentives, and market trends. Topics covered include: an overview of wind energy including the history of wind energy production and the current market for wind energy; key business drivers of the wind energy market; barriers to the growth of wind energy; key wind energy trends and recent developments; the economics of wind energy, including cost, revenue, and government subsidy components; regional and national analyses of major wind energy markets; and, profiles of key wind turbine manufacturers.

  10. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with their... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity...

  11. Developing Competitive and Sustainable Polish Generic Medicines Market

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Aim To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. Method The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Results Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. Conclusion To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines. PMID:19839067

  12. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  13. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  14. Energy market of the European union: common or segmented?

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-12-15

    The European energy market operates on the premise of open and competitive markets among its 27 member states. But the gas and electricity market dynamics and levels of competitiveness vary enormously across the EU 27. Among the issues are unequal implementation of electricity and gas directives, a lack of independent energy regulators, the absence of proper and full unbundling, and discriminatory third-party access to the infrastructure. (author)

  15. Testing Neoclassical Competitive Theory in Multilateral Decentralized Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Walrasian tatonnement has been a fundamental assumption in economics ever since Walras' general equilibrium theory was introduced in 1874. Nearly a century after its introduction, Vernon Smith relaxed the Walrasian tatonnement assumption by showing that neoclassical competitive market theory explains the equilibrating forces in "double-auction"…

  16. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generator’s cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  17. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those `necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.` The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC`s landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that

  18. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic. PMID:9270222

  19. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  20. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  1. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  2. Market competition in health care markets in the Netherlands: some lessons for England?

    PubMed

    den Exter, André P; Guy, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to establish what lessons might be available to the English health care sector following enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 from the Dutch experience of introducing market competition into health care via a mandatory health insurance scheme implemented by for-profit insurance companies. The existence of the Beveridge NHS model in England, and a Bismarckian insurance system in The Netherlands perhaps suggest that a comparison of the two countries is at best limited, and reinforced by the different Enthoven-inspired competitive models each has adopted. However, we contend that there are positive and negative issues arising from introducing competition into health care-, e.g. concerns about equity and benefits of efficiencies-which go beyond national boundaries and different systems and reflect the global paradigm shift towards the use of market forces in previously non-market areas such as health. The article examines the situation in England following the HSCA 2012 and The Netherlands following the 2006 reforms before analysing two areas of common ground: the focus in both countries on competition on quality (as opposed to price) and integrated care, which is assuming ever greater significance. We suggest that our combined insights (as a health lawyer and competition lawyer respectively) coupled with a comparative approach create a novel contribution to current calls for a wider public debate about the real role of markets in health care over and above simple characterisation as a force for good or bad. PMID:24841530

  3. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  4. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  5. Energy efficiency services: What role in a competitive environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-11-01

    If experience from other industries counts, energy services will remain the strategically critical center of the chessboard in a reconfigured electric utility market. Players who can create customized, integrated packages of customer services will be in a strong position to {open_quotes}create value{close_quotes} in a highly fragmented and competitive industry. The initial phase of disintegration is likely to be followed by period of reintegration, in which non-price services become increasing important. An overview is given on how utilities can deliver value to customers through innovative marketing strategies, leveraging existing knowledge, and the maintaining or building of infrastructure.

  6. Estimating population ecology models for the WWW market: evidence of competitive oligopolies.

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Ruth Mateos; Gimeno, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes adapting a particle filtering algorithm to model online Spanish real estate and job search market segments based on the Lotka-Volterra competition equations. For this purpose the authors use data on Internet information searches from Google Trends to proxy for market share. Market share evolution estimations are coherent with those observed in Google Trends. The results show evidence of low website incompatibility in the markets analyzed. Competitive oligopolies are most common in such low-competition markets, instead of the monopolies predicted by theoretical ecology models under strong competition conditions. PMID:23244754

  7. 75 FR 24828 - Promoting a Competitive Market for Capacity Reassignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...Based on the Commission's experience to date and a two-year study, released April 15, 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission proposes in this Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to lift the price cap for all transmission customers reassigning transmission capacity beyond October 1, 2010. The reforms proposed in this order are intended to facilitate the development of a market for capacity......

  8. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Kavita; Bennich, Peter; Cockburn, John; Doi, Naoko; Garg, Sandeep; Garnaik, S.P.; Holt, Shane; Walker, Mike; Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth; Lising, Anna; Pantano, Steve; Khare, Amit; Park, Won Young

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  9. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets. PMID:23574473

  10. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  11. Energy's role in competitiveness: Context and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.

    1990-02-01

    This study of competitiveness has three objectives. The first objective is to explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the US economy and how energy is linked to these factors. The second objective is to provide an explanation of how many individual decision makers, in responding to higher energy prices, have changed the structure of the economy. This structural change, and the effect it has had on energy use, is estimated for the US economy. A major component of these changes results from changes in US trade with other countries, which gives rise to the third objective. The third objective is to develop a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of goods in world trade. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Intellectual property rights, market competition and access to affordable antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased from around half a million in 2003 to almost 10 million in only 10 years, and will continue to increase in the coming years. Over 16 million more are eligible to start ART according to the last World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demand is also switching from the less expensive antiretrovirals (ARVs) that allowed such scale-up to newer more expensive ones with fewer side effects or those that can be used by people who have developed resistance to first-line treatment. However, patents on these new drugs can delay robust generic competition and, consequently, price reduction made possible by economies of scale. Various ways to address this issue have been envisaged or implemented, including the use of the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), systematic widespread voluntary licensing, of which the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is an example, and the application of different prices in different countries, called tiered pricing. This paper helps explain the impact of patents on market competition for ARVs and analyses various approaches available today to minimize this impact. PMID:25309984

  13. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  14. "No Change There Then!" (? ): The Onward March of School Markets and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Bernard Barker's claims that "the pendulum is swinging", in relation to school markets and competition. Barker's arguments are complex in this regard. He rejects markets and competition as a means of improving outcomes and equity, but supports some of the system features that are often associated with marketisation, such as…

  15. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  16. The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; Veldhuis, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This article puts forward the argument that the measurement of connectivity in hub-and-spoke networks has to take into account the quality and quantity of both direct and indirect connections. The NETSCAN model, which has been applied in this study, quantifies indirect connectivity and scales it into a theoretical direct connection. NETSCAN allows researchers, airports, airlines, alliances and airport regions to analyse their competitive position in an integrated way. Using NETSCAN, the authors analysed the developments on the market between northwest Europe and the United States (US) between May 2003 and May 2005. One of the most striking developments has certainly been the impact of the Air France-KLM merger and the effects of the integration of KLM and Northwest into the SkyTeam alliance on the connectivity of Amsterdam Schiphol. Direct as well as indirect connectivity (via European and North American hubs) from Amsterdam to the US increased substantially. The main reason for this increase is the integration of the former Wings and SkyTeam networks via the respective hub airports. Moreover, the extended SkyTeam alliance raised frequencies between Amsterdam and the SkyTeam hubs (Atlanta, Houston, for example), opened new routes (Cincinnati) and boosted the network between Amsterdam and France. As a result of the new routes and frequencies, Amsterdam took over Heathrow s position as the third best-connected northwest European airport to the US.

  17. The impact of competition on quality and prices in the English care homes market

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Julien; Allan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of competition on quality and price in the English care/nursing homes market. Considering the key institutional features, we use a theoretical model to assess the conditions under which further competition could increase or reduce quality. A dataset comprising the population of 10,000 care homes was used. We constructed distance/travel-time weighted competition measures. Instrumental variable estimations, used to account for the endogeneity of competition, showed quality and price were reduced by greater competition. Further analyses suggested that the negative quality effect worked through the effect on price – higher competition reduces revenue which pushes down quality. PMID:24487075

  18. The future of energy efficiency services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-12-31

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry raises fundamental strategic questions about how energy efficiency services can best be delivered. While some utilities believe that the ``commoditization`` of electric power will extinguish their role in providing efficiency services, others are committed to developing new ways of profitably delivering highly integrated service packages in a more competitive environment. In other industries that have undergone similar transitions, leading companies have prospered by developing new ``reintegration`` strategies to provide enhanced customer value. In the electric power sector, these strategies will bring to the fore finance and marketing skills, giving rise to far-reaching changes in the provision of energy services. Using market-based forward prices for electricity, power merchants may soon be able to ``monetize`` electricity savings and arbitrate against kilowatt-hour prices. Providers of efficiency services will be forced to develop new techniques for ``mass customization`` of service packages, incorporating features such as power quality management, innovative pricing, billing, and financial risk management. Technology integration will be a central task for these companies. As the transmission and distribution grid is permeated with real-time price information, the optimal technical solutions for the customer, including distributed generation, storage, and efficiency options, will become increasingly site-specific and time-dependent.

  19. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  20. [Is vocational integration in the competitive labor market a realistic goal for the chronically mentally ill?].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H

    1999-09-01

    A wide range of sheltered jobs has been created in the second or special labour market with the aim of enabling the chronically mentally ill to participate in working life. However, having a job in the special labour market often precludes the chance of obtain-ing employment in the competitive labour market. To date, vocational integration programs enable only a small number of persons with psychiatric disabilities to attain reintegration into competitive employment. The predictors of successful vocational integration are subsequently discussed. A substantial increase in both sheltered and competitive jobs on the common labour market could be achieved for mentally ill and disabled people by adapting the "supported employment" model, as widely practised in the USA, to European labour market standards and appropriately funding its implementation. The utilisation of this model could serve to reduce the necessity of further expansion in the special labour market. PMID:10535087

  1. Regulation and competition in the Taiwanese pharmaceutical market under national health insurance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price. PMID:22525716

  2. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. PMID:25064651

  3. Modeling the German energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihrig, D. F.

    2003-04-01

    It would be helpful in political discussions to get quickly and transparent assessments of the consequences of political actions on the energy market of a national economy. Computer models of any national energy market normally are written using a computer high language. But such a tool could not be transparent and the integration of actual data is complex. For this reason a transparent model concerning the German energy market was written to calculate the impact of alternative strategies of energy supply. The end energy consumption will be recorded in 4 sectors (households, low consumer, industries, traffic) and 4 service arrays (room heating, process heat, mechanical energy and light) specified for primary energy sources. To assess the primary energy requirement it is necessary to deal with more than 125 end primary energy consumption data each year. The model is based on data of the study-group of energy balances at the VDEW (Organization of German energy supplier). The data sets of the years 1993 and 1997 to 2001 are available. It is possible to define over 20 years objectives on higher energy saving in the most service arrays of each end energy consumption sector. The effects on CO2-emission of several strategies of energy saving will be calculated including commercial data and socioeconomic aspects (investment, foreign trade, energy prizes, jobs etc.). It is possible to modeling regional energy markets, too. This tool allows to assess the local impact of new strategies of energy supply on the regional economics. Of course regional calculations work with lower precision because several data have to be estimated. The model calculates over 40 years. It's possible to have a time lag and to calculate the time after realizing the objectives. The typical phases of realizing social objectives are modeled. The model is written using the tabular calculation program EXCEL. This makes the model very transparent. It is not necessary to be a computer programmer to

  4. Marketing Schools: Consumer Goods and Competitive Incentives for Consumer Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Effective school-choice plans depend on the quality of information available to families. Examining the promotional materials provided by different schools in a highly competitive and diverse urban area tells us not only about the quality of that information but also how schools respond to competitive incentives. This analysis outlines an economic…

  5. Regions in Energy Market Models

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  6. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  7. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  8. Incentives for School Diversification: Competition and Promotional Patterns in Local Education Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Reforms using market-style mechanisms of parental choice and competition between schools are intended to leverage change by compelling schools to diversify options and increase effectiveness. Yet, some research challenges those assumptions, suggesting that schools in competitive climates are more likely to focus on image management to attract a…

  9. Building a Marketing Curriculum to Support Courses in Social Entrepreneurship and Social Venture Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Curren, Mary T.; Harich, Katrin R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the implications of the increased popularity of social enterprise programs and social venture competitions for the marketing curriculum. Social enterprise programs and competitions are often offered outside the school of business and target students from a variety of academic backgrounds. Although social enterprises use…

  10. A Critical Analysis of Concentration and Competition in the Indian Pharmaceutical Market

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Aashna; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Selvaraj, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It can be argued that with several players marketing a large number of brands, the pharmaceutical market in India is competitive. However, the pharmaceutical market should not be studied as a single market but, as a sum total of a large number of individual sub-markets. This paper examines the methodological issues with respect to defining the relevant market involved in studying concentration in the pharmaceutical market in India. Further, we have examined whether the Indian pharmaceutical market is competitive. Methods Indian pharmaceutical market was studied using PharmaTrac, the sales audit data from AIOCD-AWACS, that organises formulations into 5 levels of therapeutic classification based on the EphMRA system. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used as the indicator of market concentration. We calculated HHI for the entire pharmaceutical market studied as a single market as well as at the five different levels of therapeutic classification. Results and Discussion Whereas the entire pharmaceutical market taken together as a single market displayed low concentration (HHI = 226.63), it was observed that if each formulation is defined as an individual sub-market, about 69 percent of the total market in terms of market value displayed at least moderate concentration. Market should be defined taking into account the ease of substitutability. Since, patients cannot themselves substitute the formulation prescribed by the doctor with another formulation with the same indication and therapeutic effect, owing to information asymmetry, it is appropriate to study market concentration at the narrower levels of therapeutic classification. PMID:26895269

  11. A Diagnostic Technique for Formulating Market Strategies in Higher Education Based on Relative Competitive Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; Quazi, Hesan A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance-performance analysis, a marketing research technique using analysis of consumer attitudes toward salient product or service attributes, is found useful for colleges and universities in developing marketing strategies, particularly when competition is considered as an important dimension. Data are drawn from a survey of 252 students at 1…

  12. Market Competition, Public Good and Institutional Governance: Analyses of Portugal's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the market as a regulatory tool for the public sector and the promotion of competition among institutions are based upon the idea that they promote institutions' responsiveness to society and a more efficient use of public funds. However, autonomous institutions forced to compete under market-like conditions may follow strategies…

  13. Market Competition in Upper Secondary Education: Perceived Effects on Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Ulf; Holm, Ann-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    The development and expansion of market solutions is one of the most important changes in Swedish education in the last 30 years. The aim of the article is to describe and analyse how students and staff in upper secondary schools perceive the impact of market competition on teachers' work. Three groups of actors in two Swedish regions were…

  14. Control & competition square off for primacy in the uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Who dominates? Who competes? How level is the playing field? And how free is the free market? Of more than academic interest, these questions are being thrashed out by a bevy of market participants. But resolution is no dainty game of croquet; it looks more like a rugby scrum. So grab your binoculars and let the games begin.

  15. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  16. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    decoupled and assumed to be fixed during the reactive power dispatch procedures; however, the effect of reactive power on real power is considered in the model by calculating the required reduction in real power output of a generator due to an increase in its reactive power supply. In this case, real power generation is allowed to be rescheduled, within given limits, from the already dispatched levels obtained from the energy market clearing process. The proposed dispatch model achieves the main objective of an ISO in a competitive electricity market, which is to provide the required reactive power support from generators at least cost while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models capture both the technical and economic aspects of power system operation in competitive electricity markets; however, from an optimization point of view, these models represent non-convex mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems due to the presence of binary variables associated with the different regions of reactive power operation in a synchronous generator. Such MINLP optimization problems are difficult to solve, especially for an actual power system. A novel Generator Reactive Power Classification (GRPC) algorithm is proposed in this thesis to address this issue, with the advantage of iteratively solving the optimization models as a series of non-linear programming (NLP) sub-problems. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models are implemented and tested on the CIGRE 32-bus system, with several case studies that represent different practical operating scenarios. The developed models are also compared with other approaches for reactive power provision, and the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed model. The results clearly reveal the main features of the proposed models for optimal provision of reactive power ancillary service, in order to suit the requirements of

  17. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362 (Mar. 29, 2010... Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,281 (2008...., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28,...

  18. Determining firms׳ utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka-Volterra models.

    PubMed

    Marasco, A; Picucci, A; Romano, A

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963-2000) and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998-2007). In addition, we estimate monthly data on market shares for both markets. We show how this data can be used to derive firms' utility functions and their competitive roles. PMID:27054182

  19. Determining firms׳ utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka–Volterra models

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, A.; Picucci, A.; Romano, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963–2000) and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998–2007). In addition, we estimate monthly data on market shares for both markets. We show how this data can be used to derive firms’ utility functions and their competitive roles. PMID:27054182

  20. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  1. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  2. Retaining and attracting large customers in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Solger, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes marketing and customer satisfaction in the electric power industry and the experiences of Wal-Mart stores. Customer service, reliability, working relationships, and customer knowledge are discussed.

