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Modelling the effects of competitive glutamate antagonists on AMPA receptor desensitisation and EPSC amplitude  

E-print Network

Modelling the effects of competitive glutamate antagonists on AMPA receptor desensitisation states to mimic the effects of bath application of competitive glutamate antagonists, we demonstratemM glutamate at 50Hz for 2secs. With no antagonist present the EPSCs depressed by 80

Graham, Bruce


Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the equiactive cocaine concentration during self-administration  

PubMed Central

Summary Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the rate of cocaine self-administration. As the rate of self-administration at a particular unit dose is determined by the satiety threshold and the elimination half-life (t1/2) of cocaine, we investigated whether dopamine receptor antagonists altered these parameters. The plasma cocaine concentration at the time of each self-administration was constant during a session demonstrating that this satiety threshold concentration represents an equiactive cocaine concentration. The plasma cocaine concentration at the time of self-administration was increased by SCH23390, consistent with pharmacological theory. In rats trained to reliably self-administer cocaine, SCH23390 had no effect on the plasma steady-state cocaine concentration produced by constant infusions of cocaine. Therefore, this antagonist had no effect on cocaine t1/2 at a dose that accelerated cocaine self-administration. A continuous cocaine infusion at a rate that maintained steady state concentrations above the satiety threshold stopped self-administration. SCH23390, or the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (?) eticlopride, reinstated self-administration in the presence of the constant cocaine infusion. This is consistent with SCH23390 and eticlopride raising the satiety threshold above the steady state level produced by the constant cocaine infusion. It is concluded that the antagonist-induced acceleration of cocaine self-administration is the result of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interaction whereby the rate of cocaine elimination is faster at the higher concentrations, as dictated by first-order kinetics, so that cocaine levels decline more rapidly to the elevated satiety threshold. This results in the decreased inter-injection intervals. PMID:20812328

Norman, Andrew B; Norman, Mantana K; Tabet, Michael R; Tsibulsky, Vladimir L; Pesce, Amadeo J



Useful pharmacological parameters for G-protein-coupled receptor homodimers obtained from competition experiments. Agonist-antagonist binding modulation.  


Many G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed on the plasma membrane as dimers. Since drug binding data are currently fitted using equations developed for monomeric receptors, the interpretation of the pharmacological data are equivocal in many cases. As reported here, GPCR dimer models account for changes in competition curve shape as a function of the radioligand concentration used, something that cannot be explained by monomeric receptor models. Macroscopic equilibrium dissociation constants for the agonist and homotropic cooperativity index reflecting the intramolecular communication within the dopamine D1 or adenosine A2A receptor homodimer as well as hybrid equilibrium dissociation constant, which reflects the antagonist/agonist modulation may be calculated by fitting binding data from antagonist/agonist competition experiments to equations developed from dimer receptor models. Comparing fitting the data by assuming a classical monomeric receptor model or a dimer model, it is shown that dimer receptor models provide more clues useful in drug discovery than monomer-based models. PMID:19643089

Casadó, Vicent; Ferrada, Carla; Bonaventura, Jordi; Gracia, Eduard; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; Cortés, Antoni; Franco, Rafael



GABA{sub A} receptor open-state conformation determines non-competitive antagonist binding  

SciTech Connect

The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA{sub A}R) is one of the most important targets for insecticide action. The human recombinant {beta}3 homomer is the best available model for this binding site and 4-n-[{sup 3}H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([{sup 3}H]EBOB) is the preferred non-competitive antagonist (NCA) radioligand. The uniquely high sensitivity of the {beta}3 homomer relative to the much-less-active but structurally very-similar {beta}1 homomer provides an ideal comparison to elucidate structural and functional features important for NCA binding. The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared using chimeragenesis and mutagenesis and various combinations with the {alpha}1 subunit and modulators. Chimera {beta}3/{beta}1 with the {beta}3 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}1 subunit transmembrane helices retained the high [{sup 3}H]EBOB binding level of the {beta}3 homomer while chimera {beta}1/{beta}3 with the {beta}1 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}3 subunit transmembrane helices had low binding activity similar to the {beta}1 homomer. GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold by increasing the open probability of the channel. Addition of the {alpha}1 subunit rescued the inactive {beta}1/{beta}3 chimera close to wildtype {alpha}1{beta}1 activity. EBOB binding was significantly altered by mutations {beta}1S15'N and {beta}3N15'S compared with wildtype {beta}1 and {beta}3, respectively. However, the binding activity of {alpha}1{beta}1S15'N was insensitive to GABA and {alpha}1{beta}3N15'S was stimulated much less than wildtype {alpha}1{beta}3 by GABA. The inhibitory effect of etomidate on NCA binding was reduced more than 5-fold by the mutation {beta}3N15'S. Therefore, the NCA binding site is tightly regulated by the open-state conformation that largely determines GABA{sub A} receptor sensitivity. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared by chimeragenesis, mutagenesis and modulators. > Low {beta}1 NCA binding was rescued by replacing its transmembrane helices with those of {beta}3. > GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold. > Mutation at 15' position in TM2 reduced GABA stimulation of NCA binding. > The open-state conformation largely determines GABAA receptor sensitivity to NCAs.

Chen Ligong [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Xue Ling [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giacomini, Kathleen M. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Casida, John E., E-mail: [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)



Pharmacological characterization of the competitive GLUK5 receptor antagonist decahydroisoquinoline LY466195 in vitro and in vivo.  


The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been implicated in both migraine and persistent pain. The identification of the kainate receptor GLU(K5) in dorsal root ganglia, the dorsal horn, and trigeminal ganglia makes it a target of interest for these indications. We examined the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of the competitive GLU(K5)-selective kainate receptor antagonist LY466195 [(3S,4aR,6S,8aR)-6-[[(2S)-2-carboxy-4,4-difluoro-1-pyrrolidinyl]-methyl]decahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid)], the most potent GLU(K5) antagonist described to date. Comparisons were made to the competitive GLU(K5)/alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist LY293558 [(3S,4aR,6R,8aR)-6-[2-(1(2)H-tetrazole-5-yl)ethyl]-decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], other decahydroisoquinoline GLU(K5) receptor antagonists, and the noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist LY300168 [1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodi-azepine]. When characterized electrophysiologically in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, LY466195 antagonized kainate (30 microM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 0.045 +/- 0.011 microM. In HEK293 cells transfected with GLU(K5), GLU(K2)/GLU(K5), or GLU(K5)/GLU(K6) receptors, LY466195 produced IC50 values of 0.08 +/- 0.02, 0.34 +/- 0.17, and 0.07 +/- 0.02 microM, respectively. LY466195 was efficacious in a dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) model of migraine with an ID100 value of 100 microg/kg i.v. LY466195 was also efficacious in the c-fos migraine model, with a dose of 1 microg/kg i.v. significantly reducing the number of Fos-positive cells in the rat nucleus caudalis after electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Furthermore, LY466195 showed no contractile activity in the rabbit saphenous vein in vitro. The diethyl ester prodrug of LY466195 was also efficacious in the same PPE and c-fos models after oral administration at doses of 10 and 100 microg/kg, respectively while having no N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist-like behavioral effects at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg. PMID:16690725

Weiss, Brianne; Alt, Andrew; Ogden, Ann Marie; Gates, Mary; Dieckman, Donna K; Clemens-Smith, Amy; Ho, Ken H; Jarvie, Keith; Rizkalla, Geihan; Wright, Rebecca A; Calligaro, David O; Schoepp, Darryle; Mattiuz, Edward L; Stratford, Robert E; Johnson, Bryan; Salhoff, Craig; Katofiasc, Mary; Phebus, Lee A; Schenck, Kathryn; Cohen, Marlene; Filla, Sandra A; Ornstein, Paul L; Johnson, Kirk W; Bleakman, David



Structural studies, homology modeling and molecular docking of novel non-competitive antagonists of GluK1/GluK2 receptors.  


Non-competitive ligands of kainate receptors have focused significant attention as medicinal compounds because they seem to be better tolerated than competitive antagonists and uncompetitive blocker of these receptors. Here we present structural studies (X-ray structure determination, NMR and MS spectra) of novel indole-derived non-competitive antagonists of GluK1/GluK2 receptors, homology models of GluK1 and GluK2 receptors based on novel AMPA receptor template as well as molecular docking of ligands to their molecular targets. We find that the allosteric site is in the receptor transduction domain, in one receptor subunit, not between the two subunits as it was indicated by our earlier studies. PMID:24368028

Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Karczmarzyk, Zbigniew; Fruzi?ski, Andrzej; Pihlaja, Kalevi; Sinkkonen, Jari; Wiinämaki, Kirsti; Kronbach, Christiane; Unverferth, Klaus; Poso, Antti; Matosiuk, Dariusz



Quinazolin-4-one derivatives: A novel class of non-competitive NR2C/D subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives is non-competitive and voltage-independent, suggesting that this family of compounds does not exert action on the agonist binding site of the receptor or block the channel pore. The compounds described here resemble CP-465,022 ((S)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(6-diethylaminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-vinyl]-6-fluoro-3H-quinazolin-4-one), a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors. However, modification of ring substituents resulted in analogues with greater than 100-fold selectivity for recombinant NMDA receptors over AMPA and kainate receptors. Furthermore, within this series of compounds, analogues were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of non-competitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:20684595

Mosley, Cara A.; Acker, Timothy M.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Andersen, Karen T.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Brauner-Osborne, Hans; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.



Modulation of striatal acetylcholine concentrations by NMDA and the competitive NMDA receptor-antagonist AP5: an in vivo microdialysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The effects of local perfusion with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5) and the glutamate\\u000a receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on release of extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in the dorsolateral\\u000a striatum were studied using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. AP-5 caused a dose-dependent decrease in ACh release\\u000a that was counteracted by the addition of NMDA.

J. Knauber; U. Kischka; M. Roth; W. J. Schmidt; M. Hennerici; K. Fassbender



Concurrent locomotor stimulation and decrease in dopamine release in rats and mice after treatment with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonists D-CPPene and CGS 19755  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists D-CPPene (3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid) and CGS 19755 (cis-4-(phosphonomethyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid) on dopamine (DA) transmission and motor activity in mice and rats. As measures of DA release we used mouse brain 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) levels, an indirect estimate of DA release, and striatal dialysate measures of DA

N. Waters; C. Lundgren; L. O. Hansson; M. L. Carlsson



Polyamine spider toxins are potent un-competitive antagonists of rat cortex excitatory amino acid receptors.  


We examined the effect of argiopine and argiopinine 3, low molecular weight polyamine venom components of the spider Argiope lobata, on rat cortical excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Responses to 100 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) with 10 microM glycine were blocked by both of the polyamine toxins in a dose-dependent manner. Both compounds had similar potencies against 100 microM kainate or 50 microM (S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (L-AMPA). Oscillatory responses to 2 microM quisqualate were unaffected by either polyamine toxin. Increasing concentrations of either NMDA, kainate or AMPA were unable to overcome the antagonism by either spider toxin. We were able to demonstrate a use-dependent phenomenon similar to that of phencyclidine; neither polyamine toxin affected the NMDA, kainate or AMPA response without the presence of the respective agonist. PMID:1385187

Davies, M S; Baganoff, M P; Grishin, E V; Lanthorn, T H; Volkova, T M; Watson, G B; Wiegand, R C



The naturally occurring aliphatic isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin are weak agonists but potent non-competitive antagonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  


As the Ah receptor target gene products play a critical role in chemical carcinogenesis, antagonists are considered as potential chemopreventive agents. It is demonstrated in this paper that the isothiocyanates R,S-sulforaphane and erucin are non-competitive antagonists of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Both isothiocyanates were poor agonists for the receptor and elevated CYP1A1 mRNA levels only modestly when incubated with precision-cut rat liver slices. In contrast, the classical Ah receptor agonist benzo[a]pyrene was a potent inducer of CYP1A1 mRNA levels, with this effect being effectively antagonized by the two isothiocyanates. In further studies, it was demonstrated that R,S-sulforaphane could both prevent the interaction of and displace already bound benzo[a]pyrene from the Ah receptor, but no concentration dependency was observed with respect to the isothiocyanate. Both erucin and R,S-sulforaphane antagonized the benzo[a]pyrene-mediated increase in the CYP1A-mediated O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin in rat precision-cut liver slices. Of the two isomers of R,S-sulforaphane, the naturally occurring R-isomer was more effective than the S-isomer in antagonizing the activation of the Ah receptor by benzo[a]pyrene. Antagonism of the Ah receptor may be a major contributor to the established chemoprevention of aliphatic isothiocyanates. PMID:22643862

Abdull Razis, Ahmad F; Hanlon, Natalya; Soltys, Ewa; Krizova, Veronika; Iori, Renato; Plant, Kathryn E; Plant, Nick; Ioannides, Costas



Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

The natural plant alkaloids caffeine and theophylline were the first adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists described in the literature. They exhibit micromolar affinities and are non-selective. A large number of derivatives and analogs have subsequently been synthesized and evaluated as AR antagonists. Very potent antagonists have thus been developed with selectivity for each of the four AR subtypes. PMID:20859796

Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis  

E-print Network

LETTER Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis Jennie Garbutt,1 infections led to improved suppression of competitors in the bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Antagonism, Bacillus thuringiensis, evolution of virulence, interference competition, mixed infection, social

Obbard, Darren


Modulation of striatal acetylcholine concentrations by NMDA and the competitive NMDA receptor-antagonist AP-5: an in vivo microdialysis study.  


The effects of local perfusion with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5) and the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on release of extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in the dorsolateral striatum were studied using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. AP-5 caused a dose-dependent decrease in ACh release that was counteracted by the addition of NMDA. Perfusion with AP-5 also decreased Ch levels. Local perfusion with NMDA induced an elevation of ACh release in low (10(-5) M), but not high (10(-2) M and 10(-3) M) concentrations, that were associated with massive cellular death. These inhibitory effects of AP-5 and the stimulatory effect of NMDA in non-neurotoxic dosages on ACh release provide further evidence for a tonic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons by glutamatergic neurons via NMDA receptors. PMID:10195333

Knauber, J; Kischka, U; Roth, M; Schmidt, W J; Hennerici, M; Fassbender, K



Tachykinin NK 2 Receptor Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The tachykinin NK2 receptor is widel y distributed in the peripheral and central nervou s system. It mediates numerous pharmacological effects\\u000a of neurokinin A, suggesting that the tachykinin NK2 receptor may be possible target for new therapeutics. Many effor ts to identify and cha racterize selective antagonists of\\u000a this receptor have been undertaken and several antagonists of both peptide and

X. Emonds-Alt


Inorganic iron complexes derived from the nitric oxide donor nitroprusside: competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists with nanomolar affinity.  


Aquopentacyanoferrate(II), [Fe(II)H2O(CN)5]3-, is one of the photodegradation products of the vasodilator and nitric oxide donor nitroprusside. Earlier observations concerning the light dependence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade by nitroprusside prompted us to examine the effects of this iron complex on the NMDA receptor. [Fe(II)H2O(CN)5]3- and two other related species, aminopentacyanoferrate(II) and aminopentacyanoferrate(III), were found to be highly potent, competitive, and selective NMDA receptor antagonists. In a binding assay for the transmitter recognition site on the NMDA receptor, these iron complexes displaced the radioligand [3H]CGP 39653 with nanomolar affinities. They did not displace radioligands labeling the channel ([3H]MK-801) or the glycine co-agonist ([3H]glycine) sites of the NMDA receptor, nor did they have any relevant affinities for a number of other neurotransmitter (alpha-adrenergic, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, opiate) receptors. The iron complexes blocked NMDA-induced depolarizations in rat cortical slices at submicromolar concentrations, whereas responses to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate were not affected. In another functional receptor assay (potentiation of [3H]MK-801 binding by glutamate under non-equilibrium conditions), Schild analysis demonstrated the competitive nature of the NMDA receptor antagonism. The pA2 values obtained from these experiments were similar to the pK(i) values derived from radioligand ([3H]CGP 39653) binding assays. To explain the high affinity and selectivity of these compounds for the NMDA receptor, a novel mechanism of antagonist-receptor interaction is proposed, involving a ligand exchange process in which a loosely bound species (here H2O or NH3) in the coordination sphere of the iron complex is replaced by a functional group of an amino acid side chain placed at the glutamate recognition site of the NMDA receptor, thereby hindering agonist binding. PMID:11172739

Neijt, H; Koller, M; Urwyler, S



Aldosterone antagonists destabilize the mineralocorticosteroid receptor.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the mechanism of action of aldosterone antagonists, we studied the interaction of spironolactone with the chick mineralocorticosteroid receptor (MR). Intestinal cytosol contains specific spironolactone-binding sites (Kd approximately 3 nM; max. no. of binding sites approximately 100 fmol/mg of protein) that have been identified as MRs by competition experiments with steroid ligands and with the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody H10E that interacts with aldosterone-binding domain of the MR. Binding studies indicate that aldosterone and spironolactone bind to the MR through a common site that encompasses the epitope recognized by H10E. At 4 degrees C, spironolactone dissociates much more rapidly from the cytosol 8-9 S form of MR (t1/2 38 min) than does aldosterone (t1/2 3240 min). A high dissociation rate was also observed for progesterone, a natural aldosterone antagonist (t1/2 84 min). The covalent linkage of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (hsp90) to the ligand-binding subunit of MR with dimethyl pimelimidate did not notably modify the rate of dissociation of spironolactone from the receptor (t1/2 96 min), excluding the possibility that the rapid dissociation rate of the antagonist was related to hsp90 release. The effects of aldosterone and the two anti-mineralocorticosteroids on the 8-9 S heterooligomeric structure of the MR differed strikingly. Using low-salt density-gradient centrifugation analysis, aldosterone-labelled receptors were recovered as 8-9S complexes, whereas 4 S entities were detected after spironolactone and progesterone binding. This indicated that, under the experimental conditions used, aldosterone antagonists facilitate hsp90 release and thus do not stabilize the non-DNA-binding 8-9S form of MR. We propose that the combination of rapid dissociation of the ligand and a weakened hsp90-receptor interaction is involved in the anti-mineralococorticosteroid activity of aldosterone antagonists. PMID:1313229

Couette, B; Lombes, M; Baulieu, E E; Rafestin-Oblin, M E



Configurationally Restricted Bismacrocyclic CXCR4 Receptor Antagonists  

E-print Network

Configurationally Restricted Bismacrocyclic CXCR4 Receptor Antagonists Gina C. Valks, Graeme Mc configurationally restricted analogue of bismacrocyclic cyclam-type CXCR4 chemokine receptor antagonists has been,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)), Figure 1c, is a drug that interacts with a cell surface protein (CXCR4) via hydrogen bonding

Hubin, Tim


The memory-facilitating effects of the competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist CGP 37849 are steroid-sensitive, whereas its memory-impairing effects are not  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention performance of mice in a passive-avoidance task was facilitated by low doses (0.3 mg\\/kg) of the competitive NMDA-receptor blocker CGP 37849, but impaired by high doses (30 mg\\/kg). The facilitatory effect was selectively suppressed by elevation of the plasma levels of aldosterone or corticosterone, or by blockade of steroid biosynthesis or the mineralocorticoid receptors. The impairment of memory,

C. Mondadori; J. Borkowski; C. Gentsch



Synthesis and SAR of pyrimidine-based, non-nucleotide P2Y14 receptor antagonists.  


A weak antagonist of the pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y(14) containing a dihydropyridopyrimidine core was identified through high-throughput screening. Subsequent optimization led to potent, non-UTP competitive antagonists and represent the first reported non-nucleotide antagonists of this receptor. Compound 18q was identified as a 10 nM P2Y(14) antagonist with good oral bioavailability and provided sufficient exposure in mice to be used as a tool for future in vivo studies. PMID:21507642

Guay, Daniel; Beaulieu, Christian; Belley, Michel; Crane, Sheldon N; DeLuca, Jeancarlo; Gareau, Yves; Hamel, Martine; Henault, Martin; Hyjazie, Huda; Kargman, Stacia; Chan, Chi Chung; Xu, Lijing; Gordon, Robert; Li, Lianhai; Mamane, Yael; Morin, Nicolas; Mancini, Joseph; Thérien, Michel; Tranmer, Geoffrey; Truong, Vouy Linh; Wang, Zhaoyin; Black, W Cameron



Cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behaviors in rats remain stable after systemic administration of GYKI 52466, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

Given the posited role of enhanced AMPA-mediated synaptic transmission in relapse to drug seeking, we investigated whether the systemic administration of AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine until stable self-administration was achieved. Effects of GYKI 52466 (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, i.v.) on cocaine self-administration were assessed. Animals were allowed to reestablish stable cocaine self-administration and were then behaviorally extinguished from drug taking. The effects of GYKI 52466 (3, 10 mg/kg, i.v.) on cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior were assessed. We found that GYKI 52466 failed to inhibit cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in both the self-administration and reinstatement paradigms. We suggest that although AMPA receptors may be involved in cocaine reward and addiction, the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 has low therapeutic potential for cocaine addiction treatment. PMID:22206835

Srivastava, Ratika; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L.



Dissociation characteristics of endothelin ETA receptor agonists and antagonists.  


Endothelin (ET) binding to receptors has been shown to be almost irreversible. We studied the dissociation characteristics of ETA receptor agonists and antagonists using membranes prepared from rat pituitary cells (MMQ). Consistent with our previous report, competition studies comparing ET-1, ET-3, BQ123, FR139317, PD142893, and Ro46-2005 show that MMQ cells contained predominantly the ETA receptor. [125I]ET-1 bound to the receptor was difficult to dissociate. In contrast, bound BQ123, FR139317, and Ro46-2005 were easier to dissociate, suggesting that antagonist binding was more reversible. Although BQ123 (5 nM), FR139317 (1 nM), and Ro46-2005 (0.5 microM) inhibited 0.1 nM [125I]ET-1 binding by greater than 80% after 15 min of incubation, the inhibition decreased to less than 20% after 24 h of incubation. This decrease in binding inhibition was not the result of antagonist degradation. These results suggest that, similar to our previous observation made with the ETB receptor in porcine cerebellum, the ability of antagonists to inhibit [125I]ET-1 binding to the ETA receptor is critically dependent on the incubation time because of the difference in the dissociation characteristics between antagonists and ET-1. PMID:8587421

Wu-Wong, J R; Chiou, W J; Dixon, D B; Opgenorth, T J



NMDA receptor antagonists prevent acute ammonia toxicity in mice.  


We proposed that acute ammonia toxicity is mediated by activation of NMDA receptors. To confirm this hypothesis we have tested whether different NMDA receptor antagonists, acting on different sites of NMDA receptors, prevent death of mice induced by injection of 14 mmol/Kg of ammonium acetate, a dose that induces death of 95% of mice. MK-801, phencyclidine and ketamine, which block the ion channel of NMDA receptors, prevent death of at least 75% of mice. CPP, AP-5, CGS 19755, and CGP 40116, competitive antagonists acting on the binding site for NMDA, also prevent death of at least 75% of mice. Butanol, ethanol and methanol which block NMDA receptors, also prevent death of mice. There is an excellent correlation between the EC50 for preventing ammonia-induced death and the IC50 for inhibiting NMDA-induced currents. Acute ammonia toxicity is not prevented by antagonists of kainate/AMPA receptors, of muscarinic or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or of GABA receptors. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase afford partial protection against ammonia toxicity while inhibitors of calcineurin, of glutamine synthetase or antioxidants did not prevent ammonia-induced death of mice. These results strongly support the idea that acute ammonia toxicity is mediated by activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:8923486

Hermenegildo, C; Marcaida, G; Montoliu, C; Grisolía, S; Miñana, M D; Felipo, V



Endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothelin (ET) system, especially ET-1 and the ETA and ETB receptors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Together with prostanoids and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, ET receptor antagonists have become mainstays in the current treatment of PAH. Three substances are currently available for the treatment of PAH. One of these substances, bosentan, blocks both ETA

J. Dupuis; M. M. Hoeper



Glucocorticoid-induced keratinocyte-derived interleukin-1 receptor antagonist(s).  

PubMed Central

Pretreatment of epidermal cells (EC) with hydrocortisone or dexamethasone abolishes their capacity to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1) and therefore reduces their capacity to support proliferative response of lectin-stimulated T cells. Additionally, glucocorticoid-pretreated keratinocytes produce an inhibitor of IL-1 activity. This factor is a non-dialysable product of radioresistant epidermal cells, does not represent a non-specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis and appears to be specific for IL-1 since it did not interfere with IL-2-dependent T-cell proliferation. It affects both IL-2 production and the induction of IL-2-receptor expression. Finally, it blocks binding of IL-1 to its receptors on D10S subclone as evaluated by competitive binding assay. Thus, we have provided evidence which indicates that immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids in the skin may also be mediated by an IL-1 receptor antagonist(s) produced by keratinocytes. PMID:1532379

Stosic-Grujicic, S; Lukic, M L



Internalization of the chemokine receptor CCR4 can be evoked by orthosteric and allosteric receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The chemokine receptor CCR4 has at least two natural agonist ligands, MDC (CCL22) and TARC (CCL17) which bind to the same orthosteric site with a similar affinity. Both ligands are known to evoke chemotaxis of CCR4-bearing T cells and also elicit CCR4 receptor internalization. A series of small molecule allosteric antagonists have been described which displace the agonist ligand, and inhibit chemotaxis. The aim of this study was to determine which cellular coupling pathways are involved in internalization, and if antagonists binding to the CCR4 receptor could themselves evoke receptor internalization. CCL22 binding coupled CCR4 efficiently to ?-arrestin and stimulated GTP?S binding however CCL17 did not couple to ?-arrestin and only partially stimulated GTP?S binding. CCL22 potently induced internalization of almost all cell surface CCR4, while CCL17 showed only weak effects. We describe four small molecule antagonists that were demonstrated to bind to two distinct allosteric sites on the CCR4 receptor, and while both classes inhibited agonist ligand binding and chemotaxis, one of the allosteric sites also evoked receptor internalization. Furthermore, we also characterize an N-terminally truncated version of CCL22 which acts as a competitive antagonist at the orthosteric site, and surprisingly also evokes receptor internalization without demonstrating any agonist activity. Collectively this study demonstrates that orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of the CCR4 receptor are capable of evoking receptor internalization, providing a novel strategy for drug discovery against this class of target. PMID:24534492

Ajram, Laura; Begg, Malcolm; Slack, Robert; Cryan, Jenni; Hall, David; Hodgson, Simon; Ford, Alison; Barnes, Ashley; Swieboda, Dawid; Mousnier, Aurelie; Solari, Roberto



Effects of the Competitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antagonist, LY235959 [(-)-6-Phosphonomethyl-deca-hydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid], on Responding for Cocaine under Both Fixed and Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to determine the precise role of the N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in the reinforcing effects of cocaine since uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists alter cocaine self-administration in different ways, depending on the antagonist examined and the behavior being measured. To increase understanding of the role of the NMDA system in cocaine's reinforcing effects, this study measured the

Richard M. Allen; Regina M. Carelli; Linda A. Dykstra; Therese L. Suchey; Carson V. Everett



Influence of a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist on hypothalamic neural activity, food intake and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to elucidate whether antagonistic targeting of the histamine H3 receptor increases hypothalamic histamine levels, in parallel with decreases in food intake and body weight.METHODS:The competitive antagonist potency of a recently synthesized histamine H3 receptor antagonist, NNC 38-1049, was studied in intact HEK293 cells expressing human or rat histamine H3 receptor, in which NNC 38-1049 was allowed

K Malmlöf; F Zaragoza; V Golozoubova; H H F Refsgaard; T Cremers; K Raun; B S Wulff; P B Johansen; B Westerink; K Rimvall



Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.



Characterization of a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor antagonist prodrug.  


Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a phospholipid that binds to a set of G protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1)-S1P(5)) to initiate an array of signaling cascades that affect cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. On a larger physiological scale, the effects of S1P on immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier integrity, angiogenesis, and heart rate have also been observed. An impetus for the characterization of S1P-initiated signaling effects came with the discovery that FTY720 [fingolimod; 2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol] modulates the immune system by acting as an agonist at S1P(1). In the course of structure-activity relationship studies to better understand the functional chemical space around FTY720, we discovered conformationally constrained FTY720 analogs that behave as S1P receptor type-selective antagonists. Here, we present a pharmacological profile of a lead S1P(1/3) antagonist prodrug, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(3-octylphenyl)cyclobutane (VPC03090). VPC03090 is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 to form the competitive antagonist species 3-(3-octylphenyl)-1-(phosphonooxymethyl)cyclobutane (VPC03090-P) as observed in guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding assays, with effects on downstream S1P receptor signaling confirmed by Western blot and calcium mobilization assays. Oral dosing of VPC03090 results in an approximate 1:1 phosphorylated/alcohol species ratio with a half-life of 30 h in mice. Because aberrant S1P signaling has been implicated in carcinogenesis, we applied VPC03090 in an immunocompetent mouse mammary cancer model to assess its antineoplastic potential. Treatment with VPC03090 significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 primary tumors in mice. This result calls to attention the value of S1P receptor antagonists as not only research tools but also potential therapeutic agents. PMID:21632869

Kennedy, Perry C; Zhu, Ran; Huang, Tao; Tomsig, Jose L; Mathews, Thomas P; David, Marion; Peyruchaud, Olivier; Macdonald, Timothy L; Lynch, Kevin R



Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-? and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben



Fimasartan, a novel angiotensin II receptor antagonist.  


Fimasartan (Kanarb®), an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with selectivity for the AT1 receptor subtype, is a pyrimidinone-related heterocyclic compound that was developed by Boryung Pharm. Co., Ltd. Among numerous synthetic derivatives, fimasartan was chosen as a new drug candidate through in vitro and in vivo screening studies. Pharmadynamic-pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles were determined in a series of nonclinical and clinical studies. Fimasartan is a new angiotensin receptor blocker, and the first new molecular entity acting on cardiovascular system approved by Korean Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of essential hypertension in September 2010. Further development process for combination therapy and overseas registration is currently ongoing. PMID:22864732

Kim, Je Hak; Lee, Joo Han; Paik, Soo Heui; Kim, Ji Han; Chi, Yong Ha



Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States)] [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)



Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity  

SciTech Connect

The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.



Iontophoresis of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Rats and Men  

E-print Network

: The treatment of scleroderma-related digital ulcers is challenging. The oral endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA ulcers and in some cases to amputation [1]. Therapy of SSc-related ulcers is challenging. Bosentan, a non specific endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), has been indicated to prevent digital ulcers in patients

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


O-acylated lysergol and dihydrolysergol-I derivatives as competitive antagonists of 5-HT at 5-HT2 receptors of rat tail artery. Allosteric modulation instead of pseudoirreversible inhibition.  


Twelve ergolines (O-acylated lysergol and dihydrolysergol-I derivatives) were synthesized to study their antagonism of 5-HT responses in comparison with methylsergide and LY 53857 [6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-8 beta-ergoline carboxylic acid 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl-ester hydrogen maleate] in cylindrical segments of the isolated rat tail artery. With regard to (9.10-didehydro-6-methyl-8 beta-ergoline)methyl R,S-2-methylbutyrate, the most potent new ergoline derivative, we examined the phenomenon of insurmountable antagonism to 5-HT by methylsergide. O-Acylated lysergol and dihydrolysergol-I derivatives competitively antagonized 5-HT-induced contractions with calculated pA2 values of 7.30 +/- 0.42 for the weakest and 8.42 +/- 0.35 for the most potent ergoline derivative in this series. N1-isopropyl substitution did not generally enhance 5-HT2 receptor affinities but lowered affinities for alpha 1 adrenoceptors in rat aorta. Methysergide and LY 53857 were insurmountable antagonists of 5-HT in rat tail artery. Preincubation with (9.10-didehydro-6-methyl-8 beta-ergoline)methyl R,S-2-methylbutyrate (1 mumol/l) partially prevented the depression of 5-HT-induced contractions caused by methysergide (1-10 nmol/l). Methysergide (100 nmol/l) abolished the protective effect of (9.10-didehydro-6-methyl-8 beta-ergoline)methyl R,S-2-methylbutyrate. (9.10-Didehydro-6-methyl-8 beta-ergoline)methyl R,S-2-methylbutyrate (1 mumol/l), concomitantly incubated with methysergide (30 nmol/l), partially restored the maximum response to 5-HT that had been depressed by methysergide (30 nmol/l). Partial restoration could not be mimicked by washout of methysergide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1320207

Pertz, H; Eich, E



A High-Throughput Ligand Competition Binding Assay for the Androgen Receptor and other Nuclear Receptors  

PubMed Central

Standardized, automated ligand binding assays facilitate evaluation of endocrine activities of environmental chemicals and identification of antagonists of nuclear receptor ligands. Many current assays rely on fluorescently labeled ligands which are significantly different from the native ligands. We describe a radiolabeled ligand competition scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for the androgen receptor (AR) using Ni-coated 384-well FlashPlates® and liganded AR-LBD protein. This highly reproducible, low cost assay is well-suited for automated HTS. Additionally, we show that this assay can be adapted to measure ligand affinities for other nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferation activated receptor ?, thyroid receptors ? and ?). PMID:19171919

Feau, Clementine; Arnold, Leggy A.; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R. Kiplin



The identification of 4,7-disubstituted naphthoic acid derivatives as UDP-competitive antagonists of P2Y14.  


A weak, UDP-competitive antagonist of the pyrimidinergic receptor P2RY(14) with a naphthoic acid core was identified through high-throughput screening. Optimization provided compounds with improved potency but poor pharmacokinetics. Acylglucuronidation was determined to be the major route of metabolism. Increasing the electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents markedly reduced glucuronidation and improved the pharmacokinetic profile. Additional optimization led to the identification of compound 38 which is an 8 nM UDP-competitive antagonist of P2Y(14) with a good pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:21507640

Gauthier, Jacques Yves; Belley, Michel; Deschênes, Denis; Fournier, Jean-François; Gagné, Sébastien; Gareau, Yves; Hamel, Martine; Hénault, Martin; Hyjazie, Huda; Kargman, Stacia; Lavallée, Geneviève; Levesque, Jean-François; Li, Lianhai; Mamane, Yaël; Mancini, Joseph; Morin, Nicolas; Mulrooney, Erin; Robichaud, Joël; Thérien, Michel; Tranmer, Geoffrey; Wang, Zhaoyin; Wu, Jin; Black, W Cameron



(D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin analogues: a new class of bombesin receptor antagonists  

SciTech Connect

Previous attempts to develop analogues of bombesin that function as specific receptor antagonists have been unsuccessful. Alteration of the histidine in luteinizing hormone releasing factor has resulted in analogues that function as competitive antagonists. In the present study the authors have used a similar strategy and altered the histidine in bombesin. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin, (D-Phe/sup 12/,Leu/sup 14/)bombesin, and (Try/sup 4/, D-)je/sup 12/) bombesin did not stimulate amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini when present alone, but each analog inhibited bombesin-stimulated secretion. For each analog, detectable inhibition occurred at 1 and half-maximal inhibition at 4 Each analog inhibited amylase release by bombesin and other agonists that stimulate secretion by interacting with bombesin receptors. The analogues of bombesin did not alter stimulation by substance P or other agonists that interact with other receptors. The inhibition of the action of bombesin was competitive with Schild plots having slopes of 1.0. Each analog also inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-labeled (Try/sup 4/) bombesin but not /sup 125/I-labeled substance P. These results demonstrate that (D-Phe/sup 12/) analogues of bombesin function as bombesin receptor antagonists and are the only bombesin receptor antagonists that interact only with the bombesin receptor. Because of their specificity, these analogues may prove useful for defining the role of bombesin in various physiological or pathological processes.

Heinz-Erian, P.; Coy, D.H.; Tamura, M.; Jones, S.W.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.



Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. Methods In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Results Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Discussion Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems. PMID:25337383

Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj



NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine Impairs Feature Integration in Visual Perception  

PubMed Central

Recurrent interactions between neurons in the visual cortex are crucial for the integration of image elements into coherent objects, such as in figure-ground segregation of textured images. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in monkeys can abolish neural signals related to figure-ground segregation and feature integration. However, it is unknown whether this also affects perceptual integration itself. Therefore, we tested whether ketamine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reduces feature integration in humans. We administered a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to healthy subjects who performed a texture discrimination task in a placebo-controlled double blind within-subject design. We found that ketamine significantly impaired performance on the texture discrimination task compared to the placebo condition, while performance on a control fixation task was much less impaired. This effect is not merely due to task difficulty or a difference in sedation levels. We are the first to show a behavioral effect on feature integration by manipulating the NMDA receptor in humans. PMID:24223927

Meuwese, Julia D. I.; van Loon, Anouk M.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lirk, Philipp B.; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Lamme, Victor A. F.



Pomolic acid, triterpenoid isolated from Licania pittieri, as competitive antagonist of ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets.  


Pomolic acid (PA), triterpenoid isolated from Licania pittieri, has previously shown a potent ability to inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and epinephrine-induced human platelet aggregation. To investigate whether PA could be an antagonist of ADP-activated receptors of human platelets (P2Y(1) and P2Y(12)), pharmacological studies were conducted to examining its ability to modulate the platelet shape change induced by a selective P2Y(1) receptor agonist MRS2365 and also the nature of its possible interaction with ADP receptors by analyzing the characteristics of log concentration-response curves of ADP constructed in the absence and in the presence of fixed concentrations of PA, using in vitro platelet aggregation assays. PA did not interfere with the activation of P2Y(1) receptor by MRS2365 to induce platelet shape change and displayed a competitive antagonism of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, which most probably involves competition for a single binding site in platelets. The estimated equilibrium dissociate constant (K(b)) of PA as ADP receptor antagonist was 15.4±0.06nM. Together, these findings give indirect evidence for the idea that PA could be a potent competitive antagonist of P2Y(12) receptor, and open the possibility to consider it as new member of the non-nucleotide generation of antiplatelet drugs. PMID:22402243

Alvarado-Castillo, Claudia; Estrada, Omar; Carvajal, Edilmo



Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists in clinical research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonists targeting renal microcirculation are novel pharmacologic agents that are currently under development for the treatment of acute heart failure as well as for chronic heart failure. Despite several studies showing improvement of renal function and\\/or increased diuresis with adenosine A1 antagonists, particularly in chronic heart failure, these findings were not confirmed in a large phase

Berthold Hocher




PubMed Central

We describe a 3-month-old infant who presented to our institution with interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA), which consists of neutrophilic pustular dermatosis, periostitis, aseptic multifocal osteomyelitis, and persistently high acutephase reactants. Skin findings promptly improved upon initiation of treatment with anakinra (recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist), and the bony lesions and systemic inflammation resolved with continued therapy. PMID:22471702




Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.  


5-HT3-receptor antagonists are potent and highly selective competitive inhibitors of the 5-HT3-receptor with negligible affinity for other receptors. They are rapidly absorbed and penetrate the blood-brain barrier easily. 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are metabolized by diverse subtypes of the cytochrome P450-system, metabolites are excreted mainly in urine. Half-lifes in healthy subjects vary from 3-4 hours (ondansetron, granisetron) to 7-10 hours (tropisetron, hydrodolasetron). 5-HT3-receptor antagonists do not modify any aspect of normal behaviour in animals or induce remarkable changes of physiological functions in healthy subjects. They are well tolerated over wide dose ranges, most common side effects in clinical use are headache and obstipation. Clinical efficacy was first established in chemotherapy-induced emesis. In this indication, 5-HT3-receptor antagonists set a new standard regarding efficacy and tolerability. Further established indications are radiotherapy-induced and post-operative emesis. Antiemetic efficacy results from a simultaneous action at peripheral and central 5-HT3-receptors. Other peripheral actions include reduction of secretion and diarrhea caused by increased intestinal serotonin content (e.g. in carcinoid syndrome), a limited antiarrhythmic activity and a reduction of experimentally induced pain. CNS effects comprise anxiolysis, attenuation of age-associated memory impairment, reduction of alcohol consumption in moderate alcohol abuse and an antipsychotic effect in patients with parkinson psychosis. In migraine, 5-HT3-receptor antagonists show moderate efficacy, as well. Repeatedly demonstrated efficacy of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists in patients suffering from fibromyalgia raises the question for the mechanism of action involved. Ligand binding at the 5-HT3-receptor causes manifold effects on other neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems. In particular, 5-HT3-receptor antagonists diminish serotonin-induced release of substance P from C-fibers and prevent unmasking of NK2-receptors in the presence of serotonin. These observations possibly provide an approach for the causal explanation of favourable treatment results with 5-HT3-receptor antagonists in fibromyalgia. PMID:11028830

Wolf, H



Identification of a novel conformationally constrained glucagon receptor antagonist.  


Identification of orally active, small molecule antagonists of the glucagon receptor represents a novel treatment paradigm for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present work discloses novel glucagon receptor antagonists, identified via conformational constraint of current existing literature antagonists. Optimization of lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE or LipE) culminated in enantiomers (+)-trans-26 and (-)-trans-27 which exhibit good physicochemical and in vitro drug metabolism profiles. In vivo, significant pharmacokinetic differences were noted with the two enantiomers, which were primarily driven through differences in clearance rates. Enantioselective oxidation by cytochrome P450 was ruled out as a causative factor for pharmacokinetic differences. PMID:24418771

Lee, Esther C Y; Tu, Meihua; Stevens, Benjamin D; Bian, Jianwei; Aspnes, Gary; Perreault, Christian; Sammons, Matthew F; Wright, Stephen W; Litchfield, John; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Sharma, Raman; Didiuk, Mary T; Ebner, David C; Filipski, Kevin J; Brown, Janice; Atkinson, Karen; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel



Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on acute mu-opioid analgesia in the rat.  