  3. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  4. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms. PMID:16198035

  5. State of competition in gasoline marketing. The effects of refiner operation at retail (a study required by Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.B.; Fenili, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act requires the Secretary of Energy to report to the Congress on the extent to which producers, refiners, and other suppliers of motor fuel subsidize the sale of such fuel at retail or wholesale with profits obtained from other operations. This is Part I of the report required under that Title. It addresses a number of questions relating to the central issue - the state of competition in the gasoline marketing industry. Part II of the report, to be issued this fall, will discuss the subpoenaed documents of nine integrated companies, and will contain recommendations for action, if deemed necessary. The basic thrust of Part I is an examination of three issues: (1) Are integrated refiners subsidizing their company operated gasoline retail outlets; (2) Are integrated refiners moving gasoline away from their branded dealer network into their own retail outlets; and (3) Are integrated refiners manipulating the allocation system in favor of their own retail outlets to the detriment of other gasoline marketers. At a series of regional hearings, independent marketers charged that integrated refiners were engaging in each of these practices. In essence, integrated refiners were portrayed as using unfair or illegal competitive practices which would ultimately lead to their domination of retail gasoline markets. This report addresses each allegation, after providing a historical and theoretical framework for today's debate.

  6. Market Competitiveness Evaluation of Mechanical Equipment with a Pairwise Comparisons Hierarchical Model

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description of how market competitiveness evaluations concerning mechanical equipment can be made in the context of multi-criteria decision environments. It is assumed that, when we are evaluating the market competitiveness, there are limited number of candidates with some required qualifications, and the alternatives will be pairwise compared on a ratio scale. The qualifications are depicted as criteria in hierarchical structure. A hierarchical decision model called PCbHDM was used in this study based on an analysis of its desirable traits. Illustration and comparison shows that the PCbHDM provides a convenient and effective tool for evaluating the market competitiveness of mechanical equipment. The researchers and practitioners might use findings of this paper in application of PCbHDM. PMID:26783751

  7. Market Competitiveness Evaluation of Mechanical Equipment with a Pairwise Comparisons Hierarchical Model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description of how market competitiveness evaluations concerning mechanical equipment can be made in the context of multi-criteria decision environments. It is assumed that, when we are evaluating the market competitiveness, there are limited number of candidates with some required qualifications, and the alternatives will be pairwise compared on a ratio scale. The qualifications are depicted as criteria in hierarchical structure. A hierarchical decision model called PCbHDM was used in this study based on an analysis of its desirable traits. Illustration and comparison shows that the PCbHDM provides a convenient and effective tool for evaluating the market competitiveness of mechanical equipment. The researchers and practitioners might use findings of this paper in application of PCbHDM. PMID:26783751

  8. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  9. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  10. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  11. Choice, Competition, and Segregation in a United Kingdom Urban Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris

    2009-01-01

    There has been a great deal of research into school choice and the education quasi-market that has dominated compulsory school provision in the United Kingdom since the early 1980s. Much of this research fails to address the context in which processes of choice exist alongside the patterns and outcomes of choice and competition, leading to…

  12. Competitive Incentives and the Education Market: How Charter Schools Define Themselves in Metropolitan Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers often advance charter schools as an education reform model that can offer more diverse educational alternatives for families. Yet, as these schools compete for students, questions arise about how they respond to the competitive incentives in differentiating themselves through marketing distinct options for learners. The way these…

  13. Students' Use of Extra-Curricular Activities for Positional Advantage in Competitive Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of mass higher education, competition between graduates in the labour market is increasing. Students are aware that their degree will not guarantee them a job and realise they should add value and distinction to their credentials to achieve a positional advantage. Participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) is one such…

  14. Exploring Market and Competitive Intelligence Research as a Source for Enhancing Innovation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of Competitive and Market Intelligence (CI/MI) Research as a potential source for improving the innovation capability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) leading to successful new product/services/processes/capabilities development (Cooper & Edgett, 2002). This report highlights the…

  15. Changing Facets of Korean Higher Education: Market Competition and the Role of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunwoong; Lee, Ju-Ho

    2006-01-01

    During the past several decades, the Korean higher education sector has experienced tremendous expansion, while the quality of teaching and research has not improved very much. Despite the fact that higher education had to rely on the private sector for most of its finance and provision, market competition among higher education institutions has,…

  16. Market competition and quality of care in the nursing home industry.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Katie Baker; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Mor, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Poor quality nursing home care is a problem in the United States, a problem that threatens the lives and well-being of one of our most vulnerable populations. The competitive structure of the nursing home market may influence the strategies and behaviors nursing homes pursue to capture the resources they need to operate. The goal of this study was to determine whether nursing home quality is related to the level and type of competition present in the market. This study specifically examined whether or not a relationship exists between structural, process, and outcome quality indicators, and (1) the availability of nursing home substitutes, (2) the threat of market entry, (3) the presence of rivalry in the market, and (4) the relationship between the nursing homes and their buyers and suppliers. This study examined secondary data from the Minimum Data Set Plus (MDS +), the On-line Survey Certification of Automated Records (OSCAR), the Area Resource File (ARF), and the Medicaid Reimbursement Survey. Weighted least squares regression analysis was utilized to estimate the relationships between the quality indicators and the different aspects of competition. This study found that some forms of competition are significantly related to nursing home quality performance. The availability of nursing home substitutes, the presence of active certificate of need laws, and the level of excess demand are associated with nursing home quality. PMID:18972979

  17. "Every Kid Is Money": Market-Like Competition and School Leader Strategies in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary aims of choice policies is to introduce competition between schools. When parents can choose where to send their children, there is pressure on schools to improve to attract and retain students. However, do school leaders recognize market pressures? What strategies do they use in response? This study examines how choice creates…

  18. Energy Imbalance Markets (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    The anticipated increase in variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, over the next several years has raised concerns about how system operators will maintain balance between electricity production and demand in the Western Interconnection, especially in its smaller balancing authority areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. Meanwhile, uncertainties about future load growth and challenges siting new transmission and generation resources may add additional stresses on the Western Interconnection of the future. One proposed method of addressing these challenges is an energy imbalance market (EIM). An EIM is a means of supplying and dispatching electricity to balance fluctuations in generation and load. It aggregates the variability of generation and load over multiple balancing areas (BAs).

  19. A bid solicitation and selection method for developing a competitive spot priced electric market

    SciTech Connect

    Ancona, J.J.

    1997-05-01

    The electric utility industry is in the beginning throes of a transformation from a cost-based regulated structure to a more market based less regulated system. Traditional unit commitment and economic dispatch methodologies can continue to provide reliable least-cost solutions, providing they are modified to accommodate a larger sphere of market participants. This paper offers a method for an entity such as an Independent System Operator (ISO) to solicit and evaluate bids for developing a spot priced electric market by replicating existing utility practices that are effective and efficient, while creating an open and equitable competitive marketplace for electricity.

  20. Competitive strategy in turbulent healthcare markets: an analysis of financially effective teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, J

    1998-01-01

    As the healthcare marketplace, characterized by declining revenues and heavy price competition, continues to evolve toward managed care, teaching hospitals are being forced to act more like traditional industrial organizations. Profit-oriented behavior, including emphases on market strategies and competitive advantage, is now a necessity if these hospitals are going to survive the transition to managed care. To help teaching hospitals evaluate strategic options that maximize financial effectiveness, this study examined the financial and operating data for 100 major U.S. teaching hospitals to determine relationships among competitive strategy, market environment, and financial return on invested capital. Results should help major hospitals formulate more effective strategies to combat environmental turbulence. PMID:10338929

  1. The Influence of Hospital Market Competition on Patient Mortality and Total Performance Score.

    PubMed

    Haley, Donald Robert; Zhao, Mei; Spaulding, Aaron; Hamadi, Hanadi; Xu, Jing; Yeomans, Katelyn

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 launch of Medicare Value-Based Purchasing has become the platform for payment reform. It is a mechanism by which buyers of health care services hold providers accountable for high-quality and cost-effective care. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between quality of hospital care and hospital competition using the quality-quantity behavioral model of hospital behavior. The quality-quantity behavioral model of hospital behavior was used as the conceptual framework for this study. Data from the American Hospital Association database, the Hospital Compare database, and the Area Health Resources Files database were used. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effect of hospital competition on patient mortality. Hospital market competition was significantly and negatively related to the 3 mortality rates. Consistent with the literature, hospitals located in more competitive markets had lower mortality rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The results suggest that hospitals may be more readily to compete on quality of care and patient outcomes. The findings are important because policies that seek to control and negatively influence a competitive hospital environment, such as Certificate of Need legislation, may negatively affect patient mortality rates. Therefore, policymakers should encourage the development of policies that facilitate a more competitive and transparent health care marketplace to potentially and significantly improve patient mortality. PMID:27455368

  2. 77 FR 47383 - Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...The Commission is required to report annually to Congress on the status of competition in markets for the delivery of video programming. This document solicits data, information, and comment on the status of competition in the market for the delivery of video programming for the Commission's Fifteenth Report (15th Report). The 15th Report will provide updated information and metrics regarding......

  3. Competitive helping increases with the size of biological markets and invades defection.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2011-07-21

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals remains a puzzle in evolutionary biology. Recent work indicates that partner choice can select for high levels of helping. More generally, helping can be seen as but one strategy used to compete for partners within a broader biological market, yet giving within such markets has received little mathematical investigation. In the present model, individuals help others to attract attention from them and thus receive a larger share of any help actively or passively provided by those others. The evolutionarily stable level of helping increases with the size of the biological market and the degree of partner choice. Furthermore, if individuals passively produce some no-cost help to partners, competitive helping can then invade populations of non-helpers because helpers directly benefit from increasing their access to potential partners. This framework of competitive helping demonstrates how high helping can be achieved and why different populations may differ in helping levels. PMID:21550351

  4. Competition in hospital and health insurance markets: a review and research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, M A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the empirical literature on the effects of selective contracting and hospital competition on hospital prices, travel distance, services, and quality; to review the effects of managed care penetration and competition on health insurance premiums; and to identify areas for further research. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Selective contracting has allowed managed care plans to obtain lower prices from hospitals. This finding is generalizable beyond California and is stronger when there is more competition in the hospital market. Travel distances to hospitals of admission have not increased as a result of managed care. Evidence on the diffusion of technology in hospitals and the extent to which hospitals have specialized as a result of managed care is mixed. Little research on the effects on quality has been undertaken, but preliminary evidence suggests that hospital quality has not declined and may have improved. Actual mergers in the hospital market have not affected hospital prices. Much less research has been focused on managed care markets. Greater market penetration and greater competition among managed care plans are associated with lower managed care premiums. Greater HMO penetration appears to be much more effective than PPO penetration in leading to lower premiums. While workers are willing to change plans when faced with higher out-of-pocket premiums, there is little evidence of the willingness of employers to switch plan offerings. Preliminary evidence suggests that greater managed care penetration has led to lower overall employer premiums, but the results differ substantially between employers with and without a self-insured plan. CONCLUSIONS: Much more research is needed to examine all aspects of managed care markets. In hospital markets, particular attention should be focused on the effects on quality and technology diffusion. PMID:11327174

  5. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362... opportunity for comment on issues related to the March 18, 2010 NOPR, 75 FR 15362 (March 29, 2010), regarding... Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC...

  6. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  7. A Dynamic Competition Simulation for Worldwide Big-size TV Market Using Lotka-Volterra Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu-Tung Terry; Li, Yiming; Hung, Chih-Young

    2009-08-01

    Technological innovation is characterized by the substitution of new technologies for full-fledged ones in the development of new products, processes and techniques. Global TV market is seeing a price down-spiral for FPD(Flat Panel Display)-TVs, replacement of CRT by LCD, and consumer's defection to larger screen. The LCD-TV market started in Japan from 2003 and took off globally from 2005. LCD panel production is moving toward larger sizes. In the 35″-39″ size market, the price/performance ratio of LCD-TV is better than that of PDP. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the demand function of worldwide big-size (35″-39″) TVs including LCD and PDP with an explicit consideration of market competition. The demand function was estimated using Lotka-Volterra model, a famous competitive diffusion model. The results exhibit a kind of predator-prey relationship, in which the PDP market was hunted by LCD product. In addition, the coefficients of difference equations of Lotka-Volterra model in this analysis are also used to forecast the future market of the big-size LCD and PDP.

  8. Getting the product right: how competition policy can improve health care markets.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2014-06-01

    As hospital, physician, and health insurance markets consolidate and change in response to health care reform, some commentators have called for vigorous enforcement of the federal antitrust laws to prevent the acquisition and exercise of market power. In health care, however, stricter antitrust enforcement will benefit consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. This article directs policy makers to a neglected dimension of health care competition that has been altered by regulation: the product. Competition may have failed to significantly lower costs, increase access, or improve quality in health care because we have been buying and selling the wrong things. Competition policy makers-meaning both antitrust enforcers and regulators-should force the health care industry to define and market products that can be assembled and warranted to consumers while keeping emerging sectors such as mHealth free from overregulation, wasteful subsidy, and appropriation by established insurer and provider interests. PMID:24841884

  9. Managerial implications of corporate board involvement and perceived market competition for quality improvement in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, R; Zinn, J S; Brannon, D

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among corporate board involvement, total quality management (TQM) adoption, perceived market competition, and the perceived effect of quality improvement (QI) activities for a sample of nursing homes in Pennsylvania. The findings of this study have several implications for healthcare managers interested in maximizing the effectiveness of QI efforts. Board involvement in quality improvement was an important predictor of QI outcomes in the areas of finance, resident care, and human resources. However, TQM adoption had a positive effect on human resources outcomes only. These findings suggest that board involvement in any organized form of QI may be more important than the adoption of a formal TQM program in the nursing home industry. TQM's emphasis on employee empowerment may account for its positive influence on human resources. Perceived competition was associated with better financial outcomes. Low-cost leadership can be a key to survival in more competitive markets, requiring a focus on efficiency and productivity issues in QI efforts. By focusing on process improvement, the facilities may achieve cost reductions that can result in an improved financial position. Facilities perceived to be in more competitive environments were also more likely to adopt TQM. This is consistent with the assertion by resource-dependence theorists that organizations facing competition for resources must be responsive to the needs of resource-providing constituencies. PMID:10621141

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Boosting U.S. Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-14

    Clean energy manufacturing is booming in the United States. U.S. clean energy investment topped $51 billion in 2014 alone, and even more growth is expected in the $250 billion clean energy market worldwide in coming years. America has an important opportunity to continue growing clean energy manufacturing industries, along with the high quality jobs and stronger local economies that come with them.

  11. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  12. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  13. The Influence of Information Acquisition on the Complex Dynamics of Market Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhanbing; Ma, Junhai

    In this paper, we build a dynamical game model with three bounded rational players (firms) to study the influence of information on the complex dynamics of market competition, where useful information is about rival’s real decision. In this dynamical game model, one information-sharing team is composed of two firms, they acquire and share the information about their common competitor, however, they make their own decisions separately, where the amount of information acquired by this information-sharing team will determine the estimation accuracy about the rival’s real decision. Based on this dynamical game model and some creative 3D diagrams, the influence of the amount of information on the complex dynamics of market competition such as local dynamics, global dynamics and profits is studied. These results have significant theoretical and practical values to realize the influence of information.