Mixed research findings have led to a debate regarding the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on opiate analgesia. NMDA antagonists have been found in various studies to enhance, to inhibit, or to have no effect on opiate analgesia. The present research used a single protocol to explore the effects of six NMDA receptor antagonists on acute morphine (3.0 mg/kg s.c.) and fentanyl (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) analgesia in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. NMDA receptor antagonists were selected based on their abilities to block various sites on the NMDA receptor complex, including the noncompetitive antagonists MK-801 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg i.p.), dextromethorphan (10.0 and 30.0 mg/kg i.p.), and memantine (3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg i.p.), a glycine site antagonist, (+)-HA-966 (10.0 and 30.0 mg/kg i.p.), a competitive antagonist, LY235959 (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), and a polyamine site antagonist, ifenprodil (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.). Analgesia was assessed using the tail-flick test. A single dose of each opiate was used. The low doses of the antagonists, which are known to produce significant neural and behavioral actions at NMDA receptors, had no effect on morphine or fentanyl analgesia. At the higher doses, morphine analgesia was significantly enhanced by LY235959 (3.0 mg/kg), and fentanyl analgesia was significantly enhanced by LY235959 (3.0 mg/kg), dextromethorphan (30.0 mg/kg), and (+)-HA-966 (30.0 mg/kg). Enhancement of analgesia occurred without any apparent adverse side effects. None of the NMDA antagonists affected tail-flick responses on their own, except the higher dose of LY235959 (3.0 mg/kg), which produced a mild analgesic effect. Because no consistent effects were observed, the data suggest that NMDA receptors are not involved in acute mu-opioid analgesia. The mechanisms underlying the enhancement of opiate analgesia by selected NMDA antagonists, such as LY235959, dextromethorphan, and (+)-HA-966, remain to be determined. PMID:14592689

Redwine, Karen E; Trujillo, Keith A



Kinetic properties of "dual" orexin receptor antagonists at OX1R and OX2R orexin receptors  

PubMed Central

Orexin receptor antagonists represent attractive targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of insomnia. Both efficacy and safety are crucial in clinical settings and thorough investigations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can predict contributing factors such as duration of action and undesirable effects. To this end, we studied the interactions between various “dual” orexin receptor antagonists and the orexin receptors, OX1R and OX2R, over time using saturation and competition radioligand binding with [3H]-BBAC ((S)-N-([1,1?-biphenyl]-2-yl)-1-(2-((1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thio)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide). In addition, the kinetics of these compounds were investigated in cells expressing human, mouse and rat OX1R and OX2R using FLIPR® assays for calcium accumulation. We demonstrate that almorexant reaches equilibrium very slowly at OX2R, whereas SB-649868, suvorexant, and filorexant may take hours to reach steady state at both orexin receptors. By contrast, compounds such as BBAC or the selective OX2R antagonist IPSU ((2-((1H-Indol-3-yl)methyl)-9-(4-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-1-one) bind rapidly and reach equilibrium very quickly in binding and/or functional assays. Overall, the “dual” antagonists tested here tend to be rather unselective under non-equilibrium conditions and reach equilibrium very slowly. Once equilibrium is reached, each ligand demonstrates a selectivity profile that is however, distinct from the non-equilibrium condition. The slow kinetics of the “dual” antagonists tested suggest that in vitro receptor occupancy may be longer lasting than would be predicted. This raises questions as to whether pharmacokinetic studies measuring plasma or brain levels of these antagonists are accurate reflections of receptor occupancy in vivo. PMID:24376396

Callander, Gabrielle E.; Olorunda, Morenike; Monna, Dominique; Schuepbach, Edi; Langenegger, Daniel; Betschart, Claudia; Hintermann, Samuel; Behnke, Dirk; Cotesta, Simona; Fendt, Markus; Laue, Grit; Ofner, Silvio; Briard, Emmanuelle; Gee, Christine E.; Jacobson, Laura H.; Hoyer, Daniel



Peripherally selective diphenyl purine antagonist of the CB1 receptor.  


Antagonists of the CB1 receptor can be useful in the treatment of several important disorders. However, to date, the only clinically approved CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was withdrawn because of adverse central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects. Since rimonabant's withdrawal, several groups are pursuing peripherally selective CB1 antagonists. These compounds are expected to be devoid of undesirable CNS-related effects but maintain efficacy through antagonism of peripherally expressed CB1 receptors. Reported here are our latest results toward the development of a peripherally selective analog of the diphenyl purine CB1 antagonist otenabant 1. Compound 9 (N-{1-[8-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}pentanamide) is a potent, orally absorbed antagonist of the CB1 receptor that is >50-fold selective for CB1 over CB2, highly selective for the periphery in a rodent model, and without efficacy in a series of in vivo assays designed to evaluate its ability to mitigate the central effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol through the CB1 receptor. PMID:24041123

Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Marusich, Julie A; Wiley, Jenny L; Seltzman, Herbert; Maitra, Rangan



Biochemical and Pharmacological Profile of a Potent and Selective Nonpeptide Antagonist of the Neurotensin Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the characteristics of SR 48692, a selective, nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin receptor. In vitro, this compound competitively inhibits 125I-labeled neurotensin binding to the high-affinity binding site present in brain tissue from various species with IC50 values of 0.99 ± 0.14 nM (guinea pig), 4.0 ± 0.4 nM (rat mesencephalic cells), 7.6 ± 0.6 nM (COS-7 cells transfected

Danielle Gully; Maryse Canton; Robert Boigegrain; Francis Jeanjean; Jean-Charles Molimard; Martine Poncelet; Christiane Gueudet; Michel Heaulme; Roger Leyris; Aline Brouard; Didier Pelaprat; Catherine Labbe-Jullie; Jean Mazella; Philippe Soubrie; Jean-Pierre Maffrand; William Rostene; Patrick Kitabgi; Gerard Le Fur



NMDA receptor antagonists sustain LTP and spatial memory: active processes mediate LTP decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long-term potentiation (LTP) is long-lasting, it is not permanent and decays within weeks after its induction. Little is known about the processes underlying this decay. Here we assessed the contribution of synaptic activity to LTP decay by determining the effect of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP on the decay of perforant path–dentate LTP. CPP blocked decay over a

Desiree M. Villarreal; Viet Do; Evelyn Haddad; Brian E. Derrick



The nociceptin\\/orphanin FQ receptor ligand acetyl-RYYRIK-amide exhibits antagonistic and agonistic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexapeptide acetyl-RYYRIK-amide (Ac-RYYRIK-NH2) has recently been reported to act as partial agonist of the nociceptin\\/orphanin FQ (noc\\/OFQ) receptor expressed in CHO cells. In addition, this peptide acts as a competitive antagonist of noc\\/OFQ-stimulated GTP?35S binding in rat brain membranes as well as of the noc\\/OFQ-evoked chronotropic effect in rat cardiomyocytes. In contrast to this antagonism, in the present study,

Hartmut Berger; Raffaella Bigoni; Erika Albrecht; Regina M Richter; Eberhard Krause; Michael Bienert; Girolamo Calo’



Allosteric Switching of Agonist/Antagonist Activity by a Single Point Mutation in the Interluekin-1 Receptor Antagonist, IL-1Ra  

PubMed Central

The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? has co-evolved with a competitive inhibitor, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). IL-1? initiates cell signaling by binding the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) whereas IL-1Ra acts as an antagonist, blocking receptor signaling. The current paradigm for agonist/antagonist functions for these two proteins is based on the receptor–ligand interaction observed in the crystal structures of the receptor–ligand complexes. While IL-1Ra and IL-1? are structurally homologous, IL-1Ra engages only two of the three extracellular domains of the receptor, whereas IL-1? engages all three. We find that an allosteric functional switch exists within a highly conserved pocket of residues, residues 111–120. This region is maintained across all IL-1 family members and serves as a hydrophobic mini-core for IL-1? folding. A key difference across species is a conserved aromatic residue at position 117 in IL-1?, versus a conserved cysteine in IL-1Ra at the analogous position, 116. We find that the replacement of C116 with a phenylalanine switches the protein from an antagonist to an agonist despite the distant location of C116 relative to receptor interaction sites. These results suggest new ways to develop designer cytokine activity into the ?-trefoil fold and may be of general use in regulation of this large family of signaling proteins. PMID:23499887

Hailey, Kendra L.; Capraro, Dominique T.; Barkho, Sulyman; Jennings, Patricia A.



The novel small molecule ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist ZZ-204G is analgesic  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is inadequately managed with currently available classes of analgesic drugs. Recently, peptide antagonists of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were shown to be analgesic. The present study was conducted to characterize a novel small molecule, non-peptide antagonist at nicotinic receptors. The tetrakis-quaternary ammonium compound ZZ-204G was evaluated for functional activity on cloned nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In-vivo efficacy was assessed in rat models of tonic inflammatory pain (formalin test), neuropathic pain (chronic constriction nerve injury), and thermal nociception (tail flick test). ZZ-204G was an antagonist at nicotinic receptors inhibiting the ?9?10 subtype with an IC50 of 0.51 (0.35–0.72) nM. Antagonist activity at other nicotinic subtypes (?1?1??, ?2?2, ?2?4, ?3?2, ?3?4, ?4?2, ?4?4, ?6/?3?2?3, ?6/?3?4 and ?7) was 10–1000-fold lower than at the ?9?10 subtype. In competition binding assays, the ki of ZZ-204G at ?-aminobutyric acid(A), serotonin(3), ?-aminobutyric acid(B), ?- and ?-opioid receptors was 1000- to >10,000- fold lower than at ?9?10 nicotinic receptors. Parenteral administration of ZZ-204G dose-dependently decreased nociceptive behaviors (paw flinches) in the formalin test and mechanical hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. ZZ-204G was not antinociceptive in the tail flick assay. Results from the rotarod assay indicated that lower doses of ZZ-204G that were analgesic did not alter motor function. In summary, ZZ-204G represents a prototype small molecule antagonist for ?9?10 nicotinic receptors and provides a novel molecular scaffold for analgesic agents with the potential to treat chronic inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:21944926

Holtman, Joseph R.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Dowell, Cheryl; Wala, Elzbieta P.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Crooks, Peter A.; McIntosh, J. Michael



Modulating human proteinase activated receptor 2 with a novel antagonist (GB88) and agonist (GB110)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Many cells express proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on their plasma membrane. PAR2 is activated by proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin and tryptase that cleave the receptor N-terminus, inititating signalling to intracellular G proteins. Studies on PAR2 have relied heavily upon activating effects of proteases and peptide agonists that lack stability and bioavailability in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A novel small molecule agonist GB110 and an antagonist GB88 were characterized in vitro against trypsin, peptide agonists, PAR2 antibody, PAR1 agonists and flow cytometry,in seven cell lines using intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and examined in vivo against PAR2- and PAR1-induced rat paw oedema. KEY RESULTS GB110 is a potent non-peptidic agonist activating PAR2-mediated Ca2+ release in HT29 cells (EC50?200 nM) and six other human cell lines, inducing PAR2 internalization. GB88 is a unique PAR2 antagonist, inhibiting PAR2 activated Ca2+ release (IC50?2 µM) induced by native (trypsin) or synthetic peptide and non-peptide agonists. GB88 was a competitive and surmountable antagonist of agonist 2f-LIGRLO-NH2, a competitive but insurmountable antagonist of agonist GB110, and a non-competitive insurmountable antagonist of trypsin. GB88 was orally active and anti-inflammatory in vivo, inhibiting acute rat paw oedema elicited by agonist GB110 and proteolytic or peptide agonists of PAR2 but not by corresponding agonists of PAR1 or PAR4. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The novel PAR2 agonist and antagonist modulate intracellular Ca2+ and rat paw oedema, providing novel molecular tools for examining PAR2-mediated diseases. PMID:21806599

Suen, JY; Barry, GD; Lohman, RJ; Halili, MA; Cotterell, AJ; Le, GT; Fairlie, DP



Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz† , Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M. (GSKNC)



5HT3-receptor antagonists as antiemetics in cancer.  


Effective antiemetic therapy is crucial for patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy for cancer. Severe nausea and vomiting associated with such cancer treatment can lead to anxiety, anorexia, dehydration, electrolyte disturbance and renal failure, and may interrupt cancer therapy, demoralise patients or even cause them to abandon treatment. In 1992, we welcomed the introduction of ondansetron, the first selective serotonin type 3- (5HT3-) receptor antagonist marketed in the UK, as an important advance in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Several selective 5HT3-receptor antagonists are now licensed. They are widely prescribed to patients receiving cancer treatment, but not always appropriately. Here we review their optimal use. PMID:16111085



Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase modulates NMDA receptor antagonist mediated alterations in the developing brain.  


Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin expression and the extracellular matrix during NMDA receptor antagonist induced injury to the immature rat brain. The aim was to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, as well as expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after co-administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor physostigmine. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine ameliorated the MK801-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA and protein levels, reduced MK801-triggered MMP-2 activity and prevented decreased TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that AChE inhibition may prevent newborn rats from MK801-mediated brain damage by enhancing neurotrophin-associated signaling pathways and by modulating the extracellular matrix. PMID:24595240

Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; von Haefen, Clarissa; Nasser, Fatme; Rohrer, Benjamin; Endesfelder, Stefanie; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Spies, Claudia D; Sifringer, Marco



Nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists. I. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridine derivatives.  


Substituted pyridines were synthesized as potential angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists. Substitution at the position 2 in the pyridine resulted in potent activity, and the optimal alkyl length was four carbons. The potency further increased with the introduction of a hydroxymethyl group at the position 4. One of the compounds, 2-butyl-6-chloro-4-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl-3-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl )biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]pyridine 9 h (KT3-579) is a competitive AII antagonist with a pA2 value of 9.31, and is about 10 times more potent than Du Pont 753. It was found to be an AT1 specific antagonist with an IC50 of 3.09 nM. PMID:7954936

Ueyama, N; Yanagisawa, T; Kawai, T; Sonegawa, M; Baba, H; Mochizuki, S; Kosakai, K; Tomiyama, T



Core exploration in optimization of chemokine receptor CCR4 antagonists.  


The design, synthesis, and SAR studies of 'core' variations led to identification of novel, selective, and potent small molecule antagonist (22) of the CC chemokine receptor-4 (CCR4) with improved in vitro activity and liability profile. Compound 22 was efficacious in a murine allergic inflammation model (ED50 approximately 10 mg/kg). PMID:17098428

Purandare, Ashok V; Wan, Honghe; Somerville, John E; Burke, Christine; Vaccaro, Wayne; Yang, XiaoXia; McIntyre, Kim W; Poss, Michael A



Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors  

PubMed Central

Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (?)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.



Therapeutic potential of adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists.  


The adenosine receptors (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3)) are important and ubiquitous mediators of cellular signalling, which play vital roles in protecting tissues and organs from damage. Launched drugs include the adenosine receptor antagonists theophylline and doxofylline (both used as bronchodilators in respiratory disorders such as asthma), while several compounds are presently in clinical trials for a range of indications, including heart failure, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, pain and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A host of companies and institutions are addressing the huge potential for the development of selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists, so that it appears we are on the verge of a new wave of compounds approaching the market for many unmet medical needs. This review presents an analysis of the patenting activity in the area for 2006 and an interpretation and reflection on the developments that we can expect in the future. PMID:20144084

Press, Neil J; Gessi, Stefania; Borea, Pier A; Polosa, Riccardo



Altered NMDA receptor expression in renal toxicity: Protection with a receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered NMDA receptor expression in renal toxicity: Protection with a receptor antagonist.BackgroundThe N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is expressed in the kidney. The receptor plays a major role in gentamicin ototoxicity. We assessed the role of the renal NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2C in a model of gentamicin nephrotoxicity.MethodsRats were exposed to either saline (control), high-dose, short-term gentamicin, or short-term gentamicin

Jocelyn C. Leung; TARA MARPHIS; Randall D. Craver; Douglas M. Silverstein



Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glucagon analog [l-N?-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev



Response properties of antral mechanosensitive afferent fibers and effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists.  


The ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are present peripherally in the primary sensory afferent neurons innervating the viscera. Multiple studies have reported roles of glutamate receptors in gastric functions. However, no study has previously shown the direct influence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist on vagal sensory neurons. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists on mechanotransduction properties of vagal afferent fibers innervating the rat stomach. Action potentials were recorded from the hyponodal vagus nerve innervating the antrum of the Long-Evans rats. For antral distension (AD), a small latex balloon was inserted into the stomach and positioned in the antrum. The antral contractions were recorded with solid-state probe inserted into the water-filled balloon. Antral units were identified to isovolumic (0.2-1 ml) or isobaric AD (5-60 mm Hg). NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists were injected in a cumulative fashion (1-100 micromol/kg, i.v.). After the conclusion of experiment, the abdomen was opened and receptive field was mapped by probing the serosa of the stomach. Thirty-two fibers were identified to AD. The receptive fields of 26 fibers were located in the posterior part of the antrum. All fibers exhibited spontaneous firing (mean: 7.00+/-0.97 impulses/s). Twenty fibers exhibited a rhythmic firing that was in phase with antral contractions, whereas 12 fibers exhibited non-rhythmic spontaneous firing unrelated to spontaneous antral contraction. Both groups of fibers exhibited a linear increase in responses to graded isovolumic or isobaric distensions. NMDA (memantine HCl and dizocilpine (MK-801)) and AMPA/kainate (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline 2,3-dione; CNQX) receptor antagonists dose-dependently attenuated the mechanotransduction properties of these fibers to AD. However, competitive NMDA antagonist dl-2-amino-5 phosphopentanoic acid (AP-5) had no effect. The study documents that glutamate receptor antagonists can attenuate responses of gastric vagal sensory afferent fibers innervating the distal stomach, offering insight to potential pharmacological agents in the treatment of gastric disorders. PMID:15099685

Sengupta, J N; Petersen, J; Peles, S; Shaker, R



Halogenation of a capsaicin analogue leads to novel vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The C-5 halogenation of the vanillyl moiety of resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent agonist of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors, results in a potent antagonist for these receptors. Here, we have synthesized a series of halogenated derivatives of ‘synthetic capsaicin' (nonanoyl vanillamide=nordihydrocapsaicin) differing for the nature (iodine, bromine–chlorine) and the regiochemistry (C-5, C-6) of the halogenation.The activity of these compounds was investigated on recombinant human TRPV1 receptors overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. None of the six compounds exerted any significant agonist activity, as assessed by measuring their effect on TRPV1-mediated calcium mobilization. Instead, all compounds antagonized, to various extents, the effect of capsaicin in this assay.All 6-halo-nordihydrocapsaicins behaved as competitive antagonists against human TRPV1 according to the corresponding Schild's plots, and were more potent than the corresponding 5-halogenated analogues. The iodo-derivatives were more potent than the bromo- and chloro-derivatives.Using human recombinant TRPV1, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin (IC50=10 nM against 100 nM capsaicin) was about four times more potent than the prototypical TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and was tested against capsaicin also on native TRPV1 in: (i) rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture; (ii) guinea-pig urinary bladder; and (iii) guinea-pig bronchi. In all cases, except for the guinea-pig bronchi, the compound was significantly more potent than capsazepine as a TRPV1 antagonist.In conclusion, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin, a stable and easily prepared compound, is a potent TRPV1 antagonist and a convenient replacement for capsazepine in most of the in vitro preparations currently used to assess the activity of putative vanilloid receptor agonists. PMID:12922928

Appendino, Giovanni; Harrison, Selena; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Trevisani, Marcello; Benvenuti, Francesca; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo



5-HT3 receptor antagonists: differences and similarities.  


Differences among 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been reported in pharmacological studies with regard to selectivity of receptor binding, potency, duration of action and dose-response curves. However, whether these pharmacological differences can affect clinical efficacy and safety remains to be determined. A careful analysis of the literature revealed 22 comparative studies among the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists available for review. Unfortunately, several of these trials have some important shortcomings especially in the study design, the size of population studied and the type of anti-emetic treatment selected, making their conclusions often difficult to interpret. However, among these studies, seven large, double-blind clinical trials have clearly shown that the antiemetic activity and tolerability of ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron and dolasetron is almost identical at least in the prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis. Therefore, from the efficacy and safety point of view, there is no reason to prefer one with respect to the other compound. From the economic perspective, instead, differences may exist and they are strictly related to the dose and schedule of administration chosen for each compound. The information available on the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the prevention of emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy is at best scant. Contrasting results have been reported and only one well-conducted study has been published in full. Therefore, the possible differences among the various compounds are difficult to evaluate. More studies should be carried out in this group of patients. PMID:9337675

Roila, F; Ballatori, E; Tonato, M; Del Favero, A



Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists and Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

This Review summarizes and updates the work on adenosine A2A receptor antagonists for Parkinson’s disease from 2006 to the present. There have been numerous publications, patent applications, and press releases within this time frame that highlight new medicinal chemistry approaches to this attractive and promising target to treat Parkinson’s disease. The Review is broken down by scaffold type and will discuss the efforts to optimize particular scaffolds for activity, pharmacokinetics, and other drug discovery parameters. The majority of approaches focus on preparing selective A2A antagonists, but a few approaches to dual A2A/A1 antagonists will also be highlighted. The in vivo profiles of compounds will be highlighted and discussed to compare activities across different chemical series. A clinical report and update will be given on compounds that have entered clinical trials. PMID:22860156



Characterization of FR 172357, a new non-peptide bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist, in human, pig and rabbit preparations.  


FR 172357, a new non-peptide antagonist of the kinin B(2) receptor was tested in three isolated vessels, the human umbilical vein, the rabbit jugular vein, and the pig coronary artery, to evaluate its antagonistic activities against bradykinin. FR 172357 displaced to the right the concentration-response curves of bradykinin. The displacements were parallel to the controls without reduction of the maximum effect in the human umbilical vein and in the rabbit jugular vein, but not in the pig coronary artery. Schild plots confirmed that FR 172357 acts as a competitive antagonist in the human umbilical vein (pA(2) 8.65) and in the rabbit jugular vein (pA(2) 9. 07), and as a non-competitive antagonist in the pig coronary artery (pK(B) 10.14). FR 172357 is selective for the kinin B(2) receptor since it does not influence the effects of Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin in the human umbilical vein, in the rabbit aorta, and in the pig renal vein. It is specific because it does not affect the contractions induced by angiotensin II, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or endothelin-1 in the human umbilical vein. It, however, interacts with the tachykinin NK(1) receptor of the rabbit jugular vein and pig coronary artery. Compared to other bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonists, FR 172357 emerges as a very potent compound, which may represent a choice for experimental (and clinical?) applications. PMID:10611460

Rizzi, C; Rizzi, A; Calò, G; Jorizzo, G; Agnello, G; Mollica, G; Inamura, N; Regoli, D



Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.  


Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors. PMID:24089004

Bauzá, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel



Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: emerging roles in cardiovascular medicine.  


Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more MR-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone was shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure, as was eplerenone in subsequent heart failure trials. Neither acts as an aldosterone antagonist in the heart as the cardiac MR are occupied by cortisol, which becomes an aldosterone mimic in conditions of tissue damage. The accepted term "MR antagonist", (as opposed to "aldosterone antagonist" or, worse, "aldosterone blocker"), should be retained, despite the demonstration that they act not to deny agonist access but as inverse agonists. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism is now recognized as accounting for about 10% of hypertension, with recent evidence suggesting that this figure may be considerably higher: in over two thirds of cases of primary aldosteronism therapy including MR antagonists is standard of care. MR antagonists are safe and vasoprotective in uncomplicated essential hypertension, even in diabetics, and at low doses they also specifically lower blood pressure in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Nowhere are more than 1% of patients with primary aldosteronism ever diagnosed and specifically treated. Given the higher risk profile in patients with primary aldosteronism than that of age, sex, and blood pressure matched essential hypertension, on public health grounds alone the guidelines for first-line treatment of all hypertension should mandate inclusion of a low-dose MR antagonist. PMID:24133375

Funder, John W



Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: emerging roles in cardiovascular medicine  

PubMed Central

Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more MR-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone was shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure, as was eplerenone in subsequent heart failure trials. Neither acts as an aldosterone antagonist in the heart as the cardiac MR are occupied by cortisol, which becomes an aldosterone mimic in conditions of tissue damage. The accepted term “MR antagonist”, (as opposed to “aldosterone antagonist” or, worse, “aldosterone blocker”), should be retained, despite the demonstration that they act not to deny agonist access but as inverse agonists. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism is now recognized as accounting for about 10% of hypertension, with recent evidence suggesting that this figure may be considerably higher: in over two thirds of cases of primary aldosteronism therapy including MR antagonists is standard of care. MR antagonists are safe and vasoprotective in uncomplicated essential hypertension, even in diabetics, and at low doses they also specifically lower blood pressure in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Nowhere are more than 1% of patients with primary aldosteronism ever diagnosed and specifically treated. Given the higher risk profile in patients with primary aldosteronism than that of age, sex, and blood pressure matched essential hypertension, on public health grounds alone the guidelines for first-line treatment of all hypertension should mandate inclusion of a low-dose MR antagonist. PMID:24133375

Funder, John W



The H2-receptor antagonist era in duodenal ulcer disease.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the remarkable impact of H2-receptor antagonists on duodenal ulcer management. The development and the scientific rationale of these agents are presented, and efficacy and safety aspects in the short- and long-term treatment of duodenal ulcer disease discussed. Attention is focused on the possible role of "acid rebound" in ulcer relapse following the withdrawal of therapy and on the clinical relevance of prolonged suppression of acid secretion in patients on long-term therapy. PMID:1364125

Marks, I. N.



The effects of NMDA receptor antagonists and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Medication development issues for opiate addiction.  


This article is an exploration of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Technical Review on the role of glutamatergic systems in the development of opiate addiction. The effects of "glutamate antagonist" medications on opioid tolerance and withdrawal are examined. In rodents, mu opioid tolerance can be inhibited by noncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists [MK801, dextromethorphan (DM), ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP)], competitive NMDA receptor antagonists (LY274614, NPC17742, LY235959), partial glycine agonists (ACPC), glycine antagonists (ACEA-1328), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors [L-NNA, L-NMMA, methylene blue (MB)]. Similarly, some of the symptoms of opioid withdrawal observed in opioid-dependent rodents also can be inhibited by noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists (MK801, DM, ketamine), competitive NMDA receptor antagonists (LY274614), glycine antagonists (felbamate), and NOS inhibitors (L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NAME, L-NIO, 7-NI, MB). There are some serious toxicological effects associated with the administration of some of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists in rodent but not in squirrel monkey brain, and some medications induce PCP-like behavioral effects. The medications with the most immediate clinical appeal are those that could be coadministered with methadone to decrease mu opioid tolerance and dependence; they include DM, MB, 7-NI, ACPC, and ACEA-1328. PMID:8747752

Herman, B H; Vocci, F; Bridge, P



[Triptans and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists].  


While triptans, the 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are effective and generally well-tolerated in many patients up to one-third of migraine patients either may not respond well to triptans, may not tolerate their side effects, or may have contraindications that preclude their use. Recurrence, triptan-related side effects, and cardiovascular constriction effects are demerits for acute migraine treatment. CGRP receptor antagonists, the so-called gepants, were clearely designed and expected to be better than triptans. CGRP is located in sensory nerve endings around cranial blood vessels. CGRP is a strong dilator of cerebral arteries and intravenous infusion of CGRP cause a migraine attack. Olcegepant is the first selective CGRP receptor antagonist of proven efficacy in migraine. Olcegepant could only be administered intravenously and never taken beyond Phase II. Telcagepant is orally available and several completed Phase III trials have revealed positive results. In several comparative studies of telcagepant and triptans, telcegepant did not appeared more effective than zolmitriptan or rizatriptan, although it had fewer triptan-related adverse events and drug-related adverse enents. A small number of patients taking olcegepant showed marked elevation in liver transaminase levels. It was decided to discontinue development of olcegepant. New CGRP receptor antagonists would be expected for acute migraine treatment. PMID:23196486

Negoro, Kiyoshi



5HT 1A receptor antagonists and lordosis behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In proestrous rats, serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonists inhibit lordosis behavior within 5–15 min following infusion into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN). In the present report, the lordosis-inhibiting effects of the 5-HT1A agonist [(±) 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin) (8-OH-DPAT] were shown to be attenuated with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. Two compounds, propranolol and pindolol, that function as both ?-adrenergic and 5-HT1A

Lynda Uphouse; Martha Andrade; Marjay Caldarola-Pastuszka; Astra Jackson



Targeting a family B GPCR/RAMP receptor complex: CGRP receptor antagonists and migraine  

PubMed Central

The clinical effectiveness of antagonizing the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor for relief of migraine pain has been clearly demonstrated, but the road to the development of these small molecule antagonists has been daunting. The key hurdle that needed to be overcome was the CGRP receptor itself. The vast majority of the current antagonists recognize similar epitopes on the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). RAMP1 is a relatively small, single, transmembrane-spanning protein and along with the G-protein-coupled receptor CLR comprise a functional CGRP receptor. The tri-helical extracellular domain of RAMP1 plays a key role in the high affinity binding of CGRP receptor antagonists and drives their species-selective pharmacology. Over the years, a significant amount of mutagenesis data has been generated to identify specific amino acids or regions within CLR and RAMP1 that are critical to antagonist binding and has directed attention to the CLR/RAMP1 extracellular domain (ECD) complex. Recently, the crystal structure of the CGRP receptor ECD has been elucidated and not only reinforces the early mutagenesis data, but provides critical insight into the molecular mechanism of CGRP receptor antagonism. This review will highlight the drug design hurdles that must be overcome to meet the desired potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic profile while retaining drug-like properties. Although the development of these antagonists has proved challenging, blocking the CGRP receptor may one day represent a new way to manage migraine and offer hope to migraine sufferers. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit PMID:21871019

Moore, Eric L; Salvatore, Christopher A



The Antimalarial Drug Proguanil Is an Antagonist at 5-HT3 Receptors.  


Proguanil is an antimalarial prodrug that is metabolized to 4-chlorophenyl-1-biguanide (CPB) and the active metabolite cycloguanil (CG). These compounds are structurally related to meta-chlorophenyl biguanide (mCPBG), a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor agonist. Here we examine the effects of proguanil and its metabolites on the electrophysiology and ligand-binding properties of human 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor responses were reversibly inhibited by proguanil, with an IC50 of 1.81 ?M. Competitive antagonism was shown by a lack of voltage-dependence, Schild plot (Kb = 1.70 ?M), and radioligand competition (Ki = 2.61 ?M) with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [(3)H]granisetron. Kinetic measurements (kon = 4.0 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) ; koff = 0.23 s(-1)) were consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction scheme with a Kb of 4.35 ?M. The metabolites CG and CPB similarly inhibited 5-HT3 receptors as assessed by IC50 (1.48 and 4.36 ?M, respectively), Schild plot (Kb = 2.97 and 11.4 ?M), and radioligand competition (Ki = 4.89 and 0.41 ?M). At higher concentrations, CPB was a partial agonist (EC50 = 14.1 ?M; I/Imax = 0.013). These results demonstrate that proguanil competitively inhibits 5-HT3 receptors, with an IC50 that exceeds whole-blood concentrations following its oral administration. They may therefore be responsible for the occasional gastrointestinal side effects, nausea, and vomiting reported following its use. Clinical development of related compounds should therefore consider effects at 5-HT3 receptors as an early indication of possible unwanted gastrointestinal side effects. PMID:25277140

Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J



Photoaffinity labeling adenosine A1 receptors with an antagonist 125I-labeled aryl azide derivative of 8-phenylxanthine.  


We have derivatized a series of 125I-labeled 8-phenylxanthines with photoactive aryl azide groups on the 1- or 3-position of the xanthine ring. A 3-azidophenethyl derivative was found to be optimal for use as an antagonist photoaffinity label for adenosine A1 receptors. Following photoactivation, radioactivity was covalently and specifically incorporated into a 34,000-dalton and, to a lesser extent, into a 24,000-dalton polypeptide of rat brain membranes. Photoincorporation into both polypeptides was competitively inhibited by adenosine analogues with a potency order typical of adenosine A1 receptors, but the 24,000-dalton polypeptide bound both agonists and antagonists with lower affinity than the 34,000-dalton polypeptide. Specific photolabeling of receptors in brain membranes of rat, guinea pig, dog, and cow did not show any variation in the 34,000-dalton adenosine receptor binding subunit. The adenosine agonist photoaffinity label [125I]N6-(4-azido-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine also specifically photolabeled the 34,000-dalton polypeptide, but photoincorporation of the agonist was less efficient than the antagonist and, unlike the antagonist, was greatly reduced by guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imidotriphosphate). The results indicate that the antagonist photoaffinity label may be more useful than agonists particularly for labeling uncoupled receptors. PMID:3351851

Earl, C Q; Patel, A; Craig, R H; Daluge, S M; Linden, J



From NMDA receptor antagonists to discovery of selective ?? receptor ligands.  


Following previous studies focused on the search for new molecules targeting GluN2B-containing NMDA, a small series of 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone derivatives has been synthesized by using Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS). Given that GluN2B ligands frequently exert off-target effects we also tested their affinity towards sigma receptors. Binding assay revealed that only the 1-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone (7a) retained GluN2B affinity. Interestingly, the 5-methoxyindoles 5a and 6a were efficient and selective ligands toward ?? receptor (Ki values of 10nM and 20 nM, respectively). Thus, in this case the discovery of new ?? receptor selective ligands was an unexpected result emerging from the screening of cross-activity against other CNS receptors. PMID:24290063

Gitto, Rosaria; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Scala, Angela; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Parenti, Carmela; Prezzavento, Orazio; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Chimirri, Alba



Structure-function studies of agonist binding to the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the development of a trifunctional non-competitive antagonist suitable for activity-dependent profiling  

E-print Network

The muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel required for fast synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. It is the archetype of the Cys-Loop superfamily of receptors and ...

Tantama, Mathew C



Characterization of putative GRP and NMB-receptor antagonist's interaction with human receptors  

PubMed Central

The mammalian Bombesin (Bn) peptides neuromedin B (NMB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) actions are mediated by two receptors (NMB-receptor, GRP-receptor) which are widely distributed in the GI tract and CNS. From primarily animal studies NMB/GRP-receptor activation has physiological/pathophysiological effects in the CNS and GI tract including stimulating of growth of cancers and normal tissues. Whereas these Bn receptor's effects have been extensively studied in nonhuman cells and animals, little is known of the physiological/pathological role(s) in humans, largely due of lack of potent antagonists. To address this issue we compared NMB-receptor/GRP-receptor affinity/potency of 10 chemical classes of putative antagonists (35 compounds) for human Bn-receptors by performing binding studies or assessing abilities to activate hGRP/hNMB-receptor[assessing phospholipase C activation] in 4 different cells containing native Bn receptors or transfected receptors. From binding studies 23 were GRP-receptor-preferring, 4 were NMB-receptor, and 8-nonselective. For the hGRP-receptor-preferring analogues none showed hGRP-receptor agonist activity, but 13 were full or-partial hNMB-receptor agonists at hNMB-receptors. For hNMB-receptor-preferring analogues none were agonists. Analogue #24([(3-Ph-Pr6),His7,D-Ala11,D-Pro13,?(13-14), Phe14]Bn(6-14)NH2) and analogue #7[D-Phe6,Leu13,?(CH2NH),Cpa14]Bn(6-14) were the most potent (0.2-1.4 nM) and selective ((>10, 000-fold) for the hGRP-receptor with analogue #7.5[D-Tpi6,Leu13, ?(CH2NH),Leu14]Bn(6-14) [RC-3095] (0.2-1.4 nM) slightly less selective. Analogue #34(PD168368) had the highest affinity for hNMB-receptor (1.32-1.58 nM) and the greatest selectivity (2298-6952-fold) for the hNMB-receptor. These results demonstrate numerous putative hGRP/hNMB-receptor antagonists identified in nonhuman cells and/or animals have agonist activity at the hNMB-receptor, limiting their potential usefulness. However, a number were identified which were potent/selective for human Bn receptors and should be useful for investigating their roles in human physiological/pathophysiological conditions. PMID:19463875

Gonzalez, Nieves; Mantey, Samuel A.; Pradhan, Tapas K.; Sancho, Veronica; Moody, Terry W.; Coy, David H.; Jensen, Robert T.



Comparative antagonist pharmacology at the native mouse bradykinin B2 receptor: radioligand binding and smooth muscle contractility studies  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The aim was to characterize the recently discovered non-peptide antagonist MEN16132 at the mouse B2 receptor, relative to other antagonists. Experimental approach: [3H]-BK binding experiments used mouse lung and ileum tissue membranes and antagonist potency was measured in the isolated ileum contractility assay. Key results: Two BK binding sites resulted from saturation and homologous competition experiments. A role for the B1 receptor was excluded because of the poor affinity of B1 receptor ligands (pIC50 <5). MEN16132, and the other reference antagonists, inhibited only one portion of BK specific binding, and the rank order of potency was (pIC50): Icatibant (lung 10.7; ileum 10.2)=MEN11270 (lung 10.4; ileum 9.9)=MEN16132 (lung 10.5; ileum 9.9). > LF16-0687 (lung 8.9; ileum 8.8) > FR173657 (lung 8.6; ileum 8.2). BK homologous curves performed with lung membranes after treatment with the antagonist MEN16132 or Icatibant (10 nM) displayed only the low affinity site. The functional antagonism by MEN16132 (pA2 9.4) and Icatibant (pA2 9.1), towards BK (control EC50 6.1 nM) induced ileum contractions, was concentration-dependent and surmountable, but the Schild plot slope was less than unity. Conclusions and Implications: In mouse tissue, radiolabelled BK recognizes two binding sites and B2 receptor antagonists can compete only for the higher affinity one. The pharmacological profile of the novel non-peptide antagonist MEN16132 indicates that it exhibits subnanomolar affinity and potency for the mouse B2 receptor and is suitable for further characterization in in vivo pathophysiological models. PMID:17179941

Meini, S; Cucchi, P; Bellucci, F; Catalani, C; Giuliani, S; Santicioli, P; Maggi, C A



Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines as Selective Antagonists for the Orexin 1 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence implicates the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in reward processes, suggesting OX1 antagonism could be therapeutic in drug addiction. In a program to develop an OX1 selective antagonist, we designed and synthesized a series of substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines and determined their potency in OX1 and OX2 calcium mobilization assays. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed limited steric tolerance and preference for electron deficiency at the 7-position. Pyridylmethyl groups were shown to be optimal for activity at the acetamide position. Computational studies resulted in a pharmacophore model and confirmed the SAR results. Compound 72 significantly attenuated the development of place preference for cocaine in rats. PMID:23941044

Perrey, David A.; German, Nadezhda A.; Gilmour, Brian P.; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Zhang, Yanan



Antinociceptive activity of combination of morphine and NMDA receptor antagonists depends on the inter-injection interval.  


The actual time-course of morphine antinociception is shorter than what would be predicted from its elimination kinetics, suggesting the presence of an acute tolerance phenomenon. Since antagonists acting at NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors were repeatedly shown to prolong acute morphine antinociception, acute tolerance may be attributed to hyperactivity of NMDA receptors. The ability of various site-selective NMDA receptor antagonists to affect morphine antinociception (tail-flick test) was assessed in mice 30 and 120 min after acute morphine challenge. Competitive NMDA receptor antagonist 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid (D-CPPene) (SDZ EAA 494; 0.1-1 mg/kg), low-affinity channel blockers 1-amino-3,5-dimethyl adamantane (memantine) (1-10 mg/kg) and 1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethyl-cyclohexan hydrochloride (MRZ 2/579) (1-10 mg/kg), glycine site antagonists 5-nitro-6,7-dichloro-1, 4-dihydro-2,3-quinoxalinedione (ACEA-1021) (5 or 10 mg/kg) and 8-chloro-4-hydroxy-1-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridaliono(4, 5-b)quinoline-5-oxide choline salt (MRZ 2/576) (1-10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 15 or 30 min prior to the tail-flick test (i.e., interval between injections of morphine and NMDA receptor antagonist was either 0-15 or 90-105 min). ACEA-1021, MRZ 2/576 and to the lesser extent, memantine and MRZ 2/579 enhanced morphine antinociception when tests were conducted 120 but not 30 min post-morphine. D-CPPene potentiated morphine antinociception irrespective of the interval between morphine administration and the tail-flick test. The results suggest that NMDA receptor antagonists may restore analgesic activity of morphine in acutely tolerant mice. PMID:10822059

Belozertseva, I V; Dravolina, O A; Neznanova, O N; Danysz, W; Bespalov, A Y



Naturally Occurring Eccentric Cleavage Products of Provitamin A ?-Carotene Function as Antagonists of Retinoic Acid Receptors*  

PubMed Central

?-Carotene is the major dietary source of provitamin A. Central cleavage of ?-carotene catalyzed by ?-carotene oxygenase 1 yields two molecules of retinaldehyde. Subsequent oxidation produces all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which functions as a ligand for a family of nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Eccentric cleavage of ?-carotene at non-central double bonds is catalyzed by other enzymes and can also occur non-enzymatically. The products of these reactions are ?-apocarotenals and ?-apocarotenones, whose biological functions in mammals are unknown. We used reporter gene assays to show that none of the ?-apocarotenoids significantly activated RARs. Importantly, however, ?-apo-14?-carotenal, ?-apo-14?-carotenoic acid, and ?-apo-13-carotenone antagonized ATRA-induced transactivation of RARs. Competitive radioligand binding assays demonstrated that these putative RAR antagonists compete directly with retinoic acid for high affinity binding to purified receptors. Molecular modeling studies confirmed that ?-apo-13-carotenone can interact directly with the ligand binding site of the retinoid receptors. ?-Apo-13-carotenone and the ?-apo-14?-carotenoids inhibited ATRA-induced expression of retinoid responsive genes in Hep G2 cells. Finally, we developed an LC/MS method and found 3–5 nm ?-apo-13-carotenone was present in human plasma. These findings suggest that ?-apocarotenoids function as naturally occurring retinoid antagonists. The antagonism of retinoid signaling by these metabolites may have implications for the activities of dietary ?-carotene as a provitamin A and as a modulator of risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:22418437

Eroglu, Abdulkerim; Hruszkewycz, Damian P.; dela Sena, Carlo; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Ken M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Curley, Robert W.; Harrison, Earl H.



Coptis extracts enhance the anticancer effect of estrogen receptor antagonists on human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists have been widely used for breast cancer treatment, but the efficacy and drug resistance remain to be clinical concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extracts of coptis, an anti-inflammatory herb, improve the anticancer efficacy of ER antagonists. The results showed that the combined treatment of ER antagonists and the crude extract

Jing Liu; Chengwei He; Keyuan Zhou; Jingdong Wang; Jing X. Kang



Recent developments in the field of A 2A and A 3 adenosine receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years adenosine receptors have been extensively studied, and mainly at present we understand the importance of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors. A2A selective adenosine receptors antagonists are promising new drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, while A3 selective adenosine receptors antagonists have been postulated as novel anti-inflammatory and antiallergic agents; recent studies also indicated a possible

Pier Giovanni Baraldi; Mojgan Aghazadeh Tabrizi; Andrea Bovero; Barbara Avitabile; Delia Preti; Francesca Fruttarolo; Romeo Romagnoli; Katia Varani; Pier Andrea Borea



Effect of a specific endothelin A receptor antagonist on murine lupus nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of a specific endothelin A receptor antagonist on murine lupus nephritis. The present study was designed to assess whether a specific endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist, FR139317, affects the progression of lupus nephritis and affects transcription of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) components, metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and accumulation of ECM proteins in the renal

Tsukasa Nakamura; Isao Ebihara; Yasuhiko Tomino; Hikaru Koide



Inhibition of tolerance to spinal morphine antinociception by low doses of opioid receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists inhibit development of chronic spinal morphine tolerance. As this phenomenon mechanistically resembles acute tolerance, the present study examined actions of opioid receptor antagonists on acute spinal morphine tolerance. In adult rats, administration of three intrathecal injections of morphine (15 ?g) at 90 min intervals produced a significant decline of the antinociceptive effect and loss of agonist

Benjamin McNaull; Tuan Trang; Maaja Sutak; Khem Jhamandas



Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on acute ?-opioid analgesia in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed research findings have led to a debate regarding the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on opiate analgesia. NMDA antagonists have been found in various studies to enhance, to inhibit, or to have no effect on opiate analgesia. The present research used a single protocol to explore the effects of six NMDA receptor antagonists on acute morphine (3.0 mg\\/kg

Karen E. Redwine; Keith A. Trujillo



Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.  