  14. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  15. The impact of competition among health care financing authorities on market yields and issuer interest expenses.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Patrick M; Carpenter, Caryl E; Saunders, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The main source of capital for non-for-profit health care organizations is tax-exempt municipal bonds. The tax-exempt nature of this debt requires that they be issued through financing authorities, which are run by, or affiliated with, state or local government agencies. In some states, all tax-exempt health care bonds must be issued through a single financing authority, but in other states the issuing health care organization has a choice of multiple authorities. Using a Herfindahl index of issuer concentration, prior research has found that greater competition among authorities results in lower interest costs to the issuing health care organization. We pick up where this earlier study left off, examining the links between authority competition, the interest expenses to the issuer, and the yield to the market investor. Although our analysis of all hospital bonds issued between 1994 and 2002 corroborates earlier findings with regard to interest expenses to the issuing health care organization, we also find market yield is lower for statewide authorities where issuer concentration is lower. Thus, authority competition is good from the issuers' point of view, but holds no favor in the investors' eyes. On the other hand, the lower market yield associated with statewide authorities does not make its way down to the issuer in the form of lower interest costs. To help sort through this paradox, we explore our findings through interviews of executives in state issuing authorities. PMID:22043646

  16. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Schweiger, U; Pellerin, L; Hubold, C; Oltmanns, K M; Conrad, M; Schultes, B; Born, J; Fehm, H L

    2004-04-01

    The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in the organism. It is separated from the general circulation by the blood-brain barrier, has high energy consumption and a low energy storage capacity, uses only specific substrates, and it can record information from the peripheral organs and control them. Here we present a new paradigm for the regulation of energy supply within the organism. The brain gives priority to regulating its own adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. In that postulate, the peripheral energy supply is only of secondary importance. The brain has two possibilities to ensure its energy supply: allocation or intake of nutrients. The term 'allocation' refers to the allocation of energy resources between the brain and the periphery. Neocortex and the limbic-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) system control the allocation and intake. In order to keep the energy concentrations constant, the following mechanisms are available to the brain: (1) high and low-affinity ATP-sensitive potassium channels measure the ATP concentration in neurons of the neocortex and generate a 'glutamate command' signal. This signal affects the brain ATP concentration by locally (via astrocytes) stimulating glucose uptake across the blood-brain barrier and by systemically (via the LHPA system) inhibiting glucose uptake into the muscular and adipose tissue. (2) High-affinity mineralocorticoid and low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors determine the state of balance, i.e. the setpoint, of the LHPA system. This setpoint can permanently and pathologically be displaced by extreme stress situations (chronic metabolic and psychological stress, traumatization, etc.), by starvation, exercise, infectious diseases, hormones, drugs, substances of abuse, or chemicals disrupting the endocrine system. Disorders in the 'energy on demand' process or the LHPA-system can influence the allocation of energy and in so doing alter the body mass of the organism. In summary, the presented

  17. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  18. Effective market transformation from energy centers

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.; Fountain, M.; Hydelman, M.; Grundon, T.; Benton, C.C.

    1998-07-01

    In this decade, several energy centers, such as PG and E's Pacific Energy Center in San Francisco have played a particularly interesting role in educating building professionals and utility customers about energy-efficient design and technologies. Energy centers' upstream and mid-market efforts have evolved as practical, effective, and less expensive adjuncts or alternatives to promoting energy efficiency through downstream financial incentives. The centers' roles fit especially well in the context of a nascent deregulated gas and electric marketplace and its multiple market actors. Although California's centers differ in focus and objectives, they serve the common function of technology transfer and provide access to reliable information that balances the opportunism, and even recidivism, the evolving energy marketplace may create. Energy centers can be well-positioned to influence the flow of information among actors in an inherently chaotic, yet rich, building market. In this market, research institutions will continue to evolve new energy-efficient technologies; manufacturers will continue to search for new applications for their products; ESCO's will search for new energy efficiency services to promote; building design professionals will continue to have a pronounced effect on the market penetration of new technologies by adopting (or not adopting) energy-efficient products and practices. Equally important, end-users will continue to want unbiased information about energy-efficiency. This paper summarizes six year's experience with an energy center centered on a public good/energy conservation mission strategically targeted to building professionals. This approach facilitates and rationalizes the movement of information among market actors to transform the marketplace and accelerate implementation of energy efficiency.

  19. Organizing for Effective Marketing Communications in Higher Education: Restructuring for Your Competitive Edge in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Gene C.; Smith, Rick J.

    1999-01-01

    Suggestions for restructuring marketing efforts within colleges and universities stress the institution's primary profit center: student recruitment and retention. Techniques such as continuous quality improvement and implementation of a task force concept are recommended as a way of synergistically employing all the institution's assets and…

  20. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  1. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation) have failed to file their...

  2. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Fehm, H L; Kern, W; Peters, A

    2006-01-01

    Although the brain constitutes only 2% of the body mass, its metabolism accounts for 50% of total body glucose utilization. This delicate situation is aggravated by the fact that the brain depends on glucose as energy substrate. Thus, the contour of a major problem becomes evident: how can the brain maintain constant fluxes of large amounts of glucose to itself in the presence of powerful competitors as fat and muscle tissue. Activity of cortical neurons generates an "energy on demand" signal which eventually mediates the uptake of glucose from brain capillaries. Because energy stores in the circulation (equivalent to ca. 5 g glucose) are also limited, a second signal is required termed "energy on request"; this signal is responsible for the activation of allocation processes. The term "allocation" refers to the activation of the "behavior control column" by an input from the hippocampus-amygdala system. As far as eating behavior is concerned the behavior control column consists of the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH) and periventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN represents the central nucleus of the brain's stress systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Activation of the sympatico-adrenal system inhibits glucose uptake by peripheral tissues by inhibiting insulin release and inducing insulin resistance and increases hepatic glucose production. With an inadequate "energy on request" signal neuroglucopenia would be the consequence. A decrease in brain glucose can activate glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) with the release of orexigenic peptides which stimulate food intake. If the energy supply of the brain depends on activation of the LH rather than on increased allocation to the brain, an increase in body weight is evitable. An increase in fat mass will generate feedback signals as leptin and insulin, which activate the arcuate nucleus. Activation of arcuate nucleus in turn will

  3. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is issuing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) proposing an approach for compensating demand response resources in order to improve the competitiveness of organized wholesale energy markets and thus ensure just and reasonable wholesale rates. The Commission invites all interested persons to submit comments in response to the regulatory text proposed......

  4. Energy's role in international trade: Structural changes and competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The role of energy in the competitive position of US goods in foreign trade is the topic of this study. It is obvious that energy is important in US trade because we import and export energy commodities. It is less obvious, but true, that energy plays an indirect role in trade because the energy embodied in traded goods is an element of their costs. The objective of this report is to identify how important energy is in the production of domestic goods, the role of energy in US trade, and how energy use and the structure of the economy have changed over time. Subsequent reports in this study will examine the role of energy in US trade with other countries. This first report was motivated by four objectives: understand the changes in the structure of the US economy that result from higher energy prices and other economic shocks, assess the effects of these structural changes on US energy use, present a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of US goods in world trade, and explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the economy, and how energy is linked to these factors. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Should utility incumbents be able to extend their brand name to competitive retail markets? An economic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, J.R.; Clements, M.E.

    1998-06-01

    As retail competition begins, at least for the short run, there should be policy restrictions on an incumbent utility`s ability to extend its brand to an affiliated marketer. However, a utility-affiliated marketer should be permitted to compete in a newly deregulated market using a generic or self-developed brand name. If extending a brand name from an incumbent utility to an affiliated marketer does in fact create real barriers to entry in the retail market, competition will be crippled in this market and consumers will suffer. More important, deregulation will appear to have failed in the electric power market--a consequence with effects reaching past the electricity industry to other industries considering deregulation as a viable policy choice. However, if real barriers to entry are not erected by this type of brand name extension, the industry may suffer from lower quality products, less service, and reduced innovation if policymakers prohibit brand name extension.

  6. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  7. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  8. Fuzzy inference game approach to uncertainty in business decisions and market competitions.

    PubMed

    Oderanti, Festus Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    The increasing challenges and complexity of business environments are making business decisions and operations more difficult for entrepreneurs to predict the outcomes of these processes. Therefore, we developed a decision support scheme that could be used and adapted to various business decision processes. These involve decisions that are made under uncertain situations such as business competition in the market or wage negotiation within a firm. The scheme uses game strategies and fuzzy inference concepts to effectively grasp the variables in these uncertain situations. The games are played between human and fuzzy players. The accuracy of the fuzzy rule base and the game strategies help to mitigate the adverse effects that a business may suffer from these uncertain factors. We also introduced learning which enables the fuzzy player to adapt over time. We tested this scheme in different scenarios and discover that it could be an invaluable tool in the hand of entrepreneurs that are operating under uncertain and competitive business environments. PMID:24109562

  9. 78 FR 4842 - Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets... a formal complaint against Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP and Cargill Power Markets,...

  10. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  11. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover. PMID:22815099

  12. Member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence: a new tool for increasing market share and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Cooperman, T

    1995-01-01

    MCOs have begun to realize the impact that consumer satisfaction has on enrollment and pricing. Taking a lesson from auto manufacturers, MCOs are now realizing the additional advantages of obtaining consumer satisfaction information about their competitors. Knowing competitors' members intentions to stay or leave their plans, pin-pointing competitors' strengths and weaknesses, and identifying unmet consumer needs, allow MCOs to more successfully develop tactics and strategies for sales, marketing, and planning. This article describes the use of member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence, what to look for in this information, and sources for obtaining reliable information. PMID:10151593

  13. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  14. Energy Market Transparency: Analyzing the Impacts of Constraint Relaxation and Out-of-Market Correction Practices in Electric Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad

    This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated. Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

  15. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P < 0.05) and premium offers (P < 0.001). During programs most popular with children, there were 3.3 non-core food advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children. PMID:18755740

  16. Analysis of competition among the kinds of energy at the era of complexed energy: General review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-12-01

    Present situation of competition among kinds of energy was analyzed, and energy industries and national policy for energy at the era of complexed energy. Possibilities of progress were reviewed and explained under the guiding principle of fair competition among the kinds of energy. Energy industries were classified into petroleum, town gas, and electricity. It was explained that decisive factors of competition among them were not only purchasing price but characteristics of application equipment. Problems involved in them were discussed. Competitive feature in the fields of industry and public welfare was explained in detail with review of future features. National policy for energy was discussed from the view points of holding of security, cost reduction, and adaptation to demands. Explanations of the present situation in Europe and America are mentioned.

  17. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  18. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  19. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies’ competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. Conclusion This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets’ needs. PMID:24708770

  20. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  1. Energy conservation and the rental housing market

    SciTech Connect

    Counihan, R.H.; Nemtzow, D.

    1981-03-01

    Problems unique to the rental housing market are discussed in detail. Market forces have been inadequate to encourage energy conservation because of the split between those who own the buildings and those who use the energy. Renters are unwilling to invest in property they do not own. Owners are unwilling because either (1) tenants pay the energy bills or (2) energy costs can be passed along in the rent. Federal, state, and community legislative efforts in this area are discussed as is the metering problem (master or separate metering). It is concluded that, unless accompanied by financial incentives or standards, a prohibition on master meters is inadvisable. Further involvement by state and local governments is encouraged. 132 references. (MJJ)

  2. Coal: Cornerstone of America`s competitive advantage in world markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, M.P.

    1997-12-31

    The United States` competitive position in world markets will be determined by many forces. Two of the fundamental factors are the increased use of new technologies, and the availability of low-cost electricity to operate those technologies. The US currently has an will likely continue to have market dominance in both these critical areas. Both of these factors are intimately related since the primary source of new technologies is electric in nature. And, because low-cost coal now dominates and will continue to dominate the electric supply system, and because the US has both an abundance of coal and the world`s largest fleet of coal-fired power plants, the US will have an expanding base of low-cost electricity that will secure its current competitive advantage for years to come. Electric technologies and, increasingly, computer-based technologies integrated with electric technologies are the primary sources of innovative advancement and economic growth. As a consequence, the growth in electricity, which has historically tracked GNP growth, is expected to continue. And, with the restructuring of the electric utility industry and the emergence of vigorous competition, prices are expected to decline as competition increases. The net effect of these forces will be to dramatically increase the use of electric technologies -- and those sources of electricity that can provide low-cost electricity. The data show that coal, the primary source of new los-cost electricity, will supply between one-half and three-fourths of all new electric supply through 2010, at prices of about 3{cents}/kWh, and can do so without new power plant construction. Since the use of coal is expected to rise by at least 200 to 250 million tons/year over the current consumption of 850 million tons, and could increase as much as 400 million tons/yr, some have raised concerns about the emissions impact from the power plants. This report also shows that the net effect of increased electric use, assuming

  3. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  4. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  5. A Competitive Evaluation of Urban Energy Systems from viewpoints of Energy Conservation and Mitigating Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Hideharu; Tomioka, Hajime; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Although various energy system alternatives for business, commercial and residential customers have been recently developed in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission, it is important to evaluate competitive characteristics among such new energy system alternatives quantitatively, in consideration of tradeoff relation among economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this paper, using multi-objective optimization model for urban energy system planning, two competitive evaluations are performed. One is the break-even cost analysis for introducing more efficient, but more expensive energy equipment, such as photovoltaic system and fuel cell system. The other is that we evaluate the competitiveness of a certain energy system from a viewpoint of whole urban area because there are multiple alternatives for attaining same target of reducing CO2 emission or energy consumption.

  6. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  7. Is there value in value-added services: Evidence from competitive markets in England, Wales, and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, A.; Simmonds, K.; Percival, J.

    1996-02-01

    As competition in the electric power industry intensifies, the debate about what customers really want to purchase from electric service providers becomes more significant. Are customers merely buying a commodity at the lowest possible cost, or are they interested in buying a host of customized value-added services that enhances the value of the commodity? This report provides some answers from a sample of large, sophisticated industrial and commercial customers in competitive retail markets in England, Whales, and Norway.

  8. Energy market integration in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-08-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change.

  9. How Specialised Are Specialists? Generalisation Properties of Entries from the 2008 and 2009 TAC Market Design Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Edward; McBurney, Peter; Yao, Xin

    Unlike the classic Trading Agent competition (TAC), where participants enter trading strategies into a market, the TAC Market Design Competition (CAT) allows participants to create rules for their own double auction market and set fees for traders, which they embody in agents known as specialists. Although the generalisation properties of traders when the specialist (i.e., the market mechanism) is fixed have been assessed, generalisation properties of specialists have not. It is unclear whether and how a specialist might (intentionally or unintentionally) favour certain trading strategies. We present an empirical analysis of specialists' generalisation abilities in various trading environments. Our results show that specialists can be sensitive to a number of factors, including the other trading and specialist strategies in the environment.

  10. Effects of competition and cooperation interaction between agents on networks in the presence of a market capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonubi, A.; Arcagni, A.; Stefani, S.; Ausloos, M.

    2016-08-01

    A network effect is introduced taking into account competition, cooperation, and mixed-type interaction among agents along a generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra model. It is also argued that the presence of a market capacity undoubtedly enforces a definite limit on the agent's size growth. The state stability of triadic agents, i.e., the most basic network plaquette, is investigated analytically for possible scenarios, through a fixed-point analysis. It is discovered that: (i) market demand is only satisfied for full competition when one agent monopolizes the market; (ii) growth of agent size is encouraged in full cooperation; (iii) collaboration among agents to compete against one single agent may result in the disappearance of this single agent out of the market; and (iv) cooperating with two rivals may become a growth strategy for an intelligent agent.

  11. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  12. Competition between health maintenance organizations and nonintegrated health insurance companies in health insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Edmond; Bardey, David

    2015-12-01

    This article examines a model of competition between two types of health insurer: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and nonintegrated insurers. HMOs vertically integrate health care providers and pay them at a competitive price, while nonintegrated health insurers work as indemnity plans and pay the health care providers freely chosen by policyholders at a wholesale price. Such difference is referred to as an input price effect which, at first glance, favors HMOs. Moreover, we assume that policyholders place a positive value on the provider diversity supplied by their health insurance plan and that this value increases with the probability of disease. Due to the restricted choice of health care providers in HMOs a risk segmentation occurs: policyholders who choose nonintegrated health insurers are characterized by higher risk, which also tends to favor HMOs. Our equilibrium analysis reveals that the equilibrium allocation only depends on the number of HMOs in the case of exclusivity contracts between HMOs and providers. Surprisingly, our model shows that the interplay between risk segmentation and input price effects may generate ambiguous results. More precisely, we reveal that vertical integration in health insurance markets may decrease health insurers' premiums. PMID:26608954

  13. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    . This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter four. China has many Soviet-style, inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. This report assesses the impacts of China’s policies on building energy efficiency. By examining the existing literature and interviewing stakeholders from the public, academic, and private sectors, the report seeks to offer an in-depth insights of the opportunities and barriers for major market segments related to building energy efficiency. The report also discusses trends in building energy use, policies promoting building energy efficiency, and energy performance contracting for public building retrofits.

  14. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  15. Toward a competitive electric power industry for the 21. century. Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-12

    This report contains a review of the activities and the recommendations of the Steering Committee of the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System. The topics of the report include a summary of recommendations; federal power marketing; preserving the benefits of low-cost hydropower for the Northwest; Columbia River System governance; reflecting the values and meeting the needs of northwest citizens through conservation, renewable resources and low-income energy services; ensuring the benefits of competition for all by consumer access to the competitive market; open-access power transmission for competion in generation; and the future power system role for a four-state regional body. An appendix contains a dissenting opinion.