A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 ?M, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 ?M against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue. PMID:24726305

Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C



Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia  

PubMed Central

Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:24416019

Equihua, Ana C.; De La Herran-Arita, Alberto K.; Drucker-Colin, Rene



Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors  

SciTech Connect

In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.



Straub tail reaction in mice treated with ?1 receptor antagonist in combination with methamphetamine  

PubMed Central

Straub tail reaction (STR) was observed in male ddY mice after simultaneous administration with BMY 14802 (a non-specific ? receptor antagonist) and methamphetamine (METH). The intensity and duration of STR depended on the dose of BMY 14802. The tail reaction was inhibited completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 (a putative ?1 receptor agonist) and partially by PB 28 (a putative ?2 receptor agonist). The STR was mimicked in mice treated with BD 1047 (a putative ?1 receptor antagonist), but not SM-21, a putative ?2 receptor antagonist, in combination with METH. STR evoked with BD 1047 plus METH was inhibited by (+)-SKF 10,047. STR induced by BMY 14802 and METH was abolished by naloxone (a relatively non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or U-50,488H (a selective ?-agonist), suggesting that the STR may be mediated by activation of opioid receptor system. PMID:22981417

Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Takemuraa, Motohiko



Two Cases of H2-Receptor Antagonist Hypersensitivity and Cross-Reactivity  

PubMed Central

H2-receptor antagonists, such as cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications for gastric acid-related disorders. These compounds are generally well-tolerated and anaphylactic reactions to them are rare. Here, we report two cases of H2-receptor antagonist-induced anaphylactic reactions: the first presented with sudden dyspnea, sneezing, urticaria, and swelling of the eyelids after ranitidine intake. The second presented with sudden severe urticaria, facial swelling, chest discomfort, dizziness, and hypotension. Possible cross-reactivity with other H2-receptor antagonists was assessed by oral challenge and skin tests. To date, only a few reports addressing cross-reactivity among H2-receptor antagonists have been published. We review the literature and summarize the data available on drug cross-reactivity in H2-receptor antagonist hypersensitivity. PMID:21461253

Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young



Effects of a Novel Bradykinin B1 Receptor Antagonist and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade on Experimental Myocardial Infarction in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of the novel bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist BI-113823 following myocardial infarction (MI) and to determine whether B1 receptor blockade alters the cardiovascular effects of an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist after MI in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the left descending coronary artery. Cardiovascular function was determined at 7 days post MI. Treatment with either B1 receptor antagonist (BI-113823) or AT1 receptor antagonist (irbesartan) alone or in combination improved post-MI cardiac function as evidenced by attenuation of elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP); greater first derivative of left ventricular pressure (± dp/dt max), left ventricle ejection fraction, fractional shorting, and better wall motion; as we as reductions in post-MI up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2) and collagen III. In addition, the cardiac up-regulation of B1 receptor and AT1 receptor mRNA were markedly reduced in animals treated with BI 113823, although bradykinin B2 receptor and angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE1) mRNA expression were not significantly affected by B1 receptor blockade. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that treatment with the novel B1 receptor antagonist, BI-113823 improves post-MI cardiac function and does not influence the cardiovascular effects of AT1 receptor antagonist following MI. PMID:23236443

Wu, Dongmei; Lin, Xinchun; Bernloehr, Christian; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Doods, Henri



Counteracting corneal immunoinflammatory lesion with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein.  


Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is a T cell-orchestrated, immunoinflammatory lesion that results from corneal Herpes simplex virus infection. Previous reports indicate an essential role for proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 in HSK pathogenesis. The present study evaluates the efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra) protein in the management of HSK. Mice receiving IL-1 ra had diminished disease severity. The administration of IL-1 ra was shown to reduce the influx into the cornea of cells of the innate and adaptive immune response. In addition, the treatment diminished corneal vascular endothelial growth factor levels, resulting in reduced angiogenic response. Our results show the importance of targeting early proinflammatory molecules such as IL-1 to counteract HSK and advocate IL-1 ra as an effective agent to achieve this. PMID:15258192

Biswas, Partha Sarathi; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Zheng, Mei; Rouse, Barry T



Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (?-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (?FVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 ± 29 and 314 ± 34 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1 (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect ?FVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 ± 29 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, P = 0.4) or 20% (287 ± 48 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, P = 0.3). In protocol 2, ?FVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 ± 30 and 453 ± 41 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1 (10% and 20% respectively). ?FVC was similar at 10% (352 ± 39 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, P = 0.8) and 20% (528 ± 45 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, ?FVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

Madery, Brandon D.; Pike, Tasha L.; Eisenach, John H.; Dietz, Niki M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Wilkins, Brad W.



GLP-1 receptor antagonist as a potential probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

We examined exendin(9-39), an antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), as a potential probe for imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cells. To evaluate in vitro receptor specificity, binding assay was performed using dispersed mouse islet cells. Binding assay showed competitive inhibition of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) binding by non-radioactive exendin(9-39). To assess in vivo selectivity, the biodistribution was evaluated by intravenous administration of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) to mice. Radioactivity of harvested pancreas reached highest levels at 60 and 120 min among organs examined except lung. Pre-administration of excess non-radioactive exendin(9-39) remarkably and specifically blocked the radioactivity of pancreas. After [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) injection into transgenic mice with pancreatic {beta}-cells expressing GFP, fluorescent and radioactive signals of sections of pancreas were evaluated with an image analyzer. Imaging analysis showed that the fluorescent GFP signals and the radioactive signals were correspondingly located. Thus, the GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) may serve as a useful probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging.

Mukai, Eri [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, Kentaro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Hiroyuki [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Temma, Takashi [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirao, Konomu; Nagakawa, Kenji [Research and Development Division, Arkray, Inc., Kyoto (Japan)] [Research and Development Division, Arkray, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Saji, Hideo [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)



Quantifying the relationship between HIV1 susceptibility to CCR5 antagonists and virus affinity for antagonist-occupied co-receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that HIV-1 develops resistance to CCR5 antagonists by gaining the ability to use drug-occupied co-receptor. However, the effects of CCR5 antagonists on the affinity of virus-co-receptor interactions have been difficult to quantify. We developed a pharmacological model for allosteric interaction at G-protein coupled receptors to analyze the effect of different CCR5 antagonists on infection by three

Peter J. Buontempo; Lisa Wojcik; Catherine A. Buontempo; Robert A. Ogert; Julie M. Strizki; John A. Howe; Robert Ralston



Use of Enterally Delivered Angiotensin II Type Ia Receptor Antagonists to Reduce the Severity of Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Renin-angiotensin system blockade reduces inflammation in several organ systems. Having found a fourfold increase in angiotensin II type Ia receptor expression in a dextran sodium sulfate colitis model, we targeted blockade with angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists to prevent colitis development. Because hypotension is a major complication of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists use, we hypothesized that use of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists compounds which lack cell membrane permeability, and thus enteric absorption, would allow for direct enteral delivery at far higher concentrations than would be tolerated systemically, yet retain efficacy. Methods Based on the structure of the angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist losartan, deschloro-losartan was synthesized, which has extremely poor cell membrane permeability. Angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy was evaluated by determining the ability to block NF-?B activation in vitro. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in mice and angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy delivered transanally was assessed. Results In vitro, deschloro-losartan demonstrated near equal angiotensin II type Ia receptor blockade compared to losartan as well as another angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist, candesartan. In the dextran sodium sulfate model, each compound significantly improved clinical and histologic scores and epithelial cell apoptosis. Abundance of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL6 mRNA were significantly decreased with each compound. In vitro and in vivo intestinal drug absorption, as well as measures of blood pressure and mucosal and colonic blood flow, showed significantly lower uptake of deschloro-losartan compared to losartan and candesartan. Conclusions This study demonstrated efficacy of high-dose angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists in this colitis model. We postulate that a specially designed angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist with poor oral absorption may have great potential as a new therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease in the future. PMID:21399927

Okawada, Manabu; Koga, Hiroyuki; Larsen, Scott D.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Turbiak, Anjanette J.; Jin, Xiaohong; Lucas, Peter C.; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Kim, Jae Seung



Pharmacological properties of KT3-671, a novel nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.  


We examined pharmacological profiles of KT3-671, 2-propyl-8-oxo-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]- 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-cycloheptimidazole, a newly synthesized nonpeptide angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist in various in vitro and in vivo studies. KT3-671 displaced specific binding of [125I]Sar1 Ile8-AII to AT1 receptor with a Ki value of 0.71 +/- 0.14 x 10(-9) M in rat liver membranes, but had no affinity for AT2 receptor in bovine cerebellar membranes (Ki > 10(-5) M). In isolated rabbit aorta, KT3-671 produced a parallel rightward shift in the concentration-response curve for AII with a pA2 value of 10.04 +/- 0.12, but had no effect on KCl-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and serotonin (5-HT)-induced contractions. In conscious normotensive rats, KT3-671 (0.3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the AII-induced pressor response dose dependently. In renal artery-ligated hypertensive rats, KT3-671 (0.1-3 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased arterial blood pressure (BP) dose dependently. The hypotensive action of 3 mg/kg KT3-671 was maintained for at least 24 h. These results suggest that KT3-671 is a potent AT1 subtype-selective and competitive nonpeptide AII receptor antagonist and has an orally active antihypertensive effect without agonistic activity. PMID:7723348

Mochizuki, S; Sato, T; Furuta, K; Hase, K; Ohkura, Y; Fukai, C; Kosakai, K; Wakabayashi, S; Tomiyama, A



Pentapeptides displaying mu opioid receptor agonist and delta opioid receptor partial agonist/antagonist properties  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of mu-opioid agonists has been shown to cause neurochemical adaptations resulting in tolerance and dependence. While the analgesic effects of these drugs are mediated by mu-opioid receptors (MOR), several studies have shown that antagonism or knockdown of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) can lessen or prevent development of tolerance and dependence. Based on computational modeling of putative active and inactive conformations of MOR and DOR, we have synthesized a series of pentapeptides with the goal of developing a MOR agonist/DOR antagonist peptide with similar affinity at both receptors as a tool to probe functional opioid receptor interaction(s). The eight resulting naphthylalanine-substituted cyclic pentapeptides displayed variable mixed-efficacy profiles. The most promising peptide (9; Tyr-c(S-CH2-S)[D-Cys-Phe-2-Nal-Cys]NH2) displayed a MOR agonist and DOR partial agonist/antagonist profile and bound with equipotent affinity (Ki ~ 0.5 nM) to both receptors, but also showed kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist activity. PMID:19788201

Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.



CGRP Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Migraine  

PubMed Central

Based on preclinical and clinical studies, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is proposed to play a central role in the underlying pathology of migraine. CGRP and its receptor are widely expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system by multiple cell types involved in the regulation of inflammatory and nociceptive responses. Peripheral release of CGRP from trigeminal nerve fibers within the dura and from the cell body of trigeminal ganglion neurons is likely to contribute to peripheral sensitization of trigeminal nociceptors. Similarly, the release of CGRP within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis can facilitate activation of nociceptive second order neurons and glial cells. Thus, CGRP is involved in the development and maintenance of persistent pain, central sensitization, and allodynia, events characteristic of migraine pathology. In contrast, CGRP release within the brain is likely to function in an anti-nociceptive capacity. This review will focus on the development and clinical data on CGRP receptor antagonists as well as discussing their potential roles in migraine therapy via modulation of multiple cell types within the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:20433208

Durham, Paul L.; Vause, Carrie V.



Inhaled muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists for treatment of COPD.  


Bronchodilators, generally administered via metered dose or dry powder inhalers, are the mainstays of pharmacological treatment of stable COPD. Inhaled long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and anticholinergics are the bronchodilators primarily used in the chronic treatment of COPD. Anticholinergics act as muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists and are frequently preferred over beta-agonists for their minimal cardiac stimulatory effects and greater efficacy in most studies. Their therapeutic efficacy is based on the fact that vagally mediated bronchoconstriction is the major reversible component of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD. However, bronchodilators are effective only on the reversible component of airflow obstruction, which by definition is limited, as COPD is characterized by a fixed or poorly reversible airflow obstruction. Inhaled anticholinergic antimuscarinic drugs approved for the treatment of COPD include ipratropium bromide, oxitropium bromide and tiotropium bromide. Ipratropium bromide, the prototype of anticholinergic bronchodilators, is a short-acting agent. Oxitropium bromide is administered twice a day. Tiotropium bromide, the only long-acting antimuscarinic agent (LAMA) currently approved, is administered once a day. Newer LAMAs including aclidinium bromide and glycopyrrolate bromide are currently in phase III development for treatment of COPD. Some new LAMAs, including glycocpyrrolate, are suitable for once daily administration and, unlike tiotropium, have a rapid onset of action. New LAMAs and their combination with ultra-LABA and, possibly, inhaled corticosteroids, seem to open new perspectives in the management of COPD. Dual-pharmacology muscarinic antagonist-beta2 agonist (MABA) molecules present a novel approach to the treatment of COPD by combining muscarinic antagonism and beta2 agonism in a single molecule. PMID:22963553

Montuschi, P; Macagno, F; Valente, S; Fuso, L



Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists. II. Pharmacology of S-8308.  


2-Butyl-4-chloro-1-(2-nitrobenzyl)imidazole-5-acetic acid, sodium salt (S-8308), inhibited the specific binding of labeled angiotensin II (AII) to its receptor sites in rat adrenal cortical microsomes and in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells with IC50S of 15 and 4.5 microM, respectively. In the presence of S-8308 (15 microM) the dissociation constant for AII was increased 2-fold and the total number of binding sites was unaltered. In a concentration-dependent manner S-8308 blocked the 45Ca2+ influx induced by AII (3 X 10(-8) M) in rat aortic rings (IC50 7 microM) and the contractile response in rabbit aorta was competitively inhibited (pA2 = 5.74). This agent was highly specific for AII: it showed no affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors or Ca2+ channels and in addition, it did not alter the contractile responses to norepinephrine (10(-7) M) or KCl (55 mM). In conscious renal artery-ligated rats, S-8308 (30 mg/kg i.v.) elicited a rapid decrease of mean arterial pressure with a duration of about 30 min. The results demonstrate that S-8308 is a weak, but specific and competitive, non-peptide antagonist of AII exerting its inhibitory action at the receptor level. PMID:3234494

Chiu, A T; Carini, D J; Johnson, A L; McCall, D E; Price, W A; Thoolen, M J; Wong, P C; Taber, R I; Timmermans, P B



Synthesis and characterization of a selective peptide antagonist of neuropeptide Y vascular postsynaptic receptors.  

PubMed Central

1. A cyclic dimeric nonapeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor antagonist, 1229U91, was synthesized by Fmoc chemistry and dimerised in solution. Its effects were assayed in mesenteric arteries from rats and mice, and in rat vas deferens. 2. Mesenteric arteries were cannulated and pressurised to 55 mmHg and the external diameters continuously measured. NPY, PYY, Leu31Pro34NPY and NPY(13-36) each caused concentration-related contractions with the order of potency PYY > or = Leu31Pro34NPY = NPY > NPY (13-36), consistent with the Y1 receptor subtype. 3. 1229U91 had no agonist activity in the arteries but caused a concentration-related rightward shift of NPY (mouse arteries) or Leu31Pro34NPY (rat) concentration-response curves. The antagonism was competitive with pKBS of 7.69 +/- 0.15 and 7.47 +/- 0.13 in the mouse and rat arteries, respectively. 4. Sympathetic nerves in the vas deferens were stimulated with a single electrical field pulse every 20 s and the twitch responses recorded. NPY, PYY, Leu31Pro34NPY and NPY(13-36) inhibited the twitches with the order of potency PYY > NPY > NPY(13-36) >> Leu31Pro34NPY, consistent with the Y2 receptor subtype. 5. 1229U91 inhibited the vas deferens twitch with a shallow concentration-response curve and a time-course of inhibition distinct from that of NPY. 1229U91 (30 microM) did not cause a rightward shift of the NPY concentration-response curve. 1229U91 is at least 5 orders of magnitude less potent in the vas deferens than in rat brain Y2 binding assays reported by others, suggesting that the brain and vas deferens Y2 receptors are different. 6. It is concluded that 1229U91 is a competitive antagonist of NPY Y1 vascular receptors and has additional properties that inhibit the electrically evoked twitch of the rat vas deferens. PMID:8732289

Lew, M. J.; Murphy, R.; Angus, J. A.



Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat.  

PubMed Central

Prazosin, an antagonist of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, has been found to suppress the clinical and histological expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. Suppression was more significant in females than in males and was a dose-dependent phenomenon. Analysis of the effect of other adrenergic receptor antagonists supports the conclusion that the suppressive effect of prazosin is a consequence of blockade of the alpha 1-receptor since treatment with either the alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine or the beta-antagonist propranolol exacerbated the disease, whereas treatment with the long-acting mixed alpha 1/alpha 2-antagonist phenoxybenzamine had some suppressive activity. Treatment with prazosin was also able to suppress clinical and histological signs of EAE in animals sensitized by adoptive transfer with activated spleen or lymph node cells. Whether prazosin acts through altering vascular permeability or the immune response, or both, remains to be determined. Images PMID:2994053

Brosnan, C F; Goldmuntz, E A; Cammer, W; Factor, S M; Bloom, B R; Norton, W T



Alvimopan: a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist.  


Postoperative ileus (POI), a transient cessation of coordinated bowel motility after surgery, is an important factor in extending the length of hospital stay. The etiology of POI is multifactorial, and related to both the surgical and anesthetic pathways chosen. Additionally, opioids used to manage non-cancer-related and cancer-related chronic pain may also decrease gastrointestinal (GI) motility resulting in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD). Postoperative ileus has been associated with prolonged hospital stay and readmission, and thus may increase the overall hospital costs per patient with POI. Alvimopan, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist, accelerated time to GI recovery and reduced postoperative hospital length of stay in phase III POI clinical trials and improved symptoms of OBD compared with placebo in phase II/III clinical trials. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is currently evaluating alvimopan for the management of POI after bowel resection. Alvimopan may provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients and may lower the economic burden of POI to the healthcare system. PMID:17940638

Leslie, John B



Antipruritic treatment with systemic ?-opioid receptor antagonists: a review.  


During the past two decades, systemic ?-opioid receptor antagonists (MORA) have been used in the treatment of various forms of chronic pruritus. In a number of case reports, case series, and controlled trials, treatment with MORA has demonstrated considerable antipruritic effects. In double-blind controlled studies, significant antipruritic relief has been achieved by MORA in cholestatic pruritus, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis. In case reports and case series, antipruritic efficacy of MORA has been reported in prurigo nodularis, mycosis fungoides, postburn pruritus, aquagenic pruritus, hydroxyethyl starch-induced pruritus, and pruritus of unknown origin. However, most of the evidence remains anecdotal, the design of these trials varies, and comparison of results is difficult. In this review we aim to present an overview of these reports and to assess the evidence for the antipruritic action of the drugs naloxone, nalmefene, and naltrexone, which are currently in use for the treatment of chronic pruritus of different origins. We will also evaluate recommendations for the use of MORA in daily medical practice. PMID:20462660

Phan, Ngoc Quan; Bernhard, Jeffrey D; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja



Structural Basis for Nuclear Receptor Corepressor (NCoR) Recruitment by Antagonist Liganded Androgen Receptor  

PubMed Central

Androgen receptor (AR) recruitment of transcriptional corepressors NCoR and SMRT can be enhanced by antagonists such as mifepristone. This study shows that enhanced NCoR binding to the mifepristone liganded AR is mediated by the NCoR C-terminal N1 CoRNR box, and that this selectivity is due to charged residues unique to the C-terminal CoRNR boxes of NCoR and SMRT. Significantly, these residues are on a helical face adjacent to oppositely charged residues in helix 4 of the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Mutagenesis of these AR residues in helix 4, as well as mutation of lysine 720 in helix 3 (predicted to interact with the CoRNR box), markedly impaired AR recruitment of NCoR, indicating that N1 CoRNR box binding is being stabilized by these ionic interactions in the AR LBD coactivator/corepressor binding site. Finally, results using a helix 12 deleted AR indicate that mifepristone induces allosteric changes in addition to helix 12 displacement that are critical for NCoR binding. These findings demonstrate that AR antagonists can enhance corepressor recruitment by stabilizing a distinct antagonist conformation of the AR coactivator/corepressor binding site, and support the development of additional antagonists that may be able to further enhance AR recruitment of corepressors. PMID:18852122

Hodgson, Myles C.; Shen, Howard C.; Hollenberg, Anthony N.; Balk, Steven P.



Identification of potent CNS-penetrant thiazolidinones as novel CGRP receptor antagonists.  


Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in acute migraine pathogenesis. In an effort to identify novel CGRP receptor antagonists for the treatment of migraine, we have discovered thiazolidinone 49, a potent (Ki=30 pM, IC50=1 nM), orally bioavailable, CNS-penetrant CGRP antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:24405707

Joshi, Pramod; Anderson, Corey; Binch, Hayley; Hadida, Sabine; Yoo, Sanghee; Bergeron, Danielle; Decker, Caroline; terHaar, Ernst; Moore, Jonathan; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Termin, Andreas



Roles of affinity and lipophilicity in the slow kinetics of prostanoid receptor antagonists on isolated smooth muscle preparations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The highly lipophilic acyl-sulphonamides L-798106 and L-826266 showed surprisingly slow antagonism of the prostanoid EP3 receptor system in guinea-pig aorta. Roles of affinity and lipophilicity in the onset kinetics of these and other prostanoid ligands were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Antagonist selectivity was assessed using a panel of human recombinant prostanoid receptor-fluorimetric imaging plate reader assays. Potencies/affinities and onset half-times of agonists and antagonists were obtained on guinea-pig-isolated aorta and vas deferens. n-Octanol-water partition coefficients were predicted. KEY RESULTS L-798106, L-826266 and the less lipophilic congener (DG)-3ap appear to behave as selective, competitive-reversible EP3 antagonists. For ligands of low to moderate lipophilicity, potency increments for EP3 and TP (thromboxane-like) agonism on guinea-pig aorta (above pEC50 of 8.0) were associated with progressively longer onset half-times; similar trends were found for TP and histamine H1 antagonism above a pA2 limit of 8.0. In contrast, L-798106 (EP3), L-826266 (EP3, TP) and the lipophilic H1 antagonists astemizole and terfenadine exhibited very slow onset rates despite their moderate affinities; (DG)-3ap (EP3) had a faster onset. Agonism and antagonism on the vas deferens EP3 system were overall much faster, although trends were similar. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS High affinity and high liphophilicity may contribute to the slow onsets of prostanoid ligands in some isolated smooth muscle preparations. Both relationships are explicable by tissue disposition under the limited diffusion model. EP3 antagonists used as research tools should have moderate lipophilicity. The influence of lipophilicity on the potential clinical use of EP3 antagonists is discussed. PMID:20973775

Jones, RL; Woodward, DF; Wang, JW; Clark, RL



No Effect of Nutritional Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on Exercise Performance in the Heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutritional adenosine receptor antagonists can enhance endurance exercise performance in temperate environments, but their efficacy during heat stress is not well understood. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of an acute d...

B. B. Michniak-Kohn, B. R. Ely, J. C. Rood, R. W. Kenefick, S. N. Cheuvront



5-HT3-receptor antagonists and the cytochrome P450 system: clinical implications.  


Many patients with cancer receive multiple chemotherapy agents as well as other medications for coexisting medical conditions. Despite the introduction of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, the management of nausea and vomiting following cancer treatment and after cancer surgery remains complex, particularly when patients are receiving multiple prescription medications. As a drug class, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have good antiemetic efficacy and an improved safety profile over conventional antiemetics. Nevertheless, pharmacologic differences exist between these agents, such as their interaction with the metabolic cytochrome P450 system. This review examines the major metabolic differences between the most frequently prescribed 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, and tropisetron. The potential drug interactions that these differences may precipitate and key genetic interindividual variations in drug metabolism are also considered. To avoid or minimize potential drug interactions, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with the lowest risk of these interactions should be considered as first choice. PMID:12416899

Blower, Peter R



[Pharmacokinetics of azasetron (Serotone), a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist].  


5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been established in a number of clinical trials as effective agents in the management of nausea and vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy including cisplatin. Azasetron (Serotone) is a potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and classified as benzamide derivative. It has a different chemical structure from indole-type 5-HT3 receptor antagonists such as granisetron, ondansetron, ramosetron and tropisetron. The major difference is found in the pharmacokinetic profiles. Approximately 60-70% of azasetron administered i.v. and orally is excreted in urine as the unmetabolized form. Also, orally-administered azasetron has shown to be absorbed and/or secreted by the saturable transport mechanism in the small intestine, resulting in good bioavailability as approximately 90%. In this report, the relationship between the structure of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (especially azasetron) and their pharmacokinetics were described. PMID:10396331

Tsukagoshi, S



The NK1 Receptor Antagonist L822429 Reduces Heroin Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1?h: ShA) or long (12?h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects. PMID:23303056

Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus



Effects of Urotensin II Receptor Antagonist, GSK1440115, in Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: Urotensin II (U-II) is highly expressed in the human lung and has been implicated in regulating respiratory physiology in preclinical studies. Our objective was to test antagonism of the urotensin (UT) receptor by GSK1440115, a novel, competitive, and selective inhibitor of the UT receptor, as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of asthma. Methods: Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single doses of GSK1440115 (1–750?mg) were assessed in a Phase I, placebo controlled study in 70 healthy subjects. In a Phase Ib study, 12 asthmatic patients were randomized into a two-period, single-blind crossover study and treated with single doses of 750?mg GSK1440115 or placebo and given a methacholine challenge. Results: Administration of GSK1440115 was safe and well-tolerated in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. In both studies, there was a high degree of variability in the observed PK following oral dosing with GSK1440115 at all doses. There was a marked food effect in healthy subjects at the 50?mg dose. In the presence of food at the 750?mg dose, the time to maximal concentration was between 2 and 6?h and the terminal half-life was short at approximately 2?h. All asthmatic patients maintained greater than the predicted concentration levels necessary to achieve predicted 96% receptor occupancy for ?3?h (between 4 and 7?h post-dose). There were no apparent trends or relationships between the systemic plasma exposure of GSK1440115 and pharmacodynamic endpoints, PC20 after methacholine challenge and FEV1, in asthmatics. Conclusion: While GSK1440115 was safe and well-tolerated, it did not induce bronchodilation in asthmatics, or protect against methacholine-induced bronchospasm, suggesting that acute UT antagonism is not likely to provide benefit as an acute bronchodilator in this patient population. PMID:23641215

Portnoy, Alison; Kumar, Sanjay; Behm, David J.; Mahar, Kelly M.; Noble, Robert B.; Throup, John P.; Russ, Steven F.



Rational Design of Competitive Prolactin\\/Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) act as growth-promoters of breast tumors. Recent\\u000a arguments have accumulated to suggest that when they are locally-produced within the mammary tissue, these hormones, acting\\u000a by an autocrine-paracrine mechanism may have enhanced, or even specific functions compared to endocrine PRL and GH. Classical\\u000a drugs blocking pituitary hormone production (dopamine and

Estelle Tallet; Vincent Rouet; Jean-Baptiste Jomain; Paul A. Kelly; Sophie Bernichtein; Vincent Goffin



Role of D?/D? dopamin receptors antagonist perphenazine in morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.  


While opioid receptors have been implicated in the development of tolerance, the subsequent mechanisms involved in these phenomena have not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist perphenazine on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. Male Wistar albino rats weighing 190-205 g were used in these experiments. To constitute of morphine tolerance, animals received morphine (50 mg/kg) once daily for 3 days. After last dose of morphine was injected on day 4, morphine tolerance was evaluated by the analgesia tests. The analgesic effects of perphenazine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg ), D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg), D2-dopamine receptor antagonist eticlopride (1 mg/kg), and morphine were considered at 30-min intervals (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) by tail-flick and hot-plate analgesia tests. Obtained data suggested that D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist perphenazine was capable of suppressing opioid tolerance, possibly by the mechanism of inhibiting D2-dopamine receptor. Because the data indicated that D2-dopamine receptor antagonist eticloride, but not D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390, significantly decreased morphine tolerance in analgesia tests. In addition, administration of perphenazine with morphine increased morphine analgesia. Results from the present study suggested that dopamine receptors play a significant role in the morphine analgesic tolerance. In particular, D2-dopamine receptor has an important role rather than D1-dopamine receptor in development tolerance to morphine. PMID:23725509

Ozdemir, Ercan; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Gursoy, Sinan



Melatonin receptor antagonists that differentiate between the human Mel1a and Mel1b recombinant subtypes are used to assess the pharmacological profile of the rabbit retina ML1 presynaptic heteroreceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified subtype selective agonists, partial agonists and antagonists, which distinguish the human recombinant\\u000a Mel1a and Mel1b melatonin receptors expressed in COS-7 cells. Melatonin receptor agonists showed higher affinity for competition of 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin binding for the Mel1b than the Mel1a melatonin receptor. The dissociation constants (Ki) of 16 agonists determined on the recombinant human Mel1a and Mel1b melatonin receptor

Margarita L. Dubocovich; Monica I. Masana; Stanca Iacob; Daniel M. Sauri



Interactions of agonists with an allosteric antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine M2 receptors.  


The interaction of heptane-1,7-bis(dimethyl-3'-phthalimidopropylammonium bromide) (C7/3'-phth), with several agonists, was investigated at the muscarinic M2 receptor in guinea-pig left atria. C7/3'-phth shifted concentration-response curves for the agonists, carbachol, oxotremorine-M and (+)-cis-dioxolane, to the right in a parallel fashion. Arunlakshana-Schild regressions of the data yielded slopes significantly different to unity, suggesting non-competitive antagonism. Non-linear regression analysis, using an equation based on allosteric modulation, gave quantitative estimates of co-operativity (alpha values) and the dissociation constant of C7/3'-phth (KB). In all cases, the KB estimates for C7/3'-phth were not significantly different. Increasing the carbachol contact time 10-fold did not significantly influence the KB or the alpha value obtained with C7/3'-phth. Changing from Krebs to Tyrode solution did not significantly alter the KB for C7/3'-phth, although alpha values obtained were consistently lower in Tyrode solution, suggesting that the allosteric action may be sensitive to buffer composition. A 4-fold higher degree of negative, heterotropic co-operativity between C7/3'-phth and agonists than between C7/3'-phth and competitive antagonists was also found. PMID:8982646

Lanzafame, A; Christopoulos, A; Mitchelson, F



Response properties of antral mechanosensitive afferent fibers and effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are present peripherally in the primary sensory afferent neurons innervating the viscera. Multiple studies have reported roles of glutamate receptors in gastric functions. However, no study has previously shown the direct influence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist on vagal sensory neurons. The objective of this study was to investigate

J. N Sengupta; J Petersen; S Peles; R Shaker



Palliation of bone cancer pain by antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors.  


Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC) model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients. PMID:24637403

Morita, Katsuya; Shiraishi, Seiji; Motoyama, Naoyo; Kitayama, Tomoya; Kanematsu, Takashi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Dohi, Toshihiro



Palliation of Bone Cancer Pain by Antagonists of Platelet-Activating Factor Receptors  

PubMed Central

Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC) model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients. PMID:24637403

Kitayama, Tomoya; Kanematsu, Takashi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Dohi, Toshihiro



Molecular mechanisms of 5-HT(3) and NK(1) receptor antagonists in prevention of emesis.  


Nausea and vomiting are major side effects of chemotherapy and one key reason for non-compliance with cancer treatment. The introduction of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the 1990s was a major advance in the prevention of acute emesis, and highlighted the critical role of serotonin in the emetic response. The next major advance in the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) occurred in 2003 with the introduction of aprepitant, a tachykinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist. Aprepitant not only reduced acute emesis but also helped in the reduction of delayed emesis. Also in 2003, palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist became available. Unlike the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, palonosetron demonstrated efficacy in preventing both acute and delayed emesis. This review focuses on the mechanism of action of 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists in acute and delayed CINV prevention. We discuss first, the medicinal chemistry that led to the discovery of these antagonists to underline their common structural features. Second, we discuss their performance in the clinic and what it tells us about the emetic response. Finally, we present recent mechanistic studies that help provide a rationale for efficacy differences between palonosetron and other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the clinic. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that palonosetron can inhibit substance P-mediated responses, presumably through its unique interactions with the 5-HT3 receptor. The crossroads of acute and delayed emesis seem to include interactions among the 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor signaling pathways and inhibitions of these interactions could lead to improved treatment of CINV. PMID:24184669

Rojas, Camilo; Raje, Mithun; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S



Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist.  


A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], which combines the N terminus of the established Dmt(1)-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2)) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, that is, Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH(2) (36), also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced ? and ? opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity. PMID:21413804

Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Tourwé, Dirk



Therapeutics of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists: Current Uses and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor is a member of the cys-loop family of ligand gated ion channels, of which the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is the prototype. All other 5-HT receptors identified to date are metabotropic receptors. The 5-HT3 receptor is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as a number of non-nervous tissues. As an ion channel that is permeable to the cations, Na+, K+, and Ca2+, the 5-HT3 receptor mediates fast depolarizing responses in pre- and post-synaptic neurons. As such, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists that are used clinically block afferent and efferent synaptic transmission. The most well established physiological roles of the 5-HT3 receptor are to coordinate emesis and regulate gastrointestinal motility. Currently marketed 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are indicated for treatment of chemotherapy, radiation, and anesthesia-induced nausea and vomiting, as well as irritable bowel syndrome. Other therapeutic uses that have been explored include pain and drug addiction. The 5-HT3 receptor is one of a number of receptors that play a role in mediating nausea and vomiting, and as such, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists demonstrate greatest anti-emetic efficacy when administered in combination with other drug classes. PMID:21356241

Machu, Tina K.



[The potential of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists as a novel antidepressant].  


Recently, abnormalities of glutamatergic transmission have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Moreover, both ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, and riluzole, a modulator of glutamatergic, transmission have been reported to be effective for the treatment of patients with treatment-refractory depression. Based on these findings, extensive studies to develop agents acting on glutamatergic transmission have been conducted. Glutamate receptors are divided into two main subtypes, ionotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, both of which have subtypes. Of these, much attention has been paid to mGlu2/3 receptors. mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists such as MGS0039 and LY341495 have been reported to exert antidepressant effects in animal models of depression including the forced swim test, tail suspension test, learned helplessness paradigm, olfactory bulmectomy model and isolation rearing model, and to enhance serotonin release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, activation of AMPA receptor and mTOR signaling have been suggested to be involved in the antidepressant effects of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists, as demonstrated in the actions of ketamine. Thus, mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists may share some neural networks with ketamine in exerting their antidepressant effects. In addition, the potential of other agents targeting glutamatergic transmission for novel antidepressants is being investigated. PMID:23012890

Chaki, Shigeyuki



Medicinal Chemistry of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: Agonists, Antagonists, and Receptor Engineering  

PubMed Central

A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) ligands have been modified to optimize their interaction with the A3AR. Most of these modifications have been made to the N6 and C2 positions of adenine as well as the ribose moiety, and using a combination of these substitutions leads to the most efficacious, selective, and potent ligands. A3AR agonists such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA are now advancing into Phase II clinical trials for treatments targeting diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Also, a wide number of compounds exerting high potency and selectivity in antagonizing the human (h)A3AR have been discovered. These molecules are generally characterized by a notable structural diversity, taking into account that aromatic nitrogen-containing monocyclic (thiazoles and thiadiazoles), bicyclic (isoquinoline, quinozalines, (aza)adenines), tricyclic systems (pyrazoloquinolines, triazoloquinoxalines, pyrazolotriazolopyrimidines, triazolopurines, tricyclic xanthines) and nucleoside derivatives have been identified as potent and selective A3AR antagonists. Probably due to the “enigmatic” physiological role of A3AR, whose activation may produce opposite effects (for example, concerning tissue protection in inflammatory and cancer cells) and may produce effects that are species dependent, only a few molecules have reached preclinical investigation. Indeed, the most advanced A3AR antagonists remain in preclinical testing. Among the antagonists described above, compound OT-7999 is expected to enter clinical trials for the treatment of glaucoma, while several thiazole derivatives are in development as antiallergic, antiasthmatic and/or antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:19639281

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Klutz, Athena M.; Tosh, Dilip K.; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Preti, Delia; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni



Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability.  


The cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) alters rewarding properties and intake of food and drugs. Additionally, striatal dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability has been implicated in reward function. This study shows that chronic treatment of rats with rimonabant (1.0 and 3.0?mg/kg/day) dose-dependently increased DRD2 availability in the dorsal striatum (14 and 23%) compared with vehicle. High-dose rimonabant also increased DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum (12%) and reduced weight gain. Thus, up-regulation of striatal DRD2 by chronic rimonabant administration may be an underlying mechanism of action and confirms the interactions of the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems. PMID:21955259

Crunelle, Cleo L; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Schulz, Sybille; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; de Bruin, Kora; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan



Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Pyridoxal-6-arylazo-5?-phosphate and Phosphonate Derivatives as P2 Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Novel analogs of the P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxal-5?-phosphate-6-phenylazo-2?,4?-disulfonate (PPADS) were synthesized. Modifications were made through functional group substitution on the sulfophenyl ring and at the phosphate moiety through the inclusion of phosphonates, demonstrating that a phosphate linkage is not required for P2 receptor antagonism. Substituted 6-phenylazo and 6-naphthylazo derivatives were also evaluated. Among the 6-phenylazo derivatives, 5?-methyl, ethyl, propyl, vinyl, and allyl phosphonates were included. The compounds were tested as antagonists at turkey erythrocyte and guinea-pig taenia coli P2Y1 receptors, in guinea-pig vas deferens and bladder P2X1 receptors, and in ion flux experiments by using recombinant rat P2X2 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Competitive binding assay at human P2X1 receptors in differentiated HL-60 cell membranes was carried out by using [35S]ATP-?-S. A 2?-chloro-5?-sulfo analog of PPADS (C14H12O9N3ClPSNa), a vinyl phosphonate derivative (C15H12O11N3PS2Na3), and a naphthylazo derivative (C18H14O12N3PS2Na2), were particularly potent in binding to human P2X1 receptors. The potencies of phosphate derivatives at P2Y1 receptors were generally similar to PPADS itself, except for the p-carboxyphenylazo phosphate derivative C15H13O8N3PNa and its m-chloro analog C15H12O8N3ClPNa, which were selective for P2X vs. P2Y1 receptors. C15H12O8N3ClPNa was very potent at rat P2X2 receptors with an IC50 value of 0.82 ?M. Among the phosphonate derivatives, [4-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-(2-chloro-5-sulfonylphenylazo)-pyrid-5-yl]methylphosphonic acid (C14H12-O8N3ClPSNa) showed high potency at P2Y1 receptors with an IC50 of 7.23 ?M. The corresponding 2,5-disulfonylphenyl derivative was nearly inactive at turkey erythrocyte P2Y1 receptors, whereas at recombinant P2X2 receptors had an IC50 value of 1.1 ?M. An ethyl phosphonate derivative (C15H15O11N3PS2Na3), whereas inactive at turkey erythrocyte P2Y1 receptors, was particularly potent at recombinant P2X2 receptors. PMID:22922976

Kim, Yong-Chul; Camaioni, Emidio; Ziganshin, Airat U.; Ji, Xiao-duo; King, Brian F.; Wildman, Scott S.; Rychkov, Alexei; Yoburn, Joshua; Kim, Heaok; Mohanram, Arvind; Harden, T. Kendall; Boyer, Jose L.; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Combined NK(1)and NK(2)receptor antagonists on the bronchoconstrictor response to NKA in dogs.  


The major pulmonary effects of tachykinins, including bronchoconstriction, are mediated by activation of both neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) and neurokinin-2 (NK(2)) receptors. In guinea-pigs NK(1)and NK(2)receptor antagonists interact synergistically to inhibit the bronchoconstriction induced by neurokinin-A (NKA). However, the effect of combined NK(1)and NK(2)receptor antagonists on tachykinin-induced bronchoconstriction in most other species has not been evaluated. In this study, the interactive effects of CP 99994, an NK(1)receptor antagonist and SR 48968, an NK(2)receptor antagonist, were evaluated against NKA-induced brochospasm in dogs. Pulmonary resistance (R(L)) and dynamic lung compliance (C(Dyn)) were measured in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing dogs to measure the bronchoconstrictor response to aerosolized NKA (1%). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and minute volume (MV) were also measured to assess the NK(1)receptor mediated cardiorespiratory response to substance P (100 ng/kg, iv). Pretreatment with SR 48968 (0.3-3 mg/kg, po) in the presence of an NK(1)antagonist dose of CP 99994 (10 mg/kg, po) inhibited the NKA-induced bronchospasm. However, the inhibition produced by SR 48968 plus CP 99994 was no greater than that previously shown for SR 48968 alone. Therefore, dual NK(1)/NK(2)receptor antagonists do not interact synergistically against NKA-induced bronchospasm in dogs. This may relate to the fact that dogs, like humans, have the NK(2)receptor as the predominant receptor subtype producing bronchoconstriction. PMID:10500006

Chapman, R W; Schilling, A; Ng, K; Nardo, C; Kreutner, W; Young, S



Agonist- and antagonist-induced conformational changes of loop F and their contributions to the ?1 GABA receptor function  

PubMed Central

Binding of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor initiates a conformational change to open the channel, but the mechanism of the channel activation is not well understood. To this end, we scanned loop F (K210–F227) in the N-terminal domain of the ?1 GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a site-specific fluorescence technique. We detected GABA-induced fluorescence changes at six positions (K210, K211, L216, K217, T218 and I222). At these positions the fluorescence changes were dose dependent and highly correlated to the current dose–response, but with lower Hill coefficients. The competitive antagonist 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid (3-APMPA) induced fluorescence changes in the same direction at the four middle or lower positions. The non-competitive antagonist picrotoxin blocked nearly 50% of GABA-induced fluorescence changes at T218 and I222, but only <20% at K210 and K217 and 0% at K211 and L216 positions. Interestingly, the picrotoxin-blocked fraction of the GABA-induced fluorescence changes was highly correlated to the Hill coefficient of the GABA-induced dose-dependent fluorescence change. The PTX-insensitive mutant L216C exhibited the lowest Hill coefficient, similar to that in binding. Thus, the PTX-sensitive fraction reflects the conformational change related to channel gating, whereas the PTX-insensitive fraction represents a binding effect. The binding effect is further supported by the picrotoxin resistance of a competitive antagonist-induced fluorescence change. A cysteine accessibility test further confirmed that L216C and K217C partially line the binding pocket, and I222C became more exposed by GABA. Our results are consistent with a mechanism that an outward movement of the lower part of loop F is coupled to the channel activation. PMID:19015197

Zhang, Jianliang; Xue, Fenqin; Chang, Yongchang



Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: are they all the same?  


Selective serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists have proven safe and effective for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron and tropisetron selectively and competitively bind to 5-HT(3) receptors, blocking serotonin binding at vagal afferents in the gut and in the regions of the CNS involved in emesis, including the chemoreceptor trigger zone and the nucleus tractus solitarii. Despite their shared mechanism of action, 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists have different chemical structures and exhibit differences in receptor binding affinity, dose response and duration of effect. Furthermore, although dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron and tropisetron are all extensively metabolised by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, different components of this system predominate in the metabolism of each of these agents. Hence, although these agents are considered equally effective in the overall population, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences may explain the variability in individual responses to these drugs. This review discusses the pharmacological profiles of dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron and tropisetron, and the clinical implications of differences in their profiles. PMID:15740177

Gan, Tong J



In vitro pharmacological characterization of novel isoxazolopyridone derivatives as allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 antagonists.  


Novel isoxazolopyridone derivatives that are metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 7 antagonists were discovered and pharmacologically characterized. 5-Methyl-3,6-diphenylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MDIP) was identified by random screening, and 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MMPIP) was produced by chemical modification of MDIP. MDIP and MMPIP inhibited L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4)-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells coexpressing rat mGluR7 with Galpha(15) (IC50 = 20 and 26 nM). The maximal response in agonist concentration-response curves was reduced in the presence of MMPIP, and its antagonism is reversible. MMPIP did not displace [3H](2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl) propanoic acid (LY341495) bound to mGluR7. These results suggested that these isoxazolopyridone derivatives are allosteric antagonists. In CHO cells expressing rat mGluR7, MDIP and MMPIP inhibited l-AP4-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (IC50 = 99 and 220 nM). In CHO cells coexpressing human mGluR7 with Galpha(15), MDIP and MMPIP also inhibited the l-AP4-induced cAMP response. The maximal degree of inhibition by MMPIP was higher than that by MDIP in a cAMP assay. MMPIP was able to antagonize an allosteric agonist, the N,N'-dibenzhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082)-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation. In the absence of these agonists, MMPIP caused a further increase in forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels in CHO cells expressing mGluR7, whereas a competitive antagonist, LY341495, did not. This result indicates that MMPIP has an inverse agonistic activity. The intrinsic activity of MMPIP was pertussis toxin-sensitive and mGluR7-dependent. MMPIP at concentrations of at least 1 microM had no significant effect on mGluR1, mGluR2, mGluR3, mGluR4, mGluR5, and mGluR8. MMPIP is the first allosteric mGluR7-selective antagonist that could potentially be useful as a pharmacological tool for elucidating the roles of mGluR7 on central nervous system functions. PMID:17609420

Suzuki, Gentaroh; Tsukamoto, Naohiro; Fushiki, Hiroshi; Kawagishi, Aki; Nakamura, Masayuki; Kurihara, Hideki; Mitsuya, Morihiro; Ohkubo, Mitsuru; Ohta, Hisashi



Interactions of dopamine agonists with brain D1 receptors labeled by /sup 3/H-antagonists. Evidence for the presence of high and low affinity agonist-binding states  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with /sup 3/H-antagonist labeled D1 dopamine receptors of rat striatum have been characterized. (/sup 3/H)Flupentixol has been found to selectively label D1 dopamine receptors when its binding to D2 dopamine receptors is blocked by the inclusion of D2 selective concentrations of unlabeled spiroperidol or domperidone. Antagonist//sup 3/H-antagonist competition curves are of uniformly steep slope (nH . 1.0) suggesting the presence of a single D1 dopamine receptor. Agonist//sup 3/H-antagonist competition curves are extremely shallow (nH less than or equal to 0.5) for agonists of high relative efficacy, suggesting the presence of heterogeneous populations of agonist-binding states of the D1 dopamine receptor. Computer-modeling techniques were used to estimate affinities and relative site densities for these heterogeneous binding states. This analysis indicates that the ratio of agonist affinities for low and high affinity agonist-binding states is correlated with agonist relative efficacies in activating adenylate cyclase in membrane homogenates. Under the assay conditions employed, the addition of saturating concentrations of guanine nucleotides reduced, but did not abolish, the relative density of high affinity agonist-binding sites. These binding data can, at least in part, be explained by postulating two states of the D1 dopamine receptor, inducible by agonists but not by antagonists and modulated by guanine nucleotides.

Leff, S.E.; Hamblin, M.W.; Creese, I.



Two Organochlorine Pesticides, Toxaphene and Chlordane, Are Antagonists for Estrogen-related Receptor a-1 Orphan Receptor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) a-1 shares a high amino acid se- quence homology with estrogen receptor a. Although estrogens are not ligands of ERRa-1, our recent results suggest that toxaphene and chlor- dane, two organochlorine pesticides with estrogen-like activity, behave as antagonists for this orphan nuclear receptor. The two compounds in- creased ERRa-1-mediated expression of the reporter enzyme b-galacto- sidase in

Chun Yang; Shiuan Chen



Mapping the CGRP receptor ligand binding domain: Tryptophan84 of RAMP1 is critical for agonist and antagonist binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) associates with the accessory protein RAMP1 to form a receptor for the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Multiple lines of evidence have implicated CGRP in the pathophysiology of migraine headache making the CGRP receptor an attractive target for development of small-molecule antagonists as a novel treatment for this debilitating condition. The CGRP receptor antagonists telcagepant

E. L. Moore; J. J. Gingell; S. A. Kane; D. L. Hay; C. A. Salvatore



Modulation of nocioceptive transmission with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists in the thalamus.  


Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists are effective acute migraine treatments without the vascular contraindications associated with triptans. While it has been demonstrated that calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists act in the central nervous system, their effects in preclinical migraine models have been investigated in only the trigeminocervical complex. Migraine is a complex neurological disorder; sites in the brainstem and forebrain are clearly involved in its expression. We have performed electrophysiological recordings in thalamic neurons of rats responding to nocioceptive trigeminovascular inputs and tested the effect of olcegepant, a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, intravenously), on cell firing. We further tested the effect of microiontophoresed calcitonin gene-related peptide and the receptor antagonists calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 and olcegepant on thalamic cell firing, elicited by stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus or by microiontophoretic application of l-glutamate. Additionally, we used immunofluorescent staining to demonstrate the presence of functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus by specifically co-staining for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subunits calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 1. Intravenously administered olcegepant significantly inhibited cell firing evoked by stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus as well as the background activity. Microiontophoresis of calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 also showed a significant inhibition of l-glutamate-evoked cell firing and firing evoked by stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the presence of the components of a functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and the receptor activity modifying protein 1, within the area of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus. This is the first report on the efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists at the level of third-order neurons in the migraine pathway, showing that the central effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists extend beyond the trigeminocervical complex at least to the sensory thalamus. PMID:20802202

Summ, Oliver; Charbit, Annabelle R; Andreou, Anna P; Goadsby, Peter J



Coptis extracts enhance the anticancer effect of estrogen receptor antagonists on human breast cancer cells.  


Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists have been widely used for breast cancer treatment, but the efficacy and drug resistance remain to be clinical concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extracts of coptis, an anti-inflammatory herb, improve the anticancer efficacy of ER antagonists. The results showed that the combined treatment of ER antagonists and the crude extract of coptis or its purified compound berberine conferred synergistic growth inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells (ER+), but not on MDA-MB-231 cells (ER-). Similar results were observed in the combined treatment of fulvestrant, a specific aromatase antagonist. Analysis of the expression of breast cancer related genes indicated that EGFR, HER2, bcl-2, and COX-2 were significantly downregulated, while IFN-beta and p21 were remarkably upregulated by berberine. Our results suggest that coptis extracts could be promising adjuvant to ER antagonists in ER positive breast cancer treatment through regulating expression of multiple genes. PMID:19000652

Liu, Jing; He, Chengwei; Zhou, Keyuan; Wang, Jingdong; Kang, Jing X



Competitive Androgen Receptor Antagonism as a Factor Determining the Predictability of Cumulative Antiandrogenic Effects of Widely Used Pesticides  

PubMed Central

Background: Many pesticides in current use have recently been revealed as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their combined effects is lacking. Objective: We investigated the combined effects and the competitive AR antagonism of pesticide mixtures. Methods: We used the MDA-kb2 assay to test a combination of eight AR antagonists that did not also possess AR agonist properties (“pure” antagonists; 8 mix: fludioxonil, fenhexamid, ortho-phenylphenol, imazalil, tebuconazole, dimethomorph, methiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl), a combination of five AR antagonists that also showed agonist activity (5 mix: cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, vinclozolin, chlorpropham, linuron), and all pesticides combined (13 mix). We used concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) to formulate additivity expectations, and Schild plot analyses to investigate competitive AR antagonism. Results: A good agreement between the effects of the mixture of eight “pure” AR antagonists and the responses predicted by CA was observed. Schild plot analysis revealed that the 8 mix acted by competitive AR antagonism. However, the observed responses of the 5 mix and the 13 mix fell within the “prediction window” boundaries defined by the predicted regression curves of CA and IA. Schild plot analysis with these mixtures yielded anomalous responses incompatible with competitive receptor antagonism. Conclusions: A mixture of widely used pesticides can, in a predictable manner, produce combined AR antagonist effects that exceed the responses elicited by the most potent component alone. Inasmuch as large populations are regularly exposed to mixtures of antiandrogenic pesticides, our results underline the need for considering combination effects for these substances in regulatory practice. PMID:23008280

Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas



The Role of 5HT 3 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

•POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV) is a frequent complication of surgery. Guidelines recommend using a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (eg, ondansetron, dolasetron, granisetron) combined with a second agent (eg, dexamethasone) for patients at moderate to high risk for PONV.•ALTHOUGH ALL 5-HT3 ANTAGONISTS are effective, ondansetron and granisetron have been found to be effective at substantially lower doses than those approved by

Thomas Board; Rhonda Board



The vanilloid receptor TRPV1: 10 years from channel cloning to antagonist proof-of-concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical use of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1; also known as VR1) antagonists is based on the concept that endogenous agonists acting on TRPV1 might provide a major contribution to certain pain conditions. Indeed, a number of small-molecule TRPV1 antagonists are already undergoing Phase I\\/II clinical trials for the indications of chronic inflammatory pain and migraine.

Daniel N. Cortright; Charles A. Blum; Samer R. Eid; Arpad Szallasi



The Effects of NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Opioid Tolerance and Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an exploration of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Technical Review on the role of glutamatergic systems in the development of opiate addiction. The effects of “glutamate antagonist” medications on opioid tolerance and withdrawal are examined. In rodents, mu opioid tolerance can be inhibited by noncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists [MK801, dextromethorphan (DM), ketamine, phencyclidine

Barbara H Herman; Frank Vocci; Peter Bridge



Inhibition of tolerance to spinal morphine antinociception by low doses of opioid receptor antagonists.  


Ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists inhibit development of chronic spinal morphine tolerance. As this phenomenon mechanistically resembles acute tolerance, the present study examined actions of opioid receptor antagonists on acute spinal morphine tolerance. In adult rats, administration of three intrathecal injections of morphine (15 microg) at 90 min intervals produced a significant decline of the antinociceptive effect and loss of agonist potency in both the tail-flick and paw-pressure tests. These reduced responses, indicative of acute tolerance, were blocked by co-injection of morphine (15 microg) with naltrexone (NTX, 0.05 ng), D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP, 0.001 ng), naltrindole (0.06 ng), or nor-binaltorphimine (0.1 ng). Repeated injections of CTAP, naltrindole, or nor-binaltorphimine without morphine elicited a delayed weak antinociceptive response which was blocked by a high dose of naltrexone (2 microg). In another set of experiments, administration of low dose spinal (0.05 ng) or systemic (0.01 microg/kg) morphine produced a sustained thermal hyperalgesia. This response was blocked by opioid receptor antagonists at doses inhibiting development of acute morphine tolerance. Lastly, an acute spinal injection of morphine (15 microg) with naltrexone (0.05 ng) produced a sustained analgesic response; this was antagonized by adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (3 microg). The results show that ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists block acute tolerance to morphine. This effect may result from blockade of opioid excitatory effects that produce a latent hyperalgesia that then contributes to induction of tolerance. The sustained antinociception produced by combination of morphine with an opioid receptor antagonist shows dependency on the adenosine receptor activity. PMID:17307158

McNaull, Benjamin; Trang, Tuan; Sutak, Maaja; Jhamandas, Khem



An Antagonistic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Variant Inhibits VEGF-Stimulated Receptor Autophosphorylation and Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen with a unique specificity for endothelial cells and a key mediator of aberrant endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in a variety of human pathological situations, such as tumor angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. VEGF is a symmetric homodimeric molecule with two receptor binding interfaces lying on each pole of the molecule. Herein we report on the construction and recombinant expression of an asymmetric heterodimeric VEGF variant with an intact receptor binding interface at one pole and a mutant receptor binding interface at the second pole of the dimer. This VEGF variant binds to VEGF receptors but fails to induce receptor activation. In competition experiments, the heterodimeric VEGF variant antagonizes VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of endothelial cells. A 15-fold excess of the heterodimer was sufficient to inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 50%, and a 100-fold excess resulted in an almost complete inhibition. By using a rational approach that is based on the structure of VEGF, we have shown the feasibility to construct a VEGF variant that acts as an VEGF antagonist.

Siemeister, Gerhard; Schirner, Michael; Reusch, Petra; Barleon, Bernhard; Marme, Dieter; Martiny-Baron, Georg



Characterisation of UBP296: a novel, potent and selective kainate receptor antagonist.  


Willardiine derivatives with an N3-benzyl substituent bearing an acidic group have been synthesized with the aim of producing selective antagonists for GLUK5-containing kainate receptors. UBP296 was found to be a potent and selective antagonist of native GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in the spinal cord, with activity residing in the S enantiomer (UBP302). In cells expressing human kainate receptor subunits, UBP296 selectively depressed glutamate-induced calcium influx in cells containing GLUK5 in homomeric or heteromeric forms. In radioligand displacement binding studies, the willardiine analogues displaced [3H]kainate binding with IC50 values >100 microM at rat GLUK6, GLUK2 or GLUK6/GLUK2. An explanation of the GLUK5 selectivity of UBP296 was obtained using homology models of the antagonist bound forms of GLUK5 and GLUK6. In rat hippocampal slices, UBP296 reversibly blocked ATPA-induced depressions of synaptic transmission at concentrations subthreshold for affecting AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission directly. UBP296 also completely blocked the induction of mossy fibre LTP, in medium containing 2 mM (but not 4 mM) Ca2+. These data provide further evidence for a role for GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in mossy fibre LTP. In conclusion, UBP296 is the most potent and selective antagonist of GLUK5-containing kainate receptors so far described. PMID:15165833

More, Julia C A; Nistico, Robert; Dolman, Nigel P; Clarke, Vernon R J; Alt, Andrew J; Ogden, Ann M; Buelens, Floris P; Troop, Helen M; Kelland, Eve E; Pilato, Fabio; Bleakman, David; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Collingridge, Graham L; Jane, David E



Spectrum of use and tolerability of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.  


Several 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are available (tropisetron, ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron, and palonsetron), and further compounds are in clinical development. These substances show only minor differences in the activity profile regarding their affinity for particular receptors. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are primarily used and found effective in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, and in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Antagonism of the 5-HT3 receptors in the peripheral and central nervous system is a probable mechanism of action. The substances are suitable as first-line therapy (combined with a corticosteroid) for the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting in patients treated with moderately to severely emetogenic chemotherapeutic agents. This combination is also moderately effective in the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are an important constituent in the prevention and treatment of emesis and nausea caused by radiation therapy, especially in patients receiving whole body or upper abdominal treatment. Alosetron was found clinically effective in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, whereas tropisetron in fibromyalgia and related pain disorders. Further indications for such treatment include anxiety disorders, alcohol dependence, drug withdrawal, and psychosis related to treatment of Parkinson's disease. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are well tolerated with the most frequently reported adverse effects being headache, constipation, dizziness, tiredness, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as abdominal pain or constipation. Intravenous administration of serotonin induces the Bezold-Jarisch reflex and causes small reversible changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. PMID:15515406

Haus, U; Späth, M; Färber, L



Targeted opioid receptor antagonists in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.  


In 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence. However, treatments requiring daily administration, such as naltrexone, are inconsistently adhered to in substance abusing populations, and constant medication exposure can increase risk of adverse outcomes, e.g., hepatotoxicity. This has fostered a 'targeted' or 'as needed' approach to opioid receptor antagonist treatment, in which medications are used only in anticipation of or during high-risk situations, including times of intense cravings. Initial studies of the ability of targeted naltrexone to reduce drinking-related outcomes were conducted in problem drinkers and have been extended into larger, multi-site, placebo-controlled investigations with positive results. Another ?-opioid receptor antagonist, nalmefene, has been studied on an 'as-needed' basis to reduce heavy drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. These studies include three large multi-site trials in Europe of up to 1 year in duration, and serve as the basis for the recent approval of nalmefene by the European Medicines Agency as an 'as-needed' adjunctive treatment for alcohol dependence. We review potential moderators of opioid receptor antagonist treatment response including subjective assessments, objective clinical measures and genetic variants. In sum, the targeted or 'as-needed' approach to treatment with opioid antagonists is an efficacious harm-reduction strategy for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23881605

Niciu, Mark J; Arias, Albert J



Adenosine receptor antagonists for cognitive dysfunction: a review of animal studies.  


Over the last decade, adenosine receptors in the central nervous system have been implicated in the modulation of cognitive functions. Despite the general view that endogenous adenosine modulates cognition through the activation of adenosine A1 receptors, evidence is now emerging on a possible role of A2A receptors in learning and memory. The present review attempts to examine results reported in different studies using diverse animal models, to provide a comprehensive picture of the recent evidence of a relationship between adenosinergic function and memory deficits. The present data suggest that caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can improve memory performance in rodents evaluated through different tasks. They might also afford protection against memory dysfunction elicited in experimental models of aging, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative genetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:17981738

Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto; Pamplona, Fabricio Alano; Prediger, Rui Daniel Schroder



Functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at the 5-HT3 receptor.  


The atypical neuroleptic clozapine is thought to exert its psychopharmacological actions through a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. It binds preferentially to D4 and 5-HT2 receptors; however, little is known on it's interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Using a cell line stably expressing the 5-HT3 receptor, whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis revealed functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at low nanomolar concentrations in view of a binding affinity in the upper nanomolar range. Because the concentration of clozapine required for an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor can be achieved with therapeutical doses, functional antagonistic properties at this ligand-gated ion channel may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile. PMID:8780717

Hermann, B; Wetzel, C H; Pestel, E; Zieglgänsberger, W; Holsboer, F; Rupprecht, R



Novel Cyclic Phosphinic Acids as GABAC ? Receptor Antagonists: Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacology.  


Understanding the role of GABAC receptors in the central nervous system is limited due to a lack of specific ligands. Novel ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues based on 3-(aminomethyl)-1-oxo-1-hydroxy-phospholane 17 and 3-(guanido)-1-oxo-1-hydroxy-phospholane 19 were investigated to obtain selective GABAC receptor antagonists. A compound of high potency (19, K B = 10 ?M) and selectivity (greater than 100 times at ?1 GABAC receptors as compared to ?1?2?2L GABAA and GABAB(1b,2) receptors) was obtained. The cyclic phosphinic acids (17 and 19) are novel lead agents for developing into more potent and selective GABAC receptor antagonists with increased lipophilicity for future in vivo studies. PMID:24900248

Gavande, Navnath; Yamamoto, Izumi; Salam, Noeris K; Ai, Tu-Hoa; Burden, Peter M; Johnston, Graham A R; Hanrahan, Jane R; Chebib, Mary



The AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel is a new hope in the treatment for epilepsy.  


Perampanel is a novel drug recently approved as adjunctive therapy in epileptic patients aged 12 years and older who have drug-resistant partial epilepsy with and without secondary generalization. Pharmacological researches revealed that perampanel reduces neuronal excitability by a non-competitive antagonistic activity against the ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors causing modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. The pharmacological profile of the drug showed complete absorption following oral administration, and extensive metabolism in the liver by oxidation followed by glucuronidation with an elimination half-life of approximately 53-165 h (average: 105 h), allowing once-daily administration. Randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrated an effective dose range of the drug, between 4 and 12 mg/day, to significantly reduce seizure frequency in patients with partial-onset seizure that are pharmacoresistant with a favorable tolerability profile. The most frequent adverse events of the drug reported in phase III clinical trials were dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, and headache. However, the data raised from the studies can give a hope that perampanel offers a valuable option as an adjuvant therapy for pharmacoresistant partial-onset and secondarily generalized seizures. PMID:24750493

El Desoky, Ehab S



Regulatory role of 5HT and muscarinic receptor antagonists on the migrating myoelectric complex in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists alosetron and piboserod, and the muscarinic receptor antagonists PNU-171990A (2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl 1-phenylcyclopentanecarboxylate, hydrochloride) and PNU-174708A (2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate) were studied by electromyography, defining the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) after i.v. administration in conscious rats. Alosetron prolonged the MMC cycle length from 16.6 to maximally 30.4 min at the dose 0.5 mg kg?1. Piboserod promptly abolished MMC

Lars-Göran Axelsson; Berndt Wallin; Per-Göran Gillberg; Birger Sjöberg; Charlotte Söderberg; Per M. Hellström



Endothelin receptor antagonist attenuates inflammatory response and prolongs the survival time in a neonatal sepsis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate effects of endothelin receptor antagonist ETR-P1\\/fl in a neonatal sepsis model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Eighteen anesthetized and mechanically ventilated 3-day-old piglets were divided into three groups. Six piglets received cecal\\u000a ligation and perforation (CLP group). Six piglets were administrated a continuous infusion of ETR-P1\\/fl (0.05 mg\\/kg\\/h), an\\u000a antisense homology box-derived peptide with an endothelin A receptor antagonist effect, starting 30 min after CLP

Tatenobu Goto; Mohamed Hamed Hussein; Shin Kato; Ghada Abdel-Hamid Daoud; Takenori Kato; Hiroki Kakita; Haruo Mizuno; Masaki Imai; Tetsuya Ito; Ineko Kato; Satoshi Suzuki; Noriko Okada; Hajime Togari; Hidechika Okada



CGRP receptor antagonists: A new frontier of anti-migraine medications  

PubMed Central

Migraine is a chronic pain condition that affects 12% of the population. Currently, the most effective treatments are the triptans, but they are limited in their efficacy and have potentially deleterious cardiovascular complications. Based on basic science studies over the past decade, a new generation of anti-migraine drugs is now being developed. At the forefront of these studies is a new calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist that is as effective as triptans in the acute treatment of migraines, without the cardiovascular effects. This review will address the likely mechanisms and therapeutic potential of CGRP receptor antagonists. PMID:19784396

de Prado, Blanca Marquez; Russo, Andrew F.



Changes in pH differently affect the binding properties of histamine H1 receptor antagonists.  


We investigated the effect of acidic pH, a condition that can be encountered during inflammation accompanying allergic reaction, on the binding properties of histamine H1 receptor antagonists, including levocetirizine ((2-(4-[(R)-(4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl)ethoxy)acetic acid; Xyzal ), fexofenadine (rac-2-[4-[1-Hydroxy-4-[4-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl) piperidin-1-yl]butyl]phenyl]-2-methylpropionic acid hydrochloride; Allegra) and desloratadine (8-Chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-(4-piperidylidene)-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine; Clarinex ). Lowering the pH from 7.4 to 5.8 decreased the affinity of [3H]mepyramine for histamine H1 receptors from 1.7 to 7.5 nM while the opposite was observed with [3H]levocetirizine, whose affinity increased from 4.1 to 1.5 nM. Competition curves with [3H]mepyramine indicated that decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.8 led to a 2- to 5-fold increase in the affinity of fexofenadine and levocetirizine, no change in affinity for desloratadine and a 5- to 10-fold decrease in affinity for mepyramine and histamine. Kinetic experiments showed that the increase in affinity of levocetirizine and, to a lesser extent, fexofenadine were totally attributable to a lower dissociation rate at acidic pH (t1/2 increasing from 77 to 266 min and from 71 to 135 min, respectively). Although the affinity of desloratadine remained unchanged, lowering the pH caused a decrease in its dissociation rate (t1/2 of 50 and 256 min at pH 7.5 and 5.8, respectively) accompanied by a concomitant 3.5-fold decrease in its association rate constant. The loss of affinity of mepyramine at acidic pH was driven by a decrease in its association rate constant. Interaction between the carboxylic moiety of levocetirizine and Lys191 is responsible for its slow dissociation rate from the receptor. We found that the magnitude of the pH effect on the dissociation rate of levocetirizine was maintained after mutating Lys191 into alanine, suggesting that a tighter interaction of levocetirizine with Lys191 at lower pH is not the cause of its even slower dissociation rate from the receptor. Although these changes may seem limited in amplitude, we show that they may have substantial effects on receptor occupancy in vivo. PMID:16388798

Gillard, Michel; Chatelain, Pierre



Differential effects of NMDA and AMPA\\/KA receptor antagonists on c-Fos or Zif\\/268 expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn induced by noxious thermal or mechanical stimulation, or formalin injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)\\/kainate (KA) receptors in the induction of c-Fos and Zif\\/268 expression in spinal dorsal horn neurons following noxious thermal or mechanical stimulation, or formalin injection into the rat hind paw was examined by intrathecal administration of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) or an AMPA\\/KA receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), or both,

Omar I. F Rahman; Ryuji Terayama; Tetsuya Ikeda; Mikako Koganemaru; Tadashi Nakamura; Ryosuke Shiba; Toshikazu Nishimori



Identification of small molecule antagonists of the human mas-related gene-X1 receptor.  


The recently identified mas-related-gene (MRG) family of receptors, located primarily in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion, has been implicated in the perception of pain. Thus, antagonists of this class of receptors have been postulated to be useful analgesics. Toward this end, we developed a cell-based beta-lactamase (BLA) reporter gene assay to identify small molecule antagonists of the human MRG-X1 receptor from a library of compounds. Single-cell clones expressing functional receptors were selected using the BLA reporter gene technology. The EC50 for the MRG agonist peptide, BAM15, appeared to be comparable between the BLA assay and the intracellular Ca2+ transient assays in these cells. Ultra high-throughput screening of approximately 1 million compounds in a 1.8-microl cell-based BLA reporter gene assay was conducted in a 3456-well plate format. Compounds exhibiting potential antagonist profile in the BLA assay were confirmed in the second messenger Ca2+ transient assay. A cell-based receptor trafficking assay was used to further validate the mechanism of action of these compounds. Several classes of compounds, particularly the 2,3-disubstituted azabicyclo-octanes, appear to be relatively potent antagonists at the human MRG-X1 receptors, as confirmed by the receptor trafficking assay and radioligand binding studies. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship reveals that within this class of compounds, the diphenylmethyl moiety is constant at the 2-substituent, whereas the 3-substituent is directly correlated with the antagonist activity of the compound. PMID:16510108

Kunapuli, Priya; Lee, Seungtaek; Zheng, Wei; Alberts, Melissa; Kornienko, Oleg; Mull, Rebecca; Kreamer, Anthony; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Simon, Melvin I; Strulovici, Berta



Synthesis and characterization of the first fluorescent nonpeptide NPY Y1 receptor antagonist.  


Cyanine-5-labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) was demonstrated to be an ideal universal fluorescent ligand for the combined investigation of NPY Y(1), Y(2) and Y(5) receptors. With respect to improved stability, detection of receptor subtypes in cells and tissues, and prevention of receptor internalization, small nonpeptidic fluorescent antagonists should be superior. Here we present a set of four fluorescent nonpeptide NPY Y(1) receptor (Y(1)R) antagonists. The highest affinity was obtained by labelling an N(G)-(6-aminohexanoyl)argininamide derived from the Y(1)R antagonist BIBP 3226, with Py-1, a small pyrylium dye. The fluorescent pyridinium-type Y(1)R antagonist, compound 4 had K(i) values of 29 nM and 2.7 nM, which were determined by radioligand binding and flow cytometry under equilibrium conditions, respectively; 4 had a K(b) value of 0.6 nM (Ca(2+) assay). The large Stoke's shift (541 vs. 615 nm) in buffer (PBS, pH 7.4) in the presence of 1% BSA and the red emission (quantum yield 56%) are advantageous with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio. The new probe was successfully used in fluorescence-based binding experiments evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy; this demonstrates the potential of pyrylium dyes for the preparation of fluorescent ligands that are applicable for the study of G protein-coupled receptors on living cells. PMID:17876753

Schneider, Erich; Keller, Max; Brennauer, Albert; Hoefelschweiger, Bianca K; Gross, Dietmar; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin



Structure-activity relationship studies of carboxamido-biaryl ethers as opioid receptor antagonists (OpRAs). Part 1.  


A structurally unique and new class of opioid receptor antagonists (OpRAs) that bear no structural resemblance with morphine or endogenous opioid peptides has been discovered. A series of carboxamido-biaryl ethers were identified as potent receptor antagonists against mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. The structure-activity relationship indicated para-substituted aryloxyaryl primary carboxamide bearing an amine tether on the distal phenyl ring was optimal for potent in vitro functional antagonism against three opioid receptor subtypes. PMID:17720493

Takeuchi, Kumiko; Holloway, William G; McKinzie, Jamie H; Suter, Todd M; Statnick, Michael A; Surface, Peggy L; Emmerson, Paul J; Thomas, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Miles G; Matt, James E; Wolfe, Chad N; Mitch, Charles H



The role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in elderly patients with hypertension.  


Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke and coronary events in elderly people and clinical trials have shown that treatment of hypertension with various drugs can result in a substantial reduction in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. The angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists are the newest class of antihypertensive agents to be used widely in clinical practice. AT1 receptor antagonists can generally be given once-daily. They are also extremely well tolerated with minimal first-dose hypotension and an incidence of adverse effects similar to that seen with placebo. Adverse event rates are significantly lower than with other classes of antihypertensive drugs including ACE inhibitors. These factors result in improved compliance and increased rates of continuance on therapy. AT1 receptor antagonists show similar efficacy in lowering blood pressure to other classes of antihypertensive agents and their antihypertensive effect is potentiated when they are given concomitantly with low-dose thiazide diuretics. AT1 receptor antagonists are eliminated predominantly by the hepatic route but most are not subject to extensive metabolism and interactions with other drugs are uncommon. This is an advantage in the elderly, who are often receiving multiple medications which increases the risk for adverse drug interactions. Dose adjustments are not usually required in the elderly unless there is plasma volume depletion. Although plasma AT1 receptor antagonist concentrations are generally higher in the elderly than in younger subjects, this pharmacokinetic difference may be balanced by decreased activation of the circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the elderly. Recent clinical studies in high-risk hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or in patients with diabetic nephropathy or heart failure have demonstrated that AT1 receptor antagonists can improve clinical outcomes to a similar or sometimes greater extent than other antihypertensive agents. Many of these studies have included large numbers of older patients and have confirmed the excellent tolerability profile of these drugs. Thus, AT1 receptor antagonists should be considered as a possible first-line treatment or as a component of combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or nephropathy and as an alternative or additional treatment to ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction. AT1 receptor antagonists also appear to reduce the onset of new diabetes compared with some other antihypertensive drugs. The benefits in terms of organ protection have mainly been seen in studies using higher doses of particular AT1 receptor antagonists and it is not certain at present whether these results can be extrapolated to other members of the class. As the elderly are more likely to have developed organ damage related to hypertension or to have heart failure or diabetes as concomitant conditions, AT1 receptor antagonists represent an appropriate option for many elderly patients. The main disadvantage of these drugs is the cost of the medication but this may be offset by their improved tolerability with fewer adverse reactions and thus increased compliance, resulting in better blood pressure control and fewer clinical events. Overall, AT1 receptor antagonists are well tolerated and efficacious for blood pressure-lowering when given as a single daily dose in elderly patients and have many potential benefits in high-risk hypertensive subjects. PMID:16536636

Thomas, G Neil; Chan, Paul; Tomlinson, Brian



Possible sites of action of the new calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Migraine is considered a neurovascular disease affecting more than 10% of the general population. Currently available drugs for the acute treatment of migraine are vasoconstrictors, which have limitations in their therapeutic use. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has a key role in migraine, where levels of CGRP are increased during acute migraine attacks. CGRP is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system, consistent with control of vasodilatation and transmission of nociceptive information. In migraine, CGRP is released from the trigeminal system. At peripheral synapses CGRP results in vasodilatation via receptors on the smooth muscle cells. At central synapses, CGRP acts postjunctionally on second-order neurons to transmit pain centrally via the brainstem and midbrain to higher cortical pain regions. The recently developed CGRP-receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. A remaining question is their site of action. The CGRP-receptor components (calcitonin receptor-like receptor, receptor activity modifying protein 1 and receptor component protein) are found to colocalize in the smooth muscle cells of intracranial arteries and in large-sized neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. The CGRP receptor has also been localized within parts of the brain and the brainstem. The aim of this paper is to review recent localization studies of CGRP and its receptor components within the nervous system and to discuss whether these sites could be possible targets for the CGRP-receptor antagonists. PMID:21179597

Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Edvinsson, Lars



Antagonists of excitatory opioid receptor functions enhance morphine's analgesic potency and attenuate opioid tolerance\\/dependence liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that cotreatments with extremely low doses of opioid receptor antagonists can markedly enhance the efficacy and specificity of morphine and related opioid analgesics. Our correlative studies of the cotreatment of nociceptive types of dorsal-root ganglion neurons in vitro and mice in vivo with morphine plus specific opioid receptor antagonists have shown that antagonism

Stanley M Crain; Ke-Fei Shen



Evaluation of agonists and antagonists acting at Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the thalamus in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recordings were made from single neurones in the ventrobasal thalamus of anaesthetised rats in order to evaluate the properties of several agonists and antagonists of Group I mGlu receptors. The selective mGlu1 receptor antagonist LY367385 was found to reduce excitatory responses to iontophoretically applied ACPD and DHPG whereas the mGlu5 agonist CHPG was resistant to antagonism. The antagonists LY367366 and

T. E. Salt; J. P. Turner; A. E. Kingston



Histamine H1 receptors on adherent rheumatoid synovial cells in culture: demonstration by radioligand binding and inhibition of histamine-stimulated prostaglandin E production by histamine H1 antagonists.  

PubMed Central

Histamine H1 receptors have been demonstrated on adherent rheumatoid synovial cells using biochemical and radioligand binding assays in vitro. The addition of histamine (17.8 mumol/l) to nine primary cultures of adherent rheumatoid synovial cells resulted in a two- to 21-fold increase in the production of prostaglandin E (PGE). This increase was inhibited by three H1 receptor antagonists (mepyramine, tripelennamine, and chlorpheniramine) in a dose related manner at concentrations below 10(-6) mol/l. Competitive binding assays with [3H]mepyramine gave ED50 values of approximately 10(-5) mol/l for the three H1 antagonists. H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine) did not inhibit the histamine induced increase in PGE and did not compete effectively with the binding of H1 antagonists. PMID:2888437

Taylor, D J; Woolley, D E



Enantiomeric Propanolamines as selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate 2B Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Enantiomeric propanolamines have been identified as a new class of NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. The most effective agents are biaryl structures, synthesized in six steps with overall yields ranging from 11–64%. The compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of NR2B-containing recombinant NMDA receptors with IC50 values between 30–100 nM. Potency is strongly controlled by substitution on both rings and the centrally located amine nitrogen. SAR analysis suggests that well-balanced polarity and chain-length factors provide the greatest inhibitory potency. Structural comparisons based on 3D shape analysis and electrostatic complementarity support this conclusion. The antagonists are neuroprotective in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic cell death. In addition, some compounds exhibit anticonvulsant properties. Unlike earlier generation NMDA receptor antagonists and some NR2B-selective antagonists, the present series of propanolamines does not cause increased locomotion in rodents. Thus, the NR2B-selective antagonists exhibit a range of therapeutically interesting properties. PMID:18800760

Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Geballe, Matthew; Gruszecka-Kowalik, Ewa; Myers, Scott J.; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; French, Adam; Irier, Hasan; Choi, Woo-baeg; Easterling, Keith; Yuan, Hongjie; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Kotloski, Robert; McNamara, James O.; Dingledine, Raymond; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Snyder, James P.



Unexpected partial H 1 -receptor agonism of imidazole-type histamine H 3 -receptor antagonists lacking a basic side chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design:The putative partial H 1-receptor agonism of some H 3-receptor antagonists belonging to the proxifan series was characterized in a functional in-vitro assay using guinea-pig ileum. Methods:Whole segments of guinea-pig ileum were mounted in Tyrode’s solution under isotonic conditions in the presence of atropine (10 -7 M) and were cumulatively treated with histamine as an internal reference. After

B. Sadek; S. Elz; H. H. Pertz; H. Stark; W. Schunack



[GABAergic mechanism of cerebrovascular effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801].  


NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) increases the local blood flow in the cerebral cortex in rats under transient global ischemia (TGI) conditions to a greater degree than in intact animals. The GABA receptor blocker bicuculline in most experiments eliminates or reduces the MK-801 induced increase in the blood flow after TGI, which is indicative of the participation of GABAergic mechanism of cerebrovascular tone control in the observed MK-801 activity. PMID:25102728

Gan'shina, T S; Gnezdilova, A V; Kurza, E V; Turilova, A I; Mirzoian, R S



Inhibition of human and mouse plasma membrane bound NTPDases by P2 receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane bound nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)-1, 2, 3 and 8 are major ectonucleotidases that modulate P2 receptor signaling by controlling nucleotides’ concentrations at the cell surface. In this report, we systematically evaluated the effect of the commonly used P2 receptor antagonists reactive blue 2, suramin, NF279, NF449 and MRS2179, on recombinant human and mouse NTPDase1, 2, 3 and

Mercedes N. Munkonda; Gilles Kauffenstein; Filip Kukulski; Sébastien A. Lévesque; Charlène Legendre; Julie Pelletier; Élise G. Lavoie; Joanna Lecka; Jean Sévigny



The Effect of the Preemptive Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Dextromethorphan on Postoperative Analgesic Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both central sensitization after peripheral tissue injury and the development of opiate tolerance involve activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. In this double-blinded, ran- domized study, we investigated the preemptive versus postincisional effects of dextromethorphan, an N-methyl-d- aspartate receptor antagonist, on postoperative pain man- agement. Sixty ASA I and II patients undergoing elective up- per abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to three

Sanaa A. K. Helmy; Ayham Bali



Antagonist binding and induced conformational dynamics of GPCR A2A adenosine receptor.  


The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) is a unique G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), because besides agonist, its antagonist could also lead to therapeutic relevance. Based on A2AAR-antagonist crystal structure, we have studied the binding mechanism of two distinct antagonists, ZM241385 and KW6002, and dynamic behaviors of A2AAR induced by antagonist binding. Key residues interacting with both antagonists and residues specifically binding to one of them are identified. ZM241385 specifically bound to S67(2.65), M177(5.38), and N253(6.55), while KW6002 binds to F62(2.60), A81(3.29), and H264(7.29). Moreover, interactions with L167(5.28) are found for both antagonists, which were not reported in agonist binding. The dynamic behaviors of antagonist bound holo-A2AARs were found to be different from the apo-A2AAR in three typical functional switches, (i) the "ionic lock" was in equilibrium between formation and breakage in apo-A2AAR, but stayed broken in holo-A2AARs; (ii) the "rotamer toggle switch," T88(3.36)/F242(6.44)/W246(6.48), adopted different rotameric conformations in apo-A2AAR and holo-A2AARs; (iii) apo-A2AAR preferred ?-helical intracellular loop (IC)2 and flexible IC3, while holo-A2AARs had a flexible IC2 and ?-helical IC3. Our results indicated that antagonist binding induced different conformational rearrangements of these characteristic functional switches in apo-A2AAR and holo-A2AARs. PMID:23508898

Pang, Xueqin; Yang, Mingjun; Han, Keli



Actions of ?2 adrenoceptor ligands at ?2A and 5HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for ?2A adrenoceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the activity of chemically diverse ?2 adrenoceptor ligands at recombinant human (h) and native rat (r) ?2A adrenoceptors as compared with 5-HT1A receptors. First, in competition binding experiments at h?2A and h5-HT1A receptors expressed in CHO cells, several compounds, including the antagonists 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), (?)-idazoxan,\\u000a benalfocin (SKF 86466), yohimbine and RX 821,002, displayed preference for h?2A versus

Adrian Newman-Tancredi; Jean-Paul Nicolas; Valérie Audinot; Samantha Gavaudan; Laurence Verrièle; Manuelle Touzard; Christine Chaput; Nelly Richard; Mark J. Millan



Scalable synthesis of a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist.  


The evolution of scalable, economically viable synthetic approaches to the potent and selective prostaglandin EP4 antagonist 1 is presented. The chromatography-free synthesis of multikilogram quantities of 1 using a seven-step sequence (six in the longest linear sequence) is described. This approach has been further modified in an effort to identify a long-term manufacturing route. Our final synthesis involves no step requiring cryogenic (< -25 degrees C) conditions; comprises a total of four steps, only three of which are in the longest linear synthesis; and features the use of two consecutive iron-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts substitutions. PMID:20469914

Gauvreau, Danny; Dolman, Sarah J; Hughes, Greg; O'Shea, Paul D; Davies, Ian W



Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist  

SciTech Connect

The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya (Stanford-MED); (Kyoto); (Gakushuin); (Kyushu)



Inhibition of establishment of primary and micrometastatic tumors by a urokinase plasminogen activator receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor establishment and metastasis are dependent on extracellular matrix proteolysis, tumor cell migration, and angiogenesis. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor are essential mediators of these processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a recombinant human uPAR antagonist on growth, establishment, and metastasis of tumors derived from human cancer cell lines. A noncatalytic recombinant

Diane M. Ignar; John L. Andrews; Samuel M. Witherspoon; Jeremy D. Leray; William C. Clay; Katherine Kilpatrick; James Onori; Thomas Kost; David L. Emerson



Effects of an Endothelin Receptor Antagonist on a Model of Hypertensive Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertensive retinopathy manifests itself as progressive retinal microvascular pathology in response to aberrant blood flow. The current study sought to evaluate whether dysfunction of the vasoactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) system is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced retinopathy in an animal model of systemic hypertension. The endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan, was administered to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and comparisons were made

Louise McDonald; Graham R. Lee; Tanyth E. deGooyer; Denise McDonald; Paul Canning; Elizabeth J. Kelso; Barbara J. McDermott; Alan W. Stitt



Corresponding author: Didier PELAPRAT Neurotensin receptor antagonist administered during cocaine withdrawal  

E-print Network

Corresponding author: Didier PELAPRAT 1 Neurotensin receptor antagonist administered during cocaine: Neurotensin and cocaine sensitization Abstract: 236 words Text pages (including references): 30 pages Text-treatments with cocaine or amphetamine, alters some behavioral effects of these drugs in rats. However, its efficacy when

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effect of GR32191, a potent thromboxane receptor antagonist, on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work suggests a role for mast cell derived mediators in exercise induced asthma. The contribution of newly generated contractile prostaglandins to exercise induced asthma was assessed by using a potent and orally active thromboxane (TP1) receptor antagonist, GR32191. The effect of 120 mg GR32191 on exercise induced asthma was observed in 12 asthmatic subjects. For the exercise challenge the

J P Finnerty; O P Twentyman; A Harris; J B Palmer; S T Holgate



Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist the importance of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development, it is of potential concern that a wide variety of environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function or, perhaps of greater concern, with TH action

Zoeller, R. Thomas


A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...