  16. Competitive advantage for multiple-memory strategies in an artificial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitman, Kurt E.; Choe, Sehyo C.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2005-05-01

    We consider a simple binary market model containing N competitive agents. The novel feature of our model is that it incorporates the tendency shown by traders to look for patterns in past price movements over multiple time scales, i.e. multiple memory-lengths. In the regime where these memory-lengths are all small, the average winnings per agent exceed those obtained for either (1) a pure population where all agents have equal memory-length, or (2) a mixed population comprising sub-populations of equal-memory agents with each sub-population having a different memory-length. Agents who consistently play strategies of a given memory-length, are found to win more on average -- switching between strategies with different memory lengths incurs an effective penalty, while switching between strategies of equal memory does not. Agents employing short-memory strategies can outperform agents using long-memory strategies, even in the regime where an equal-memory system would have favored the use of long-memory strategies. Using the many-body 'Crowd-Anticrowd' theory, we obtain analytic expressions which are in good agreement with the observed numerical results. In the context of financial markets, our results suggest that multiple-memory agents have a better chance of identifying price patterns of unknown length and hence will typically have higher winnings.

  17. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  18. The effects of increased market competition on hospital services in Shandong and Henan Provinces.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ian; Hindle, Don; Degeling, Pieter; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lingzhong; Meng, Qingyue; Wang, Jian

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese government began a major reform of the hospital sector in the early 1980s. The main aim was to increase productivity by phasing out prospective global budgets from the government, and encouraging between-hospital competition for the business of user-pay and insured patients. This goal was to be achieved without unreasonable prejudice to the financial sustainability of hospitals or to the fairness of access and service provision. We explored the effects of these changes by analysing data for four levels of hospital in two of the most populous provinces between 1985 and 1999. We used data envelope analysis, and found that the majority of hospitals experienced a decline in productivity. Social efficiency (measured by the level of provision of unnecessary services) also declined, especially in the largest hospitals that could easily increase the use of expensive technologies. Most hospitals increased their economic sustainability, measured as the ratio between revenue and expenditures. However, the lowest-level hospitals experienced stable or reduced sustainability due to their inability to compete with marketing by higher-level hospitals. We conclude that, although there were many benefits, the overall impact of the introduction of market forces may have been negative. An important factor was that not all aspects (such as supplier-induced demand) were adequately controlled by government agencies. We suggest ways of alleviating the most problematic elements of current arrangements. PMID:12046154

  19. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  20. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing,...

  1. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing...

  2. The Relationship of Competition and Choice to Innovation in Education Markets: A Review of Research on Four Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Chris

    Concerned about the deadening effects of standardization imposed by monopolistic education bureaucracies, policymakers in many different countries endorse economic-style mechanisms of consumer choice and competition between autonomous providers as the key elements of "market-driven" education. The reasoning behind this approach is that market…

  3. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  4. The Power of Positional Competition and Market Mechanism: A Case Study of Recent Parental Choice Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    The positional competition reflected in the current parental choice fever in China is highlighted by the introduction of market mechanisms: buying houses near preferred schools, paying choice fees or co-founding fees, giving donations and spending money on spare time training classes, etc. All of these work effectively together with the…

  5. 76 FR 25345 - Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...) by filing paper copies. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121... COMMISSION Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming... programming. This document is soliciting additional information from the public that will allow the...

  6. An R and D Agenda to enhance electricity system reliability by increasing customer participation in emerging competitive markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Marnay, C.; Goldman, C.; Kueck, J.; Kirby, B.; Dagle, J.; Alvarado, F.; Mount, T.; Oren, S.; Martinez, C.

    2000-10-01

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. We submit that dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility is sorely needed. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market (Kirby and Kueck 1999). Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. In effect, today's markets are incomplete; they represent only half of what a truly competitive market requires. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. We submit that increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. Toward this end, this paper outlines an agenda for public-interest R&D in support of this objective.

  7. Impact of energy prices on agricultural and energy markets: an integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in biofuel and agricultural markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  8. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, Jenny; Armstrong, Philip; Bird, Lori

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  9. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  10. U.S. Competitiveness in the World Wheat Market. Proceedings of a Research Conference (Washington, D.C., June 17-18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    These proceedings contain presentations and summaries of papers presented at a Wheat Competitiveness Conference. They begin with two presentations--"The Wheat Prototype Study within an Overall Conceptual Framework of Competitiveness" (James Langley) and "U.S. Competitiveness in the World Wheat Market: A Prototype Study" (Jerry Sharples). The 23…

  11. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.A.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  12. Why the ninth circuit court's decision on contracts signed during the western markets crisis is a call for FERC to enhance its oversight of market competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Schotland, Sara D.; Bidstrup, W. Richard; Morrissey, Jennifer A.

    2007-03-15

    Current complaints about problems in the nascent wholesale energy markets should not allow buyers to escape their contractual obligations. It would throw out the baby with the bathwater if the December 2006 decisions provide an excuse for buyers to renege on contractual commitments because today's energy markets are imperfect. (author)

  13. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports. PMID:25029351

  14. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  15. Redefining Competition Constructively: The Challenges of Privatisation, Competition and Market-Based State Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, the relationship between state governments and public colleges and universities is being redefined with new notions of autonomy and accountability, and with funding policies that are highly market-driven (often referred to as "privatisation") as the centrepieces. Situations and institutional strategies unthinkable only a few…

  16. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  17. 75 FR 5314 - Suncor Energy Marketing Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Suncor Energy Marketing Inc.; Notice of Filing January 26, 2010. Take notice that on January 13, 2010, Suncor Energy Marketing Inc. (Petitioner) filed a petition for...

  18. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  19. Marketing research for energy service design

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, N.L.; Wood, L.L.; Cates, S.C.; Bala, M.V.; Gambin, S.P.

    1994-11-01

    As the utility industry becomes more competitive, utilities are seeking ways to identify and develop new energy-related services that meet the changing needs of their customers. This paper explores the application of conjoint analysis for designing an optional electric utility-sponsored program - the Subscription Option Program - aimed at large commercial and industrial customers. Conjoint analysis is a technique for eliciting customers` preferences for a set of product profiles where a product - in this case the Subscription Option Program - is defined as a collection of features or attributes. This approach allowed us to measure the relative importance to customers of each of the program`s features and then to predict the effect of changing program features on program participation. As one method of validating our model, we compared the actual program participation to the predicted participation generated by our model and found that our model yielded satisfactory results.

  20. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  1. 3 CFR - Improving Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Improving Energy Security, American Competitiveness... Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental Protection Through a... Secretary of Energy the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency the Administrator of...

  2. Effect of government policy on alternate-energy-technology market penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchiner, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Federal support for alternate energy technologies has gone through a boom/bust cycle during the Carter and Reagan administrations. To investigate the effects of these policies, I use a system dynamics model of the industrial market penetration of parabolic troughs as a case study. The Reagan policy, a laissez-faire policy, lets free-market forces determine the market penetration. The Carter policy, an active government policy, combines research, development and demonstration with information dissemination and market financial incentives. The optimal policy depends upon future energy prices. If the price of conventional energy remains low, parabolic troughs never become competitive even with significant government support and thus the laissez-faire policy reduces federal expenditures by approx. $60 million with no negative effects. If the price of unconventional energy increases significantly, however, free-market forces do not develop parabolic troughs into a practical energy source without the benefit of an active government program. If this case study is generalizable to other alternate energy technologies, an active government role in alternate energy technology development should be thought as an insurance policy. How much is it worth to the US today to insure future energy price stability.

  3. Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C.; Boyd, G.; North, M.; Overbye, T.; Cheng, X.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois

    2006-04-30

    Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether or not such market power would be exercised by any company. Rather, it is designed to determine

  4. The relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and mortality for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jared Lane K; Lo Sasso, Anthony T

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Joint Commission's ORYX initiative and the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file from 2003 to 2006, this study employed a fixed-effects approach to examine the relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and short-term mortality at seven days, 30 days, 90 days, and one year for patients with chronic heart failure. We found that, on average, higher adherence with most of the Joint Commission's heart failure performance measures was not associated with lower mortality; the level of market competition also was not associated with any differences in mortality. However, higher adherence with the discharge instructions and left ventricular function assessment indicators at the 80th and 90th percentiles of the mortality distribution was associated with incrementally lower mortality rates. These findings suggest that targeting evidence-based processes of care might have a stronger impact in improving patient outcomes. PMID:22931022

  5. A decision support system for real-time hydropower scheduling in a competitive power market environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawwash, Ziad Khaled Elias

    2000-10-01

    The electricity supply market is rapidly changing from a monopolistic to a competitive environment. Being able to operate their system of reservoirs and generating facilities to get maximum benefits out of existing assets and resources is important to the British Columbia Hydro Authority (B.C. Hydro). A decision support system has been developed to help B.C. Hydro operate their system in an optimal way. The system is operational and is one of the tools that are currently used by the B.C. Hydro system operations engineers to determine optimal schedules that meet the hourly domestic load and also maximize the value B.C. Hydro obtains from spot transactions in the Western U.S. and Alberta electricity markets. This dissertation describes the development and implementation of the decision support system in production mode. The decision support system consists of six components: the input data preparation routines, the graphical user interface (GUI), the communication protocols, the hydraulic simulation model, the optimization model, and the results display software. A major part of this work involved the development and implementation of a practical and detailed large-scale optimization model that determines the optimal tradeoff between the long-term value of water and the returns from spot trading transactions in real-time operations. The postmortem-testing phase showed that the gains in value from using the model accounted for 0.25% to 1.0% of the revenues obtained. The financial returns from using the decision support system greatly outweigh the costs of building it. Other benefits are the savings in the time needed to prepare the generation and trading schedules. The system operations engineers now can use the time saved to focus on other important aspects of their job. The operators are currently experimenting with the system in production mode, and are gradually gaining confidence that the advice it provides is accurate, reliable and sensible. The main lesson

  6. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Hess Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  8. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. PMID:24178312

  9. Assessment of the potential future market in Sweden for hydrogen as an energy carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleson, G.

    Future hydrogen markets for the period 1980-2025 are projected, the probable range of hydrogen production costs for various manufacturing methods is estimated, and expected market shares in competition with alternative energy carriers are evaluated. A general scenario for economic and industrial development in Sweden for the given period was evaluated, showing the average increase in gross national product to become 1.6% per year. Three different energy scenarios were then developed: alternatives were based on nuclear energy, renewable indigenous energy sources, and the present energy situation with free access to imported natural or synthetic fuels. An analysis was made within each scenario of the competitiveness of hydrogen on both the demand and the supply of the following sectors: chemical industry, steel industry, peak power production, residential and commercial heating, and transportation. Costs were calculated for the production, storage and transmission of hydrogen according to technically feasible methods and were compared to those of alternative energy carriers. Health, environmental and societal implications were also considered. The market penetration of hydrogen in each sector was estimated, and the required investment capital was shown to be less than 4% of the national gross investment sum.

  10. Changing competition in health care marketing: a method for analysis and strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B; Brockman, B K

    1993-01-01

    As the cost and importance of healthcare continue to increase, competition in the medical industry is taking new forms and becoming more intense. The driving trends behind this competition are analyzed in the framework of Porter's Five Forces of Competition Model. The authors then discuss how the widely accepted strategies of cost, differentiation, focus, and domestication can be utilized to counter the implications of these trends and how to capitalize on opportunities in medical practice in the 1990's. PMID:10127925

  11. Competition of different methods for recovering energy from waste.

    PubMed

    Friege, Henning; Fendel, Ansgar

    2011-10-01

    Waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities have been established worldwide as a sustainable method for the disposal of residual waste. In the present study the following competing WtE systems were compared: (1) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) with energy recovery; (2) co-incineration of waste in old lignite or coal-fired power plants; (3) substitute [refuse-derived fuel (RDF)] incinerators with energy recovery; and (4) co-incineration of defined waste fractions in cement kilns. In general the municipal solid waste incinerators in Europe are designed for a broad range of municipal and commercial waste without a pre-treatment of the waste. All other WtE processes including the cement kilns require a pre-treatment and are more limited in terms of RDF composition; namely particle size, chlorine content, calorific value. As to Germany, the emission limit values for all facilities are similar. A sensitivity analysis of the economics of boilers using RDF and municipal solid waste leads to the conclusion that the feasibility of RDF incinerators might partially recover if the prices for primary energy increase again. On the other hand, pre-treatment of waste leads to higher costs for RDF. Incineration and recycling capacities are large enough in middle Europe to avoid landfilling of organic waste. The steep decline of gate fees observed in some national spot markets is a clear indicator of an already existing overcapacity. Considering the enormous amount of greenhouse gas emissions saved by WtE facilities in comparison with landfilling, free capacities of WtE installations should be used to incinerate waste from EU member states where waste disposal is still predominantly based on landfilling. PMID:21824986

  12. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy..., Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta...

  13. Market competition, ownership, payment systems and the performance of health care providers - a panel study among Finnish occupational health services providers.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Valtonen, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Many health care reforms rely on competition although health care differs in many respects from the assumptions of perfect competition. Finnish occupational health services provide an opportunity to study empirically competition, ownership and payment systems and the performance of providers. In these markets employers (purchasers) choose the provider and prices are market determined. The price regulation of public providers was abolished in 1995. We had data on providers from 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004. The unbalanced panel consisted of 1145 providers and 4059 observations. Our results show that in more competitive markets providers in general offered a higher share of medical care compared to preventive services. The association between unit prices and revenues and market environment varied according to the provider type. For-profit providers had lower prices and revenues in markets with numerous providers. The public providers in more competitive regions were more sensitive to react to the abolishment of their price regulation by raising their prices. Employer governed providers had weaker association between unit prices or revenues and competition. The market share of for-profit providers was negatively associated with productivity, which was the only sign of market spillovers we found in our study. PMID:23057868

  14. An Application of the Market-Oriented Programming to Energy Trading Decision Method in Distributed Energy Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakire, Koji; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Sadatoshi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    A control of CO2 emissions which is the main factor of global warming is one of the most important problems in the 21st century about preservation of earth environment. Therefore, efficient supply and use of energy are indispensable. We have proposed distributed energy management systems (DEMSs), where we are to obtain optimal plans that minimize both of costs and CO2 emissions through electrical and thermal energy trading. A DEMS consists of the plural entities that seek their own economic profits. In this paper, we propose a trading method that gives competitive equilibrium resource distribution by applying the market-oriented programming (MOP) to DEMSs.

  15. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  16. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  17. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  18. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAuley, Molly K.

    2002-01-01

    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  19. The Voice of Teachers in Marketing Their School: Personal Perspectives in Competitive Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Foskett, Nick H.

    2002-01-01

    Uses semistructured interviews with 12 teachers from secondary schools in England to examines teacher perceptions of and attitudes toward factors related to the marketing of their schools. Discusses such factors as teachers' subjective interpretations of the marketing concept, attitudes toward active involvement in marketing, and actual…

  20. Public Schools in Marketized Environments: Shifting Incentives and Unintended Consequences of Competition-Based Educational Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    By opening the system to competition, popular school choice reforms seek to remake public education into a more consumer-oriented endeavor. While the underlying theory holds that competitive pressures will induce change and improvement in educational processes, research indicates that organizations often respond instead by developing promotional…

  1. School Choice and Competitive Incentives: Mapping the Distribution of Educational Opportunities across Local Education Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Gulosino, Charisse; Weitzel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Competition sparked by school choice is expected to generate greater educational opportunities, particularly for disadvantaged students. The premise is that competitive incentives will change the organizational behavior of schools (and districts, dioceses, etc.) in ways that will lead to more equitable access for students across varied and often…

  2. Black Housing Patterns in a Southern Metropolis: Competition for Housing in a Shrinking Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Robert D.; Pierce, Odessa L.

    Although the United States has been described as a nation of homeowners, homeownership is not uniformly distributed across population groups. The migration of individuals to Houston, Texas, has intensified the competition for decent housing in that city. The rapid population growth has also accelerated the competition between lower and…

  3. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  4. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-06-16

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  5. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  6. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  7. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  8. Price forecast in the competitive electricity market by support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ciwei; Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Cheng, Haozhong

    2007-08-01

    The electricity market has been widely introduced in many countries all over the world and the study on electricity price forecast technology has drawn a lot of attention. In this paper, with different parameter C i and ε i assigned to each training data, the flexible C i Support Vector Regression (SVR) model is developed in terms of the particularity of the price forecast in electricity market. For Day Ahead Market (DAM) price forecast, the load, time of use index and index of day type are taken as the major factors to characterize the market price, therefore, they are selected as the inputs for the flexible SVR forecast model. For the long-term price forecast, we take the reserve margin Rm, HHI and the fuel price index as the inputs, since they are the major factors that drive the market price variation in long run. For short-term price forecast, besides the detailed analysis with the young Italian electricity market, the new model is tested on the experimental stage of the Spanish market, the New York market and the New England market. The long-term forecast with the SVR model presented is justified by the forecast with the data from the Long Run Market Simulator (LREMS).

  9. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  10. A comparative study of current Medicaid prescription reimbursement (MAC/EAC) (maximum allowable cost/estimated acquisition cost) with prescription reimbursement based on a competitive market.

    PubMed

    Porter, B H; Carroll, N V; Kotzan, J A

    1988-01-01

    Many pharmacists have suggested that the current Maximum Allowable Cost/Estimated Acquisition Cost (MAC/EAC) program has departed from its intended purpose of generating savings by taking full but fair advantage of the competitive marketplace. The objective of this study was to compare Medicaid prescription reimbursement under current MAC/EAC regulations with prescription reimbursement based on a competitive market. Data representing the top selling single source and multiple source drug products for nine states were analyzed. Results indicated that the current MAC/EAC system of Medicaid reimbursement produced a small savings when compared to reimbursement based on a competitive market. PMID:10303401

  11. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    This dissertation aims to improve ISO operations through a better real-time market solution algorithm that directly considers both real and reactive power, finds a feasible Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow solution, and allows for solving transmission switching problems in an AC setting. Most of the IEEE systems do not contain any thermal limits on lines, and the ones that do are often not binding. Chapter 3 modifies the thermal limits for the IEEE systems to create new, interesting test cases. Algorithms created to better solve the power flow problem often solve the IEEE cases without line limits. However, one of the factors that makes the power flow problem hard is thermal limits on the lines. The transmission networks in practice often have transmission lines that become congested, and it is unrealistic to ignore line limits. Modifying the IEEE test cases makes it possible for other researchers to be able to test their algorithms on a setup that is closer to the actual ISO setup. This thesis also examines how to convert limits given on apparent power---as is in the case in the Polish test systems---to limits on current. The main consideration in setting line limits is temperature, which linearly relates to current. Setting limits on real or apparent power is actually a proxy for using the limits on current. Therefore, Chapter 3 shows how to convert back to the best physical representation of line limits. A sequential linearization of the current-voltage formulation of the Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem is used to find an AC-feasible generator dispatch. In this sequential linearization, there are parameters that are set to the previous optimal solution. Additionally, to improve accuracy of the Taylor series approximations that are used, the movement of the voltage is restricted. The movement of the voltage is allowed to be very large at the first iteration and is restricted further on each subsequent iteration, with the restriction

  12. Competition Experiments as a Means of Evaluating Linear Free Energy Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Richard J.; Vedernikov, Andrei; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    The use of competition experiments as a means of evaluating linear free energy relationship in the undergraduate teaching laboratory is reported. The use of competition experiments proved to be a reliable method for the construction of Hammett plots with good correlation providing great flexibility with regard to the compounds and reactions that…

  13. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  14. Gathering International Competitive Intelligence via Online Data Retrieval in the International Marketing Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred

    A unit on online data retrieval techniques designed for a college course in international marketing is described. The unit is intended to teach students how to compile information on overseas markets and competitors. Online retrieval is seen as a relatively inexpensive means of gathering important data from otherwise inaccessible international…

  15. 2008 Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tremper, C.

    2009-07-01

    This report assesses the market for Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) services as it existed in FY 2008. It discusses Federal energy management goal progress in FY 2008, and examines the environment in which agencies implemented energy management projects over the last three years. The report also discusses some recent events that will increase the market for FEMP services, and outlines FEMP's major strategies to address these changes in FY 2009 and beyond.

  16. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  17. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  18. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  19. Energy Matters: An Invitation to Chat About Clean Tech Markets

    ScienceCinema

    Kauffman, Richard

    2013-05-29

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can better move renewable energy technologies from labs to the market, to successful full-scale deployment? Richard Kauffman, newly appointed Senior Advisor to Energy Secretary Steven Chu, and former CEO of Good Energies would like to hear them. **LIVE CHAT EXPIRED**

  20. Energy Matters: An Invitation to Chat About Clean Tech Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can better move renewable energy technologies from labs to the market, to successful full-scale deployment? Richard Kauffman, newly appointed Senior Advisor to Energy Secretary Steven Chu, and former CEO of Good Energies would like to hear them. **LIVE CHAT EXPIRED**

  1. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  5. Switching benefits and costs in competitive health insurance markets: A conceptual framework and empirical evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; Mosca, Ilaria; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2015-05-01

    Competitive health insurance markets will only enhance cost-containment, efficiency, quality, and consumer responsiveness if all consumers feel free to easily switch insurer. Consumers will switch insurer if their perceived switching benefits outweigh their perceived switching costs. We developed a conceptual framework with potential switching benefits and costs in competitive health insurance markets. Moreover, we used a questionnaire among Dutch consumers (1091 respondents) to empirically examine the relevance of the different switching benefits and costs in consumers' decision to (not) switch insurer. Price, insurers' service quality, insurers' contracted provider network, the benefits of supplementary insurance, and welcome gifts are potential switching benefits. Transaction costs, learning costs, 'benefit loss' costs, uncertainty costs, the costs of (not) switching provider, and sunk costs are potential switching costs. In 2013 most Dutch consumers switched insurer because of (1) price and (2) benefits of supplementary insurance. Nearly half of the non-switchers - and particularly unhealthy consumers - mentioned one of the switching costs as their main reason for not switching. Because unhealthy consumers feel not free to easily switch insurer, insurers have reduced incentives to invest in high-quality care for them. Therefore, policymakers should develop strategies to increase consumer choice. PMID:25530069

  6. Entry, concentration and market efficiency: A simulation of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvill, Terry

    The rapid and substantial expansion of the PJM energy market during 2004 and 2005 provides a unique opportunity to test the theory of market concentration and its effect on market efficiency. With ten years of operational experience, the PJM energy market is uniquely suited to test the theories of market concentration and efficiency in a natural experiment. This research tests the hypothesis that, for a given number of generating units in the industry, system marginal price will be a decreasing function of the number of owners or generators controlling the units (i.e., the industry concentration ratio). Market simulations are utilized to assess price-cost markups in the PJM energy market during three distinct periods of expansion: (1) pre-Commonwealth Edison integration, (2) pre-American Electric Power (AEP), Dayton Power and Light (DPL), Duquesne Light (Duquesne), and Dominion Virginia Power (Dominion) integration, and (3) post-AFT, DPL. Duquesne, and Dominion Integration. The results of the market simulations for the May 1 to August 31 periods for 2003, 2004, and 2005, indicate that the performance of the market improved with the addition of new market participants in 2004 and 2005. The results of the simulation indicate that the load-weighted Lerner index decreased to -3.70 percent in 2005 from 0.92 percent in 2003. Clearly, the addition of Commonwealth Edison in 2004 significantly increased constraints within the PJM energy market and likely impacted the observed prices in PJM during 2004 due to the lack of a significant link to the other PJM market participants. This deficiency was address in 2005 with the addition of American Electric Power. The market simulations also highlight the prevalence of computed negative markups in the simulation results. Many of the off-peak periods in particular are characterized by negative markups where the expected marginal cost exceeds the observed price. Unit commitment constraints are believed to largely account for these

  7. SunShot: Making Solar Energy Cost-Competitive Throughout the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is designed to re-establish American technological leadership, strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race, and help America obtain a secure energy future. This fact sheet highlights the achievements of the initiative since 2010.

  8. 78 FR 44556 - Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. (CEMI...

  9. Competition, regulation, and energy efficiency options in the electricity sector: Opportunities and challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadke, Amol Anant

    This dissertation explores issues related to competition in and regulation of electricity sectors in developing countries on the backdrop of fundamental reforms in their electricity sectors. In most cases, electricity sector reforms promoted privatization based on the rationale that it will lower prices and improve quality. In Chapter 2, I analyze this rationale by examining the stated capital cost of independent (private) power producer's (IPPs) power projects in eight developing countries and find that the stated capital cost of projects selected via competitive bidding is on an average about 40% to 60% lower than that of the projects selected via negotiations, which, I argue, represents the extent to which the costs of negotiated projects are overstated. My results indicate that the policy of promoting private sector without an adequate focus on improving competition or regulation has not worked in most cases in terms of getting competitively priced private sector projects. Given the importance of facilitating effective competition or regulation, In Chapter 3, I examine the challenges and opportunities of establishing a competitive wholesale electricity market in a developing country context. I model a potential wholesale electricity market in Maharashtra (MH) state, India and find that it would be robustly competitive even in a situation of up-to five percent of supply shortage, when opportunities for demand response are combined with policies such as divestiture and requiring long-term contracts. My results indicate that with appropriate policies, some developing countries could establish competitive wholesale electricity markets. In Chapter 4, I focus on the demand side and analyze the cost effectiveness of improving end-use efficiency in an electricity sector with subsidized tariffs and electricity shortages and show that they offer the least expensive way of reducing shortages in Maharashtra State, India. In Chapter 5, I examine the costs of reducing carbon

  10. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  11. Experiences with energy prices in a deregulated market

    SciTech Connect

    Rebellon, P.

    1999-11-01

    The energy market was deregulated in Colombia back in 1994. Since then, an increasing share of energy has been traded at prices dictated essentially by market considerations, not always coherent with sound technical and commercial practices. This paper is based on the author`s experiences with the negotiation of a number of contracts for energy purchase between 1994 and 1997. It starts with a brief presentation of the Colombian power system, the key players and the structure of energy prices before the market was deregulated. An overview of the conditions that led to power shortages in 1992 is included. The document continues with the description of the operation of the Colombian deregulated energy market, as well as the available contracts and energy transactions. Then, the evolution of the energy bid prices submitted by different generating companies during the period 1994--1997 is developed in detail. The final part of the paper discusses the effects of the energy prices in the operation of the system; the financial impact for IPPs; the economic signals given to the market; and the overall performance of the national power system.

  12. How Changing Energy Markets Affect Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The market for natural gas has been changing for quite some time. As part of natural gas restructuring, gas pipelines were opened to multiple users. Manufacturers or their representatives could go directly to the wellhead to purchase their natural gas, arrange the transportation, and have the natural gas delivered either by the local distribution company or directly through a connecting pipeline.

  13. Analysis of competition among kinds of energy at the era of complexed energy. (Report on overseas study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-12-01

    Transition features of competition among kinds of energy in America, England, France are explained along with a study on movement by each country. As for the characteristic point for each country, revival of coal energy in America, policy for accepting atomic energy as main source in France, and utilization of cheap petroleum gas from North Sea in England, were explained and transition feature of which were given by figures. Energy industries were classified into electricity, town gas, coal, and petroleum, and competitive situation in each country were explained. Energy policy in each country was explained by taking taxation of each country as primary index.

  14. School Choice and Competition: A Public-Market in Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, the UK Economic and Social Research Council funded the Parental and School Choice Interaction (PACSI) Study into the marketisation of education, conducted by the author along with Philip Woods and Ron Glatter of the Open University. The findings from the PACSI study highlighted the localised and complex nature of markets in education and…

  15. COMPETITIVE BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING STRATEGIES (CD 2 OF 6)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: www.epa.gov/ncepi/ or phone 1-800-490-...

  16. 78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., and 13-32-LNG] Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy........... Constellation Order vacating blanket Energy authority to import/export Commodities natural gas from/to...

  17. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  18. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... using international transmission facilities located at the United States borders with Mexico and...

  19. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  20. Managed change. HMOs, PPOs in flux as buyouts, mergers, competition take a toll on the market.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, L

    1997-06-23

    While some provider-owned managed-care plans have sold to investor-owned companies, most aren't as bottom-line oriented, according to Modern Healthcare's HMO/PPO Survey. Even plans that lost money last year are investing in information systems, new products, geographic expansion and mergers with other provider-owned plans. Several survey respondents are market leaders that have won national recognition. PMID:10167953

  1. Factors influencing the reimbursement rate of egg donation within a competitive free-market system.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin

    2007-07-01

    The current situation of oocyte donation in the USA serves as a useful paradigm for a laissez-faire free-market model of egg donor reimbursement, based on supply and demand. There is a rapidly emerging consensus of what would be considered desirable attributes in an egg donor, which would in turn determine her market value in financial reimbursement. First and foremost is the race and ethnicity of the donor. As expected, the shortage of egg donors from some ethnic groups such as East Asians and Jews has resulted in higher reimbursement rates for donors of such ethnicity. Second is the educational attainment of the donor, in particular high scholastic aptitude test scores and degrees from prestigious universities. Third is the employment status and career of the prospective donor. Last, but not least, are the personal esthetics of the egg donor, her physical appearance, from complexion to stature. These can be summarized as the Four Es: ethnicity, education, employment and esthetics, which are somewhat analogous to the Four Cs of diamond price valuation (colour, clarity, carat and cut). Although such an analogy may appear rather superficial, the free-market systems that have evolved in response to a growing demand for these two completely unrelated items are uncannily similar. PMID:17623528

  2. PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING IN EMERGING MARKETS: EFFECTS OF INCOME, COMPETITION, AND PROCUREMENT

    PubMed Central

    Danzon, Patricia M; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Towse, Adrian K

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes determinants of ex-manufacturer prices for originator and generic drugs across countries. We focus on drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria in middle and low-income countries (MLICs), with robustness checks to other therapeutic categories and the full income range of countries. We examine the effects of per capita income, income dispersion, competition from originator and generic substitutes, and whether the drugs are sold to retail pharmacies versus tendered procurement by non-government organizations. The cross-national income elasticity of prices is 0.27 across the full income range of countries but is 0.0–0.10 between MLICs, implying that drugs are least affordable relative to income in the lowest income countries. Within-country income inequality contributes to relatively high prices in MLICs. Although generics are priced roughly 30% lower than originators on average, the variance is large. Additional generic competitors only weakly affect prices, plausibly because generic quality uncertainty leads to competition on brand rather than price. Tendered procurement that imposes quality standards attracts multinational generic suppliers and significantly reduces prices of originator and generic drugs, compared with their respective prices to retail pharmacies. ©2013 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24293058

  3. Pharmaceutical pricing in emerging markets: effects of income, competition, and procurement.

    PubMed

    Danzon, Patricia M; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Towse, Adrian K

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyzes determinants of ex-manufacturer prices for originator and generic drugs across countries. We focus on drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria in middle and low-income countries (MLICs), with robustness checks to other therapeutic categories and the full income range of countries. We examine the effects of per capita income, income dispersion, competition from originator and generic substitutes, and whether the drugs are sold to retail pharmacies versus tendered procurement by non-government organizations. The cross-national income elasticity of prices is 0.27 across the full income range of countries but is 0.0-0.10 between MLICs, implying that drugs are least affordable relative to income in the lowest income countries. Within-country income inequality contributes to relatively high prices in MLICs. Although generics are priced roughly 30% lower than originators on average, the variance is large. Additional generic competitors only weakly affect prices, plausibly because generic quality uncertainty leads to competition on brand rather than price. Tendered procurement that imposes quality standards attracts multinational generic suppliers and significantly reduces prices of originator and generic drugs, compared with their respective prices to retail pharmacies. PMID:24293058

  4. The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Home heating and lighting markets have played crucial and underappreciated roles in driving energy transitions. When historians have studied the adoption of fossil fuels, they have often privileged industrial actors, markets, and technologies. My analysis of the factors that stimulated the adoption of anthracite coal and petroleum during the nineteenth century reveals that homes shaped how, when, and why Americans began to use fossil fuel energy. Moreover, a brief survey of other fossil fuel transitions shows that heating and lighting markets have been critical drivers in other times and places. Reassessing the historical patterns of energy transitions offers a revised understanding of the past for historians and suggests a new set of options for policymakers seeking to encourage the use of renewable energy in the future. PMID:22213886

  5. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  6. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    The report details the current and future state of the energy industry in China. It is intended for strategists and researchers seeking to identify market potential for their products and services in all sectors of the China energy industry. The report is in 4 Sections: Overview of China Energy Market; Market Analysis; Market Segments (including electricity and coal); and Breaking into theMmarket. China's economic trajectory has driven its expanding energy needs, and it is now the world's second largest energy consumer behind the United States. China's energy sector has enormous potential, especially the coal, petroleum and natural gas industries, yet China is currently a net importer of oil, and imports are expected to increase to more than 900 million barrels in 2006, against a total demand of 1.993 billion barrels per year. China is looking to expand its production of coal, natural gas, and renewable energy sources such as nuclear, solar and hydroelectric power to meet the enormous appetite for energy spawned by its massive industrial complex and consumer sectors. It is estimated that in 2020, China will need 2.8 billion tons of coal and 600 million tons of crude oil, two and a half times more than in 2000.