An attempt to attenuate experimental pain in humans by dextromethorphan, an NMDA receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextromethorphan (100 mg, orally), an NMDA receptor antagonist, did not significantly attenuate pain intensity or unpleasantness induced by experimental ischemia or by topical capsaicin in healthy human subjects, nor did it increase the threshold for heat pain or mechanical pain. A dose of 200 mg produced marked side effects. Thus, systemically administered dextromethorphan does not attenuate pain at clinically applicable

Timo Kauppila; Mari Grönroos; Antti Pertovaara



Potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan in monoarthritic mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endothelins are involved in tissue inflammation, pain, edema and cell migration. Our genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-2 (ET-2) showed a marked up-regulation in dorsal root ganglia during the acute phase of arthritis. We therefore examined the effects of endothelin receptor antagonists on the development of arthritis and inflammatory pain in monoarthritic mice. Methods Gene expression was examined in lumbar dorsal root ganglia two days after induction of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) using mRNA microarray analysis. Effects of drug treatment were determined by repeated assessment of joint swelling, pain-related behavior, and histopathological manifestations during AIA. Results Daily oral administration of the mixed ETA and ETB endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan significantly attenuated knee joint swelling and inflammation to an extent that was comparable to dexamethasone. In addition, bosentan reduced inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia. Chronic bosentan administration also inhibited joint swelling and protected against inflammation and joint destruction during AIA flare-up reactions. In contrast, the ETA-selective antagonist ambrisentan failed to promote any detectable antiinflammatory or antinociceptive activity. Conclusions Thus, the present study reveals a pivotal role for the endothelin system in the development of arthritis and arthritic pain. We show that endothelin receptor antagonists can effectively control inflammation, pain and joint destruction during the course of arthritis. Our findings suggest that the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of bosentan are predominantly mediated via the ETB receptor. PMID:21689431



Dual action molecules: bioassays of combined novel antioxidants and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.  


In this study we have investigated the in vitro angiotensin II receptor antagonist and antioxidant activity of a series of compounds in which the antioxidant pharmacophores (selenium, phenol, benzothiophene, ebselen or nitroxide) have been incorporated into the AT(1) receptor antagonist (sartan) milfasartan. Activity of these compounds was assessed in tissue-based assays. The novel molecules (30nM), nitrasartan or phenol-milfasartan, retained AT(1) receptor antagonist potency in rat isolated right atria. Antioxidant capacity of the substituted sartans was examined in an AAPH (2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride)-induced haemolysis assay (mouse C57/BL6 isolated erythrocytes). Each of the antioxidant pharmacophores (10?M), except benzothiophene, protected against radical-mediated lysis. Of the novel sartans, only analogues incorporating selenium, phenol or nitroxide (nitrasartan) protected against radical-induced haemolysis. In the tissue-based assay using mouse isolated paced left atria, the free radical generator doxorubicin (30?M) resulted in a decrease in left atrial force over 90min. In this assay the phenol, nitroxide or ebselen antioxidant pharmacophores protected against doxorubicin-induced negative inotropy but selenocystine and benzothiophene did not. Nitrasartan (10?M) was the only novel analogue to protect against radical-induced negative inotropy. Nitrasartan also antagonised angiotensin II responses and decreased superoxide production in a concentration-dependent manner in rat isolated carotid arteries and aortae, respectively. In conclusion, nitrasartan is a dual action molecule demonstrating both AT(1) receptor antagonist potency and antioxidant properties in vitro. PMID:22975712

Jani, Nitya V; Ziogas, James; Angus, James A; Schiesser, Carl H; Macdougall, Phoebe E; Grange, Rebecca L; Wright, Christine E



Effects of combining opioids and clinically available NMDA receptor antagonists in the treatment of pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis concerns the effects of combining opioids with clinically available NMDA receptor antagonists in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. There are a number of problems with the use of opioids, such as, the development of tolerance\\/hyperalgesia, the reduced effectiveness in (central) neuropathic pain, and troublesome adverse effects. These problems might be resolved by the combined use of

D. G. Snijdelaar



I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...


Inhibitory effects of MPEP, an mGluR5 antagonist, and memantine, an N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor antagonist, on morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by memantine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, and other antagonists of ionotropic receptors for glutamate\\u000a inhibit the development of opiate antinociceptive tolerance. The role of metabotropic receptors for glutamate (mGluR) in opiate\\u000a tolerance is less known.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. In the present study, we examined the effect of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), the mGluR type-I (subtype mGluR5)\\u000a antagonist, as

Ewa Kozela; Andrzej Pilc; Piotr Popik



( sup 3 H)SCH39166, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist: Binding characteristics and localization  

SciTech Connect

Schering-Plough Research has developed a new, more specific analogue of SCH23390. This compound, SCH39166, has been shown to be a potent, specific, D1 receptor antagonist with several features which are advantageous over its predecessor. In this report, the binding characteristics of (3H)SCH39166 are described by in vitro analysis in rat brain tissues. The binding was shown to be of high affinity (Kd in the low nM range), saturable, and specific (readily displaceable with SCH23390, but not with the D2 receptor antagonists sulpiride or haloperidol). The binding of SCH39166 is more selective for binding to D1 receptors than SCH23390 with regard to overlap of the latter compound onto 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors. Autoradiographic localization of D1 receptor sites labeled with (3H)SCH39166 showed a very specific distribution in areas known to contain high quantities of D1 receptors. These regions included the deepest layer of the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, entopeduncular nucleus, and substantia nigra-pars reticulata, as well as less dense binding in a few other areas. At the concentration of ligand used (1 nM), there was a noticeable paucity of labeling in lamina IV of the cerebral cortex and in the choroid plexus, regions of high 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptor binding, respectively. Thus, SCH39166 represents a new D1 receptor antagonist which shows a greater specificity for the D1 receptor than its predecessor SCH23390. As previously shown, another distinct advantage of this compound is its stability in primates which should allow the determination of the effects and utility of D1 receptor antagonism in vivo.

Wamsley, J.K.; Hunt, M.E.; McQuade, R.D.; Alburges, M.E. (Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, ND (USA))



Oxytocin differentially modulates compromise and competitive approach but not withdrawal to antagonists from own vs. rivaling other groups.  


In humans, oxytocin promotes cognitive and motivational tendencies that benefit the groups on which humans depend for their survival and prosperity. Here we examined decision making in an incentivized two-player poker game with either an in-group or out-group antagonist. Sixty nine healthy males received 24 IU oxytocin or matching placebo, and played four rounds of a simplified poker game. On each round they received either low or high value cards to create differences in competitive strength, and then responded to a bet placed by their (simulated) (in-group or out-group) antagonist. Under placebo, participants withdrew and competed depending on their own (low vs. high) competitive strength, regardless of their antagonist's group membership. Under oxytocin, however, participants settled more and competed less with an in-group as compared to an out-group antagonist; withdrawal was unaffected by group membership. We conclude that oxytocin sensitizes humans to the group membership of their interaction partner, rendering them relatively more benevolent and less competitive towards those seen as belonging to their own group. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. PMID:24055737

Ten Velden, Femke S; Baas, Matthijs; Shalvi, Shaul; Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W



The turnover of estrogen receptor ? by the selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD) fulvestrant is a saturable process that is not required for antagonist efficacy  

PubMed Central

It has become apparent of late that even in tamoxifen and/or aromatase resistant breast cancers, ER? remains a bona fide therapeutic target. Not surprisingly, therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing Selective ER Degraders (SERDs), compounds that target the receptor for degradation. Currently, ICI 182,780 (ICI, fulvestrant) is the only SERD approved for the treatment of breast cancer. However, the poor pharmaceutical properties of this injectable drug and its lack of superiority over second line aromatase inhibitors in late stage breast cancer have negatively impacted its clinical use. These findings have provided the impetus to develop second generation, orally bioavailable SERDs with which quantitative turnover of ER? in tumors can be achieved. Interestingly however, the contribution of SERD activity to fulvestrant efficacy is unclear, making it difficult to define the characteristics desired of the next generation of ER antagonists. It is of significance therefore, that we have determined that the antagonist activity of ICI and its ability to induce ER? degradation are not coupled processes. Specifically, our results indicate that it is the ability of ICI to interact with ER? and to (a) competitively displace estradiol and (b) induce a conformational change in ER incompatible with transcriptional activation that are likely to be the most important pharmacological characteristics of this drug. Collectively, these data argue for a renewed emphasis on the development of high affinity, orally bioavailable pure antagonists and suggest that SERD activity though proven effective may not be required for ER? antagonism in breast cancer. PMID:21501600

Wardell, Suzanne E.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; McDonnell, Donald P.



Current perspectives on selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces long-term molecular and neurochemical changes that may explain the core features of addiction, such as the compulsive seeking and taking of the drug, as well as the risk of relapse. A growing number of new molecular and cellular targets of addictive drugs have been identified, and rapid advances are being made in relating those targets to specific behavioral phenotypes in animal models of addiction. In this context, the pattern of expression of the dopamine (DA) D3 receptor in the rodent and human brain and changes in this pattern in response to drugs of abuse have contributed primarily to direct research efforts toward the development of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists. Growing preclinical evidence indicates that these compounds may actually regulate the motivation to self-administer drugs and disrupt drug-associated cue-induced craving. This report will be divided into three parts. First, preclinical evidence in support of the efficacy of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists in animal models of drug addiction will be reviewed. The effects of mixed DA D2/D3 receptor antagonists will not be discussed here because most of these compounds have low selectivity at the D3 versus D2 receptor, and their efficacy profile is related primarily to functional antagonism at D2 receptors and possibly interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. Second, major advances in medicinal chemistry for the identification and optimization of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists will be analyzed. Third, translational research from preclinical efficacy studies to so-called proof-of-concept studies for drug addiction indications will be discussed. PMID:20201845

Heidbreder, Christian A.; Newman, Amy H.



Bazedoxifene-scaffold-based mimetics of solomonsterols A and B as novel pregnane X receptor antagonists.  


Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the NR1I nuclear receptor family, acts as a xenobiotic sensor and a paramount transcriptional regulator of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The overexpression of PXR in various cancer cells indicates the importance of PXR as a drug target for countering multidrug resistance in anticancer treatments. We describe the discovery of novel bazedoxifene-scaffold-based PXR antagonists inspired by the marine sulfated steroids solomonsterol A and B as natural leads. A luciferase reporter assay on a PXR-transfected HepG2 cell line identified compounds 19-24 as promising PXR antagonists. Further structure-activity relationship studies of the most active PXR antagonist from the series (compound 20, IC50 = 11 ?M) revealed the importance of hydroxyl groups as hydrogen-bond donors for PXR antagonistic activity. PXR antagonists 20 and 24 (IC50 = 14 ?M), in addition to the downregulation of PXR expression, exhibited inhibition of PXR-induced CYP3A4 expression, which illustrates their potential to suppress PXR-regulated phase-I drug metabolism. PMID:24828006

Hodnik, Žiga; Peterlin Maši?, Lucija; Tomaši?, Tihomir; Smodiš, Domen; D'Amore, Claudio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Kikelj, Danijel



Functionalized Congeners of 1,4-Dihydropyridines as Antagonist Molecular Probes for A3 Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5?-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure–activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 ?M. PMID:10411465

Li, An-Hu; Chang, Louis; Ji, Xiao-duo; Melman, Neli; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Human P2Y1 Receptor: Molecular Modeling and Site-Directed Mutagenesis as Tools To Identify Agonist and Antagonist Recognition Sites  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis for recognition by human P2Y1 receptors of the novel, competitive antagonist 2?-deoxy-N6-methyladenosine 3?,5?-bisphosphate (MRS 2179) was probed using site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. The potency of this antagonist was measured in mutant receptors in which key residues in the transmembrane helical domains (TMs) 3, 5, 6, and 7 were replaced by Ala or other amino acids. The capacity of MRS 2179 to block stimulation of phospholipase C promoted by 2-methylthioadenosine 5?-diphosphate (2-MeSADP) was lost in P2Y1 receptors having F226A, K280A, or Q307A mutations, indicating that these residues are critical for the binding of the antagonist molecule. Mutation of the residues His132, Thr222, and Tyr136 had an intermediate effect on the capacity of MRS 2179 to block the P2Y1 receptor. These positions therefore appear to have a modulatory role in recognition of this antagonist. F131A, H277A, T221A, R310K, or S317A mutant receptors exhibited an apparent affinity for MRS 2179 that was similar to that observed with the wild-type receptor. Thus, Phe131, Thr221, His277, and Ser317 are not essential for antagonist recognition. A computer-generated model of the human P2Y1 receptor was built and analyzed to help interpret these results. The model was derived through primary sequence comparison, secondary structure prediction, and three-dimensional homology building, using rhodopsin as a template, and was consistent with data obtained from mutagenesis studies. We have introduced a “cross-docking” procedure to obtain energetically refined 3D structures of the ligand–receptor complexes. Cross-docking simulates the reorganization of the native receptor structure induced by a ligand. A putative nucleotide binding site was localized and used to predict which residues are likely to be in proximity to agonists and antagonists. According to our model TM6 and TM7 are close to the adenine ring, TM3 and TM6 are close to the ribose moiety, and TM3, TM6, and TM7 are near the triphosphate chain. PMID:9554879

Moro, Stefano; Guo, Danping; Camaioni, Emidio; Boyer, José L.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists: a review of patenting activity across therapeutic areas.  


In the field of nonpeptide NCEs with endothelin receptor antagonist activity, a burst in corporate IP filings occurred in the 1990s once the human endothelin system had been characterized, but patent activity has declined in the past decade. Universities have not been active in this area of research to a degree that would have led to many patent applications. While three endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan and ambrisentan) are already available for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the use of such compounds for the larger therapy areas of heart failure, cancer and nephropathy is still being evaluated in late-stage clinical trials. Marketed and advanced-stage endothelin receptor blockers have remarkably little chemical diversity; thus, the substantially larger chemical space defined by patenting remains to be explored. PMID:19517317

Mucke, Hermann A M



Opioid receptor antagonist nalmefene stereospecifically inhibits glutamate release during global cerebral ischemia.  


The opioid receptor antagonist nalmefene improves cellular bioenergetics and attenuates the reduction in tissue glutamate levels after global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The latter finding suggests that nalmefene might inhibit glutamate release during ischemia. To test this hypothesis, we used microdialysis techniques to examine the effect of nalmefene pretreatment on extracellular excitatory amino acid levels during global cerebral ischemia in rats. Saline, (-)-nalmefene (20, 100 or 500 micrograms/kg) or the inactive nalmefene enantiomer (+)-nalmefene (100 micrograms/kg) were given 15 min prior to induction of ischemia using a multi-vessel occlusion model. Pretreatment with (-)-nalmefene decreased peak dialysate glutamate in a dose-dependent fashion as compared to saline-treated controls, whereas (+)-nalmefene had no effect. These results suggest that opioid receptors may modulate glutamate release during ischemia and that inhibition of excitatory amino acid release may contribute to the protective actions of opioid receptor antagonists in cerebral ischemia. PMID:7908601

Graham, S H; Shimizu, H; Newman, A; Weinstein, P; Faden, A I



The vanilloid receptor TRPV1: 10 years from channel cloning to antagonist proof-of-concept.  


The clinical use of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1; also known as VR1) antagonists is based on the concept that endogenous agonists acting on TRPV1 might provide a major contribution to certain pain conditions. Indeed, a number of small-molecule TRPV1 antagonists are already undergoing Phase I/II clinical trials for the indications of chronic inflammatory pain and migraine. Moreover, animal models suggest a therapeutic value for TRPV1 antagonists in the treatment of other types of pain, including pain from cancer. We argue that TRPV1 antagonists alone or in conjunction with other analgesics will improve the quality of life of people with migraine, chronic intractable pain secondary to cancer, AIDS or diabetes. Moreover, emerging data indicate that TRPV1 antagonists could also be useful in treating disorders other than pain, such as urinary urge incontinence, chronic cough and irritable bowel syndrome. The lack of effective drugs for treating many of these conditions highlights the need for further investigation into the therapeutic potential of TRPV1 antagonists. PMID:17464295

Szallasi, Arpad; Cortright, Daniel N; Blum, Charles A; Eid, Samer R



Caffeine and adenosine A 2a receptor antagonists prevent ?-amyloid (25–35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, was found to be inversely associated with the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, caffeine protects cultured neurons against ?-amyloid-induced toxicity, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A but not A1 receptor antagonists. We now tested if caffeine administration would prevent ?-amyloid-induced cognitive impairment in mice and if this was mimicked by A2A receptor blockade.

Oscar P. Dall'Igna; Paulo Fett; Marcio W. Gomes; Diogo O. Souza; Rodrigo A. Cunha; Diogo R. Lara



Discovery, synthesis, selectivity modulation and DMPK characterization of 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanes as potent orexin receptor antagonists.  


Starting from a orexin 1 receptor selective antagonist 4,4-disubstituted piperidine series a novel potent 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane dual orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor antagonist class has been discovered. SAR and Pharmacokinetic optimization of this series is herein disclosed. Lead compound 15 exhibits potent activity against orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors along with low cytochrome P450 inhibition potential, good brain penetration and oral bioavailability in rats. PMID:23535328

Stasi, Luigi Piero; Artusi, Roberto; Bovino, Clara; Buzzi, Benedetta; Canciani, Luca; Caselli, Gianfranco; Colace, Fabrizio; Garofalo, Paolo; Giambuzzi, Silvia; Larger, Patrice; Letari, Ornella; Mandelli, Stefano; Perugini, Lorenzo; Pucci, Sabrina; Salvi, Matteo; Toro, PierLuigi



Antinociceptive effects of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists in the tail flick test in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of spinal glutamate receptors induces antinociceptive effects in numerous animal models of pain. The present study compares the effects of intrathecally administered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists on nociceptive responses in the tail flick test. Potency of antagonists at NMDA and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors was first measured by electrical assays in Xenopus oocytes expressing rat cerebral

Kabirullah Lutfy; Sui Xiong Cai; Richard M Woodward; Eckard Weber



Discovery of antagonists for human scavenger receptor CD36 via an ELISA-like high-throughput screening assay.  


CD36, a member of the class B scavenger receptor, is a high-affinity receptor for oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Extensive evidence points to a significant role of CD36 in atherosclerosis and suggests that CD36 could be a potential target for treatment of atherosclerosis. Here, the extracellular domain of human CD36 (Gly(30)-Asn(439)) was expressed in Escherichia coli as His(6)-tagged soluble CD36 (sCD36), which could bind oxLDL specifically and effectively inhibit the uptake of oxLDL by murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for the discovery of CD36 antagonists, based on the competition of sCD36 binding to immobilized oxLDL and detection with a monoclonal antibody against His-tag. This assay was suitable for HTS in a 96-well format and was robust and reliable according to the evaluation parameter Z' value of 0.82. The developed HTS assay was applied to both pure chemical compounds and microbial secondary metabolite crude extracts to identify CD36 antagonists. Three active compounds-sodium danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB)-were shown to be antagonistic to sCD36-oxLDL binding and further validated by their inhibition of oxLDL uptake in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the ELISA-like assay represents a promising screening for identifying bioactive molecules targeting atherosclerosis at the level of CD36-ligand binding. PMID:20150587

Wang, Li; Bao, Yi; Yang, Yuan; Wu, Yexiang; Chen, Xiaofang; Si, Shuyi; Hong, Bin



BGC20-1531, a novel, potent and selective prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonist: a putative new treatment for migraine headache  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of migraine since EP4 receptors have been shown to be involved in prostaglandin (PG)E2-induced cerebral vascular dilatation, which may be an important contributor to migraine pain. This study reports the pharmacological characterization of BGC20-1531, a novel EP4 receptor antagonist. Experimental approach: BGC20-1531 was characterized in radioligand binding and in vitro functional assays employing recombinant and native EP4 receptors. Changes in canine carotid haemodynamics were used to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of BGC20-1531 in vivo. Key results: BGC20-1531 exhibited high affinity at recombinant human EP4 receptors expressed in cell lines (pKB 7.6) and native EP4 receptors in human cerebral and meningeal artery (pKB 7.6–7.8) but showed no appreciable affinity at a wide range of other receptors (including other prostanoid receptors), channels, transporters and enzymes (pKi < 5). BGC20-1531 competitively antagonized PGE2-induced vasodilatation of human middle cerebral (pKB 7.8) and meningeal (pKB 7.6) arteries in vitro, but had no effect on responses induced by PGE2 on coronary, pulmonary or renal arteries in vitro. BGC20-1531 (1–10 mg·kg?1 i.v.) caused a dose-dependent antagonism of the PGE2-induced increase in canine carotid blood flow in vivo. Conclusions and implications: BGC20-1531 is a potent and selective antagonist at EP4 receptors in vitro and in vivo, with the potential to alleviate the symptoms of migraine that result from cerebral vasodilatation. BGC20-1531 is currently in clinical development for the treatment of migraine headache. PMID:19154437

Maubach, KA; Davis, RJ; Clark, DE; Fenton, G; Lockey, PM; Clark, KL; Oxford, AW; Hagan, RM; Routledge, C; Coleman, RA



Structure-based Discovery of Antagonists of Nuclear Receptor LRH-1*  

PubMed Central

Liver receptor homolog 1 (nuclear receptor LRH-1, NR5A2) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, critical for maintenance of cell pluripotency in early development and imperative for the proper functions of the liver, pancreas, and intestines during the adult life. Although physiological hormones of LRH-1 have not yet been identified, crystallographic and biochemical studies demonstrated that LRH-1 could bind regulatory ligands and suggested phosphatidylinositols as potential hormone candidates for this receptor. No synthetic antagonists of LRH-1 are known to date. Here, we identify the first small molecule antagonists of LRH-1 activity. Our search for LRH-1 modulators was empowered by screening of 5.2 million commercially available compounds via molecular docking followed by verification of the top-ranked molecules using in vitro direct binding and transcriptional assays. Experimental evaluation of the predicted ligands identified two compounds that inhibit the transcriptional activity of LRH-1 and diminish the expression of the receptor's target genes. Among the affected transcriptional targets are co-repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) as well as cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and G0S2 genes that are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation. Treatments of human pancreatic (AsPC-1), colon (HT29), and breast adenocarcinoma cells T47D and MDA-MB-468 with the LRH-1 antagonists resulted in the receptor-mediated inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our data suggest that specific antagonists of LRH-1 could be used as specific molecular probes for elucidating the roles of the receptor in different types of malignancies. PMID:23667258

Benod, Cindy; Carlsson, Jens; Uthayaruban, Rubatharshini; Hwang, Peter; Irwin, John J.; Doak, Allison K.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sablin, Elena P.; Fletterick, Robert J.



Effect of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, GK-128, on 5-HT3 receptors mediating contractions and relaxations in guinea-pig distal colon.  


1. We investigated 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor-mediating contractions and relaxations in the guinea-pig isolated distal colon using various 5-HT3 receptor agonists and antagonists, including GK-128 (2-[(2-methylimidazol-1-yl) methyl] benzo[f] thiochromen-1-one monohydrochloride hemihydrate). 2. Selective 5-HT3 receptor agonists, 2-methyl-5-HT and m-chlorophenylbiguanide, produced spantide-insensitive contraction and atropine-insensitive contraction and the relaxation. These agonists showed a small, but significant, difference of potency between contraction and relaxation. 3. GK-128 competitively blocked both 2-methyl-5-HT- and m-chlorophenylbiguanide-induced responses with similar potency. The affinities of GK-128 for spantide-insensitive contraction and atropine-insensitive contraction were ten-fold higher than for relaxation. 4. Other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, azasetron and tropisetron, also exhibited higher affinity in contraction than in relaxation, but the extent of their affinity differences was smaller than that observed in GK-128. In contrast, granisetron, ramosetron and ondansetron exhibited no significant differences in their affinity values among the three responses. 5. These results suggest that the 5-HT3 receptors which mediate contraction and relaxation in the guinea-pig distal colon may not be the same, and that GK-128 is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a stronger potency for contraction. PMID:9378239

Ito, C; Kawamura, R; Isobe, Y; Tsuchida, K; Muramatsu, M; Higuchi, S



Effects of Selective and Non-Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor II Antagonists on Rapid-Onset Diabetes in Young Rats  

PubMed Central

The blockade of glucocorticoid (GC) action through antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor II (GRII) has been used to minimize the undesirable effects of chronically elevated GC levels. Mifepristone (RU486) is known to competitively block GRII action, but not exclusively, as it antagonizes the progesterone receptor. A number of new selective GRII antagonists have been developed, but limited testing has been completed in animal models of overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, two selective GRII antagonists (C113176 and C108297) were tested to determine their effects in our model of GC-induced rapid-onset diabetes (ROD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (? six weeks of age) were placed on a high-fat diet (60%), surgically implanted with pellets containing corticosterone (CORT) or wax (control) and divided into five treatment groups. Each group was treated with either a GRII antagonist or vehicle for 14 days after surgery: CORT pellets (400 mg/rat) + antagonists (80 mg/kg/day); CORT pellets + drug vehicle; and wax pellets (control) + drug vehicle. After 10 days of CORT treatment, body mass gain was increased with RU486 (by ?20% from baseline) and maintained with C113176 administration, whereas rats given C108297 had similar body mass loss (?15%) to ROD animals. Fasting glycemia was elevated in the ROD animals (>20 mM), normalized completely in animals treated with RU486 (6.2±0.1 mM, p<0.05) and improved in animals treated with C108297 and C113176 (14.0±1.6 and 8.8±1.6 mM, p<0.05 respectively). Glucose intolerance was normalized with RU486 treatment, whereas acute insulin response was improved with RU486 and C113176 treatment. Also, peripheral insulin resistance was attenuated with C113176 treatment along with improved levels of ?-cell function while C108297 antagonism only provided modest improvements. In summary, C113176 is an effective agent that minimized some GC-induced detrimental metabolic effects and may provide an alternative to the effective, but non-selective, GRII antagonist RU486. PMID:24642683

Beaudry, Jacqueline L.; Dunford, Emily C.; Teich, Trevor; Zaharieva, Dessi; Hunt, Hazel; Belanoff, Joseph K.; Riddell, Michael C.



Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.  


Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling. PMID:24166413

Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M



Effect of dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonists on fencamfamine-induced abolition of latent inhibition.  


The purpose of this investigation was to verify the role of dopamine and serotonin receptors in the effect of fencamfamine (FCF) on latent inhibition. FCF is a psychomotor stimulant with an indirect dopaminergic action. Latent inhibition is a model of attention. Latent inhibition is blocked by dopaminergic agents and facilitated by dopamine receptor agonists. FCF has been shown to abolish latent inhibition. The serotonergic system may also participate in the neurochemical mediation of latent inhibition. The selective dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), D(2) receptor antagonists pimozide (PIM) and methoclopramide (METH), and serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist ritanserin (RIT) were used in the present study. Latent inhibition was evaluated using a conditioned emotional response procedure. Male Wistar rats that were water-restricted were subjected to a three-phase procedure: preexposure to a tone, tone-shock conditioning, and a test of the effect of the tone on licking frequency. All of the drugs were administered before the preexposure and conditioning phases. The results showed that FCF abolished latent inhibition, and this effect was clearly antagonized by PIM and METH and moderately attenuated by SCH 23390. At the doses used in the present study, RIT pretreatment did not affect latent inhibition and did not eliminate the effect of FCF, suggesting that the FCF-induced abolition of latent inhibition is not mediated by serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. These results suggest that the effect of FCF on latent inhibition is predominantly related to dopamine D(2) receptors and that dopamine D(2) receptors participate in attention processes. PMID:23123352

de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; de Aguiar, Marlison José Lima; DeLucia, Roberto; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo



The anti-craving compound acamprosate acts as a weak NMDA-receptor antagonist, but modulates NMDA-receptor subunit expression similar to memantine and MK-801.  


NMDA-receptor-mediated mechanisms may be crucial in addictive states, e.g. alcoholism, and provide a target for the novel anti-craving compound acamprosate. Here, the pharmacological effects of acamprosate on NMDA-receptors were studied using electrophysiological techniques in different cell lines in vitro. Additionally, a possible modulation of brain NMDA-receptor subunit expression was examined in vivo in rats, and compared to two effective non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonists, memantine and MK-801. Electrophysiology in cultured hippocampal neurons (IC(50) approx. 5.5mM) and Xenopus oocytes (NR1-1a/NR2A assemblies: IC(50) approx. 350 microM, NR1-1a/NR2B: IC(50) approx. 250 microM) consistently revealed only a weak antagonism of acamprosate on native or recombinant NMDA-receptors. In HEK-293 cells, acamprosate showed almost no effect on NR1-1a/NR2A or NR1-1a/NR2B recombinants (IC(50)s not calculated). Protein blotting demonstrated an up-regulation of NMDA-receptor subunits after acamprosate as well as after memantine or MK-801, in comparison to controls. After acamprosate, protein levels were increased in the cortex (NR1-3/1-4: 190+/-11% of controls) and hippocampus (NR1-1/1-2: 163+/-11%). The up-regulations observed after memantine (cortex, NR2B: 172+/-17%; hippocampus, NR1-1/1-2: 156+/-8%) or MK-801 (cortex, NR2B: 174+/-22%; hippocampus, NR1-1/1-2: 140+/-3%) were almost identical. No changes were detected in the brainstem. The present data indicate an extremely weak antagonism of NMDA-receptors by acamprosate. However, its ability to modulate the expression of NMDA-receptor subunits in specific brain regions - shared with the well established NMDA-antagonists memantine and MK-801 - may be of relevance for its therapeutic profile, especially considering the growing importance of NMDA-receptor plasticity in the research of ethanol addiction. PMID:11369029

Rammes, G; Mahal, B; Putzke, J; Parsons, C; Spielmanns, P; Pestel, E; Spanagel, R; Zieglgänsberger, W; Schadrack, J



A Selective High-Affinity Antagonist of the P2Y14 Receptor Inhibits UDP-Glucose–Stimulated Chemotaxis of Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide-sugar–activated P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14-R) is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Although the physiologic functions of this receptor remain undefined, it has been strongly implicated recently in immune and inflammatory responses. Lack of availability of receptor-selective high-affinity antagonists has impeded progress in studies of this and most of the eight nucleotide-activated P2Y receptors. A series of molecules recently were identified by Gauthier et al. (Gauthier et al., 2011) that exhibited antagonist activity at the P2Y14-R. We synthesized one of these molecules, a 4,7-disubstituted 2-naphthoic acid derivative (PPTN), and studied its pharmacological properties in detail. The concentration-effect curve of UDP-glucose for promoting inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in C6 glioma cells stably expressing the P2Y14-R was shifted to the right in a concentration-dependent manner by PPTN. Schild analyses revealed that PPTN-mediated inhibition followed competitive kinetics, with a KB of 434 pM observed. In contrast, 1 ?M PPTN exhibited no agonist or antagonist effect at the P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, or P2Y13 receptors. UDP-glucose–promoted chemotaxis of differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells was blocked by PPTN with a concentration dependence consistent with the KB determined with recombinant P2Y14-R. In contrast, the chemotactic response evoked by the chemoattractant peptide fMetLeuPhe was unaffected by PPTN. UDP-glucose–promoted chemotaxis of freshly isolated human neutrophils also was blocked by PPTN. In summary, this work establishes PPTN as a highly selective high-affinity antagonist of the P2Y14-R that is useful for interrogating the action of this receptor in physiologic systems. PMID:23592514

Barrett, Matthew O.; Sesma, Juliana I.; Ball, Christopher B.; Jayasekara, P. Suresh; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.



Lixivaptan: a vasopressin receptor antagonist for the treatment of hyponatremia.  


Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The introduction of medications that specifically antagonize the vasopressin V2 receptor (vaptans) has provided a safe and effective means of therapy. Lixivaptan is the newest of these agents that reliably increase serum sodium levels in patients with euvolemic hyponatremia. However, significant questions remain regarding the specific indications for vaptans, and their potential impact on morbidity and mortality associated with hyponatremia. PMID:23151986

Rosner, Mitchell H



Fumaroylamino-4,5-epoxymorphinans and Related Opioids with Irreversible ? Opioid Receptor Antagonist Effects  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that cinnamoyl derivatives of 14?-amino-17-cyclopropylmethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphinone and 7?-aminomethyl-6,14-endoethanonororipavine have pronounced pseudoirreversible ? opioid receptor (MOR) antagonism. The present communication describes the synthesis and evaluation of fumaroylamino analogues of these cinnamoylamino derivatives together with some related fumaroyl derivatives. The predominant activity of the new ligands was MOR antagonism. The fumaroylamino analogues (2a, 5a) of the pseudoirreversible antagonist cinnamoylamino morphinones and oripavines (2b, 5b) were themselves irreversible antagonists in vivo. However the fumaroylamino derivatives had significantly higher MOR efficacy than the cinnamoylamino derivatives in mouse antinociceptive tests. Comparison of 2a and 5a with the prototypic fumaroylamino opioid ?-FNA (1a) shows that they have similar MOR irreversible antagonist actions but differ in the nature of their opioid receptor agonist effects; 2a is a predominant MOR agonist and 5a shows no opioid receptor selectivity, whereas the agonist effect of ?-FNA is clearly ? opioid receptor (KOR) mediated. PMID:23043264



Paradoxical downregulation of CXC chemokine receptor 4 induced by polyphemusin II-derived antagonists.  


CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor implicated in cell entry of T-cell line-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 play pivotal parts in many physiological processes and pathogenetic conditions (e.g., immune cell-homing and cancer metastasis). We previously developed the potent CXCR4 antagonist T140 from structure-activity relationship studies of the antimicrobial peptide polyphemusin II. T140 and its derivatives have been exploited in biological and biomedical studies for the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. We investigated receptor localization upon ligand stimulation using fluorescent SDF-1 and T140 derivatives as well as a specific labeling technique for cellular-membrane CXCR4. Fluorescent T140 derivatives induced translocation of CXCR4 into the perinuclear region as observed by treatment with fluorescent SDF-1. T140 derivative-mediated internalization of CXCR4 was also monitored by the coiled-coil tag-probe system. These findings demonstrated that the CXCR4 antagonistic activity and anti-HIV activity of T140 derivatives were derived (at least in part) from antagonist-mediated receptor internalization. PMID:22486464

Masuda, Ryo; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Ohno, Hiroaki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Yano, Yoshiaki; Matsuzaki, Katsumi; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Peiper, Stephen C; Fujii, Nobutaka



Design and Synthesis of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists for Peripheral Selectivity  

PubMed Central

Antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) have potential for the treatment of several diseases such as obesity, liver disease and diabetes. Recently, development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to adverse central nervous system (CNS) related side effects observed with rimonabant, the first clinically approved CB1 inverse agonist. However, recent studies indicate that regulation of peripherally expressed CB1 with CNS-sparing compounds is a viable strategy to treat several important disorders. Our efforts aimed at rationally designing peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists have resulted in compounds that have limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS exposure in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. Typically, compounds with high topological polar surface areas (TPSAs) do not cross the BBB passively. Compounds with TPSAs higher than rimonabant (rimonabant TPSA = 50) and excellent functional activity with limited CNS penetration were identified. These compounds will serve as templates for further optimization. PMID:22372835

Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Seltzman, Herbert; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan



Red-fluorescent argininamide-type NPY Y1 receptor antagonists as pharmacological tools.  


Fluorescently labelled NPY Y(1) receptor (Y(1)R) ligands were synthesized by connecting pyrylium and cyanine dyes with the argininamide-type Y(1)R antagonist core structure by linkers, covering a wide variety in length and chemical nature, attached to the guanidine group. The most promising fluorescent probes had Y(1)R affinities (radioligand binding) and antagonistic activities (calcium assay) in the one- to two-digit nanomolar range. These compounds turned out to be stable under assay conditions and to be appropriate for the detection of Y(1)Rs by confocal microscopy in live cells. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio by shifting the emission into the near infrared, a new benzothiazolium-type fluorescent cyanine dye (UR-DE99) was synthesized and attached to the parent antagonist via a carbamoyl linker yielding UR-MK131, a highly potent fluorescent Y(1)R probe, which was also successfully applied in flow cytometry. PMID:21493077

Keller, Max; Erdmann, Daniela; Pop, Nathalie; Pluym, Nikola; Teng, Shangjun; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin



Design and Synthesis of 4-(4-Benzoylaminophenoxy)phenol Derivatives As Androgen Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

We report the design and synthesis of novel 4-(4-benzoylaminophenoxy)phenol derivatives that bind to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain and exhibit potent androgen-antagonistic activity. Compound 22 is one of the most potent of these derivatives, inhibiting the dihydrotestosterone-promoted growth of SC-3 cell line bearing wild-type AR (IC50 0.75 ?M), LNCaP cell line bearing T877A-mutated AR (IC50 0.043 ?M), and 22Rv1 cell line bearing H874Y-mutated AR (IC50 0.22 ?M). Structure–activity relationship studies confirmed that the pharmacophore of these novel AR antagonists is distinct from the nitro- or cyano-substituted anilide substructure of other nonsteroidal AR antagonists. This novel pharmacophore is expected to provide a basis for designing new antiprostate cancer agents. PMID:24900588



Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine.  


Based on preclinical and clinical studies, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is proposed to play a central role in the underlying pathology of migraine. CGRP and its receptor are widely expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous systems by multiple cell types involved in the regulation of inflammatory and nociceptive responses. Peripheral release of CGRP from trigeminal nerve fibres within the dura and from the cell body of trigeminal ganglion neurons is likely to contribute to peripheral sensitization of trigeminal nociceptors. Similarly, the release of CGRP within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis can facilitate activation of nociceptive second-order neurons and glial cells. Thus, CGRP is involved in the development and maintenance of persistent pain, central sensitization and allodynia, events characteristic of migraine pathology. In contrast, CGRP release within the brain is likely to function in an anti-nociceptive capacity. Given the role of CGRP in migraine pathology, the potential of CGRP receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine has been investigated. Towards this end, the non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonists olcegepant and telcagepant have been shown to be effective in the acute treatment of migraine. While telcagepant is being pursued as a frontline abortive migraine drug in a phase III clinical trial, an oral formulation of a novel CGRP receptor antagonist, BI 44370, is currently in phase II clinical trials. Encouragingly, data from clinical studies on these compounds have clearly demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefit of this class of drugs and support the future development of CGRP receptor antagonists to treat migraine and possibly other types of chronic pain. PMID:20433208

Durham, Paul L; Vause, Carrie V



Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))



RO1138452 and RO3244794: characterization of structurally distinct, potent and selective IP (prostacyclin) receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Prostacyclin (PGI2) possesses various physiological functions, including modulation of nociception, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Elucidation of these functions has been hampered by the absence of selective IP receptor antagonists. Two structurally distinct series of IP receptor antagonists have been developed: 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-[4-(4-isopropoxy-benzyl)-phenyl]-amine (RO1138452) and R-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-2-[5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-benzofuran-2-ylmethoxycarbonylamino]-propionic acid (RO3244794). RO1138452 and RO3244794 display high affinity for IP receptors. In human platelets, the receptor affinities (pKi) were 9.3±0.1 and 7.7±0.03, respectively; in a recombinant IP receptor system, pKi values were 8.7±0.06 and 6.9±0.1, respectively. Functional antagonism of RO1138452 and RO3244794 was studied by measuring inhibition of carbaprostacyclin-induced cAMP accumulation in CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the human IP receptor. The antagonist affinities (pKi) of RO1138452 and RO3244794 were 9.0±0.06 and 8.5±0.11, respectively. Selectivity profiles for RO1138452 and RO3244794 were determined via a panel of receptor binding and enzyme assays. RO1138452 displayed affinity at I2 (8.3) and PAF (7.9) receptors, while RO3244794 was highly selective for the IP receptor: pKi values for EP1 (<5), EP3 (5.38), EP4 (5.74) and TP (5.09). RO1138452 (1–10?mg?kg?1, i.v.) and RO3244794 (1–30?mg?kg?1, i.v.) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions. RO1138452 (3–100?mg?kg?1, p.o.) and RO3244794 (0.3–30?mg?kg?1, p.o.) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and edema formation. RO3244794 (1 and 10?mg?kg?1, p.o.) also significantly reduced chronic joint discomfort induced by monoiodoacetate. These data suggest that RO1138452 and RO3244794 are potent and selective antagonists for both human and rat IP receptors and that they possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:16331286

Bley, Keith R; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Daniels, Don V; Gever, Joel; Jahangir, Alam; O'Yang, Counde; Smith, Steven; Srinivasan, Dinesh; Ford, Anthony P D W; Jett, Mary-Frances



Similar behavioural effects of sigma agonists and PCP-like non-competitive NMDA antagonists in guinea-pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the behavioural effects of sigma agonists and PCP-like non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists in guineapigs. Subcutaneous (SC) injection of the putative sigma agonist (+)NANM (1 and 10 mg\\/kg SC) and (?) NANM (1 and 10 mg\\/kg SC) produced a behavioural response in guinea-pigs which was characterized by sedation and exophthalmos, with locomotor depression, flattened posture and flaccidity,

Paul J. Brent



Effects of a range of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists on ethanol intake in the rat.  


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a range of dopaminergic agents on consumption of an ethanol solution (10% ethanol, 3% glucose) in rats. A two-bottle, free-choice paradigm was used following induction of ethanol consumption and preference in standard laboratory rats. The model used provides a robust and reliable level of ethanol oral administration in normal laboratory rats. Both ethanol intake and preference were reduced by a dopamine D1 receptor partial agonist, SFK 38393 ((+/-)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrochloride), in a dose-dependent manner. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist 7-OH-DPAT ((+/-)-7-hydroxy-N,N-(di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin)) at the lowest dose of 0.01 mg/kg increased both ethanol intake and preference. At higher doses (0.03-0.1 mg/kg) no significant effects were found. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (R-(+)-7-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-8- ol), dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride and 5-HT2/D2 receptor antagonist risperidone did not affect ethanol consumption, although all at high doses induced a significant decrease in water intake, indicating a non-specific decrease in consummatory behavior with these compounds. These results suggest the involvement of the dopaminergic system in ethanol intake and ethanol reinforcement with dopamine D1 and D2/D3 receptors playing opposing roles. Blockade of dopamine D2 receptors had no selective effect on ethanol consumption and ethanol preference. PMID:9016913

Silvestre, J S; O'Neill, M F; Fernandez, A G; Palacios, J M



Development of filtration-based time-resolved fluorescence assay for the high-throughput screening of urotensin II receptor antagonist.  