  7. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  8. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  9. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  10. Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures

    ScienceCinema

    James Sweeney

    2010-09-01

    Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

  11. Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures

    SciTech Connect

    James Sweeney

    2010-02-04

    Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

  12. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  13. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  14. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  15. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  16. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  17. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Methods Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Results Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that - across the ARV portfolio - the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. Conclusions While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to assertions by generic manufacturers

  18. Meeting the Northwest's Energy Needs Through Competitive Bidding.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1990-07-01

    Utilities have traditionally met load growth requirements through building projects (self-build), purchasing power from other utilities, or from running conservation programs. During the 1980s, alternative capacity expansion approaches were developed. Resources are now also obtained through PURPA-based or competitive bidding acquisition programs. Self-build programs typically involve large-scale hydropower; coal-, natural gas-, and oil-fired projects; and nuclear thermal electric generating projects. Characteristics of these projects, in addition to size, include long lead times, capital intensiveness, substantial environmental impacts, and a significant risk of cost overruns. The risk element became immediately apparent to those investor-owned utilities that, because of decreased load growth, had thermal project investments disallowed in rate cases or were forced to terminate projects. Phrases such as prudent investment,'' used and useful,'' and least-cost planning'' became familiar to the utility industry. Many utilities, once burned, subsequently adopted a policy of never again constructing a base-loaded generating plant. 2 figs.

  19. Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shaheen, Jeanne [D-NH

    2013-04-18

    06/03/2013 By Senator Wyden from Committee on Energy and Natural Resources filed written report. Report No. 113-37. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Steady Increase In Prices For Oral Anticancer Drugs After Market Launch Suggests A Lack Of Competitive Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bennette, Caroline S; Richards, Catherine; Sullivan, Sean D; Ramsey, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    The cost of treating cancer has risen to unprecedented heights, putting tremendous financial pressure on patients, payers, and society. Previous studies have documented the rising prices of cancer drugs at launch, but less critical attention has been paid to the cost of these drugs after launch. We used pharmacy claims for commercially insured individuals to examine trends in postlaunch prices over time for orally administered anticancer drugs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the period 2007-13, inflation-adjusted per patient monthly drug prices increased 5 percent each year. Certain market changes also played a role, with prices rising an additional 10 percent with each supplemental indication approved by the FDA and declining 2 percent with the FDA's approval of a competitor drug. Our findings suggest that there is currently little competitive pressure in the oral anticancer drug market. Policy makers who wish to reduce the costs of anticancer drugs should consider implementing policies that affect prices not only at launch but also later. PMID:27140986

  1. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  2. Markets for renewable energy in Central America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P.G.; Sloop, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    For market studies of renewable energy and conservation equipment, Costa Rica was selected as the most favorable Central American country and representative of the rest. The Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, and Antigua were selected as representative of the Caribbean islands, from the largest to one of the smallest. Best markets in Costa Rica are judged to be micro and mini hydroelectric systems, heat pumps for large hot water users, photovoltaic systems for low-power remote devices, small distilleries for producing alcohol from sugar cane, solar dryers for bagasse, and energy conservation equipment. Market prospects for the Caribbean islands are very good, including micro and mini hydroelectric systems for those countries with water resources, solar drying of bagasse, solar water heaters, solar ponds/solar thermal systems for electric power or heat processes, wind-electric systems for utility grids and farms, photovoltaics for small power uses, and energy conservation equipment.

  3. Energy disclosure, market behavior, and the building data ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kontokosta, Constantine E

    2013-08-01

    Energy disclosure laws represent one of the most promising public policy tools to accelerate market transformation around building energy efficiency. For this type of information to have an impact on market behavior, it must be collected, analyzed, and disseminated to support the decision-making processes of each end user and influence both the producers and consumers of building performance data. This paper explores the significance of energy disclosure requirements and outlines a framework for utilizing these new sources of transparent, publicly available information. It presents the mechanisms by which information can alter market behavior in the commercial real estate sector and develops a wiring diagram for the flows of information through the building data ecosystem. It concludes with a discussion of the motivations, metrics, and constraints faced by the various stakeholders in the ecosystem and how these factors influence investment decision models. PMID:23763356

  4. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  5. Fossil energy R and D for a competitive power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the vision for Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) advanced power generation program. It covers the following four topics: the status of the electric industry as it deregulates, particularly those aspects of deregulation that impact advanced power generation technologies; a snapshot of the environmental trends that influence the program; how research, and development, and demonstration (RD&D) program is being restructured in response to these trends; and the status of METC`s merger with its sister center, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center.

  6. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  7. Can We Reasonably Assess "Productivity of Market-Based Educational Reforms"?: Comment on Anna Egalite's "Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2013-01-01

    "Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review" by Ann G. Egalite (p443-464, this issue) concludes that, "overwhelming [U.S.] evidence supports the development of market-based schooling policies as a means to increase student achievement in traditional public schools." Here, John Merrifield…

  8. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  9. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The state government

  10. Customer Response to RTP in Competitive Markets: A Study ofNiagara Mohawk's Standard Offer Tariff

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Neenan,Bernie; Hopper, Nicole

    2006-06-01

    Utilizing load, price, and survey data for 119 largecustomers that paid competitively determined hourly electricity pricesannounced the previous day between 2000 and 2004, this study providesinsight into the factors that determine the intensity of price response.Peak and off-peak electricity can be: perfect complements, substitutes,or substitutes where high peak prices cause temporary disconnection fromthe grid, as for some firms with on-site generation. The averageelasticity of substitution is 0.11. Thirty percent of the customers usepeak and off-peak electricity in fixed proportions. The 18 percent withelasticities greater than 0.10 provide 75 percent of the aggregate priceresponse. In contrast to Industrial customers, Commercial/Retail andGovernment/Education customers are more price responsive on hot days andwhen the ratio of peak to off-peak prices is high. Price responsivenessis not substantially reduced when customers operate near peak usage.Diversity of customer circumstances and price response suggest dynamicpricing is suited for some, but not all customers.

  11. Alternative Fueled Vehicles Competitiveness and Energy Security Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-06-26

    06/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5270-5272) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  13. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...

  14. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  15. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  16. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  17. 75 FR 5782 - Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Noble Energy Marketing and Trade... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in the above list....

  18. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    PubMed

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country. PMID:23337226

  19. The North American Market For Renewable Energy Certificates, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a study of the Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market and takes a comprehensive look at what RECs are, how they work, the role they can play in spurring renewable energy development, the different models for implementing RECs, current offerings of REC suppliers, and customer purchases of RECs. Topics covered include: an overview of green power; definition of what RECs are and how they work; discussion of the history of RECs and their uses; explanation of the benefits of RECs and the challenges they face; discussion of how RECs interact with Renewable Portfolio Standards; discussion of the REC certification process; overview of the current market for RECs in the U.S.; profiles of major North American REC tracking systems; and, profiles of 40 key North American REC market participants.

  20. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  1. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  2. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-06

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  3. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  4. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  5. Essays on U.S. energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightwell, David A.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation examines three facets of U.S. energy use and policy. First, I examine the Gulf Coast petroleum refining industry to determine the structure of the industry. Using the duality between cost-minimization and production functions, I estimate the demand for labor to determine the underlying production function. The results indicate that refineries have become more capital intensive due to the relative price increase of labor. The industry has consolidated in response to higher labor costs and costs of environmental compliance. Next, I examine oil production in the United States. An empirical model based on the theoretical framework of Pindyck is used to estimate production. This model differs from previous research by using state level data rather than national level data. The results indicate that the production elasticity with respect to reserves and the price elasticity of supply are both inelastic in the long run. The implication of these findings is that policies designed to increase domestic production through subsidies, tax breaks, or royalty reductions will likely provide little additional oil. We simulate production under three scenarios. In the most extreme scenario, prices double between 2005 and 2030 while reserves increase by 50%. Under this scenario, oil production in 2030 is approximately the same as the 2005 level. The third essay estimates demand for fossil fuels in the U.S. and uses these estimates to forecast CO2 emissions. The results indicate that there is almost no substitution from one fossil fuel to another and that all three fossil fuels are inelastic in the long run. Additionally, all three fuels respond differently to changes in GDP. The result of the differing elasticities with respect to GDP is that the energy mix has changed over time. The implication for forecasting CO2 emissions is that models that cannot distinguish changes in the energy mix are not effective in forecasting CO2 emissions.

  6. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  7. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  8. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  9. Uncertainty, loss aversion, and markets for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the efficiency gap or energy paradox. The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies on the theory of contextdependent preferences. The uncertainty-loss aversion bias against energy efficiency is quantifiable, making it potentially correctible by policy measures. The welfare economics of such policies remains unresolved. Data on the costs of increased fuel economy of new passenger cars, taken from a National Research Council study, illustrate how an apparently cost-effective increase in energy efficiency would be uninteresting to lossaverse consumers.

  10. Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics: May 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Little, R.; Lloyd, K.; Malikov, G.; Passolt, G.; Arent, D.; Swezey, B.; Mosey, G.

    2007-08-01

    This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effects of fiscal policies and were evaluated using available data. The modifications were made based on research and classification of current mathematical models used for predicting market penetration. An analysis of the results was carried out, based on available data. MATLAB versions of existing and new models were developed for research and policy analysis.

  11. The key role of health insurance in a cost-effective health care system. Towards regulated competition in the Dutch medical market.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, W P

    1987-04-01

    The previous two sessions of this Symposium have dealt with incentives for cost-effective provider behaviour. Although incentive-reimbursement, which rewards the providers for delivery medical care in a cost-effective way, can be an important step towards a cost-effective health care system, it is not rewards the providers for delivering medical care in a cost-effective way, can be an important step towards a cost-effective health care system, it is not sufficient. As long as the insured consumers have both comprehensive health insurance coverage and freedom of choice of provider, providers will have great difficulty in resisting consumers' demand for ever more costly medical care, and politicians or other decision-makers will have great difficulty in restricting capacity and in preventing overcapacity. Fear of losing patients or voters might dominate. Therefore, in this session we shall focus on the key role of health insurance in a cost-effective health care system and on consumer incentives and insurer behaviour. If the consumers have a choice between several provider-insurer organizations. Although market forces do play an important role in a competitive health-care system, competition should not be confused with a "free market". Besides financial arrangements to protect the poor, pro-competitive regulation is needed to guarantee a "fair competition". Currently there is much consensus that the present Dutch health insurance system, in which 60% of the population is publicly insured and 40% is privately insured, should be replaced by a national health insurance scheme, which uniformly applies to the entire population. A few years ago, I made a proposal for such a scheme, which was based largely on the ideas of Ellwood, McClure, and Enthoven on competition between alternative delivery systems. The main features of this proposal will be discussed. In my opinion, the long-term prospects for regulated competition in the Dutch medical market seem rather favourable

  12. Competition in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual introduction to this issue focuses on two questions: why study competition and what is a competitive market. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Choosing Competitors." This preschool and kindergarten unit involves students in competitive games (naming colors), role playing competitive behaviors, comparing toys, and…

  13. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change. PMID:17477218

  14. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  15. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  16. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  17. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  18. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  19. Market for new coal powerplant technologies in the US: 1997 annual energy outlook results

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzler, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Over the next 20 years, the combination of slow growth in the demand for electricity, even slower growth in the need for new capacity, especially baseload capacity, and the competitiveness of new gas-fired technologies limits the market for new coal technologies in the US. In the later years of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook projections, post-2005, when a significant amount of new capacity is needed to replace retiring plants and meet growing demand, some new coal-fired plants are expected to be built, but new gas-fired plants are expected to remain the most economical choice for most needs. The largest market for clean coal technologies in the United States may be in retrofitting or repowering existing plants to meet stricter environmental standards, especially over the next 10 years. Key uncertainties include the rate of growth in the demand for electricity and the level of competing fuel prices, particularly natural gas. Higher than expected growth in the demand for electricity and/or relatively higher natural gas prices would increase the market for new coal technologies.

  20. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P < 0.05), and pace at sprint velocity (4.6 ± 3.3 vs. 6.1 ± 3.4 m/min, P < 0.05). However, the energy drink did not affect maximal running speed during the repeated sprint test (25.0 ± 1.5 vs. 25.0 ± 1.7 km/h). The ingestion of the energy drink resulted in a higher post-competition urine caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P < 0.05). In summary, 3 mg/kg of caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition. PMID:23462927

  1. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  2. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies...

  3. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  4. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  5. Energy and Economic Impacts of H.R.5049, the Keep America Competitive Global Warming Policy

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2006 request from Congressmen Tom Udall and Tom Petri asking the Energy Information Administration to analyze the impacts of their legislation implementing a market-based allowance program to cap greenhouse gas emissions at 2009 levels.

  6. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  7. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  8. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  9. 1994 U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Plan: Fueling a Competitive Economy

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy has a rich heritage of meeting important national goals in the areas of energy, national security, science, and technology. The end of the Cold War, and the election of President Clinton, have given us a new national agenda. Through a comprehensive strategic planning process, we have determined that the Department must now unleash its extraordinary scientific and technical talent and resources on new and more sharply focused goals: fueling a competitive economy, improving the environment through waste management and pollution prevention, and reducing the nuclear danger.

  10. Nonlinear analysis and dynamic structure in the energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababa, Hajar

    This research assesses the dynamic structure of the energy sector of the aggregate economy in the context of nonlinear mechanisms. Earlier studies have focused mainly on the price of the energy products when detecting nonlinearities in time series data of the energy market, and there is little mention of the production side of the market. Moreover, there is a lack of exploration about the implication of high dimensionality and time aggregation when analyzing the market's fundamentals. This research will address these gaps by including the quantity side of the market in addition to the price and by systematically incorporating various frequencies for sample sizes in three essays. The goal of this research is to provide an inclusive and exhaustive examination of the dynamics in the energy markets. The first essay begins with the application of statistical techniques, and it incorporates the most well-known univariate tests for nonlinearity with distinct power functions over alternatives and tests different null hypotheses. It utilizes the daily spot price observations on five major products in the energy market. The results suggest that the time series daily spot prices of the energy products are highly nonlinear in their nature. They demonstrate apparent evidence of general nonlinear serial dependence in each individual series, as well as nonlinearity in the first, second, and third moments of the series. The second essay examines the underlying mechanism of crude oil production and identifies the nonlinear structure of the production market by utilizing various monthly time series observations of crude oil production: the U.S. field, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), non-OPEC, and the world production of crude oil. The finding implies that the time series data of the U.S. field, OPEC, and the world production of crude oil exhibit deep nonlinearity in their structure and are generated by nonlinear mechanisms. However, the dynamics of the non

  11. Evaluation method of industrial export competitiveness based on the variance: With an example of wind energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Some industry export competitiveness indices are dependent on the first-order moments of the data but not the second-order moment. As the main form of second-order moment, variances can be used for evaluation of export competitiveness. According to the conditional variance of exports growth rate and the GARCH models, industry export competitiveness can be divided into three categories: strong, General and weak States. Using the GARCH models for export competitiveness research can meet the need of horizontal comparison and longitudinal analyses. The empirical study of the export competitiveness of wind energy industry among some nations have shown that, it is feasible and effective for using GARCH model method to study on export competitiveness.

  12. Impact of Market Competition on Continuity of Care and Hospital Admissions for Asthmatic Children: A Longitudinal Analysis of Nationwide Health Insurance Data 2009-2013

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Young Soon; Lee, Seon-Heui; Nam, Chung Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, including asthma, can be managed with timely and effective outpatient care, thereby reducing the need for hospitalization. Objective This study assessed the relationship between market competition, continuity of care (COC), and hospital admissions in asthmatic children according to their health care provider. Methods A longitudinal design was employed with a 5-year follow-up period, between 2009 and 2013, under a Korean universal health insurance program. A total of 253 geographical regions were included in the analysis, according to data from the Korean Statistical Office. Data from 9,997 patients, aged ≤ 12 years, were included. We measured the COC over a 5-year period using the Usual Provider Continuity (UPC) index. Random intercept models were calculated to assess the temporal and multilevel relationship between market competition, COC, and hospital admission rate. Results Of the 9,997 patients, 243 (2.4%) were admitted to the hospital in 2009. In the multilevel regression analysis, as the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index increased by 1,000 points (denoting decreased competitiveness), UPC scores also increased (ß = 0.001; p < 0.0001). In multilevel logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for hospital admissions for individuals with lower COC scores (≥ 2 ambulatory visits and a UPC index score of < 1) was 3.61 (95% CI: 2.98–4.38) relative to the reference group (≥ 2 ambulatory visits and a UPC index score of 1). Conclusions Market competition appears to reduce COC; decreased COC was associated with a higher OR for hospital admissions. PMID:26958850

  13. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for...

  14. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  15. Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

  16. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has... directly with Eugene J. Becker, Vice President, Cargill Power Markets, LLC, 9350 Excelsior Blvd., MS...

  17. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States....

  18. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  19. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  20. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  1. The search for consumer content in energy marketing and retailing

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, V.K.

    1996-09-15

    The gas and electric industries in the United STates control about $900 billion in assets (production, logistical, merchant). They employ these assets to serve about 150 million customers (counted separately for gas and electric), but they manage to offer only two rudimentary products-molecules and electrons-and at only two levels of service: firm and interruptible. Such a poverty of consumer content stands without precedent in the history of U.S. business. That this game is coming to an end should elicit no surprise. True retail competition in the gas and electric industries will become a transforming and quotidian reality within five years, creating great shifts in revenue and capital: (1) a $50-billion drip in annual consumer energy spending; (2) from $200 to $300 billion extinguished over seven to 10 years in noncash book value in the pipes and wires and energy production industries; (3) tens of billions of dollars in new investments, particularly gas-fired merchant and distributed generation plants, and computing and communications systems; and (4) many more billions in new enterprise value for efficient and innovative firms. The old business model emphasized industrial technology and quantitative increases in consumption of energy commodities. The new model, supplanting the old, will accentuate information technology and qualitative increases in consumption of energy services.

  2. 18 CFR 375.307 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. 375.307 Section 375.307 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Delegations § 375.307 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. The...

  3. 18 CFR 375.307 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. 375.307 Section 375.307 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Delegations § 375.307 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. The...

  4. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  5. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  6. 77 FR 71585 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of... of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), Brookfield Energy Marketing LP...

  7. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp....

  8. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  9. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  10. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in... applicant to submit a right-of-way (ROW) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on... solicitations of interest and ROW applications within two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes...

  11. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  12. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  13. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    PubMed

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective. PMID:14753321

  14. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  15. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    PubMed

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens. PMID:26808842

  16. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability to treat the heating

  17. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  18. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Fiscal year 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Act), commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative, was signed into law on November 17, 1988 (Public Law 100-680). The Act, 15 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., has tile following purposes: (1) to {open_quotes}increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{close_quotes}; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Section 8 of tile Act requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare an annual report to Congress describing the activities carried out under the Act during each fiscal year. 15 U.S.C. 5107 In addition, with respect to reports on fiscal years 1993, 1995, and 1997, Section 8 requires a complete summary of activities under the management plan and research plan from inception with an analysis of extent of their success in accomplishing the purposes of the Act. Id. The Metals Initiative is currently supporting six steel industry research and development projects: (1) Superplastic Steel Processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) Direct Steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; (3) Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap with Argonne National Laboratory and Metal Recovery Industries (U.S.), Inc.; (4) Rapid Analysis of Molten Metals Using Laser Produced Plasmas with Lehigh University; (5) Direct Strip Casting using a single wheel caster with Armco, Inc.; and (6) Advanced Process Control, also with the American Iron and Steel Institute. At the close of the fiscal year, a seventh project, Waste Oxide Recycling with the American Iron and Steel Institute, was selected for inclusion in the Direct Steelmaking project. There are three projects with the aluminum industry. The first, Wettable Cathodes for Alumina Reduction Cells with the Reynolds Metals Company, continues from the prior periods.

  19. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  1. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  2. Relationships among Energy Price Shocks, Stock Market, and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market “underreacting.” The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  3. Relationships among energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market "underreacting." The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  4. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  5. The impossible dream? How Nuclear Electric, Ltd. pulled itself out of the ashes of government ownership and became highly competitive in a privatized and deregulating British power market

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, P.

    1998-12-31

    The day was dark for Nuclear Electric plc. when the British government decided it would privatize and deregulate the electric utility industry. For years, Nuclear Electric and other UK-based fossil power producers had been operating in a regulated market where the state set and guaranteed the price of electricity. All that was changing in Britain as the government introduced competition and as customers looked forward to purchasing power from the lowest bidder. Essentially the situation in England was much the same as it is now in the US: there was major momentum toward deregulation. The reality of competition in Britain came as good news to many power producers--in particular those who kept the lights on cost effectively. Others, However, weren`t so optimistic, especially nuclear plants that traditionally bear higher safety and maintenance costs than their fossil counterparts. Taking its cues from the City (Britain`s Wall Street), the British government simply considered nuclear generators to be unreliable, high cost, unprofitable organizations incapable of surviving in a privatized environment. It therefore left its nuclear power plants off the docket when selling (privatizing) its generating capacity. This paper describes how Nuclear Electric Ltd. became competitive in a deregulated environment.

  6. Evaluation of energy efficient design competition of a public office building in North Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzimanoli, Asimina

    Over the past few years in Greece there have been changes in the National Environmental and Energy Policy related to sustainability and energy conservation-saving, concerning the built environment as well. In this context, in 1999, the Hellenic Public Real Estate Corporation announced a Public Open Competition for the "Design and Construction" of a Police Station in the city of Kilkis, in North Greece. The energy efficiency and bioclimatic design was part of the General Design Principles of the brief. The following Report aims at evaluating the energy performance of the building and the comfort levels in the internal environment and determining the benefits of incorporating environmental design in a Public Office Building, in terms of savings in the energy consumption for heating. The Methodology included a description of the features of the design, analysis of the differences between the initial design and the constructed building, investigation of the operation of the constructed building (monitoring, questionnaire survey, energy consumption) and evaluation of the effect of the differences mentioned, using computer simulation (TAS software). Internal Temperatures fluctuated less than the external but for most of the monitoring period (end of mid-season-beginning of summer) Maximum Temperatures were higher than the external. The occupants gave positive comments and evaluated the general working conditions in the building as good, but the majority were not aware of the Passive Solar Systems installed in the building. The actual energy consumption for heating (150.85kWh/m2) is approximately 85% of the average consumption of Public Office Buildings in North Greece but 50% higher than that of recently built Public Office Buildings. However, the figure from the simulation analysis (corresponding to Office and Common spaces) is approximately 1/3 of the actual (55.14 kWh/m2), suggesting that proper operation of the building could result in significant reduction in energy

  7. How to Launch an Energy Star Energy Efficiency Competition for K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utebay Kudret; McArthur, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been forced by rising costs and shrinking budgets to stretch their resources further than ever before in order to meet the educational needs of today's students. EPA's ENERGY STAR program helps K-12 schools and districts improve energy efficiency, reduce operating costs and redirect critical resources into the…

  8. Preparing for new business directions in competitive markets. The concept phase of an integrated business planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.; Wahlin, D.

    1997-09-01

    With deregulation, electric utilities face previously unknown threats as their franchise markets have been opened to competitors such as power marketers who want to wheel power into distribution grids, independent power producers, co-generation firms who want to take the biggest customers off the grid, and many others (including hostile utilities eyeing value in under-performing stocks). On the other hand, firms are now presented with opportunities they have not had in decades, if ever, to sell to customers in other, formerly protected franchise territories, invest in new businesses, or use internal expertise and experience to create new products and services for existing customers or entirely new customers and markets. Utilities are entering businesses as diverse as maintenance services, retail appliance stores, and telecommunications. This paper will discuss how to evaluate and plan for some of the opportunities available to the electric utilities as the result of changes in FERC, state utility regulations, and proposed legislation.

  9. Insights and Opportunities: Technologies, Policies, and Markets for Clean Energy Solutions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    2009-11-01

    A presentation highlighting how strategic energy analysis can affect technologies, policies, and markets for clean energy solutions. This includes an overview of some of NREL's models and tools as well as results from laboratory analysis.

  10. Technical Barriers, Gaps,and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program.

  11. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing...-2017 marketing efforts, the Energy Management and Planning Program (Program), and the Conformed General...) published in the Federal Register on December 28, ] 1984 (49 FR 50582), are available at...

  12. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR... Rulemaking and Notice of Technical Conference (Supplemental Notice), 75 FR 47,499, 132 FERC ] 61,094 (issued... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets;...

  13. Using segmentation insights to sell energy products to the mass market. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lineweber, D.

    1998-11-01

    Energy services companies face a future in which their marketing and sales functions will become more critical. Technology sales to mass market customers will be one of the ways in which retail energy service providers will be able to directly generate incremental revenue, increase the demand for their core product (electricity), and enhance customer loyalty. But selling energy products to the mass market can be difficult. Great products do not always win, and implementation (i.e., how providers approach the market) is at least half the game. One of the tools available to technology marketers is market segmentation. Segmentation methods can help by dividing large markets into groups of potential customers characterized in terms of how likely they would be to buy new products, and further subdivided according to the factors that influence their decision to buy or not buy. By understanding and targeting these groups differentially, marketing efficiency is enhanced, as is the likelihood of success of a given sales program. Ultimately, however, while market segmentation methods are potentially powerful, they are also notoriously difficult to use. This report summarizes the segmentation options available to energy product marketers, and provides a summary analysis of the relative advantages and disadvantages of commonly used options.

  14. Standard performance contracting: A tool for both energy efficiency and market transformation?

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, E.; Schiller, S.R.; Jump, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission has decided that energy efficiency Public Goods Charges will be used for market transformation programs. During 1998 about 40% of those funds have been allocated to implement Standard Performance Contracting (SPC) projects in the residential and non-residential markets. SPCs are being sold as a means of providing energy efficiency services while transforming and strengthening the market for the service providers. The SPC programs offer standardized pay-for-performance agreements between program administrators and Project Sponsors. This paper reviews the history and design of California SPC programs and evaluates results to date as well as the effectiveness of this program concept. The authors described features of the SPC as well as options that can make SPCs both market transformation and energy efficiency resource programs. Conclusions and recommendations focus on whether SPCs are effective market transformation tools, in which markets can they be effective, and which design features are of key importance.

  15. The potential impacts of a competitive wholesale market in the midwest: A preliminary examination of centralized dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Bartholomew, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; Hale, Douglas; Luong, Thanh

    2004-07-01

    In March 2005, the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) will begin operating the first-ever wholesale market for electricity in the central and upper Midwestern portion of the United States. Region-wide, centralized, security-constrained, bid-based dispatch will replace the current system of decentralized dispatch by individual utilities and control areas. This report focuses on how the operation of generators may change under centralized dispatch. We analyze a stylized example of these changes by comparing a base case dispatch based on a ''snapshot'' taken from MISO's state estimator for an actual, historical dispatch (4 p.m., July 7, 2003) to a hypothetical, centralized dispatch that seeks to minimize the total system cost of production, using estimated cost data collected by the EIA. Based on these changes in dispatch, we calculate locational marginal prices, which in turn reveals the location of congestion within MISO's footprint, as well as the distribution of congestion revenues. We also consider two sensitivity scenarios that examine (1) the effect of changes in MISO membership (2003 vs. 2004 membership lists), and (2) different load and electrical data, based on a snapshot from a different date and time (1 p.m., Feb. 18, 2004). Although our analysis offers important insights into how the MISO market could operate when it opens, we do not address the question of the total benefits or costs of creating a wholesale market in the Midwest.

  16. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  17. Competitive Excimer Formation and Energy Transfer in Zr-Based Heterolinker Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mario; Sánchez, Félix; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-09-01

    The spectroscopy and dynamics of a series of Zr-based MOFs in dichloromethane suspension are reported. These Zr-NADC MOFs were constructed by using different mixtures of 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate (NDC) and 4-amino-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate (NADC) as organic linkers. The fraction of NADC relative to NDC in these heterolinker MOFs ranges from 2 to 35 %. The results indicate two competitive photoprocesses: NDC excimer formation and an energy transfer (ET) from excited NDC linkers to NADC linkers. Increasing the fraction of NADC linkers in the Zr-NADC nanostructure decreases the mean time constant of NDC excimer formation, while the NADC emission intensity experiences a drop at the highest fraction of this linker in the MOF. The first observation is explained by an increase in the energy-transfer probability between the two linkers, and the second by emission quenching in the NADC linkers due to ultrafast charge transfer assisted by the amino group. Femtosecond time-resolved emission studies showed that the ET process (recorded as decaying and rising components) from excited NDC to NADC takes place in 1.2 ps. Direct excitation of the NADC linkers (at 410 nm) shows a decaying, but not rising, component of 250-480 fs, which could reflect the formation of a nonemissive charge-separation state. The results show that by using MOFs having heterolinkers it is possible to trigger and tune excimer formation and ET processes. PMID:27404091

  18. New design concepts for energy-conserving buildings. Results of a national competition among students in schools of architecture

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The National Student Competition in Energy Conscious Design held among professional schools of architecture in 1976 is documented. Fifty-five schools participated, submitting 115 entries; twelve were chosen as finalists. Details are presented on the twelve winning designs and excerpts from the remaining 103 entries are published. (MCW)

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  1. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  2. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  3. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  4. Occupational health services in adaptation to the challenges of global market competition--new needs, new strategies, new partnerships.

    PubMed

    Froneberg, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Occupational health services (OHS) have developed together with other social protection measures in response to the challenges of the Industrial Revolution and associated demographic changes of the 19th century. They were perceived as necessary and often even initiated by industry. Their organization and tasks are defined by tripartite international labor law which is largely reflected in national legislations. Increasing global trade and competition based on new technology, have changed not only occupational hazards, but also resulted in a considerable shift of power from national states to corporate enterprises as visible also from increasing deregulation. The development requires adaptation from both, OHS and enterprises, in the best interest of a healthy and productive workforce, of social and economic stability, and of sustainability. PMID:17284866

  5. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  6. Market impact of selected industrial energy efficient technologies. Final report Jun 81-May 82

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.O.; Salama, S.; Kothari, V.S.

    1982-09-01

    This analysis is designed to assist the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in evaluating technologies within the Industrial Utilization (IU) program. The main focus of the study is to assess the market impacts of selected projects designed by GRI to improve industrial sector energy efficiency and reduce energy-related cost. Market impacts examined for GRI include the energy savings and consumer savings that could result from these industrial technologies sponsored by GRI.

  7. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application...

  8. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application...

  9. Proceedings of the Chinese-American symposium on energy markets and the future of energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1988-11-01

    The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.

  10. Electrochemical energy — progress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  11. Spatial analysis of world energy markets: estimation of the demand for energy and variable supply simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sahlawi, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study develops a theoretical and empirical model to estimate the demand for oil, natural gas, and coal in the developing countries and to then simulate the response of spatially separated world energy markets to supply shocks. It is found that the demands for oil, natural gas, and coal in the developing countries are highly priced inelastic in the short-run. This is in keeping with elasticity estimates for the developed countries. The model simulates two kinds of supply shocks, first; partial blocking of the Strait of Hormuz, and second; return of Iraq and Iran oil supplies to their pre-war levels. Additionally, the impact of economic growth on energy demand is simulated when supplies are variable. The simulation results reveals that the problem of having oil supply disruption or oil supply surplus seems to create problems that can be solved by varying the supplies of energy substitutes. However, the impact of economic growth appears to be minimal.

  12. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  13. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  14. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  15. International energy policy: the conflict of investment needs and market signals

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1985-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a neglected opportunity and Western Europe a neglected risk on resource and production cost grounds, but the greatest danger to energy security lies in the US imposing its highly market-oriented energy logic on the rest of the world. Speaking for the International Association of Energy Economists, the author points out that energy prospects look different to Europeans than to Americans. Europe needs to develop a balancing factor to Soviet gas, but is ahead of the US in its concern for energy security and the impact of energy development on the environment and society. The US message that free markets provide the best solutions tends to be ignored because the US message persists in its claim that the price of oil drives the entire energy machine. Natural gas offers the most hope as an alternative, but it is necessary to develop committed markets.

  16. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  17. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  18. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  19. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New Brunswick Power... 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 824a(e)). On December...

  20. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  1. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  2. Ultrasonic Imaging Technology Helps American Manufacturer of Nondestructive Evaluation Equipment Become More Competitive in the Global Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sonix, Inc., of Springfield, Virginia, has implemented ultrasonic imaging methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. These methods have heretofore been unavailable on commercial ultrasonic imaging systems and provide significantly more sensitive material characterization than conventional high-resolution ultrasonic c-scanning. The technology transfer is being implemented under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Sonix, and several invention disclosures have been submitted by Dr. Roth to protect Lewis interests. Sonix has developed ultrasonic imaging systems used worldwide for microelectronics, materials research, and commercial nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In 1993, Sonix won the U.S. Department of Commerce "Excellence in Exporting" award. Lewis chose to work with Sonix for two main reasons: (1) Sonix is an innovative leader in ultrasonic imaging systems, and (2) Sonix was willing to apply the improvements we developed with our in-house Sonix equipment. This symbiotic joint effort has produced mutual benefits. Sonix recognized the market potential of our new and highly sensitive methods for ultrasonic assessment of material quality. We, in turn, see the cooperative effort as an effective means for transferring our technology while helping to improve the product of a domestic firm.