The time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) receptor binding assay has many advantages over the traditional radioligand binding assay in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility for the screening of receptor ligands. The TRF-based urotensin receptor (UT) binding assay with an automatic vacuum filtration system was developed and evaluated for the high-throughput screening of UT receptor antagonists. For this assay development, the human recombinant urotensin II (UII) was modified by labeling europium at its N-terminal position (Eu-UII) and used as a fluorescent tracer. The microsomal membrane fraction of UT receptor was prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human UT receptor. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of UII from competition binding assays with Eu-UII were 2.76 nM, which is very similar to that of fluorescence polarization (FP)-based UT receptor binding experiment (2.18 nM). Comparing with the FP-based receptor binding assay for UII (Z' factor, 0.36), the current TRF assay presented improved Z' factor (0.76) with a relatively higher signal-to-background ratio (1.5 and 2.1, respectively). The known high-affinity UT receptor antagonists, palosuran and SB657510, exhibited IC(50) values of 23.6 and 73.4 nM, respectively, which were consistent with the IC(50) values from FP-based receptor binding assay (30.6 and 78.7 nM, respectively). These results suggest that our filtration-based TRF UT receptor binding assay can achieve the desired sensitivity with higher reproducibility to adapt for the high-throughput screening of compound libraries. PMID:21561377

Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Sunghou; Lee, Byung Ho



Exploratory Studies on Development of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 Antagonists Toward Downsizing  

PubMed Central

Seven transmembrane (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) families are important targets for drug discovery, and specific antagonists for GPCR can accelerate research in the field of medicinal chemistry. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a GPCR that possesses a unique ligand CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). The interaction between CXCL12 and CXCR4 is essential for the migration of progenitor cells during embryonic development of the cardiovascular, hemopoietic and central nervous systems, and also involved in several intractable disease processes, including HIV infection, cancer cell metastasis, progression of acute and chronic leukemias, rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, CXCR4 may be an important therapeutic target in all of these diseases, and various CXCR4 antagonists have been proposed as potential drugs. Fourteen-mer peptides, T140 and its analogs, and downsized cyclic pentapeptides have been developed by us as potent CXCR4 antagonists. This article describes the development of a number of specific CXCR4 antagonists in our laboratory, including downsizing. PMID:19787093

Tamamura, Hirokazu; Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Nomura, Wataru; Fujii, Nobutaka



Limits of Ligand Selectivity from Docking to Models: In Silico Screening for A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists  

E-print Network

Limits of Ligand Selectivity from Docking to Models: In Silico Screening for A1 Adenosine Receptor models for the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) and docked ,2.2 M lead-like compounds. High-ranking molecules of Ligand Selectivity from Docking to Models: In Silico Screening for A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists. PLo

Sali, Andrej


Antagonist for PET Imaging of Somatostatin Receptor-Positive Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

TE2A-sst2-ANT) as a PET radiopharmaceutical for the in vivo imaging of SSTR2-positive tumors. Methods: Receptor-binding studies were performed to determine the dissociation con- stant of the radiopharmaceutical 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT using AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cell membranes. The internaliza- tion of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT was compared with that of the 64Cu-labeled agonist 64Cu-CB-TE2A-tyrosine3-octreotate (64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE) in AR42J cells. Both radiopharma- ceuticals were also compared in

Thaddeus J. Wadas; Martin Eiblmaier; Alexander Zheleznyak; Christopher D. Sherman; Riccardo Ferdani; Kexian Liang; Samuel Achilefu; Carolyn J. Anderson


Discovery of a Novel Series of CRTH2 (DP2) Receptor Antagonists Devoid of Carboxylic Acids.  


Antagonism of the CRTH2 receptor represents a very attractive target for a variety of allergic diseases. Most CRTH2 antagonists known to date possess a carboxylic acid moiety, which is essential for binding. However, potential acid metabolites O-acyl glucuronides might be linked to idiosynchratic toxicity in humans. In this communication, we describe a new series of compounds that lack the carboxylic acid moiety. Compounds with high affinity (K i < 10 nM) for the receptor have been identified. Subsequent optimization succeeded in reducing the high metabolic clearance of the first compounds in human and rat liver microsomes. At the same time, inhibition of the CYP isoforms was optimized, giving rise to stable compounds with an acceptable CYP inhibition profile (IC50 CYP2C9 and 2C19 > 1 ?M). Taken together, these data show that compounds devoid of carboxylic acid groups could represent an interesting alternative to current CRTH2 antagonists in development. PMID:24900284

Crosignani, Stefano; Jorand-Lebrun, Catherine; Campbell, Gordon; Prêtre, Adeline; Grippi-Vallotton, Tania; Quattropani, Anna; Bouscary-Desforges, Gwenaelle; Bombrun, Agnes; Missotten, Marc; Humbert, Yves; Frémaux, Christèle; Pâquet, Mikaël; El Harkani, Kamel; Bradshaw, Charles G; Cleva, Christophe; Abla, Nada; Daff, Hamina; Schott, Olivier; Pittet, Pierre-André; Arrighi, Jean-François; Gaudet, Marilène; Johnson, Zoë



Discovery of MK-3207: A Highly Potent, Orally Bioavailable CGRP Receptor Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Incorporation of polar functionality into a series of highly potent calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists was explored in an effort to improve pharmacokinetics. This strategy identified piperazinone analogues that possessed improved solubility at acidic pH and increased oral bioavailability in monkeys. Further optimization led to the discovery of the clinical candidate 2-[(8R)-8-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-10-oxo-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-9-yl]-N-[(2R)-2?-oxo-1,1?,2?,3-tetrahydrospiro[indene-2,3?-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin]-5-yl]acetamide (MK-3207) (4), the most potent orally active CGRP receptor antagonist described to date. PMID:24900170



Conformational states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica induced by the binding of agonists, antagonists, and local anesthetics. Equilibrium measurements using tritium-hydrogen exchange  

SciTech Connect

The tritium-hydrogen exchange kinetics of Torpedo californica AChR, in native membrane vesicles at pH 7.4 and 0 degrees C, have been analyzed in the presence of agonists, partial agonists, local anesthetics, and competitive antagonists. The agonists carbamylcholine (10 microM-1 mM) and suberyldicholine (10 microM) and the partial agonists decamethonium (25 microM and 1 mM) and hexamethonium (1 mM) have no effect on the exchange kinetics, although at lower concentration carbamylcholine may slightly accelerate exchange. Nondesensitizing local anesthetics do affect the exchange behavior, dependent on concentration. Procaine at 500 microM moderately retards exchange while procaine at 10 mM and tetracaine at 5 mM slightly accelerate exchange. The competitive antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin retards exchange significantly, as does d-tubocurarine although to a lesser extent. These results suggest that the resting and desensitized conformations of the AChR are very similar in overall solvent accessibility and that at lower concentrations noncompetitive blockers such as procaine may stabilize a less solvent-accessible state of the AChR. The competitive antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurare also stabilize a dynamically restricted, less solvent-accessible conformation of the acetylcholine receptor, demonstrating that a large conformational change accompanies binding of these toxins. Any change in conformation which may accompany desensitization is very different from these effects.

McCarthy, M.P.; Stroud, R.M.



NO in Exhaled Air of Asthmatic Children Is Reduced by the Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist Montelukast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide in exhaled air (F ENO ) is increased in asthmatic children, probably reflecting aspects of air- way inflammation. We have studied the effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) mon- telukast on F ENO with a view to elucidate potential anti-inflammatory properties of LTRAs. Twenty-six asthmatic children 6 to 15 yr of age completed a double-blind crossover trial




In vitro availability studies of enoxacin in presence of H2 receptor antagonists.  


Enoxacin is a second-generation quinolone with increased antibacterial activity both in potency as well as in terms of broad spectrum against a wide range of clinically important pathogens over the first generation quinolones and produces its effect by inhibiting bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase. There are a number of drug interactions reported for enoxacin. On the other hand H2-receptor antagonists block gastric acid secretion and some cardiovascular effects of histamine. As the later drugs are used for a long-term therapy, they may be coadministered with other drugs. In present study in vitro release of enoxacin in presence of cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine has been studied on a B.P. 2003 dissolution test apparatus and compared with the availability of enoxacin and H2-receptor antagonists alone. The interacting drugs were analyzed spectrophotometrically. These studies were carried out in simulated gastric juice, simulating empty stomach, simulated intestinal juice (pH 9) and buffers of pH 7.4 simulating blood pH at 37 degrees C. In order to support these interaction studies, the effect of H2-receptor antagonists on the antibacterial efficacy (MIC) of enoxacin was also studied by turbidity method and compared with parent drug against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that enoxacin should be coadministered with care along with H2-receptor antagonists especially in case of ranitidine, although chances of adverse reactions are rare but decrease in MIC of enoxacin may result in delayed effect or require prolonged use of the drug. PMID:17545110

Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Haroon, Urooj; Hamza, Erum



Acute hepatitis in three patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis taking interleukin-1 receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We investigated the etiology of acute hepatitis in three children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA) taking Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA). METHODS: Laboratory and clinical data for three children with sJIA diagnosed at ages 13 months to 8 years who developed acute hepatitis during treatment with IL1RA were reviewed for evidence of sJIA flare, infection, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS),

Scott Canna; Jennifer Frankovich; Gloria Higgins; Michael R Narkewicz; S Russell Nash; J Roger Hollister; Jennifer B Soep; Leonard L Dragone



Simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and several angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the capability of the capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic (MEKC) methods to simultaneously separate hydrochlorothiazide and six angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (ARA-IIs): candesartan, eprosartan mesylate, irbesartan, losartan potassium, telmisartan, and valsartan. The CZE and MEKC methods are suitable for the qualitative and quantitative determination of combined HCT\\/ARA-IIs in pharmaceutical formulations. Depending on the ARA-II, at

S Hillaert; W Van den Bossche



Development of Chronic Inflammatory Arthropathy Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis in Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist-deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in inflammation, host defense, and the neuro-immuno-endocrine network. IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) is an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1 and is supposed to regulate IL-1 activity. However, its patho- physiological roles in a body remain largely unknown. To elucidate the roles of IL-1ra, IL-1ra- deficient mice were produced by gene targeting,

Reiko Horai; Shinobu Saijo; Hidetoshi Tanioka; Susumu Nakae; Katsuko Sudo; Akihiko Okahara; Toshimi Ikuse; Masahide Asano; Yoichiro Iwakura



The cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist AM251 produces nocifensive behavior via activation of ERK signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of AM251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, into the spinal lumbar space of mice elicited a behavioral response consisting of biting and licking with a few scratchings. In this study, we investigated to determine whether i.t. AM251 could influence the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1\\/2), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in neuronal nitric

Soh Katsuyama; Hirokazu Mizoguchi; Takaaki Komatsu; Kohshi Nagaoka; Shinobu Sakurada; Tsukasa Sakurada



The Antiinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin1 Receptor Antagonist Protects from High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperglycemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subclinical inflammation is a recently discovered phenome- non in type 2 diabetes. Elevated cytokines impair -cell func- tion and survival. A recent clinical trial shows that blocking IL-1 signaling by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) improves -cell secretory function in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we provide further mechanisms of the pro- tective role of IL-1Ra on

Nadine S. Sauter; Fabienne T. Schulthess; Ryan Galasso; Lawrence W. Castellani; Kathrin Maedler



The ?-Receptor Antagonist BD1063 Decreases Ethanol Intake and Reinforcement in Animal Models of Excessive Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Receptors (SigRs) have been implicated in behavioral and appetitive effects of psychostimulants and may also modulate the motivating properties of ethanol. This study tested the hypothesis that SigRs modulate ethanol reinforcement and contribute to excessive ethanol intake. The effects of subcutaneous treatment with the potent, selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on operant ethanol self-administration were studied in two models of excessive

Valentina Sabino; Pietro Cottone; Yu Zhao; Malliga R Iyer; Luca Steardo; Kenner C Rice; Bruno Conti; George F Koob; Eric P Zorrilla



Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Proinflammatory cytokines have been described as etiologic factors in idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. We investigated the relation between idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and polymorphisms in the gene encoding for the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, an indigenous modulator of proinflammatory immune response.Design: Prospective case control study.Setting: Academic research institution.Patient(s): One hundred five women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy

Gertrud Unfried; Clemens Tempfer; Christian Schneeberger; Barbara Widmar; Fritz Nagele; Johannes C Huber



Social aggressiveness of female and subordinate male crickets is released by opiate receptor antagonist.  


1. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, effects of opiate receptor antagonist naloxone, 9 or 30 microg per animal, on aggressive behavior were investigated. 2. Naloxone had no significant impact on aggression of isolated and dominant males. In contrast, the drug caused a dramatic release of social aggression in female and subordinate male crickets. 3. The results suggest that activity of the opioid system contributes to suppress aggression in subordinate males, as well as in females, during social contacts. PMID:11034161

Dyakonova, V; Schormann, F W; Sakharov, D A



Effects of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists on the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in European countries and is associated with an enhanced renal synthesis of endothelin (ET)-1. ETs are – beside its potent vasoconstrictor properties – very potent profibrotic acting paracrine hormones especially in the kidney. Methods: We analyzed in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes the effects of an ETA-type (ETA) receptor antagonist

Berthold Hocher; Anja Schwarz; Daniel Reinbacher; Jaqueline Jacobi; Andreas Lun; Friedrich Priem; Christian Bauer; Hans-H. Neumayer; Manfred Raschack



Peri-substituted hexahydro-indolones as novel, potent and selective human EP3 receptor antagonists.  


A series of peri-substituted [4.3.0] bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycles have been identified as potent and selective hEP(3) receptor antagonists. These molecules adopt a hair-pin conformation that overlaps with the endogenous ligand PGE(2) and fits into an internally generated EP(3) pharmacophore model. Optimized compounds show good metabolic stability and improved solubility over their corresponding bicyclic aromatic analogs. PMID:19121942

O'Connell, Matthew; Zeller, Wayne; Burgeson, James; Mishra, Rama K; Ramirez, Jose; Kiselyov, Alex S; Andrésson, Thornorkell; Gurney, Mark E; Singh, Jasbir



A review of granisetron, 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists, and other antiemetics.  


Nausea and vomiting are 2 of the most upsetting adverse reactions of chemotherapy. Current guidelines propose 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists as a pharmacologic intervention for acute and delayed nausea and vomiting [chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)] associated with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, both postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postdischarge nausea and vomiting are challenging situations after surgeries and procedures. Prophylactic and therapeutic combinations of antiemetics are recommended in patients at high risk of suffering from PONV and postdischarge nausea and vomiting. Granisetron (Kytril) is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that does not induce or inhibit the hepatic cytochrome P-450 system in vitro. There are also 4 other antagonists of 5-HT3 receptor (dolasetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, and tropisetron) being metabolized via the CYP2D6 and are subject to potential genetic polymorphism. The launch of a new class of antiemetics, the substance P/neurokinin1 receptor antagonists, was attributed to the scientific update on the central generator responsible for emesis and role of substance P. There has been mounting interest in exploring integrative medicine, either acupuncture or acustimulation of P6 (Nei-Kuwan), to complement the western medicine for prevention and management of nausea and vomiting. The potential application of cannabinoids, either alone or in combination with other agents of different mechanism, could contribute further to improve outcome in CINV. Implementation of future treatment guidelines for more effective management of CINV and PONV could certainly improve the efficacy and outcome of cancer and postoperative care. PMID:20844345

Hsu, Eric S



5Hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonist modulates gallbladder emptying and motilin release induced by erythromycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we evaluated the effect of ondansetron (formerly indicated as GR38032F), a potent and selective type-3 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, on erythromycin-induced gallbladder emptying and motilin release, as well as gallbladder emptying induced by a regular meal in healthy volunteers. Gallbladder emptying was evaluated by sonography. Ondansetron, at the dose of 0.05 mg\\/kg, significantly reduced (PP<0.001, by ANOVA).

Stefano Fiorucci; Luca Santucci; Antonio Morelli



Nonpeptide Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Type 1 Antagonists and Their Applications in Psychosomatic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overproduction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and stress system abnormalities are seen in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and addiction. Investigations of CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) nonpeptide antagonists suggest therapeutic potential for treatment of these and other neuropsychiatric diseases. However, overproduction of CRH in the brain and on its periphery and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are

Carlo Contoreggi; Kenner C. Rice; George Chrousos



The clinically available NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan attenuates acute morphine withdrawal in the neonatal rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ability of dextromethorphan, a clinically available NMDA receptor antagonist, to attenuate the behaviors and the expression of c-fos mRNA associated with acute morphine withdrawal in the 7-day-old rat. The intensity of the acute morphine withdrawal behaviors and the elevation in c-fos mRNA expression in the brain induced by acute morphine withdrawal were reduced by dextromethorphan. Thus, dextromethorphan

Hongbo Zhu; Shirzad Jenab; Kathy L. Jones; Charles E. Inturrisi



C3a receptor antagonist attenuates brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroprotective therapy targeting the complement cascade may reduce injury associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the role of C3a-receptor antagonist (C3aRA) after ICH in mice. Autologous whole blood was infused into the right striatum of mice that were treated with C3aRA or vehicle, using both a pre- and postinjury dosing regimen. Hematoma volume, brain water content, and inflammatory cell

Michal A Rynkowski; Grace H Kim; Matthew C Garrett; Brad E Zacharia; Marc L Otten; Sergei A Sosunov; Ricardo J Komotar; Benjamin G Hassid; Andrew F Ducruet; John D Lambris; E Sander Connolly



Randomized controlled trial of the CGRP receptor antagonist MK-3207 in the acute treatment of migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study evaluated the CGRP receptor antagonist MK-3207 for acute treatment of migraine.Methods: Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, two-stage adaptive study with two interim efficacy analyses to facilitate optimal dose selection. Migraine patients were initially randomized to MK-3207 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg or placebo to treat a moderate\\/severe migraine. One or more doses were to

David J Hewitt; Sheena K Aurora; David W Dodick; Peter J Goadsby; Robert Bachman; Donna Taraborelli; Xiaoyin Fan; Christopher Assaid; Christopher Lines; Tony W Ho



Suppression of Niacin-induced Vasodilation with an Antagonist to Prostaglandin D2 Receptor Subtype 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niacin (nicotinic acid) reduces cardiovascular events in patients with dyslipidemia. However, symptoms associated with niacin-induced vasodilation (e.g., flushing) have limited its use. Laropiprant is a selective antagonist of the prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1 (DP1), which may mediate niacin-induced vasodilation. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the effects of laropiprant (vs placebo) on niacin-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Coadministration

E Lai; I De Lepeleire; T M Crumley; F Liu; L A Wenning; N Michiels; E Vets; G O'Neill; J A Wagner; K Gottesdiener



Small molecule antagonists of the TGF-?1\\/TGF-? receptor binding interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive and inappropriate action of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several\\u000a disease processes, especially cancer and fibrosis. To identify antagonists of the TGF-? ligand-binding domain that may have\\u000a therapeutic potential, we screened the National Cancer Institute open access chemical repository for molecules that inhibited\\u000a binding of TGF-? to the type II receptor (T?RII). About

James K. Burmester; Sherry A. Salzman; Kai Qi Zhang; Richard A. Dart



mGLU receptors antagonists for treating disorders associated with mGLU receptors including addiction and depression  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods are provided for treating disorders associated with mGlu receptors by simultaneously inhibiting at least two mGluRs belonging to at least two different groups. In one embodiment, there are provided methods for treating a disorder associated with mGlu receptors 2, 3, and 5, including administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of at least one antagonist which modulates mGluR2, mGluR3, and mGluRS. The disorders treated by the method include, for example, nicotine addiction, cocaine addiction, and depression.



Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Deficiency Presenting as Infantile Pustulosis Mimicking Infantile Pustular Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome of skin and bone caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Few studies have been published about this debilitating condition. Early identification is critical for targeted lifesaving intervention. Observations A male infant, born to nonconsanguineous Puerto Rican parents, was referred for management of a pustular eruption diagnosed as pustular psoriasis. At 2 months of age, the infant developed a pustular eruption. After extensive evaluation, he was confirmed to be homozygous for a 175-kb genomic deletion on chromosome 2 that includes the IL1RN gene, commonly found in Puerto Ricans. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, with rapid clearance of skin lesions and resolution of systemic inflammation. Conclusions Recent identification of DIRA as a disease entity, compounded by the limited number of reported cases, makes early identification difficult. It is critical to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of infantile pustulosis. Targeted therapy with the recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist anakinra can be lifesaving if initiated early. A high carrier frequency of the 175-kb DIRA-associated genomic deletion in the Puerto Rican population strongly supports testing infants presenting with unexplained pustulosis in patients from this geographic region. PMID:22431714

Minkis, Kira; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Magro, Cynthia; Scott, Rachelle; Davis, Jessica G.; Sardana, Niti; Herzog, Ronit



Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by second-site androgen receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The impact of ligand binding on nuclear receptor (NR) structure and the ability of target cells to distinguish between different receptor-ligand complexes are key determinants of the pharmacological activity of NR ligands. However, until relatively recently, these mechanistic insights have not been used in a prospective manner to develop screens for NR modulators with specific therapeutic activities. Driven by the need for unique androgen receptor (AR) antagonists that retain activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, we developed and applied a conformation-based screen to identify AR antagonists that were mechanistically distinct from existing drugs of this class. Two molecules were identified by using this approach, D36 and D80, which interact with AR in a unique manner and allosterically inhibit AR agonist activity. Unlike the clinically important antiandrogens, casodex and hydroxyflutamide, both D36 and D80 block androgen action in cellular models of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Mechanistically, these compounds further distinguish themselves from classical AR antagonists in that they do not promote AR nuclear translocation and quantitatively inhibit the association of AR with DNA even under conditions of overexpression. Although the therapeutic potential of these antiandrogens is apparent, it is the demonstration that it is possible, to modulate the interaction of cofactors with agonist-activated AR, using second-site modulators, that has the greatest potential with respect to the therapeutic exploitation of AR and other NRs. PMID:19574450

Joseph, James D.; Wittmann, Bryan M.; Dwyer, Mary A.; Cui, Huaxia; Dye, Delita A.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Norris, John D.



Clinical pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


The authors review the basic pharmacology and potential for adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of bosentan and ambrisentan, the 2 endothelin receptor antagonists currently approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatment. Bosentan, an endothelin (ET) receptor-type ET(A) and ET(B) antagonist, is metabolized to active metabolites by and an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and CYP3A. Ambrisentan, a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist, is metabolized primarily by uridine 5'diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A9S, 2B7S, and 1A3S and, to a lesser extent, by CYP3A and CYP2C19. Drug interactions observed with bosentan DDI studies have demonstrated a potential for significant clinical implications during PAH management: bosentan is contraindicated with cyclosporine A and glyburide, and additional monitoring/dose adjustments are required when coadministered with hormonal contraceptives, simvastatin, lopinavir/ritonavir, and rifampicin. As bosentan carries a boxed warning regarding risks of liver injury and showed dose-dependant increases in serum aminotransferase abnormalities, drug interactions that increase bosentan exposure are of particular clinical concern. Ambrisentan DDI studies performed to date have shown only one clinically relevant DDI, an interaction with cyclosporine A that requires ambrisentan dose reduction. As the treatment of PAH moves toward multimodal combination therapy, scrutiny should be placed on ensuring that drug combinations achieve maximal clinical benefit while minimizing side effects. PMID:22205719

Venitz, Jürgen; Zack, Julia; Gillies, Hunter; Allard, Martine; Regnault, Jean; Dufton, Christopher



SCH 206272: a potent, orally active tachykinin NK 1, NK 2, and NK 3 receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to characterize the pharmacology of SCH 206272 [(R,R)-1?[5-[(3,5-dichlorobenzoyl)methylamino]-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4(Z)-(methoxyimino)pentyl]-N-methyl-2-oxo-[1,4?bipiperidine]-3-acetamide] as a potent and selective antagonist of tachykinin (NK) NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors. SCH 206272 inhibited binding at human tachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors (Ki=1.3, 0.4, and 0.3 nM, respectively) and antagonized [Ca2+]i mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the cloned human tachykinin NK1, NK2,

John C Anthes; Richard W Chapman; Christian Richard; Stephen Eckel; Michel Corboz; John A Hey; Xiomara Fernandez; Scott Greenfeder; Robbie McLeod; Susan Sehring; Charles Rizzo; Yvette Crawley; Neng-Yang Shih; John Piwinski; Greg Reichard; Pauline Ting; Nick Carruthers; Francis M Cuss; Motasim Billah; William Kreutner; Robert W Egan



CGRP receptor antagonists: a new choice for acute treatment of migraine?  


The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is believed to play a central role in the underlying pathology of migraine. Serum levels of CGRP, elevated during a migraine attack, return to normal as pain alleviates. Recently, a causative role for CGRP in migraine has been suggested. Based on these findings, it was proposed that blockade of postsynaptic CGRP receptors, and hence the physiological effects of CGRP, should effectively abort a migraine attack. This review will discuss the therapeutic potential of olcegepant, the first non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonist available for human studies, within the context of current neurovascular theories on migraine pathology. PMID:15298069

Durham, Paul L



3-benzhydryl-4-piperidones as novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists and their efficient synthesis.  


A series of novel 3-benzhydryl-4-piperidone derivatives were identified as potent tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonists. An efficient and versatile synthesis of this series was achieved with a coupling reaction of 1-benzylpiperidones with benzhydryl bromides or benzhydrols in the presence of trifluoromethanesulfonate and a condensation reaction of piperidones with benzyl alcohols using ethyl o-phenylenephosphate. The 3-benzhydryl-4-piperidone skeleton, which has a 1,1-diphenylmethane moiety that is a known privileged substructure targeting G-protein coupled receptors, can be used for chemical library synthesis because of chemical accessibility and diversity. PMID:21807525

Shirai, Junya; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Imamiya, Eikoh; Nakamura, Minoru; Tarui, Naoki; Hashimoto, Tadatoshi; Ikeura, Yoshinori



Influence of monovalent cations on the binding of a charged and an uncharged ('carbo'-)muscarinic antagonist to muscarinic receptors.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of the buffer concentration on binding of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic receptors M2 was tested in rat heart. Tracer binding was of low affinity in a 20 mM imidazole buffer (pKD 8.3), inhibited by an increase from 10 to 100 mM of the sodium phosphate buffer concentration (pKD 9.92 to 9.22), slightly inhibited by an increase of the Tris/HC1 buffer concentration from 20 to 100 mM (pKD 9.70 to 9.47) and unaffected by an increase of the histidine/HC1 buffer concentration from 20 to 100 mM (pKD 9.90 to 9.82). We chose the last buffer to analyse the effect of ions on antagonists binding to cardiac M2 receptors and to transiently expressed wild-type and (Y533-->F) mutant m3 muscarinic receptors in COS-7 cells. 2. Equilibrium [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to cardiac M2 receptors was inhibited, apparently competitively, by monovalent salts (LiCl > or = NaCl > or = KCl). In contrast, binding of the uncharged 3,3-dimethylbutan-1-ol ester of diphenylglycolic acid (BS-6181) was facilitated by addition of monovalent salts (LiCl > or = NaCl > or = KCl) to the binding buffer. This cation binding pattern is consistent with interaction with a large, negative field strength binding site, such as, for instance, a carboxylic acid. 3. In the presence of 100 mM NaCl, [3H]-N-methylscopolamine had a similar affinity for the wild-type m3 receptor (pKD 9.85) and for a (Y533-->F) mutant m3 receptor (pKD 9.68). However, in the absence of added salts, the tracer had a significantly lower affinity for the mutated (pKD 10.19) as compared to the wild-type (pKD 10.70) m3 receptor. BS-6181 had a significantly lower affinity for the (Y533-->F) mutant m3 muscarinic receptor, as compared to the wild-type m3 receptor, both in the absence (pKD 6.19-6.72) in the presence (pKD 6.48-7.40) of 100 mM NaCl. The effects of NaCl on binding of the uncharged ester and of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine to the m3 receptor were decreased by the mutation. 4. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that monovalent cations from the buffer may interact with the cation binding site of the receptors (an aspartate residue in the third transmembrane helix of muscarinic receptors). Buffer cations may inhibit competitively the binding of (charged) muscarinic ligands having a tertiary amine or ammonium group, while facilitating the receptor recognition by uncharged, isosteric 'carbo-analogues'. Mutation of the (Y533-->F) of the m3 receptor decreased the affinity of the receptor for positive charges, including the sodium ion. PMID:8851517

Hou, X.; Wehrle, J.; Menge, W.; Ciccarelli, E.; Wess, J.; Mutschler, E.; Lambrecht, G.; Timmerman, H.; Waelbroeck, M.



VIP receptor antagonists inhibit mammary carcinogenesis in C3(1)SV40T antigen mice.  


The effects of a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist on mammary carcinogenesis were investigated using the C3(1)SV40T antigen (ag) mice. Ten microg/day VIPhybrid (VIPhyb) administered daily subcutaneously increased significantly the survival of C3(1)SV40Tag mice. At 5.2 months, VIPhyb significantly reduced the mammary tumor burden in C3(1)SV40Tag mice relative to control animals. 125I-VIP bound with high affinity to mouse mammary tumor homogenate. Because (Lys15, Arg16, Leu27)VIP1-7GRF8-27 (VPAC1 selective) but not Ro25-1553 (VPAC2 selective) inhibited specific 125I-VIP binding to mammary tumor membranes with high affinity, VPAC1 receptors predominate. By RT-PCR, VPAC1 receptor mRNA was detected in mammary tumors. By Western blot, a major 60 Kdalton band was detected in mammary tumor extracts using VPAC1 receptor antisera. By immunocytochemistry, VPAC1-R immunostaining was detected in the cytosol and plasma membrane but not the nucleus of fixed mammary tumor tissue. Using laser capture microdissected tumor cells and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) techniques on mammary tumor cells, the proteomic profile was altered in mice treated with VIPhyb. Because VPAC1 receptor antagonists increase the survival and reduce the tumor burden in C3(1)SV40Tag mice, they may function as chemopreventive agents in mammary cancer. PMID:14706566

Moody, Terry W; Dudek, James; Zakowicz, Halina; Walters, James; Jensen, Robert T; Petricoin, Emmanual; Couldrey, Chris; Green, Jeff E



5{alpha}-Bile alcohols function as farnesoid X receptor antagonists  

SciTech Connect

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid/alcohol-activated nuclear receptor that regulates lipid homeostasis. Unlike other steroid receptors, FXR binds bile acids in an orientation that allows the steroid nucleus A to face helix 12 in the receptor, a crucial domain for coactivator-recruitment. Because most naturally occurring bile acids and alcohols contain a cis-oriented A, which is distinct from that of other steroids and cholesterol metabolites, we investigated the role of this 5{beta}-configuration in FXR activation. The results showed that the 5{beta}-(A/B cis) bile alcohols 5{beta}-cyprinol and bufol are potent FXR agonists, whereas their 5{alpha}-(A/B trans) counterparts antagonize FXR transactivation and target gene expression. Both isomers bound to FXR, but their ability to induce coactivator-recruitment and thereby induce transactivation differed. These findings suggest a critical role for the A orientation of bile salts in agonist/antagonist function.

Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kawahara, Yosuke [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Tamehiro, Norimasa [National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshida, Takemi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Inoue, Kazuhide [National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohno, Yasuo [National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Nagao, Taku [National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Une, Mizuho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112 (Japan)



5HT 1C receptor antagonists have anxiolytic-like actions in the rat social interaction model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a range of 5-HT receptor antagonists were examined in an animal model of anxiety — the social interaction test. Six antagonists with high affinity for 5-HT1C receptors; mianserin, (+) mianserin, 1-naphthyl piperazine, ICI 169 369, pizotifen and LY 53857 all increased the time spent in active social interaction by pairs of weight-matched rats under high light unfamiliar

G. A. Kennett



2Methyl6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a potent, selective and systemically active mGlu5 receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we describe 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) as a potent, selective and systemically active antagonist for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5). At the human mGlu5a receptor expressed in recombinant cells, MPEP completely inhibited quisqualate-stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis with an IC50 value of 36 nM while having no agonist or antagonist activities at cells expressing the human mGlu1b

Fabrizio Gasparini; Kurt Lingenhöhl; Natacha Stoehr; Peter J Flor; Micheline Heinrich; Ivo Vranesic; Michel Biollaz; Hans Allgeier; Roland Heckendorn; Stephan Urwyler; Mark A Varney; Edwin C Johnson; Stephen D Hess; Sara P Rao; Aida I Sacaan; Emily M Santori; Gönul Veliçelebi; Rainer Kuhn



Clinically available NMDA receptor antagonists memantine and dextromethorphan reverse existing tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tail-flick test was used to investigate the effects of chronic administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, dextromethorphan, memantine and MRZ 2\\/579, on the development and reversal of morphine tolerance in mice in three separate experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on the development of tolerance. Morphine (10 mg\\/kg for 6 days, twice daily) produced

Piotr Popik; Ewa Kozela; Wojciech Danysz



Responding for a conditioned reinforcer, and its enhancement by nicotine, is blocked by dopamine receptor antagonists and a 5-HT2C receptor agonist but not by a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist.  


An aspect of nicotine reinforcement that may contribute to tobacco addiction is the effect of nicotine to enhance the motivational properties of reward-associated cues, or conditioned stimuli (CSs). Several studies have now shown that nicotine enhances responding for a stimulus that has been paired with a natural reinforcer. This effect of nicotine to enhance responding for a conditioned reinforcer is likely due to nicotine-induced enhancements in mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, but this has not been directly assessed. In this study, we assessed roles for dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 receptors, and two serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes known to modulate DA activity, the 5-HT2C or 5-HT2A subtypes, on nicotine-enhanced responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Water-restricted rats were exposed to Pavlovian conditioning sessions, where a CS was paired with water delivery. Then, in a second phase, animals were required to perform a novel, lever-pressing response for presentations of the CS as a conditioned reinforcer. Nicotine (0.4mg/kg) enhanced responding for the conditioned reinforcer. To examine potential roles for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) receptors in this effect, separate groups of animals were used to assess the impact of administering the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390, D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro 60-0175, or 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement. SCH 23390, eticlopride, and Ro 60-0175 all reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement, and the ability of nicotine to enhance this effect. M100907 did not alter this behavior. Together, these studies indicate that DA D1 and D2 receptors, but not 5-HT2A receptors, contribute to the effect of nicotine to enhance responding for a conditioned reinforcer. This effect can also be modulated by 5-HT2C receptor activation. PMID:25158104

Guy, Elizabeth Glenn; Fletcher, Paul J



Antitumor activity of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists in MG-63 human osteosarcoma xenografts.  


Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Aprepitant is a selective high?affinity antagonist of the human neurokinin?1 (NK?1) receptor (NK1R) with robust antitumor activity. No data exist on the presence of NK1R in osteosarcoma and whether this tumor responds to NK1R antagonists. Here, we analyzed the expression of NK1R in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 with western blot analysis and PCR and found significant expression both at the protein and mRNA levels. We further studied the growth inhibitory capacity of aprepitant and other NK1R antagonists on MG-63 in vitro using an MTS cytotoxicity assay and DAPI staining. All antagonists induced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis. Synergism was observed for the combination of L-733,060 with common cytostatic drugs in MG-63, but not in non-malignant HEK293 cells. Pretreatment of HEK293 with L-733,060 prior to exposure to cytostatic drugs partially protected HEK293 cells from inhibition by these drugs. Furthermore, nanomolar concentrations of substance P (SP), the natural ligand of the NK1R, increased the growth rate of MG?63 cells and micromolar concentrations of aprepitant inhibited SP-induced growth in a dose?dependent manner. In vivo, a xenograft for MG-63 was created in nude mice and treated with peritumoral s.c. injections of fosaprepitant, which resulted in a significant reduction of tumor volume. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the NK1R is expressed in human osteosarcoma cell line MG?63 and that this receptor can be targeted with NK1R antagonists both in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:24190675

Muñoz, Miguel; Berger, Michael; Rosso, Marisa; Gonzalez-Ortega, Ana; Carranza, Andrés; Coveñas, Rafael



Prospective therapeutic agents for obesity: molecular modification approaches of centrally and peripherally acting selective cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists.  


Presently, obesity is one of the major health problems in the developed as well as developing countries due to lack of physical work and increasing sedentary life style. Endocannabinoid system (ECS) and especially cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor play a key role in energy homeostasis. Food intake and energy storage is enhanced due to the stimulation of ECS hence, inhibition of ECS by blocking CB1 receptors could be a promising approach in the treatment of obesity. Rimonabant, a diaryl pyrazole was the first potent and selective CB1 receptor antagonist that was introduced into the market in 2006 but was withdrawn in 2008 due to its psychiatric side effects. Researchers all over the world are interested to develop peripherally acting potent and selective CB1 receptor antagonists having a better pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic index. In this development process, pyrazole ring of rimonabant has been replaced by different bioisosteric scaffolds like pyrrole, imidazole, triazole, pyrazoline, pyridine etc. Variations in substituents around the pyrazole ring have also been done. New strategies were also employed for minimizing the psychiatric side effects by making more polar and less lipophilic antagonists/inverse agonists along with neutral antagonists acting peripherally. It has been observed that some of the peripherally acting compounds do not show adverse effects and could be used as potential leads for the further design of selective CB1 receptor antagonists. Chemical modification strategies used for the development of selective CB1 receptor antagonists are discussed here in this review. PMID:24747288

Sharma, Mayank Kumar; Murumkar, Prashant R; Kanhed, Ashish M; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram



Effects of histamine H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on thyrotrophin secretion in the rat.  


The effects of histamine H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on the pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in normal and thyroxine (T4)-treated rats. Acute administration (120 min before the test) of the H2 antagonist cimetidine induced a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in the TSH response to TRH, whereas treatment with histamine (30 min before the test) or with the H1-receptor blocker diphenhydramine (120 min before the test) was without effect. Treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine (another H2-receptor antagonist) for 5 days induced a marked decrease in basal plasma TSH concentrations (P less than 0.01), with no changes in pituitary concentrations of TSH. Plasma prolactin concentrations were similarly decreased by cimetidine (P less than 0.01), though not by ranitidine. Neither antihistaminic altered pituitary prolactin concentrations. Despite decreasing basal concentrations of plasma TSH, cimetidine augmented the response to TRH above baseline values (P less than 0.01) in control rats as well as in animals with T4-induced suppression of plasma TSH. Administration of cimetidine or ranitidine for 5 days was followed by a reduced concentration of plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01 respectively), perhaps as a result of the declining plasma TSH levels. These results provide the first evidence for the reduction of plasma TSH concentrations by H2-receptor blockers, and may indicate that histamine can physiologically regulate TSH and prolactin secretion through H2 receptors in the anterior pituitary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2878055

Ulloa, E R; Zaninovich, A A



Inverse agonists and neutral antagonists at mu opioid receptor (MOR): possible role of basal receptor signaling in narcotic dependence.  


The mu opioid receptor, MOR, displays spontaneous agonist-independent (basal) G protein coupling in vitro. To determine whether basal MOR signaling contributes to narcotic dependence, antagonists were tested for intrinsic effects on basal MOR signaling in vitro and in vivo, before and after morphine pretreatment. Intrinsic effects of MOR ligands were tested by measuring GTPgammaS binding to cell membranes and cAMP levels in intact cells. beta-CNA, C-CAM, BNTX, and nalmefene were identified as inverse agonists (suppressing basal MOR signaling). Naloxone and naltrexone were neutral antagonists (not affecting basal signaling) in untreated cells, whereas inverse agonistic effects became apparent only after morphine pretreatment. In contrast, 6alpha- and 6beta-naltrexol and -naloxol, and 6beta-naltrexamine were neutral antagonists regardless of morphine pretreatment. In an acute and chronic mouse model of morphine-induced dependence, 6beta-naltrexol caused significantly reduced withdrawal jumping compared to naloxone and naltrexone, at doses effective in blocking morphine antinociception. This supports the hypothesis that naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms result at least in part from suppression of basal signaling activity of MOR in morphine-dependent animals. Neutral antagonists have promise in treatment of narcotic addiction. PMID:11413242

Wang, D; Raehal, K M; Bilsky, E J; Sadée, W



The triple neurokinin-receptor antagonist CS003 inhibits neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. In vitro both NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction. Moreover in guinea pigs, NK3 receptors facilitate cholinergic neurotransmission. Dual tachykinin NK1\\/NK2 receptor antagonism results in prevention of NKA-induced bronchoconstriction. We have now examined the effect of a single dose of the triple tachykinin receptor antagonist CS-003 on NKA-induced bronchoconstriction in

V. Schelfhout; R. Louis; W. Lenz; R. Heyrman; R. Pauwels; G. Joos



Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferre, Sergi; Lanciego, Jose Luis; Muller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael



Yangambin: a new naturally-occurring platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist: in vivo pharmacological studies.  


The pharmacological profile of a novel specific platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist-yangambin-isolated from the Brazilian plant Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), was investigated in the pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbit. The i.v. administration of PAF (0.03-3.0 microgram kg-1) induced marked but reversible hypotensive effects and mild reductions in the heart rate. Both effects are independent of the respiratory conditions imposed on the animals. Moreover, PAF (3.0 microgram kg-1, i.v.) induced a reversible decrease of the circulating levels of platelets and of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Pretreatment with yangambin (10 and 20 mg kg-1, i.v.) dose-dependently attenuated PAF-induced cardiovascular changes and thrombocytopaenia. Nevertheless, the neutropenic leukopaenia elicited by PAF (3.0 microgram kg-1, i.v.) was not prevented by yangambin whereas the reference PAF antagonists WEB 2086 (2 mg kg-1, i.v.) and SR 27417 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly inhibited the phenomenon. The hypotensive effects of acetylcholine, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were not affected by prior administration of yangambin. It is concluded that yangambin is a selective antagonist of the cardiovascular effects of PAF which could be useful in pathological states characterized by abnormal PAF release, such as anaphylactic and septic shocks. Furthermore, yangambin might discriminate a PAF receptor subtype present in the cardiovascular system and platelets from the one existing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the rabbit. PMID:7753914

Castro-Faria-Neto, H C; Araújo, C V; Moreira, S; Bozza, P T; Thomas, G; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Cordeiro, R S; Tibiriçá, E V



Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal



Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, Lowers Hematocrit in Posttransplant Erythrocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce red cell mass in renal transplant recipients with erythrocytosis is unclear. To examine the role of angiotensin II in this disorder, losartan (a competitive an- tagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT,) receptor) was administered to 23 patients with erythrocytosis. Fourteen pa- tients took 25 mg\\/d for 8 wk; nine others



Metabolism-Guided Design of Short-Acting Calcium-Sensing Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

As part of a strategy to deliver short-acting calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists, the metabolically labile thiomethyl functionality was incorporated into the zwitterionic amino alcohol derivative 3 with the hope of increasing human clearance through oxidative metabolism, while delivering a pharmacologically inactive sulfoxide metabolite. The effort led to the identification of thioanisoles 22 and 23 as potent and orally active CaSR antagonists with a rapid onset of action and short pharmacokinetic half-lives, which led to a rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone in a dose-dependent fashion following oral administration to rats. On the basis of the balance between target pharmacology, safety, and human disposition profiles, 22 and 23 were advanced as clinical candidates for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24900198



The kappa opioid receptor antagonist JDTic attenuates alcohol seeking and withdrawal anxiety  

PubMed Central

The role of kappa-opioid receptors (KOR) in regulation of alcohol-related behaviors is not completely understood. For example, alcohol consumption has been reported to increase following treatment with KOR antagonists in rats, but was decreased in mice with genetic deletion of KOR. Recent studies have further suggested that KOR antagonists may selectively decrease alcohol self-administration in rats following a history of dependence. We assessed the effects of the KOR antagonist JDTic on alcohol self-administration, reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by alcohol-associated cues or stress, and acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety (“hangover anxiety”). JDTic dose-dependently reversed hangover anxiety when given 48 h prior to testing, a time interval corresponding to the previously demonstrated anxiolytic efficacy of this drug. In contrast, JDTic decreased alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking when administered 2 h prior to testing, but not at longer pretreatment times. For comparison, we determined that the prototypical KOR antagonist nor-BNI can suppress self-administration of alcohol at 2h pretreatment time, mimicking our observations with JDTic. The effects of JDTic were behaviorally specific, as it had no effect on stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, self administration of sucrose, or locomotor activity. Further, we demonstrate that at a 2h pretreatment time JDTic antagonized the antinociceptive effects of the KOR agonist U50,488H but had no effect on morphine-induced behaviors. Our results provide additional evidence for the involvement of KOR in regulation of alcohol-related behaviors and provide support for KOR antagonists, including JDTic, to be evaluated as medications for alcoholism. PMID:22515275

Schank, Jesse R.; Goldstein, Andrea L.; Rowe, Kelly E.; King, Courtney E.; Marusich, Julie A.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus



Validation of a histamine H 3 receptor model through structure–activity relationships for classical H 3 antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine H3 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor whose activation inhibits the synthesis and release of histamine and other neurotransmitters from nerve endings and is involved in the modulation of different central nervous system functions. H3 antagonists have been proposed for their potential usefulness in diseases characterized by impaired neurotransmission and they have demonstrated beneficial effects on learning and food

Simone Lorenzi; Marco Mor; Fabrizio Bordi; Silvia Rivara; Mirko Rivara; Giovanni Morini; Simona Bertoni; Vigilio Ballabeni; Elisabetta Barocelli; Pier Vincenzo Plazzi



Alkaloids from Microcos paniculata with Cytotoxic and Nicotinic Receptor Antagonistic Activities  

PubMed Central

Microcos paniculata is a large shrub or small tree that grows in several countries in South and Southeast Asia. In the present study, three new piperidine alkaloids, microgrewiapines A-C (1-3), as well as three known compounds, inclusive of microcosamine A (4), 7?-(3?,4?-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]propenamide (5), and liriodenine (6), were isolated from cytotoxic fractions of the separate chloroform-soluble extracts of the stem bark, branches, and leaves of M. paniculata. Compounds 1-6 and 1a showed a range of cytotoxicity values against the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. When evaluated for their effects on human ?3?4 or ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), several of these compounds were shown to be active as nAChR antagonists. As a result of this study, microgrewiapine A (1) was found to be a selective cytotoxic agent for colon cancer cells over normal colon cells, and to exhibit nicotinic receptor antagonistic activity for both the h?3?4 and h?4?2 receptor subtypes. PMID:23327794

Still, Patrick C.; Yi, Bitna; Gonzalez-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Pan, Li; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Chai, Hee-Byung; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Li, Chenglong; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel; McKay, Dennis B.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas



Structural and Energetic Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Mutations on Agonist and Antagonist Binding  

PubMed Central

To predict structural and energetic effects of point mutations on ligand binding is of considerable interest in biochemistry and pharmacology. This is not only useful in connection with site-directed mutagenesis experiments, but could also allow interpretation and prediction of individual responses to drug treatment. For G-protein coupled receptors systematic mutagenesis has provided the major part of functional data as structural information until recently has been very limited. For the pharmacologically important A2A adenosine receptor, extensive site-directed mutagenesis data on agonist and antagonist binding is available and crystal structures of both types of complexes have been determined. Here, we employ a computational strategy, based on molecular dynamics free energy simulations, to rationalize and interpret available alanine-scanning experiments for both agonist and antagonist binding to this receptor. These computer simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental data and, most importantly, reveal the molecular details behind the observed effects which are often not immediately evident from the crystal structures. The work further provides a distinct validation of the computational strategy used to assess effects of point-mutations on ligand binding. It also highlights the importance of considering not only protein-ligand interactions but also those mediated by solvent water molecules, in ligand design projects. PMID:25285959

Keranen, Henrik; Gutierrez-de-Teran, Hugo; Aqvist, Johan



The effects of thromboxane receptor antagonists on oestrogen-induced uterotrophic responses in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The possible role of thromboxane in the uterotrophic response to oestrogen, in the spontaneously hypertensive rat was investigated by use of the thromboxane receptor antagonists EP092, AH23848 and BM 13.505. 2. The parameters studied were uterine blood flow (measured by the microsphere technique), uterine wet and dry weights and the concentrations of cytosolic and nuclear oestrogen receptors. 3. The antagonists attenuated oestradiol-induced uterine blood flow and significantly reduced both wet and dry uterine weight. These changes were accompanied by decreases in nuclear oestrogen receptor levels. 4. The results suggest a supportive role for thromboxane in oestradiol-induced uterine growth. PMID:1832065

Kerr, M. B.; Marshall, K.; Senior, J.



In vitro pharmacological profile of YM-43611, a novel D2-like receptor antagonist with high affinity and selectivity for dopamine D3 and D4 receptors.  

PubMed Central

1. We investigated some neurochemical properties of a novel benzamide, YM-43611, [(S)-N-(1-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)-5-chloro-4-cyclopropylcarbonylamino+ ++-2- methoxybenzamide] in comparison with putative D2-like receptor antagonists using both rat and human cloned dopamine D2-like receptors in vitro. 2. Receptor binding studies revealed that YM-43611 had appropriately potent affinities for both rat and human D2-like receptors, with moderate selectivity for D3 receptors and high selectivity for D4 receptors over D2 receptors (Ki values (nM) for rat receptors: D2, 165; D3, 35.5; D4, 1.85, and for human receptors: D2, 42.9; D3, 11.2; D4, 2.10). 3. YM-43611 displayed weak or negligible affinity for other neurotransmitter receptors, namely D1, D5, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, H1, M1 and M2 receptors. 4. Dopamine stimulated low-Km GTPase activity on membranes from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human D2-like receptor subtype. This response to dopamine of low-Km GTPase activity was inhibited by use of putative D2-like receptor antagonists. YM-43611 showed a moderate selectivity for D3 receptors (Ki = 45.5 nM) and a high selectivity for D4 receptors (Ki = 3.28 nM) over D2 receptors (Ki = 70.6 nM). 5. Dopamine inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in intact CHO cells expressing the human D2-like receptor subtype. YM-43611 shifted the inhibition curve of dopamine on respective D2-like receptor subtype-mediated cyclic AMP formation to the right in a parallel fashion, showing a pA2 value of 7.42 (38.1 nM) for D2 receptors, a pKB value of 8.06 (8.68 nM) for D3 receptors, and a pA2 value of 8.42 (3.77 nM) for D4 receptors. 6. YM-43611 but not the other D2-like receptor antagonists exhibited good selectivity with respect to dual antagonism for D3 and D4 receptors in both receptor binding and functional assays. 7. These results indicate that YM-43611 is a novel D2-like receptor antagonist with high potency and selectivity for both D3 and D4 receptors. YM-43611 is therefore expected to be valuable in exploration of the physiological role of D3 and D4 receptors. PMID:8732269

Hidaka, K.; Tada, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Ohmori, J.; Tasaki, Y.; Nomura, T.; Usuda, S.; Yamaguchi, T.



Attenuation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance by a CB1 receptor agonist and an NMDA receptor antagonist: interactive effects  

PubMed Central

CB1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor agonists and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists attenuate the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. The present study used dose-addition analysis to evaluate CB1/NMDA receptor interactions on this endpoint. Chronic morphine administration (5 days, 100 mg/kg, twice daily) resulted in a 2.8-fold rightward shift in the morphine dose-effect curve. Co-administration of either the CB1 receptor agonist CP-55940 (5-(1,1-Dimethylheptyl)-2-[5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]phenol; 0.32-1.0 mg/kg) or the NMDA receptor antagonist (?)-6-phosphonomethyl-deca-hydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (LY235959; 1.0-3.2 mg/kg) with morphine dose-dependently attenuated morphine tolerance. The relative potency of each drug alone was quantified using a defined level of effect (one-quarter log shift in the morphine dose-effect curve), resulting in equieffective doses of 0.42 mg/kg and 1.1 mg/kg for CP-55940 and LY235959, respectively. Subsequent experiments assessed CP-55940/LY235959 interactions using a fixed-proportion design. Co-administration of CP-55940/LY235959 mixtures (1:1, 1:3.2, or 1:10 CP-55940/LY235959) with morphine dose-dependently attenuated morphine tolerance. Isobolographic and dose-addition analysis were used to statistically compare the experimentally determined potency for each mixture (zmix) with predicted additive potency (zadd). Mixtures of 1:1 and 1:3.2 CP-55940/LY235959 produced additive effects (zadd = zmix), while the mixture of 1:10 CP-55940/LY235959 produced a supra-additive effect (zadd > zmix). These results suggest that CP-55940 and LY235959 produce additive or supra-additive attenuation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance after repeated morphine administration, depending on their relative concentrations. PMID:19699755

Fischer, Bradford D.; Ward, Sara J.; Henry, Fredrick E.; Dykstra, Linda A.



KW-3902, a selective high affinity antagonist for adenosine A1 receptors.  

PubMed Central

1. We demonstrate that 8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KW-3902) is a very potent and selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, assessed by radioligand binding and cyclic AMP response in cells. 2. In rat forebrain adenosine A1 receptors labelled with [3H]-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), KW-3902 had a Ki value of 0.19 nM, whereas it showed a Ki value of 170 nM in rat striatal A2A receptors labelled with [3H]-2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoad enosine (CGS21680), indicating 890 fold A1 receptor selectivity versus the A2A receptor. KW-3902 at 10 microM showed no effect on recombinant rat A3 receptors expressed on CHO cells. 3. Saturation studies with [3H]-KW-3902 revealed that it bound with high affinity (Kd = 77 pM) and limited capacity (Bmax = 470 fmol mg-1 of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. A high positive correlation was observed between the pharmacological profile of adenosine ligands inhibiting the binding of [3H]-KW-3902 and that of [3H]-CHA. 4. KW-3902 showed potent A1 antagonism against the inhibition of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in DDT1 MF-2 cells by the A1-selective agonist, cyclopentyladenosine with a dissociation constant (KB value) of 0.34 nM. KW-3902 antagonized 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine-elicited cyclic AMP accumulation via A2B receptors with a KB value of 52 nM. 5. KW-3902 exhibited marked species-dependent differences in the binding affinities. The highest affinity was for the rat A1 receptor (ki = 0.19 nM) and these values for guinea-pig and dog A1 receptors were 1.3 and 10 nM, respectively. PMID:8732272

Nonaka, H.; Ichimura, M.; Takeda, M.; Kanda, T.; Shimada, J.; Suzuki, F.; Kase, H.



Discovery of MK-3697: A selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (2-SORA) for the treatment of insomnia.  


Orexin receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical utility for the treatment of insomnia. The majority of clinical efforts to date have focused on the development of dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs), small molecules that antagonize both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. Our group has recently disclosed medicinal chemistry efforts to identify highly potent, orally bioavailable selective orexin 2 receptor antagonists (2-SORAs) that possess acceptable profiles for clinical development. Herein we report additional SAR studies within the 'triaryl' amide 2-SORA series focused on improvements in compound stability in acidic media and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. These studies resulted in the discovery of 2,5-disubstituted isonicotinamide 2-SORAs such as compound 24 that demonstrated improved stability and TDI profiles as well as excellent sleep efficacy across species. PMID:25248679

Roecker, Anthony J; Reger, Thomas S; Mattern, M Christa; Mercer, Swati P; Bergman, Jeffrey M; Schreier, John D; Cube, Rowena V; Cox, Christopher D; Li, Dansu; Lemaire, Wei; Bruno, Joseph G; Harrell, C Meacham; Garson, Susan L; Gotter, Anthony L; Fox, Steven V; Stevens, Joanne; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Cabalu, Tamara D; Cui, Donghui; Stellabott, Joyce; Hartman, George D; Young, Steven D; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Coleman, Paul J



Reversal of pancreatitis-induced pain by an orally available, small molecule interleukin-6 receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic pain resulting from chronic inflammation of the pancreas is often intractable and clinically difficult to manage with available analgesics reflecting the need for more effective therapies. Mechanisms underlying pancreatitis pain are not well understood. Here, the possibility that interleukin-6 (IL-6) may promote pancreatitis pain was investigated with TB-2-081 (3-O-formyl-20R,21-epoxyresibufogenin, EBRF), a small molecule IL-6 receptor antagonist that was semi-synthetically derived from natural sources. The potential activity and mechanism of TB-2-081 was investigated following induction of persistent pancreatitis using dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) in rats. TB-2-081 displaces binding of IL-6 to the human recombinant soluble IL-6 receptor with apparent high affinity and inhibits IL-6 mediated cell growth. Systemic or oral, but not intrathecal, administration of TB-2-081 reversed DBTC-induced abdominal hypersensitivity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-6 levels were significantly upregulated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats with pancreatitis on day 6 after DBTC injection. IL-6 enhanced capsaicin-evoked release of calcitonin gene related peptide from cultured DRG neurons was blocked by TB-2-081. Our data demonstrate that TB-2-081 acts as a systemically available and orally active small molecule IL-6 receptor antagonist. TB-2-081 effectively reduces pancreatitis-induced pain through peripheral mechanisms that are likely due to (a) increased expression of IL-6 in the DRG and (b) IL-6-mediated sensitization of nociceptive neurons. The activity of TB-2-081 implicates an important role for IL-6 in sustaining pancreatitis pain. Strategies targeting IL-6 actions through small molecule antagonists may offer novel approaches to improve therapy of chronic pancreatitis and other chronic pain states. PMID:20599324

Vardanyan, Marina; Melemedjian, Ohannes K; Price, Theodore J; Ossipov, Michael H.; Lai, Josephine; Roberts, Ed; Boos, Terrence L.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C; Porreca, Frank



Pharmacological characterization of a novel centrally permeable P2X7 receptor antagonist: JNJ-47965567  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An increasing body of evidence suggests that the purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2X7) in the CNS may play a key role in neuropsychiatry, neurodegeneration and chronic pain. In this study, we characterized JNJ-47965567, a centrally permeable, high-affinity, selective P2X7 antagonist. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We have used a combination of in vitro assays (calcium flux, radioligand binding, electrophysiology, IL-1? release) in both recombinant and native systems. Target engagement of JNJ-47965567 was demonstrated by ex vivo receptor binding autoradiography and in vivo blockade of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release in the rat brain. Finally, the efficacy of JNJ-47965567 was tested in standard models of depression, mania and neuropathic pain. KEY RESULTS JNJ-47965567 is potent high affinity (pKi 7.9 ± 0.07), selective human P2X7 antagonist, with no significant observed speciation. In native systems, the potency of the compound to attenuate IL-1? release was 6.7 ± 0.07 (human blood), 7.5 ± 0.07 (human monocytes) and 7.1 ± 0.1 (rat microglia). JNJ-47965567 exhibited target engagement in rat brain, with a brain EC50 of 78 ± 19 ng·mL?1 (P2X7 receptor autoradiography) and functional block of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release. JNJ-47965567 (30 mg·kg?1) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and exhibited modest, yet significant efficacy in the rat model of neuropathic pain. No efficacy was observed in forced swim test. Conclusion and Implications JNJ-47965567 is centrally permeable, high affinity P2X7 antagonist that can be used to probe the role of central P2X7 in rodent models of CNS pathophysiology. PMID:23889535

Bhattacharya, Anindya; Wang, Qi; Ao, Hong; Shoblock, James R; Lord, Brian; Aluisio, Leah; Fraser, Ian; Nepomuceno, Diane; Neff, Robert A; Welty, Natalie; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Wickenden, Alan D; Letavic, Michael A



Clinical and preclinical characterization of the histamine H(4) receptor antagonist JNJ-39758979.  


The histamine H4 receptor (H(4)R) has been shown to have preclinical involvement in both inflammatory and pruritic responses. JNJ-39758979 [(R)-4-(3-amino-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-6-isopropyl-pyrimidin-2-ylamine] is a potent and selective H(4)R antagonist with a Ki at the human receptor of 12.5 ± 2.6 nM and greater than 80-fold selectivity over other histamine receptors. The compound also exhibited excellent selectivity versus other targets. JNJ-39758979 showed dose-dependent activity in models of asthma and dermatitis consistent with other H(4)R antagonists. Preclinical toxicity studies of up to 6 months in rats and 9 months in monkeys indicated an excellent safety profile, supporting the clinical testing of the compound. An oral formulation of JNJ-39758979 was studied in a phase 1 human volunteer study to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. The compound was well tolerated, with the exception of dose-dependent nausea, and no safety issues were noted in the phase 1 study. JNJ-39758979 exhibited good pharmacokinetics upon oral dosing with a plasma half-life of 124-157 hours after a single oral dose. In addition, dose-dependent inhibition of histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was detected, suggesting that the H4R was inhibited in vivo. In conclusion, JNJ-39758979 is a potent and selective H(4)R antagonist that exhibited good preclinical and phase 1 safety in healthy volunteers with evidence of a pharmacodynamics effect in humans. PMID:24549371

Thurmond, Robin L; Chen, Bin; Dunford, Paul J; Greenspan, Andrew J; Karlsson, Lars; La, David; Ward, Peter; Xu, Xie L



Potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan in monoarthritic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Endothelins are involved in tissue inflammation, pain, edema and cell migration. Our genome-wide microarray analysis revealed\\u000a that endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-2 (ET-2) showed a marked up-regulation in dorsal root ganglia during the acute phase\\u000a of arthritis. We therefore examined the effects of endothelin receptor antagonists on the development of arthritis and inflammatory\\u000a pain in monoarthritic mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Gene expression was examined

Anne-Katja Imhof; Laura Glück; Mieczyslaw Gajda; Rolf Bräuer; Hans-Georg Schaible; Stefan Schulz



Inhaled glucocorticoids versus leukotriene receptor antagonists as single agent asthma treatment: systematic review of current evidence  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of anti-leukotrienes and inhaled glucocorticoids as monotherapy in people with asthma. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing anti-leukotrienes with inhaled glucocorticoids for 28 days or more in children and adults. Main outcome measure Rate of exacerbations that required treatment with systemic glucocorticoids. Results 13 trials (12 in adults, one in children) met the inclusion criteria; all were in people with mild and moderate asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were compared with inhaled glucocorticoids at a daily dose equivalent to 400-450 ?g beclometasone dipropionate. Patients treated with leukotriene receptor antagonists were 60% more likely to suffer an exacerbation requiring systemic glucocorticoids (relative risk 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.2; number needed to treat 27, 13 to 81). A 130 ml greater improvement (80 ml to 170 ml) in forced expiratory volume in one second and a 19 l/min greater increase (14 l to 24 l) in morning peak expiratory flow rate were noted in favour of inhaled glucocorticoids. Differences in favour of inhaled glucocorticoids were also observed for nocturnal awakenings, use of rescue ?2 agonists, and days without symptoms. Risk of side effects was no different between groups, but leukotriene receptor antagonists were associated a 2.5-fold increase risk of withdrawals due to poor asthma control (relative risk 2.5, 1.8 to 3.5). Conclusions Inhaled glucocorticoids doses equivalent to 400 ?g/day beclometasone are more effective than leukotriene receptor antagonists in the treatment of adults with mild or moderate asthma. There is insufficient evidence to conclude on the efficacy of anti-leukotrienes in children. What is already known on this topicIn 2000 a Cochrane systematic review tentatively concluded that control of asthma was better in patients treated with inhaled glucocorticoids as single agents than with anti-leukotrienesThe 2002 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines still classify the role of anti-leukotrienes as “under investigation”What this study addsAnti-leukotrienes as single agent are less effective than low doses of inhaled glucocorticoids for patients with mild and moderate persistent asthma PMID:12649233

Ducharme, Francine M



mGlu5 receptor antagonist decreases Fos expression in spinal neurons after noxious visceral stimulation.  


In this study we examined the effects of the glutamate metabotropic subtype 5 (mGlu5) receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) on Fos expression in the spinal cord in a model of visceral pain in the rat. We show that noxious stimulation increases the number of Fos-positive neurons in the dorsal horn of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord, and that pretreatment with MPEP significantly reduces the number of Fos-positive neurons in these areas. These data indicate that mGlu5 is involved in the transmission of visceral pain in the spinal cord. PMID:12505681

Bianchi, Rossella; Rezzani, Rita; Borsani, Elisa; Rodella, Luigi



Binding interactions of antagonists with 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptor models.  


Homology modeling was performed on the N-terminal extracellular regions of human, mouse, and guinea pig 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A receptors (5-HT3R) based on the 24% sequence homology with and on the crystal structure of the snail acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). Docking of 5-HT3 antagonists granisetron, tropisetron, ondansetron, dolasetron ('setrons), and (+)-tubocurarine suggests an aromatic binding cleft behind a hydrophilic vestibule. Several intra- and interface interactions, H-bonds, and salt bridges stabilize the pentameric structure and the binding cleft. The planar rings of antagonists are intercalated between aromatic side-chains (W183-Y234, Y143-Y153). S227 donates H-bonds to the carbonyl groups of 'setrons. The tertiary ammonium ions interact with E236, N128 or E129, and/or W90 (cation-pi interaction). This offers a molecular explanation of the pharmacophore models of 5-HT3R antagonists. Docking artifacts suggest some ambiguities in the binding loops A and C of the 5-HT3AR models. Lower potencies of (+)-tubocurarine for human, and those of tropisetron for guinea pig 5-HT3ARs can be attributed to steric differences of I/S230 in the binding cleft and to distinct binding interactions with E229 and S227, respectively. Ligand binding interferes with crucial intra- and interface interactions along the binding cleft. PMID:14626451

Maksay, Gábor; Bikádi, Zsolt; Simonyi, Miklós



Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fluorescent and Biotinylated Antagonists of ?1 GABAC Receptors.  


The ?1 GABAC receptor is a ligand-gated chloride ion channel that shows promise as a therapeutic target for myopia, sleep disorders, memory and learning facilitation, and anxiety-related disorders. As such, there is a need for molecular probes to understand the role GABAC receptors play in physiological and pathological processes. To date, no labeled (either radioactive or fluorescent) GABAC selective ligand has been developed that can act as a marker for GABAC receptor visualization and localization studies. Herein, we report a series of fluorescent ligands containing different-sized linkers and fluorophores based around (S)-4-ACPBPA [(4-aminocyclopenten-1-yl)-butylphosphinic acid], a selective GABAC antagonist. One of these conjugates, (S)-4-ACPBPA-C5-BODIPY (13), displayed moderate potency (IC50 = 58.61 ?M) and selectivity (>100 times) for ?1 over ?1?2?2L GABAA receptors. These conjugates are novel lead agents for the development of more potent and selective fluorescent probes for studying the localization and function of GABAC receptors in living cells. PMID:24900684

Gavande, Navnath; Kim, Hye-Lim; Doddareddy, Munikumar R; Johnston, Graham A R; Chebib, Mary; Hanrahan, Jane R



Strategies to inhibit tumor associated integrin receptors: rationale for dual and multi-antagonists.  


The integrins are a family of 24 heterodimeric transmembrane cell surface receptors. Involvement in cell attachment to the extracellular matrix, motility, and proliferation identifies integrins as therapeutic targets in cancer and associated conditions: thrombosis, angiogenesis, and osteoporosis. The most reported strategy for drug development is synthesis of an agent that is highly selective for a single integrin receptor. However, the ability of cancer cells to change their integrin repertoire in response to drug treatment renders this approach vulnerable to the development of resistance and paradoxical promotion of tumor growth. Here, we review progress toward development of antagonists targeting two or more members of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) binding integrins, notably ?v?3, ?v?5, ?v?6, ?v?8, ?5?1, and ?IIb?3, as anticancer therapeutics. PMID:24568695

Sheldrake, Helen M; Patterson, Laurence H



Recent progress in the development of agonists and antagonists for melatonin receptors.  


The various physiological actions of the neurohormone melatonin are mediated mainly by two G-protein-coupled MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. The melatoninergic drugs on the market, ramelteon and agomelatine, as well as the most advanced drug candidates under clinical evaluation, tasimelteon and PD-6735, are high-affinity nonselective MT(1) and MT(2) agonists. However, exploring the exact physiological role of the MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors requires subtype selective MT(1) and MT(2) ligands. This review covers novel melatoninergic agonists and antagonists published since 2010, focusing on high-affinity and subtype selective agents. Additionally, compounds not mentioned in the previous review articles and ligands selective for the MT(3) binding site are included. PMID:22680635

Zlotos, D P



Ramosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist for the control of nausea and vomiting.  


Ramosetron is a selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with an affinity higher than that of the previously available drugs ondansetron, granisetron and tropisetron. Ramosetron was shown in pharmacological assays to inhibit activities mediated by 5-HT3 receptors, such as emesis caused by cisplatin. In clinical trials, ramostreon was at least as effective as the reference "setrons" against nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy or surgical interventions, but the efficacy was well maintained during a 48-h period, so that efficacy was significantly higher with ramosetron in terms of nausea and vomiting 6-48 h after treatment. Hence, ramosetron represents a good alternative over previously available drugs for the prophylaxis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Data in children also support the efficacy of ramosetron, which is well tolerated by both child and adult patients. PMID:12532186

Rabasseda, X



Substituted indoles as selective protease activated receptor 4 (PAR-4) antagonists: Discovery and SAR of ML354.  


Herein we report the discovery and SAR of an indole-based protease activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) antagonist scaffold derived from a similarity search of the Vanderbilt HTS collection, leading to MLPCN probe ML354 (VU0099704). Using a novel PAC-1 fluorescent ?IIb?3 activation assay this probe molecule antagonist was found to have an IC50 of 140nM for PAR-4 with 71-fold selectivity versus PAR-1 (PAR-1IC50=10?M). PMID:25176330

Wen, Wandong; Young, Summer E; Duvernay, Matthew T; Schulte, Michael L; Nance, Kellie D; Melancon, Bruce J; Engers, Julie; Locuson, Charles W; Wood, Michael R; Daniels, J Scott; Wu, Wenjun; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E; Stauffer, Shaun R



Inhibition of reinforcing effects of morphine and naloxone: precipitated opioid withdrawal by novel glycine site and uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycine site (MRZ 2\\/570 and L-701,324), and uncompetitive (MRZ 2\\/579) NMDA receptor antagonists inhibited morphine-produced behaviors related to drug-abuse. The expression of morphine dependence was blocked by pretreatment with all three compounds (3–7.5 mg\\/kg); the effects of glycine\\/NMDA antagonists were not dose-dependent. Mice which were morphine-free for 3 days still displayed a significant severity of the withdrawal syndrome when

P. Popik; J. Mamczarz; M Fr?czek; M Wid?a; M. Hesselink; W. Danysz



A2A receptor antagonists do not induce dyskinesias in drug-naive or L-dopa sensitized rats.  


L-dopa, the precursor to dopamine, is currently the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, chronic exposure is associated with L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs), a serious side effect characterized by involuntary movements. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have been studied as a novel non-dopaminergic PD treatment. Because A2A receptor antagonists do not act on dopamine receptors, it has been hypothesized that they will not induce dyskinesias characteristic of L-dopa. To test this hypothesis in a rodent model, the A2A receptor antagonists SCH 412348 (3 mg/kg), vipadenant (10 mg/kg), caffeine (30 mg/kg), or istradefylline (3 mg/kg) were chronically (19-22 days) administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and dyskinetic behaviors were scored across this chronic dosing paradigm. Unlike L-dopa, there was no evidence of dyskinetic activity resulting from any of the four A2A receptor antagonists tested. When delivered to animals previously sensitized with L-dopa (6 mg/kg), SCH 412348, vipadenant, caffeine or istradefylline treatment produced no dyskinesias. When administered in combination with L-dopa (6 mg/kg), SCH 412348 (3 mg/kg) neither exacerbated nor prevented the induction of LIDs over the course of 19 days of treatment. Collectively, our data indicate that A2A receptor antagonists are likely to have a reduced dyskinetic liability relative to L-dopa but do not block dyskinesias when coadministered with L-dopa. Clinical studies are required to fully understand the dyskinesia profiles of A2A receptor antagonists. PMID:23838432

Jones, N; Bleickardt, C; Mullins, D; Parker, E; Hodgson, R



Mapping the CGRP receptor ligand binding domain: tryptophan-84 of RAMP1 is critical for agonist and antagonist binding.  


The calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) associates with the accessory protein RAMP1 to form a receptor for the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Multiple lines of evidence have implicated CGRP in the pathophysiology of migraine headache making the CGRP receptor an attractive target for development of small-molecule antagonists as a novel treatment for this debilitating condition. The CGRP receptor antagonists telcagepant and olcegepant (BIBN4096BS) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of migraine and there is now a need to better understand how these molecules interact with the receptor. Previous work has shown the extracellular portion of RAMP1 to be important for binding of these antagonists, with tryptophan-74 being a key interaction site. The crystal structure of the extracellular portion of human RAMP1 placed tryptophan-74 in a hydrophobic patch hypothesized to interact with CGRP receptor ligands and also identified nearby residues that may be important for ligand binding. In this study we explored the role played by these residues of RAMP1 using an alanine replacement strategy. We confirmed a role for tryptophan-74 in antagonist binding and also identified arginine-67 as being important for binding of telcagepant but not compound 3, a close analog of BIBN4096BS. We also identified tryptophan-84 as being critical for both high-affinity binding of the non-peptide antagonists as well as the peptides CGRP and CGRP(8-37). These data for the first time pinpoint a specific RAMP1 residue important for both antagonist and agonist potency and are consistent with the N-terminal domain of RAMP1 forming the binding pocket interface with CLR. PMID:20188075

Moore, E L; Gingell, J J; Kane, S A; Hay, D L; Salvatore, C A



Effect of ?{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice  

SciTech Connect

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ? Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ? These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ? There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

Welch, Kevin D., E-mail: [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Pfister, James A. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)] [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Lima, Flavia G. [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil)] [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil); Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)] [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)



Direct demonstration of D1 dopamine receptors in the bovine parathyroid gland using the D1 selective antagonist (/sup 125/I)-SCH 23982  

SciTech Connect

The presence of D1 dopamine receptors in the parathyroid gland has been proposed based on the demonstration of dopaminergic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity and parathyroid hormone release in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Using a radioiodinated D1 selective antagonist (125I)-SCH 23982, we have now directly labeled and characterized the D1 dopamine receptors in bovine parathyroid gland membranes. (125I)-SCH 23982 binds in a saturable manner with high affinity and low nonspecific binding to membranes prepared from bovine parathyroid glands. D1 dopamine receptors are present in this preparation at a concentration of approximately 130 fMoles/mg protein and (125I)-SCH 23982 binding increases with increasing protein concentration in a linear fashion. Determination of the Kd using the association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants revealed good agreement with the Kd determined by saturation analysis (390 pM vs. 682 pM, respectively). Inhibition of 0.3 nM (125I)-SCH 23982 binding by a series of dopaminergic antagonists verified the D1 nature of this binding site, exhibiting appropriate affinities and rank order of potency. The competition curves of all antagonists exhibited Hill coefficients that were not significantly different from 1. Inhibition of (125I)-SCH 23982 binding by dopamine and other dopaminergic agonists revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Addition of 200 microM GppNHp effected a complete conversion of high affinity dopamine binding sites to a homogeneous population of low affinity dopamine sites. The D1 receptors identified in the parathyroid gland with (125I)-SCH 23982 appear to be pharmacologically identical with those previously characterized in the central nervous system.

Monsma, F.J. Jr.; Sibley, D.R.



Response heterogeneity of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in a rat visceral hypersensitivity model.  


Subcutaneous administration of granisetron (BRL 43694, endo-1-methyl-N-(9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1.]non-3-yl-1 H-indazole-3-carboxamide) and zacopride (4-amino-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2.]oct-3-yl)-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamide), two 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, at doses ranging from 3 to 1000 micrograms/kg, inhibited abdominal contractions induced by distension (30 mmHg, 10 min) of irritated colon (0.6% acetic acid) in conscious rats with a bell-shaped dose-response curve. The ED50 of granisetron and zacopride were 17.6 and 8.2 micrograms/kg, respectively. In contrast, both tropisetron (ICS 205-930, (3-a-tropanyl)t-indole-3-carboxylic ester) and ondansetron (GR38032F, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3-[(2-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4 H-carbazol-4-one hydrocloride dihydrate) were inactive in this model. These data further support the concept of a heterogeneity in the potency of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in modulating visceral hypersensitivity in conscious rats. This finding is in agreement with a reported efficacy of granisetron but not of ondansetron in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:9007525

Langlois, A; Pascaud, X; Junien, J L; Dahl, S G; Rivière, P J



Oligomerization of the extracellular domain of Boss enhances its binding to the Sevenless receptor and its antagonistic effect on R7 induction.  


In the developing compound eye of Drosophila, neuronal differentiation of the R7 photoreceptor cell is induced by the interaction of the receptor tyrosine kinase Sevenless with its ligand Bride of sevenless (Boss), which is expressed on the neighboring R8 cell. Boss is an unusual ligand of a receptor tyrosine kinase: it is composed of a large extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain with seven membrane-spanning segments and a cytoplasmic tail. Expression of a monomeric, secreted form of the extracellular domain of Boss is not sufficient for Sevenless activation, and instead acts as a weak antagonist. Because oligomerization appears to be a critical step in the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, we used oligomerized forms of the Boss extracellular domain to test their ability to bind to Sevenless in vivo and restore R7 induction in vivo. Oligomerization was achieved by fusion to the leucine zipper of the yeast transcription factor GCN4 or to the tetramerization helix of Lac repressor. Binding of these multivalent proteins to Sevenless could be detected in vitro by immunoprecipitation of cross-linked ligand/receptor complexes and in vivo by receptor-dependent ligand localization. However, neither R8-specific or ubiquitous expression of multivalent Exboss ligands rescued the boss phenotype. Instead, these ligands acted as competitive inhibitors for wild-type Boss protein and thereby suppressed R7 induction. Therefore the role of the transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains of Boss in the activation of the Sev receptor cannot be replaced by oligomerization. PMID:9472002

Sevrioukov, E A; Walenta, J H; Sunio, A; Phistry, M; Krämer, H



Phenylimidazolidin-2-one derivatives as selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and refinement of the pharmacophore model for 5-HT3 receptor binding.  


A possible bioisosterism between the benzamido and the phenylimidazolidin-2-one moieties has been suggested on the basis of the similarity between the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of metoclopramide, a D2 receptor antagonist with weak 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties, and zetidoline, a D2 receptor antagonist. Starting from this premise, a series of phenylimidazolidin-2-one derivatives bearing a basic azabicycloalkyl or an imidazolylalkyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for 5-HT3 receptor radioligand binding affinity ([3H]-GR 43,694). In vitro 5-HT3 receptor antagonist activity was tested in the guinea pig ileum assay (GPI). A number of high-affinity ligands were shown to be potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vivo as determined by inhibition of the Bezold--Jarisch reflex in the anesthetized rat. In general, the imidazolylalkyl derivatives were found to be more active than azabicycloalkyls. 1-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-3-[(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]imidazoli din-2-one (58), in particular, displayed very high affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor (Ki of 0.038 nM) with a Kb of 5.62 nM in the GPI assay, being more potent than the reference compounds (ondansetron, tropisetron, granisetron, and BRL 46,470) tested. 58 showed an ID50 comparable to that of ondansetron (2.2 micrograms/kg i.v.) in the Bezold--Jarisch reflex. A molecular modeling study based on this structurally novel series of compounds allowed the refinement of previously reported 5-HT3 receptor antagonist pharmacophore models. PMID:9341912

Heidempergher, F; Pillan, A; Pinciroli, V; Vaghi, F; Arrigoni, C; Bolis, G; Caccia, C; Dho, L; McArthur, R; Varasi, M



Habit, prejudice, power and politics: issues in the conversion of H2-receptor antagonists to over-the-counter use.  

PubMed Central

H2-receptor antagonists have been widely prescribed in the last 20 years and are considered to rank among the safest drugs known. In several countries they have been switched to over-the-counter (OTC) status, and a similar move is under consideration in Canada. Some concerns have been raised as to the effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of dyspepsia and heartburn, their safety when taken for self-diagnosed symptoms, and the potential for their use to delay diagnosis or mask serious disease. The author presents evidence to support the use of OTC H2-receptor antagonists in the treatment of dyspepsia. He argues that the safety record of these drugs is reassuring and that they are unlikely to mask gastric cancer. Finally, he describes the appropriate place of OTC H2-receptor antagonists in the overall management of acid-related disorders. PMID:8542566

Hunt, R H



Allotopic antagonism of the non-peptide atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antagonist HS-142-1 on natriuretic peptide receptor NPR-A.  

PubMed Central

The microbial polysaccharide HS-142-1 has been documented as an antagonist of natriuretic peptides. It inhibits activation and peptide binding to both guanylate receptors natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and NPR-B, but has no effect on the non-cyclase receptor NPR-C. At first sight the effect of HS-142-1 on peptide binding appears to be surmountable, suggesting that it might be competitive despite its chemically divergent nature. We explored its mode of action on wild-type NPR-A (WT), on a disulphide-bridged constitutively active mutant (C423S) and on truncated mutants lacking either their cytoplasmic domain (DeltaKC) or both the cytoplasmic and the transmembrane domains (ECD). On the WT, HS-142-1 inhibited atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding with a pK value of 6.51 +/- 0.07 (K(d)=0.31 microM). It displayed a similar effect on the C423S mutant (pK=6.31 +/- 0.11), indicating that its action might not be due to interference with receptor dimerization. HS-142-1 also inhibited ANP binding to DeltaKC with a pK of 7.05 +/- 0.05 (K(d)=0.089 microM), but it was inactive on ANP binding to ECD at a concentration of 10(-4) M, suggesting that the antagonism was not competitive at the peptide-binding site located on the ECD and that the transmembrane domain might be required. HS-142-1 also enhanced dissociation of NPR-A-bound (125)I-ANP in the presence of excess unlabelled ANP, implying an allotopic (allosteric) mode of action for the antagonist. PMID:11829760

Poirier, Hugo; Labrecque, Jean; Deschenes, Julie; DeLean, Andre



Mutation of a conserved serine in TM4 of opioid receptors confers full agonistic properties to classical antagonists.  

PubMed Central

The involvement of a conserved serine (Ser196 at the mu-, Ser177 at the delta-, and Ser187 at the kappa-opioid receptor) in receptor activation is demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. It was initially observed during our functional screening of a mu/delta-opioid chimeric receptor, mu delta2, that classical opioid antagonists such as naloxone, naltrexone, naltriben, and H-Tyr-Tic[psi,CH2NH]Phe-Phe-OH (TIPPpsi; Tic = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) could inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells stably expressing the chimeric receptor. Antagonists also activated the G protein-coupled inward rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing the mu delta2 opioid receptor and the GIRK1 channel. By sequence analysis and back mutation, it was determined that the observed antagonist activity was due to the mutation of a conserved serine to leucine in the fourth transmembrane domain (S196L). The importance of this serine was further demonstrated by analogous mutations created in the mu-opioid receptor (MORS196L) and delta-opioid receptor (DORS177L), in which classical opioid antagonists could inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells stably expressing either MORS196L or DORS177L. Again, antagonists could activate the GIRK1 channel coexpressed with either MORS196L or DORS177L in Xenopus oocytes. These data taken together suggest a crucial role for this serine residue in opioid receptor activation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8650158

Claude, P A; Wotta, D R; Zhang, X H; Prather, P L; McGinn, T M; Erickson, L J; Loh, H H; Law, P Y



Metabolite profiles of degarelix, a new gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist, in rat, dog, and monkey.  


Degarelix is a novel competitive gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor blocker (antagonist). In this study, the nonclinical metabolism and excretion of degarelix was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rat, beagle dog, and cynomolgus monkey. Degarelix was found to be stable when incubated in microsomes and cryopreserved hepatocytes from animal liver tissue. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies in male rat, dog, and monkey showed that after a subcutaneous dose of tritium-labeled degarelix, the peptide was rapidly absorbed with C(max) in plasma of 1 to 2 h. The predominant route of excretion was via the kidneys and the bile. In rat and dog, most of the degarelix dose was eliminated within 48 h via urine and feces in equal amounts (40-50% in each matrix), whereas in monkey the major route of excretion was fecal (50%) and renal (22%). In plasma and urine samples from all three species, mainly intact degarelix was detected. In bile and feces samples from rats and dogs, the same truncated peptides of the parent decapeptide were detected. The major metabolites identified represented the N-terminal tetrapeptide, the pentapeptide, and the heptapeptide. From the animal studies, it could be concluded that degarelix is subject to common peptidic degradation in the liver and bile and is fully excreted via metabolic and biliary (as metabolites and parent compound) and urinary (mainly as parent compound) pathways. Systemic exposure to metabolic products seems to be low. PMID:21768273

Sonesson, Anders; Koechling, Wolfgang; Stalewski, Jacek; Tankó, László B; Rasmussen, Birgitte Buur



Anti-arrhythmic, local anaesthetic, and adrenergic blocking activity of some ?-receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

1. The antagonistic effect of the ?-receptor blocking compounds propranolol, Ph QA 33 and INPEA on ouabain-induced cardiac fibrillations in guinea-pigs was compared with their local anaesthetic and ?-receptor blocking properties. 2. All three compounds were found capable of increasing the tolerance to ouabain and of reversing ouabain-induced fibrillations, the ED50 being 0.3 mg/kg intravenously, 0.5 mg/kg intravenously, and 1.5 mg/kg intravenously, respectively for propranolol, Ph QA 33 and INPEA. 3. Propranolol and Ph QA 33 were found to be moderate to strong local anaesthetics while INPEA had a considerably weaker though significant effect. 4. The order of potency as ?-receptor blocking compounds was propranolol ? Ph QA 33 » INPEA, the latter compound being less than 1% as active as propranolol. 5. Despite the surprising finding that INPEA was effective against non-catecholamine-induced arrhythmias, the results support the general assumption that the anti-arrhythmic effect of ?-receptor blocking compounds is related to their local anaesthetic action rather than to their ?-blocking ability. PMID:5809739

Hermansen, Keld



Docking-based virtual screening of potential human P2Y12 receptor antagonists.  