  3. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  4. 77 FR 30521 - Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of...

  5. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202..., 2011, DOE received an application from CPM for authority to transmit electric energy from the...

  6. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding,...

  7. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization October 18, 2012. This is a supplemental notice in the...

  8. 18 CFR 375.307 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. 375.307 Section 375.307 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE...

  9. 18 CFR 375.307 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. 375.307 Section 375.307 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE...

  10. 18 CFR 375.307 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. 375.307 Section 375.307 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE...

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Dagher, Leila; Swezey, Blair

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  12. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  13. Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A.

    2011-08-11

    The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

  14. Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing area reserve sharing holds the promise of significantly reducing wind integration costs. In a companion paper we examine wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases. In this paper we turn to an examination of the NYISO sub-hourly energy market to understand how it incentivizes generators to respond to ramping signals without having to explicitly pay for the service. Because markets appear to have the ability of bringing out supply response in sub-hourly energy markets, and because existing thermal resources appear to have significant untapped ramping capability, we believe that a combination of fast energy markets and combined balancing area operations can increase the grid's ability to absorb higher wind penetrations without experiencing significant operational problems or costs.

  15. What Goes on behind Closed Doors? How College Dormitory Residents Change to Save Energy during a Competition-Based Energy Reduction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sintov, Nicole; Dux, Ellen; Tran, Agassi; Orosz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of a competition-based intervention combining high-resolution electricity feedback, incentives, information and prompts on college dormitory residents' energy consumption and participation in demand response events. The authors also investigated changes in individual-level…

  16. Nonlinear structure analysis of carbon and energy markets with MFDCCA based on maximum overlap wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear structure between carbon and energy markets by employing the maximum overlap wavelet transform (MODWT) as well as the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis based on maximum overlap wavelet transform (MFDCCA-MODWT). Based on the MODWT multiresolution analysis and the statistic Qcc(m) significance, relatively significant cross-correlations are obtained between carbon and energy future markets either on different time scales or on the whole. The result of the Granger causality test indicates bidirectional Granger causality between carbon and electricity future markets, although the Granger causality relationship between the carbon and oil price is not evident. The existence of multifractality for the returns between carbon and energy markets is proven with the MFDCCA-MODWT algorithm. In addition, results of investigating the origin of multifractality demonstrate that both long-range correlations and fat-tailed distributions play important roles in the contributions of multifractality.

  17. Energy development and security and supply-side ideology: oligopoly, monopoly, and imperfect competition make fossil fuel regulation a necessity

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, P.G.

    1985-04-01

    Should energy development, of any form, be encouraged by the federal government. Inasmuch as conventional economic theories all are inapplicable, incomplete, or unrealistic as descriptions and explanations of real world energy markets, they cannot illuminate this value question. To date, American energy policies generally have manipulated supplies and prices of energy. If the objectives of energy policy are to conserve fuel, to reduce vulnerability to energy-related inflation, to control expenditures on energy, and to free Western Europe, Japan, and the US from dependence upon hostile or potentially hostile suppliers, then an effective policy would have to alter both demand and supply for energy. Advocates of simplistic deregulation, unwilling or unable to anticipate the undesirable consequences of that policy, invite the very governmental interference from which they recoil.

  18. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  19. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and

  20. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based...

  1. 75 FR 61470 - Smart One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Smart One Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. 76 FR 9347 - Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Coyote Canyon Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 76 FR 26283 - Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Chip Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 78 FR 75561 - Astral Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astral Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Astral Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 76 FR 15306 - Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Aspen Merchant Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 75 FR 11532 - El Cajon Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission El Cajon Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of El Cajon Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  9. 76 FR 35211 - El Segundo Energy Center LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission El Segundo Energy Center LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of El Segundo Energy Center, LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 75 FR 35018 - GenConn Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GenConn Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of GenConn Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  12. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 78 FR 60270 - Platinum Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Platinum Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Platinum Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 75 FR 61471 - PalletOne Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PalletOne Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of PalletOne Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  15. 77 FR 67360 - EnergyMark, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EnergyMark, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of EnergyMark, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  16. 78 FR 54464 - Premier Empire Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Premier Empire Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Premier Empire Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  17. 77 FR 23476 - Conch Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Conch Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Conch Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  18. 78 FR 8510 - New Energy Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Energy Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of New Energy Services LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 76 FR 55378 - AmericaWide Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AmericaWide Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AmericaWide Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... intervene or to protest should file with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street,...

  20. 76 FR 71007 - Mercuria Energy America, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mercuria Energy America, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mercuria Energy America, Inc.'s application for market-based rate... desiring to intervene or to protest should file with the Federal ] Energy Regulatory Commission, 888...

  1. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 78 FR 28833 - Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 75 FR 44788 - Spark Energy, L.P.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Spark Energy, L.P.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Spark Energy, L.P.'s application for market-based...

  4. 78 FR 72673 - Yellow Jacket Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Yellow Jacket Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Yellow Jacket Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  5. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Star Energy Partners LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 77 FR 53884 - High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of High Mesa Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  8. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  11. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  12. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  13. 77 FR 27767 - Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Galaxy Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 78 FR 55250 - TEC Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TEC Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of TEC Energy Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 75 FR 19643 - Crestwood Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Crestwood Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Crestwood Energy LP's application for market-based...

  16. 75 FR 48665 - White Oak Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission White Oak Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of White Oak Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  17. 75 FR 19643 - West Oaks Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission West Oaks Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of West Oaks Energy LP's application for market-based...

  18. 77 FR 6109 - Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Mariposa Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 77 FR 64979 - Great Bay Energy IV, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great Bay Energy IV, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Great Bay Energy IV, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 20380 - Iron Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Iron Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 78 FR 38310 - Kiwi Energy NY LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kiwi Energy NY LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Kiwi Energy NY LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 78 FR 38310 - Kiwi Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kiwi Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Kiwi Energy Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the opportunity cost of

  4. Emissions impacts of wind and energy storage in a market environment.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the emissions impacts of adding wind and energy storage to a market-based electric power system. Using Texas as a case study, we demonstrate that market power can greatly effect the emissions benefits of wind, due to most of the coal-fired generation being owned by the two dominant firms. Wind tends to have less emissions benefits when generators exercise market power, since coal-fired generation is withheld from the market and wind displaces natural gas-fired generators. We also show that storage can have greater negative emissions impacts in the presence of wind than if only storage is added to the system. This is due to wind increasing on- and off-peak electricity price differences, which increases the amount that storage and coal-fired generation are used. We demonstrate that this effect is exacerbated by market power. PMID:22044253

  5. The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy market

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1996-05-01

    The world population is rising rapidly, notably in the developing countries. Historical trends suggest that increased annual energy use per capita is a good surrogate for the standard of living factors which promote a decrease in population growth rate. If these trends continue, stabilization of the world`s population will require the increased use of all sources of energy as cheap oil and gas are depleted. Improved efficiency of energy use and renewable energy sources will be essential to stabilizing population,while providing a decent standard all over the world.

  6. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.

    1999-08-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

  7. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  9. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  10. System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets - Vol. I, Model Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of projections for the International Energy Outlook. The first volume of this report describes the System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets (SAGE) methodology and provides an in-depth explanation of the equations of the model.

  11. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  12. Reshaping the electric utility industry: Competitive implications for Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper briefly outlines some of the issues in the electric power industry restructuring. In addition, the impacts of these changes on the energy marketplace are discussed. Federal policy initiatives, state regulatory response, and utility management response are each described. Management skills are identified as the critical success factor for competition in the utility market.

  13. Existing and potential market for residential solar energy use in California

    SciTech Connect

    Rains, D.

    1980-01-01

    Research findings are reported on a four-part solar market survey program which identified barriers for residential solar energy use in California. The approach and the framework for analysis are described for the survey program. Summaries and discussions are presented on survey data from solar retrofitters; new construction solar home market and buyers; focus groups of non-solar homeowners; and a statewide survey. (MCW)

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  16. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  17. More Colleges Lock in Energy Rates to Avoid Volatile Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In July, when energy prices were sky-high and some pundits were predicting a continued rise, Charles Riordan, facilities director at Loyola College of Maryland, and his colleagues locked in a chunk of their electricity prices--about a quarter of the college's consumption--to cover the next two years. Now that energy prices have fallen, the…

  18. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  19. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  20. Interspecific competition and torpor in golden spiny mice: two sides of the energy-acquisition coin.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-09-01

    We studied the occurrence of torpor in golden spiny mice in a hot rocky desert near the Dead Sea. In this rodent assemblage, a congener, the nocturnal common spiny mouse, competitively excluded the golden spiny mouse from the nocturnal part of the diel cycle and forced it into diurnal activity; this temporal partitioning allows the two species to partition their prey populations, particularly in summer when the diet of the two species is comprised mainly of arthropods, and largely overlap. We studied the effect of the presence of the common spiny mice at two resource levels (natural food availability and food added ad libitum) on populations of golden spiny mice in four large outdoor enclosures: two with common spiny mice removed and two enclosures with populations of both species. We hypothesized that with interspecific competition and/or reduced resources, golden spiny mice will increase their use of torpor. As we expected, supplemented food reduced the total time spent torpid. In summer, when the different activity periods of the two species results in prey species partitioning, removal of the congener did not affect torpor in the golden spiny mouse. However, in winter, when insect populations are low and the two species of mice overlap in a largely vegetarian diet, removal of the common spiny mouse reduced torpor in golden spiny mice, whether food was supplemented or not. This result suggests that torpor, a mechanism that allows small mammals to sustain periods of low availability of resources or high energetic requirements, may also help them to tolerate periods of enhanced interspecific competition. This may be a significant short-term mechanism that reduces competition and hence increases fitness, in particular of individuals of the subordinate species whose accessibility to resources may be limited. PMID:21719432

  1. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate... Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an eSubscription link on the web site that...

  2. 75 FR 25235 - Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Mint Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  3. 75 FR 59259 - Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Turner Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate... Energy Regulatory Commission Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426, in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules...

  4. 77 FR 71414 - M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of M&R Energy Resources Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority...://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile...

  5. 76 FR 52326 - Green Mountain Energy Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Energy Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Green Mountain Energy Company's application for market-based rate... filings in the above-referenced proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by...

  6. 77 FR 47624 - Escanaba Green Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Escanaba Green Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Escanaba Green Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority... in the above-referenced proceeding(s) are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by...

  7. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  8. Global Competition: A Buyer's Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Industrial development agencies (IDAs) around the globe are luring potential developers to Europe, the Far East, and the Caribbean. Programs in each of these geographic areas and types of incentives offered are discussed. These incentives include tax holidays, free-trade zones, free land, and grants of cash. (DH)

  9. The Role of Fusion in the Future World Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    1996-05-01

    The energy world, in which fusion energy must compete, has changed in recent years with the prospect of a 40-year supply of low-cost oil and gas. This cheap fuel represents a one-time opportunity for developing countries to raise their standards of living, and if historical trends continue, lower their rate of population growth. This brief opportunity for cheap fossil-fuel and the similar 40-year period to commercialize fusion are transients when viewed against the time scale of civilization. We need to develop and deploy the long-term energy sources, such as fusion (fission and 'renewables'), and in all cases improve energy efficiency before the fossil fuels rise in cost and a large fraction of a burgeoning world population is condemned to permanent poverty.

  10. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  11. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 2007

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee that the Energy Information Administration update its 1999 to 2000 work on federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of federal subsidies based on Administration or Congressional action since 2000, and providing an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies directed to electricity production are estimated on the basis of generation by fuel.

  12. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number

  13. Trends in the energy market after World War II (WW II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, K.

    1992-01-01

    After WW II, trends developed in the energy markets that continued virtually unbroken till 1972. The main trend was the strong growth of oil as a percentage of total energy consumed. Not only did oil monopolise the rapidly growing transportation market but it also penetrated rapidly into the stationary energy market. In the second half of the sixties, after the discovery of the Groningen Gas field, pipeline natural gas took a sizable share of the domestic and commercial energy market in Western Europe. This market was mainly fed by gas from Groningen, the North Sea and Russia. Another trend was the steady growth of electricity as a percentage of the stationary market partly based on nuclear energy. Coal was the loser. This rather steady development was upset by the first oil crisis in 1972. This crisis was a political crisis which had little to do with the physical availability of crude oil. Between 1972 and the present, periods of reasonable price stability were interrupted by violent swings in the price of oil and gas. Moreover, during this period the environmental movement became a major influence in the energy field. Notwithstanding the generally unstable market, some new trends developed after 1972 and some old ones continued. Will these trends continue long enough to be useful for making a scenario for the future? The forecaster should not assume that the development of energy consumption in the USA, Western Europe and Japan will continue to be of overwhelming importance. Developments in South East Asia and Eastern Europe should be watched very carefully. There are reasons to believe that at a certain stage in economic development, transportation demand shoots up much faster than economic growth, leading to a rapid demand growth for distillate oil. Of importance is also how will the rapidly developing countries generate their increasing demand for electricity and how will they fuel their industry? There can be little doubt that in the rich countries

  14. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  15. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  17. Energy efficiency programs for niche markets: The Labs21 program as an exemplar

    SciTech Connect

    Wirdzek, Phillip; Lintner, William; Mathew, Paul; Carlisle, Nancy

    2004-06-01

    Most federal programs that promote energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in the building industry focus on the larger market segments such as offices, residential buildings, etc. Niche markets such as laboratories are often overlooked and beyond the scope of such programs, for at least two reasons: (a) by definition, niche markets are a relatively small ''wedge'' of the overall energy consumption ''pie''; and (b) laboratories have health and safety concerns, complex flexibility requirements and are perceived to be less amenable to broadly applicable strategies. Nevertheless, laboratories and other ''high-tech'' buildings demand the attention of the energy efficiency and sustainable design community for several reasons: (1) They are a growing segment of the building sector. (2) They are very energy and resource intensive laboratories on average are four to six times as energy intensive as office buildings, and five to ten times as expensive to build. (3) There are significant opportunities for efficiency and conservation, especially when compared to other buildings. In this paper, we describe how the Labs21 program, a joint program of the US EPA and US DOE, is structured to meet these needs recognizing that laboratories require very specialized engineering and design knowledge not addressed in academia or industry, and not readily shared to a level commensurate with the needs of this building sector. While Labs21 is focused on one niche market, we also highlight some experiences from this program applicable to other specialized building types.

  18. Geothermal Energy Market in Southern California Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Budhraja, Vikram S.

    1992-03-24

    I'm pleased to be here as your keynote speaker from the utility industry. Today is fitting to discuss the role of an alternative/renewable energy resource such as geothermal. Three years ago today, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. This ecological catastrophe was another of those periodic jolts that underscores the importance of lessening our nation's dependence on oil and increasing the use of cost-effective, environmentally benign alternative/renewable energy sources. Alternative/renewables have come a long way since the first oil crisis in 1973. Today, they provide 9 percent of electric power used in the United States. That's nearly double the figure of just two years ago. And since 1985, one-third of a new capacity has come from geothermal, solar, wind and biomass facilities. Nevertheless, geothermal supplies only about three-tenths of a percent of the country's electric power, or roughly 2,800 megawatts (MW). And most of that is in California. In fact, geothermal is California's second-largest source of renewable energy, supplying more than 5 percent of the power generated in the state. Today, I'd like to discuss the outlook for the geothermal industry, framing it within Southern California Edison's experience with geothermal and other alternative/renewable energy sources.

  19. Transforming Markets for Energy Efficiency Buildings in China

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K. Watson; Barbara A. Finamore

    2002-09-30

    Program involved active support and participation in the development and implementation of a residential building energy consumption standards for the ''Transition Zone'' and ''Cooling Zone'' of China, with an implementation emphasis on Chongqing Municipality in southwestern China and, later, Shanghai Municipality. Beyond-code policies and programs, such as green building standards were also promoted.

  20. Energy Modeling Forum Study #26 CHANGING THE GAME?: EMISSIONS AND MARKET IMPLICATIONS OF NEW NATURAL GAS SUPPLIES: EPA US9r MARKAL Model Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the application of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, new natural gas shale formations are becoming widely available in North America at competitive prices. This development has created an extensive search for new markets where natural gas may compete effectively ...