Platelet plays essential roles in hemostasis and its dysregulation can lead to arterial thrombosis. P2Y12 is an important platelet membrane adenosine diphosphate receptor, and its antagonists have been widely developed as anti-coagulation agents. The current P2Y12 inhibitors available in clinical practice have not fully achieved satisfactory anti-thrombotic effects, leaving room for further improvement. To identify new chemical compounds as potential anti-coagulation inhibitors, we constructed a three-dimensional structure model of human P2Y12 by homology modeling based on the recently reported G-protein coupled receptor Meleagris gallopavo ?1 adrenergic receptor. Virtual screening of the modeled P2Y12 against three subsets of small molecules from the ZINC database, namely lead-like, fragment-like, and drug-like, identified a number of compounds that might have high binding affinity to P2Y12. Detailed analyses of the top three compounds from each subset with the highest scores indicated that all of these compounds beard a hydrophobic bulk supplemented with a few polar atoms which bound at the ligand binding site via largely hydrophobic interactions with the receptor. This study not only provides a structure model of P2Y12 for rational design of anti-platelet inhibitors, but also identifies some potential chemicals for further development. PMID:21474491

Chen, Hua; Dong, Xianchi; Zhou, Minyun; Shi, Haiming; Luo, Xinping



Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist olcegepant acts in the spinal trigeminal nucleus.  


Several lines of evidence suggest a major role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of migraine and other primary headaches. Inhibition of CGRP receptors by olcegepant and telcagepant has been successfully used to treat acute migraine and to reduce the activity of spinal trigeminal neurons involved in meningeal nociception in rodents. The site of CGRP receptor inhibition is unclear, however. In adult Wistar rats anaesthetized with isofluorane systemic intravenous infusion (0.9 mg/kg) or unilateral facial injection (1 mM in 100 microl) of capsaicin was used to induce activity in the trigeminal nociceptive system. Animals were pre-treated either by saline or olcegepant. In comparison with vehicle infusion or the non-injected side of the face, capsaicin significantly increased the expression of the activation markers Fos in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the trigeminal ganglion. Pre-treatment with olcegepant (900 microg/kg) inhibited the capsaicin-induced expression of Fos throughout the spinal trigeminal nucleus by 57%. In contrast, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the trigeminal ganglion was not changed by olcegepant pre-treatment. CGRP receptor inhibition, which has been shown to decrease spinal trigeminal activity, is likely to occur in the central nervous system rather than in the periphery including the trigeminal ganglion. This may be important for future therapeutic interventions with CGRP receptor antagonists in migraine. PMID:19737844

Sixt, Marie-Luise; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael J M



The duration of sleep promoting efficacy by dual orexin receptor antagonists is dependent upon receptor occupancy threshold  

PubMed Central

Background Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism of action. Results Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the arousal-promoting activity of orexin peptides and, as demonstrated in the current work, exhibit an efficacy signal window dependent upon oscillating levels of endogenous orexin neuropeptide. Sleep efficacy of structurally diverse DORAs in rat and dog was achieved at plasma exposures corresponding to orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) occupancies in the range of 65 to 80%. In rats, the time course of OX2R occupancy was dependent upon receptor binding kinetics and was tightly correlated with the timing of active wake reduction. In rhesus monkeys, direct comparison of DORA-22 with GABA-A modulators at similar sleep-inducing doses revealed that diazepam produced next-day residual sleep and both diazepam and eszopiclone induced next-day cognitive deficits. In stark contrast, DORA-22 did not produce residual effects. Furthermore, DORA-22 evoked only minimal changes in quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) activity during the normal resting phase in contrast to GABA-A modulators which induced substantial qEEG changes. Conclusion The higher levels of receptor occupancy necessary for DORA efficacy require a plasma concentration profile sufficient to maintain sleep for the duration of the resting period. DORAs, with a half-life exceeding 8 h in humans, are expected to fulfill this requirement as exposures drop to sub-threshold receptor occupancy levels prior to the wake period, potentially avoiding next-day residual effects at therapeutic doses. PMID:23981345



Identification of receptor-binding domains on human interleukin 5 and design of an interleukin 5-derived receptor antagonist.  

PubMed Central

A detailed structure-function analysis of human interleukin 5 (hIL5) has been performed. The hIL5 receptor is composed of two different polypeptide chains, the alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit alone is sufficient for ligand binding, but association with the beta subunit leads to a 2- to 3-fold increase in binding affinity. The beta chain is shared with the receptors for IL3 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor--hence the descriptor beta C (C for common). All hIL5 mutants were analyzed in a solid-phase binding assay for hIL5R alpha interaction and in a proliferation assay using IL5-dependent cell lines for receptor-complex activation. Most residues affecting binding to the receptor alpha subunit were clustered in a loop connecting beta-strand 1 and helix B (mutants H38A, K39A, and H41A), in beta-strand 2 (E89A and R91A; weaker effect for E90A) and close to the C terminus (T109A, E110A, W111S, and I112A). Mutations at one position, E13 (Glu13), caused a reduced activation of the hIL5 receptor complex. In the case of E13Q, only 0.05% bioactivity was detected on a hIL5-responsive subclone of the mouse promyelocytic cell line FDC-P1. Moreover, on hIL5-responsive TF1 cells, the same mutant was completely inactive and proved to have antagonistic properties. Interactions of this mutant with both receptor subunits were nevertheless indistinguishable from those of nonmutated hIL5 by crosslinking and Scatchard plot analysis of transfected COS-1 cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7761472

Tavernier, J; Tuypens, T; Verhee, A; Plaetinck, G; Devos, R; Van der Heyden, J; Guisez, Y; Oefner, C



R-Smad Competition Controls Activin Receptor Output in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Animals use TGF-? superfamily signal transduction pathways during development and tissue maintenance. The superfamily has traditionally been divided into TGF-?/Activin and BMP branches based on relationships between ligands, receptors, and R-Smads. Several previous reports have shown that, in cell culture systems, “BMP-specific” Smads can be phosphorylated in response to TGF-?/Activin pathway activation. Using Drosophila cell culture as well as in vivo assays, we find that Baboon, the Drosophila TGF-?/Activin-specific Type I receptor, can phosphorylate Mad, the BMP-specific R-Smad, in addition to its normal substrate, dSmad2. The Baboon-Mad activation appears direct because it occurs in the absence of canonical BMP Type I receptors. Wing phenotypes generated by Baboon gain-of-function require Mad, and are partially suppressed by over-expression of dSmad2. In the larval wing disc, activated Baboon cell-autonomously causes C-terminal Mad phosphorylation, but only when endogenous dSmad2 protein is depleted. The Baboon-Mad relationship is thus controlled by dSmad2 levels. Elevated P-Mad is seen in several tissues of dSmad2 protein-null mutant larvae, and these levels are normalized in dSmad2; baboon double mutants, indicating that the cross-talk reaction and Smad competition occur with endogenous levels of signaling components in vivo. In addition, we find that high levels of Activin signaling cause substantial turnover in dSmad2 protein, providing a potential cross-pathway signal-switching mechanism. We propose that the dual activity of TGF-?/Activin receptors is an ancient feature, and we discuss several ways this activity can modulate TGF-? signaling output. PMID:22563507

Shimell, MaryJane; Stefancsik, Ray; Wijayatonge, Ranjula; Herder, Rachel; Raftery, Laurel A.; O'Connor, Michael B.



Death temporally related to the use of a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist in cocaine associated myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Although it is commonly stated that the use of beta adrenergic receptor antagonists is contraindicated in patients with cocaine\\u000a toxicity, actual clinical evidence of harm is lacking. This case helps to highlight the risks of beta adrenergic receptor\\u000a antagonists in patients with chest pain associated with cocaine use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case Report  A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency department (ED) complaining

Fareed N. Fareed; Gar M. Chan; Robert S. Hoffman



Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists and electroacupuncture synergetically inhibit carrageenan-induced behavioral hyperalgesia and spinal fos expression in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between electroacupuncture and an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, (DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid; AP5), or an (±)-?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid\\/kainite (AMPA\\/KA) receptor antagonist, (6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3 (1H,4H); DNQX) administered intrathecally on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia and spinal c-Fos expression was investigated. The latency of paw withdrawal (PWL) from a thermal stimulus was used as a measure of hyperalgesia in awake rats. Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of

Yu-Qiu Zhang; Guang-Chen Ji; Gen-Cheng Wu; Zhi-Qi Zhao



Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue.  


Tritiated naloxone, a powerful opiate antagonist, specifically binds to an opiate receptor of mammalian brain and guinea pig intestine. Competition for the opiate receptor by various opiates and their antagonists closely parallels their pharmacological potency. The opiate receptor is confined to nervous tissue. PMID:4687585

Pert, C B; Snyder, S H



Pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidines as adenosine receptor antagonists: Effect of the N-5 bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, many efforts have been made to search for potent and selective human A3 adenosine antagonists. In particular, one of the most promising human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists is represented by the pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine family. This class of compounds has been\\u000a strongly investigated from the point of view of structure-activity relationships. In particular, it has been observed

Chiara Bolcato; Claudia Cusan; Giorgia Pastorin; Giampiero Spalluto; Barbara Cacciari; Karl Norbert Klotz; Erika Morizzo; Stefano Moro



Optimal use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.  


Discovery of the central role of platelets in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and ischaemic complications of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) has led to the widespread use of oral and parenteral platelet inhibitors to treat these conditions. Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (also known as ?(IIb)?(3)) receptors on the surface of platelets play an essential role in platelet aggregation and serve as a key mediator in the formation of arterial thrombus. When activated, GP IIb/IIIa receptors bind to fibrinogen, which serves as the 'final common pathway' in platelet aggregation. Of the numerous agents developed for modulating platelet activity, intravenous platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are the most potent. There are four agents in clinical use, including abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban and lamifiban, although lamifiban is not approved for use in the US. While all agents block fibrinogen binding to GP IIb/IIIa, they do so by different mechanisms. Abciximab is a humanized form of a murine monoclonal antibody directed against GP IIb/IIIa, eptifibatide is a synthetic, cyclic heptapeptide that contains a lysine-glycine-aspartic acid (KGD) sequence that mimics the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence found on GP IIb/IIIa, tirofiban is a non-peptide antagonist derived by optimization of the tyrosine analogue that structurally mimicks the RGD-containing loop of the disintegrin echistatin, and lamifiban is a synthetic, non-cyclic, non-peptide, low-molecular-weight compound. In clinical trials, use of these agents reduces ischaemic adverse cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing PCI, but at a cost of increased bleeding. PMID:21985168

Starnes, H Benjamin; Patel, Ankit A; Stouffer, George A



Selective and Potent Agonists and Antagonists for Investigating the Role of Mouse Oxytocin Receptors  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to play a central role in social behaviors; as a consequence, they have been recognized as potential drugs to treat neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by impaired social interactions. However, despite the basic and preclinical relevance of mouse strains carrying genetic alterations in the OT/AVP systems to basic and preclinical translational neuroscience, the pharmacological profile of mouse OT/AVP receptor subtypes has not been fully characterized. To fill in this gap, we have characterized a number of OT and AVP agonists and antagonists at three murine OT/AVP receptors expressed in the nervous system as follows: the oxytocin (mOTR) and vasopressin V1a (mV1aR) and V1b (mV1bR) subtypes. These three receptors were transiently expressed in vitro for binding and intracellular signaling assays, and then a homology model of the mOTR structure was constructed to investigate how its molecular features compare with human and rat OTR orthologs. Our data indicate that the selectivity profile of the natural ligands, OT and AVP, is conserved in humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic peptide [Thr4Gly7]OT (TGOT) is remarkably selective for the mOTR and, like the endogenous OT ligand, activates Gq and Gi and recruits ?-arrestins. Finally, we report three antagonists that exhibit remarkably high affinities and selectivities at mOTRs. These highly selective pharmacological tools will contribute to the investigation of the specific physiologic and pathologic roles of mOTR for the development of selective OT-based therapeutics. PMID:23723434

Busnelli, Marta; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Manning, Maurice; Kleinau, Gunnar



Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.  


The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [(125)I][Sar(1)-Ile(8)]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16?nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1?mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3?mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats. PMID:23811571

Chi, Yong Ha; Lee, Joo Han; Kim, Je Hak; Tan, Hyun Kwang; Kim, Sang Lin; Lee, Jae Yeol; Rim, Hong-Kun; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Kyung-Tae



Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type I Receptor Antagonists Decrease Growth and Induce Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved morphogens that are essential for normal development. BMP-2 is highly expressed in the majority of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) but not in normal lung tissue or benign lung tumors. The effects of the BMP signaling cascade on the growth and survival of cancer cells is poorly understood. We show that BMP signaling is basally active in lung cancer cell lines, which can be effectively inhibited with selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors. Lung cancer cell lines express alk2, alk3, and alk6 and inhibition of a single BMP receptor was not sufficient to decrease signaling. Inhibition of more than one type I receptor was required to decrease BMP signaling in lung cancer cell lines. BMP receptor antagonists and silencing of BMP type I receptors with siRNA induced cell death, inhibited cell growth, and caused a significant decrease in the expression of inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, and Id3) family members, which are known to regulate cell growth and survival in many types of cancers. BMP receptor antagonists also decreased clonogenic cell growth. Knockdown of Id3 significantly decreased cell growth and induced cell death of lung cancer cells. H1299 cells stably overexpressing Id3 were resistant to growth suppression and induction of cell death induced by the BMP antagonist DMH2. These studies suggest that BMP signaling promotes cell growth and survival of lung cancer cells, which is mediated through its regulation of Id family members. Selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors represents a potential means to pharmacologically treat NSCLC and other carcinomas with an activated BMP signaling cascade. PMID:23593444

Langenfeld, Elaine; Hong, Charles C.; Lanke, Gandhi; Langenfeld, John



Caffeine and adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists prevent beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.  


Consumption of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, was found to be inversely associated with the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, caffeine protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity, an effect mimicked by adenosine A(2A) but not A(1) receptor antagonists. We now tested if caffeine administration would prevent beta-amyloid-induced cognitive impairment in mice and if this was mimicked by A(2A) receptor blockade. One week after icv administration of the 25-35 fragment of beta-amyloid (Abeta, 3 nmol), mice displayed impaired performance in both inhibitory avoidance and spontaneous alternation tests. Prolonged treatment with caffeine (1 mg/ml) had no effect alone but prevented the Abeta-induced cognitive impairment in both tasks when associated with acute caffeine (30 mg/kg) 30 min treatment before Abeta administration. The same protective effect was observed after subchronic (4 days) treatment with daily injections of either caffeine (30 mg/kg) or the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg). This provides the first direct in vivo evidence that caffeine and A(2A) receptor antagonists afford a protection against Abeta-induced amnesia, which prompts their interest for managing Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17007839

Dall'Igna, Oscar P; Fett, Paulo; Gomes, Marcio W; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lara, Diogo R



Inhibition of estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer cell lines with a growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist.  


GHRH antagonists have been shown to inhibit growth of various human cancer cell lines xenografted into nude mice including estrogen receptor negative human breast cancers. Previous observations also suggest that GHRH locally produced in diverse neoplasms including breast cancer might directly affect proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study we demonstrate that a novel highly potent GHRH antagonist JMR-132 strongly inhibits the proliferation of both estrogen receptor negative SKBR 3 and estrogen receptor positive ZR 75 human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. The proliferation in vitro of ZR 75 and SKBR 3 was increased after direct stimulation with GHRH(1-29)NH2. The GHRH antagonist JMR-132 had a significant antiproliferative activity in the absence of GHRH and nullified the proliferative effect of GHRH in these cell lines. SKBR 3 and ZR 75 expressed the GHRH ligand as well as the pituitary type of GHRH-receptor, which likely appears to mediate the antiproliferative mechanisms in these cell lines. These in vitro results suggest that JMR-132 is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer growth, independent of the estrogen receptor status. Further investigations on the combination treatment with endocrine agents affecting the estrogen pathway and GRHR antagonists are needed in order to improve the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:18949435

Seitz, Stephan; Hohla, Florian; Schally, Andrew V; Moder, Angelika; Engel, Joerg B; Horn, Felicitas; Varga, Josef; Zarandi, Marta; Ortmann, Olaf; Köster, Frank; Buchholz, Stefan



Brain-Penetrant Tetrahydronaphthalene Thromboxane A2-Prostanoid (TP) Receptor Antagonists as Prototype Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

A hallmark pathological feature of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain is the presence of senile plaques, which comprise amyloid ? (A?) peptides that are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The plaque-containing AD brain is thought to be under oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased lipid oxidation products that include isoprostane-F2?III (iPF2?III). IPF2?III can bind to and activate the thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptor, and TP receptor activation causes increased A? production through enhancement of APP mRNA stability. Moreover, TP receptor antagonists have been shown to block iPF2?III-induced increases of A? secretion. Thus, the TP receptor may be a potential drug target for AD therapy. However, here we show that existing TP receptor antagonists have poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, likely due to the presence of a carboxylic acid moiety that is believed to be important for receptor interaction, but which may hamper passive diffusion across the BBB. We now report selected analogues of a known tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonist, wherein the carboxylic acid moiety has been replaced by heterocyclic bioisosteres. These heterocyclic analogues retained relatively high affinity for the mouse and human TP receptors, and, unlike the parent carboxylic acid compound, several examples freely diffused across the BBB into the brain upon administration to mice. These results reveal that brain-penetrant tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonists can be developed by substituting the carboxylic acid moiety with a suitable nonacidic bioisostere. Compounds of this type hold promise as potential lead structures to develop drug candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:23173073



High-resolution crystal structure of human Protease-Activated Receptor 1 bound to the antagonist vorapaxar  

PubMed Central

Protease-Activated Receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypical member of a family of G protein-coupled receptors that mediate cellular responses to thrombin and related proteases. Thrombin irreversibly activates PAR1 by cleaving the N-terminal exodomain of the receptor, which exposes a tethered peptide ligand that binds the receptor’s heptahelical bundle to effect G protein-activation. Here we report a 2.2Å resolution crystal structure of human PAR1 bound to vorapaxar, a PAR1 antagonist. The structure reveals an unusual mode of drug binding that explains how a small molecule binds virtually irreversibly to inhibit receptor activation by PAR1’s tethered ligand. In contrast to deep, solvent-exposed binding pockets observed in other peptide-activated GPCRs, the vorapaxar-binding pocket is superficial but has little surface exposed to the aqueous solvent. PARs are important targets for drug development. The structure reported here will aid development of improved PAR1 antagonists and discovery of antagonists to other members of this receptor family. PMID:23222541

Zhang, Cheng; Srinivasan, Yoga; Arlow, Daniel H.; Fung, Juan Jose; Palmer, Daniel; Zheng, Yaowu; Green, Hillary F.; Pandey, Anjali; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Kobilka, Brian K.



Cost-effectiveness of renoprotection in diabetic patients with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a calcium channel blocker: economic analysis of the marval trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent randomized trials have shown that blood pressure can be controlled using a variety of agents and that for diabetic patients, renoprotective benefits may be added with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the short-term costs and cost-effectiveness of initiating therapy with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist as compared to a calcium channel

Dean G. Smith; Giancarlo Viberti; Anh Nguyen; Feride F. Frech; Krista Yokoyama



Influence of H 1 -and H 2 -receptor antagonists on the circulatory system and on the endogenous plasma histamine concentrations in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the H1-receptor antagonist dimethpyrindene and the H2-receptor antagonist burimamide on circulatory and respiratory parameters and on plasma histamine levels were tested in 21 mongrel dogs. Both drugs released histamine. The incidence for this effect was 10\\/11 in the case of dimethpyrindene and 5\\/10 in the case of burimamide.

M. Thermann; A. Schmal; F. Schingale; P. Dormann; H. Hamelmann



Effect of ?? nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.  


Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. PMID:23219611

Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R



Anti-tumor activity of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol in neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often associated with elevated catecholamines. More than half of patients with metastatic NB relapse and survival is extremely poor with current therapies. In a high-throughput screen of FDA-approved drugs we identified anti-NB activity for the nonselective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol hydrochloride. Propranolol inhibited growth of a panel of fifteen NB cell lines irrespective of MYCN status, and treatment induced apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Activity was dependent on inhibition of the ?2, and not ?1, adrenergic receptor, and treatment resulted in activation of p53 and p73 signaling in vitro. The majority of NB cell lines and primary tumors express ?2 adrenergic receptor and higher mRNA levels correlate with improved patient survival, but expression levels did not correlate with in vitro sensitivity to propranolol. Furthermore, propranolol is synergistic with the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38 and propranolol inhibits growth of NB xenografts in vivo at doses similar to those used to treat infants with hemangiomas and hypertension. Taken together, our results suggest that propranolol has activity against NB and thus should be considered in combination treatments for patients with relapsed and refractory NB. PMID:24389287

Wolter, Jennifer K; Wolter, Nikolaus E; Blanch, Alvaro; Partridge, Teresa; Cheng, Lynn; Morgenstern, Daniel A.; Podkowa, Monika; Kaplan, David R.; Irwin, Meredith S.



Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads.  


The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4×44K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals. PMID:21126777

Martinovi?-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang, Rong-Lin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Bencic, David C; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T



Central dopamine receptor agonist and antagonist actions of the enantiomers of 3-PPP.  


The two enantiomers of the putative centrally acting dopamine (DA) autoreceptor agonist 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine, 3-PPP (Hjorth et al. 1981), were pharmacologically evaluated. An extensive series of biochemical and behavioural experiments unexpectedly revealed that both (+)- and (-)-3-PPP showed clear, but differential, effects on the DA receptors. Thus, (+)-3-PPP is a DA agonist with autoreceptor as well as postsynaptic receptor stimulatory properties. In contrast, although (-)-3-PPP similarly activates DA autoreceptors it acts concomitantly as an antagonist at postsynaptic DA receptors. Moreover, both behavioural and biochemical data on motor activity and DA synthesis and turnover suggest a preferential limbic action for the (-)-enantiomer. These results are discussed in terms of the dual antidopaminergic action of (-)-3-PPP coupled with anatomical differences in the feedback organisation in central (viz, limbic vs striatal) DA systems. It is suggested that compounds like (-)-3-PPP may be of potential clinical utility in the treatment of psychotic disorders, whilst lacking the seriously incapacitating motor dysfunctions produced by current neuroleptic therapy. PMID:6415751

Hjorth, S; Carlsson, A; Clark, D; Svensson, K; Wikström, H; Sanchez, D; Lindberg, P; Hacksell, U; Arvidsson, L E; Johansson, A



The 2.6 Å Crystal Structure of a Human A2A Adenosine Receptor Bound to an Antagonist  

PubMed Central

The adenosine class of G protein-coupled receptors mediates the important role of extracellular adenosine in many physiological processes and is antagonized by caffeine. We have determined the crystal structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor in complex with a high affinity subtype-selective antagonist, ZM241385, to 2.6 Å resolution. Four disulfide bridges in the extracellular domain combined with a subtle repacking of the transmembrane helices relative to the adrenergic and rhodopsin receptor structures defines a pocket distinct from that of other structurally determined GPCRs. The arrangement allows for the binding of the antagonist in an extended conformation perpendicular to the membrane plane. The binding site highlights an integral role for the extracellular loops, together with the helical core in ligand recognition by this class of GPCRs, and suggests a role for ZM241385 in restricting the movement of a tryptophan residue important in the activation mechanism of the class A receptors. PMID:18832607

Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Griffith, Mark T.; Hanson, Michael A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Lane, J. Robert; Ijzerman, Adriaan P.; Stevens, Raymond C.



Discovery of sulfated sterols from marine invertebrates as a new class of marine natural antagonists of farnesoid-X-receptor.  


We report the biochemical characterization of sulfated polyhydroxysterols isolated from marine invertebrates as potent antagonists of farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis in mammals. Molecular characterization of a library of sulfated polyhydroxysteroids resulted in the identification of a first FXR antagonist. In contrast to partial antagonists, this compound was endowed with an antagonistic activity on the expression of a subset of FXR-regulated genes in liver cells and abrogated the release of nuclear coreceptor from the promoter of these genes. The putative binding mode to FXR, obtained through docking calculations, suggested the crucial role played by the bent shape of the molecule as well as the presence of one hydroxyl group in its side chain. This compound is a major tool to explore the effect of FXR inhibition in pharmacological settings. PMID:21309576

Sepe, Valentina; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Renga, Barbara; D'Amore, Claudio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela



Ligand Promiscuity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists and Antagonists Revealed by Site-Directed Mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by structurally diverse chemicals. To examine the mechanisms responsible for the promiscuity in AhR ligand binding, we determined the effects of mutations within the AhR ligand-binding domain (LBD) on the activity of diverse AhR ligands. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Ile319 of the mouse AhR and, to a lesser extent, Phe318 as residues involved in ligand-selective modulation of AhR transformation using a panel of 12 AhR ligands. These ligands could be categorized into four distinct structurally related groups based on their ability to activate AhR mutants at position 319 in vitro. The mutation I319K was selectively activated by FICZ and not by other examined ligands in vitro and in cell culture. F318L and F318A mutations resulted in the conversion of AhR agonists ?-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively, into partial agonists/antagonists. Hsp90 binding to the AhR was decreased with several mutations and was inversely correlated with AhR ligand-binding promiscuity. Together, these data define overlapping amino acid residues within the AhR LBD involved in the selectivity of ligand binding, the agonist or antagonist mode of ligand binding, and hsp90 binding and provide insights into the ligand diversity of AhR activators. PMID:24591650

Soshilov, Anatoly A.



Enclomiphene, an estrogen receptor antagonist for the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men.  


Enclomiphene (Androxal), in development by Repros Therapeutics Inc, is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that promotes gonadotropin-dependent testosterone secretion by the testes. Enclomiphene constitutes the trans-stereoisomer of clomiphene citrate, a drug that has been widely prescribed for several decades for the treatment of female ovulatory dysfunction. Because of the antagonistic effects of enclomiphene, the drug has the potential to increase serum testosterone levels in men with secondary hypogonadism by restoring physiological endogenous testosterone secretion while maintaining testicular volume and, potentially, spermatogenesis. In clinical trials conducted to date, enclomiphene demonstrated significant efficacy in the physiological restoration of testosterone levels in males with secondary hypogonadism. The compound also exhibited an unanticipated favorable effect on fasting plasma glucose; this result has been accompanied by rapidly accumulating evidence from other researchers for a bidirectional relationship between low serum testosterone and obesity/metabolic syndrome (syndrome X) in men. Short-term clinical safety data for enclomiphene have been satisfactory and equivalent to safety data for testosterone gels and placebo. Enclomiphene demonstrates promise in the management of secondary hypogonadism associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and, possibly, infertility, and should undergo placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials for these indications. PMID:19204885

Hill, Simon; Arutchelvam, Vijayaraman; Quinton, Richard



Identification of putative steroid receptor antagonists in bottled water: combining bioassays and high-resolution mass spectrometry.  


Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MS(n) experiments elucidated the molecule's structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MS(n) data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably, dioctyl fumarates and maleates have been overlooked by science and regulation to date. This illustrates the need to identify novel toxicologically relevant compounds to establish a more holistic picture of the human exposome. PMID:24015248

Wagner, Martin; Schlüsener, Michael P; Ternes, Thomas A; Oehlmann, Jörg



Optimization of potency and pharmacokinetic properties of tetrahydroisoquinoline transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonists.  


Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel expressed in a subpopulation of sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. TRPM8 is the predominant mammalian cold temperature thermosensor and is activated by cold temperatures ranging from 8 to 25 °C and cooling compounds such as menthol or icilin. TRPM8 antagonists are being pursued as potential therapeutics for treatment of pain and bladder disorders. This manuscript outlines new developments in the SAR of a lead series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives with emphasis on strategies to improve pharmacokinetic properties and potency. Selected compounds were profiled in two TRPM8 target-specific in vivo coverage models in rats (the icilin-induced wet dog shake model and the cold pressor test). Compound 45 demonstrated robust efficacy in both pharmacodynamic models with ED90 values <3 mg/kg. PMID:24597733

Horne, Daniel B; Tamayo, Nuria A; Bartberger, Michael D; Bo, Yunxin; Clarine, Jeffrey; Davis, Carl D; Gore, Vijay K; Kaller, Matthew R; Lehto, Sonya G; Ma, Vu V; Nishimura, Nobuko; Nguyen, Thomas T; Tang, Phi; Wang, Weiya; Youngblood, Beth D; Zhang, Maosheng; Gavva, Narender R; Monenschein, Holger; Norman, Mark H



Pulmonary aerosol actions of LY188695 (KB2413), a new potent H1-receptor antagonist.  


The new potent H1 receptor antagonist, LY188695 (KB2413), was delivered to guinea pigs as a pulmonary aerosol and its ability to inhibit histamine-induced airway obstruction examined. Aerosol LY188695 was more effective than inhaled chlorpheniramine or clemastine in reducing the pulmonary gas trapping produced by histamine challenge. Lung antihistamine effects occurred within minutes of a brief, low concentration aerosol exposure and persisted for at least 1 hour. LY188695 aerosol treatment did not produce significant inhibition of methacholine-induced gas trapping. Although systemic antihistamine effects occurred 50 minutes after LY188695 inhalation, aerosol administration produced an enhanced local (i.e., lung) action compared to intravenous delivery. PMID:2888282

Silbaugh, S A; Stengel, P W; Rinkema, L E



Structure and synthesis of a potent glutamate receptor antagonist in wasp venom.  

PubMed Central

A low molecular weight toxin isolated from the venom of the digger wasp Philanthus triangulum, first noted by T. Piek, is a potent antagonist of transmission at quisqualate-sensitive glutamate synapses of locust leg muscle. This philanthotoxin 433 (PTX-433) has been purified, chemically characterized, and subsequently synthesized along with two closely related analogues. It has a butyryl/tyrosyl/spermine sequence and a molecular weight of 435. Its two analogues, PTX-343 and PTX-334 (the numerals denoting the number of methylenes between the amino groups of the spermine moiety), are also active on the glutamate synapse of the locust leg muscle; PTX-334 was more potent and PTX-343 was less potent than the natural toxin. Such chemicals are useful for studying, labeling, and purifying glutamate receptors and may become models for an additional class of therapeutic drugs and possibly insecticides. Images PMID:2838850

Eldefrawi, A T; Eldefrawi, M E; Konno, K; Mansour, N A; Nakanishi, K; Oltz, E; Usherwood, P N



The nociceptin\\/orphanin FQ-NOP receptor antagonist effects on an animal model of sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was investigate the effects of nociceptin\\/orphanin FQ (N\\/OFQ) and ([Nphe1,Arg14,Lys15]N\\/OFQ–NH2) (UFP-101), the endogenous N\\/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP) ligand and a selective NOP antagonist, respectively, in the inflammatory\\u000a response after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective, controlled experiment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Animal basic science laboratory.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  Rats subjected to CLP

Dickson Carvalho; Fabricia Petronilho; Francieli Vuolo; Roberta Albino Machado; Larissa Constantino; Remo Guerrini; Girolamo Calo; Elaine Cristina Gavioli; Emílio Luiz Streck; Felipe Dal-Pizzol



The in vitro pharmacology of the peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonists, alvimopan, ADL 08-0011 and methylnaltrexone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized the pharmacology of the peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonists, alvimopan, its metabolite,\\u000a ADL 08-0011, and methylnaltrexone. The activities of the compounds were investigated with respect to human or guinea pig opioid\\u000a receptor binding and function in recombinant cell lines and mechanical responsiveness of the guinea pig ileum. Alvimopan and\\u000a ADL 08-0011 had higher binding affinity than methylnaltrexone

D. T. Beattie; M. Cheruvu; N. Mai; M. O’Keefe; S. Johnson-Rabidoux; C. Peterson; E. Kaufman; R. Vickery



Novel selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist MJ08 with potent in vivo bioactivity and inverse agonistic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To characterize the biological profiles of MJ08, a novel selective CB1 receptor antagonist.Methods:Radioligand binding assays were performed using rat brain and spleen membrane preparations. CB1 and CB2 receptor redistribution and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) assays were performed with IN CELL Analyzer. Inverse agonism was studied using intracellular cAMP assays, and in guinea-pig ileum and mouse vas deferens smooth muscle preparations. In

Wei Chen; Cheng Xu; Hong-ying Liu; Long Long; Wei Zhang; Zhi-bing Zheng; Yun-de Xie; Li-li Wang; Song Li



Histamine-induced edema in the rat paw — effect of capsaicin denervation and a CGRP receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine is known to cause edema and excitation of small-diameter primary afferent neurons. In the present study we wanted to investigate to which extent afferent neurons participate in histamine-induced edema and, subsequently, determine possible inhibitory effects of a tachykinin NK1 receptor and CGRP receptor antagonist on the histamine response. Intraplantar injection of histamine (0.5 ?mol) into the rat hind paw

Rainer Amann; Rufina Schuligoi; Ilse Lanz; Josef Donnerer



Normalizing NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Attenuating Diabetic Nephropathy by the Dual Endothelin Receptor Antagonist CPU0213 in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: NADPH oxidase(NOX) is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Activation of NOX could be mediated via endothelin A (ETAR) and B receptors (ETBR) of the endothelin (ET) system. Thus, CPU0213, a dual ET receptor antagonist, was expected to attenuate DN by suppressing NOX. Methods: Diabetes was produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks

Ming Xu; De-Zai Dai; Yin Dai



Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists regulate cell surface-associated protein disulfide isomerase in sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, disordered thiol protein status, and erythrocyte hydration status play important roles in sickle cell disease (SCD) through unresolved mechanisms. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an oxidoreductase that mediates thiol/disulfide interchange reactions. We provide evidence that PDI is present in human and mouse erythrocyte membranes and that selective blockade with monoclonal antibodies against PDI leads to reduced Gardos channel activity (1.6±0.03 to 0.56±0.02 mmol·1013 cell?1·min?1, P<0.001) and density of sickle erythrocytes (D50: 1.115±0.001 to 1.104±0.001 g/ml, P=0.012) with an IC50 of 4 ng/ml. We observed that erythrocyte associated-PDI activity was increased in the presence of ET-1 (3.1±0.2 to 5.6±0.4%, P<0.0001) through a mechanism that includes casein kinase II. Consistent with these results, in vivo treatment of BERK sickle transgenic mice with ET-1 receptor antagonists lowered circulating and erythrocyte associated-PDI activity (7.1±0.3 to 5.2±0.2%, P<0.0001) while improving hematological parameters and Gardos channel activity. Thus, our results suggest that PDI is a novel target in SCD that regulates erythrocyte volume and oxidative stress and may contribute to cellular adhesion and endothelial activation leading to vasoocclusion as observed in SCD.—Prado, G. N., Romero, J. R., Rivera, A. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists regulate cell surface-associated protein disulfide isomerase in sickle cell disease. PMID:23913858

Prado, Gregory N.; Romero, Jose R.; Rivera, Alicia



Cardiovascular safety profile of MA-2029, a novel motilin receptor antagonist.  


The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular effect of MA-2029, a selective motilin receptor antagonist highly expected for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). MA-2029 inhibited the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) current at 100 microg/ml, but shortened action potential duration (APD) in isolated guinea pig papillary muscles at 10 and 100 microg/ml and the corrected QT (QTc) interval after oral administration of 30 and 300 mg/kg in conscious telemetered dogs. The discrepancy was probably caused by blockade of the Ca(2+) channel because MA-2029 inhibited the Ca(2+) current in isolated guinea pig myocytes. MA-2029 at 100 microg/ml also decreased the maximum rising velocity and action potential amplitude in the action potential study, indicating that MA-2029 has Na(+) channel blocking potential. In the cardiovascular study, MA-2029 at 30 mg/kg induced slight cardiovascular changes such as hypotension, QTc shortening, and PR prolongation possibly caused by Ca(2+) channel blockade. The plasma concentration at 4 hr after 30 mg/kg administration was 2.10 microg/ml, 200-fold higher than the effective concentration of MA-2029 as a motilin receptor antagonist. These results suggest that MA-2029 has sufficient cardiovascular safety although it inhibits multiple ion channels at supra-effective concentrations. On the other hand, cisapride, an effective IBS drug, showed clear hERG inhibition and APD prolongation at 100 ng/ml. Cisapride exhibited a narrow safety margin because it caused QT prolongation potential even at the therapeutic concentration. In conclusion, MA-2029 is a novel drug highly expected for the treatment of IBS with lower cardiovascular risk than cisapride. PMID:19043284

Tabo, Mitsuyasu; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Honda, Masaki; Itoh, Misae; Kimura, Kazuya



Efficacy of Vestipitant, A Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonist, in Primary Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Investigate the hypnotic effects of repeated doses of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, vestipitant, in primary insomnia. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 28-day parallel-group study. Setting: Eleven sleep centers in Germany. Patients: One hundred sixty-one patients with primary insomnia. Interventions: Patients received vestipitant (15 mg) or placebo for 28 days; 2-night polysomnographic assessment occurred on nights 1/2 and 27/28. Measurements and Results: Wake after sleep onset (WASO) was improved on nights 1/2 and 27/28 (ratio, vestipitant versus placebo [95% confidence interval]: 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], P = 0.001 and 0.79 [0.65, 0.96], P = 0.02, respectively), demonstrating maintenance of the effect following repeated dosing. Latency to persistent sleep was shorter with vestipitant on nights 1/2 (P = 0.0006 versus placebo), but not on nights 27/28. Total sleep time (TST) improved with vestipitant (nights 1/2: P < 0.0001, nights 27/28: P = 0.02 versus placebo). Next-day cognitive function tests demonstrated no residual effects of vestipitant (P > 0.05 versus placebo). Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 25% of vestipitant patients versus 22% for placebo. Headache was the most common AE (8% of vestipitant patients versus 9% for placebo). Conclusions: Vestipitant improved sleep maintenance in patients with primary insomnia, with no associated next-day cognitive impairment. The effects on wake after sleep onset and total sleep time were maintained following repeated dosing. Citation: Ratti E; Carpenter DJ; Zamuner S; Fernandes S; Squassante L; Danker-Hopfe H; Archer G; Robertson J; Alexander R; Trist DG; Merlo-Pich E. Efficacy of vestipitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, in primary insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1823-1830. PMID:24293756

Ratti, Emiliangelo; Carpenter, David J.; Zamuner, Stefano; Fernandes, Sofia; Squassante, Lisa; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Archer, Graeme; Robertson, Jonathan; Alexander, Robert; Trist, David G.; Merlo-Pich, Emilio



Receptor occupancy in lumbar CSF as a measure of the antagonist activity of atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol in the CNS.  

PubMed Central

1. The antagonist activity of atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol in the CNS was estimated by determining the extent to which the drugs occupy animal beta 1- and beta 2-receptors in CSF ex vivo at the time of lumbar puncture. 2. Five CSF and plasma samples were obtained 4 h after drug intake from subjects treated for hypertension with atenolol, 100 mg once daily and five from subjects treated with metoprolol, 50 mg three times daily. Twenty-four samples were obtained 1, 2, 4 or 12 h after drug intake from subjects receiving a single 40 mg dose of propranolol. 3. The receptor occupancy in the samples was determined by adding beta 1-receptors of rabbit lung and beta 2-receptors of rat reticulocytes into the samples and labeling the receptors with a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, (-)-[3H]-CGP-12177. 4. Atenolol and metoprolol occupied, as expected, larger fractions of beta 1- than beta 2-receptors in CSF and plasma samples. The receptor fraction occupied by atenolol in CSF was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that occupied by metoprolol. The differences in occupancy between the drugs in plasma, however, were not statistically significant. 5. Propranolol occupied larger fractions of beta 2- than beta 1-receptors in the samples. Although propranolol concentrations in CSF were only 1/20-1/40 of those in plasma, the receptor occupancy of propranolol in CSF was similar to that in plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8099803

Kaila, T; Marttila, R



Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists potentiate morphine antinociception recorded from the tail but not from the hind paw in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of pretreatment with low-affinity, uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists on morphine-induced antinociception in rats using the same intensity of thermal stimulus applied to the tail and the paws. Similar baseline responses to thermal stimuli of the same intensity were recorded from tails and hind paws. However, morphine produced equal antinociception from the tail and hind paw when

Ewa Kozela; Wojciech Danysz; Piotr Popik



Cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting.  


Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) affects approximately one third of patients and may lead to aspiration, dehiscence, esophageal rupture, and increased treatment costs if inadequately controlled. An important therapeutic option for prevention of PONV is 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists. Nonetheless, therapeutic failure sometimes occurs. Metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system differs among the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, and provides a rational explanation for decreased therapeutic efficacy in some patients. Four of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist agents (dolasetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, and tropisetron) are metabolized in various degrees via CYP2D6, an isoform subject to marked genetic polymorphism. In patients with duplicate CYP2D6 alleles, degradation into inactive metabolites occurs rapidly with these four 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, resulting in decreased efficacy for preventing PONV. Granisetron is the only agent in this class that is not metabolized via CYP2D6. Instead, granisetron is metabolized via the CYP3A4 isoform, which is not subject to significant genetic polymorphism. CYP2D6 genotype screening prior to PONV treatment may allow for modification of antiemetic dosing. An alternative is to use a 5-HT3 agent that is metabolized independently of the CYP2D6 isoform, such as granisetron, that would obviate the need for genotyping and may lead to improved prophylaxis of PONV. PMID:16192915

Janicki, Piotr K



Antagonists of excitatory opioid receptor functions enhance morphine's analgesic potency and attenuate opioid tolerance/dependence liability.  


Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that cotreatments with extremely low doses of opioid receptor antagonists can markedly enhance the efficacy and specificity of morphine and related opioid analgesics. Our correlative studies of the cotreatment of nociceptive types of dorsal-root ganglion neurons in vitro and mice in vivo with morphine plus specific opioid receptor antagonists have shown that antagonism of Gs-coupled excitatory opioid receptor functions by cotreatment with ultra-low doses of clinically available opioid antagonists, e.g. naloxone and naltrexone, markedly enhances morphine's antinociceptive potency and simultaneously attenuates opioid tolerance and dependence. These preclinical studies in vitro and in vivo provide cellular mechanisms that can readily account for the unexpected enhancement of morphine's analgesic potency in recent clinical studies of post-surgical pain patients cotreated with morphine plus low doses of naloxone or nalmefene. The striking consistency of these multidisciplinary studies on nociceptive neurons in culture, behavioral assays on mice and clinical trials on post-surgical pain patients indicates that clinical treatment of pain can, indeed, be significantly improved by administering morphine or other conventional opioid analgesics together with appropriately low doses of an excitatory opioid receptor antagonist. PMID:10666516

Crain, S M; Shen, K F



Synthetic Competitive Antagonists of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor: Effect on ACTH Secretion in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypeptide analogs of the known members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo for enhanced potency or competitive antagonism. Predictive methods and physico-chemical measurements had suggested an internal secondary alpha -helical conformation spanning about 25 residues for at least three members of the CRF family. Maximization of alpha -helix-forming potential by amino

Jean Rivier; Catherine Rivier; Wylie Vale



Design of novel chimeric melanotropin-deltorphin analogues. Discovery of the first potent human melanocortin 1 receptor antagonist.  


A number of novel alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH) analogues have been designed, synthesized, and assayed for bioactivity at the melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor from Xenopus frog skin, and selected potent analogues were examined at recombinant human MC1, MC3, and MC4 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. These ligands were designed from Deltorphin-II, by a new hybrid approach, which incorporates the hydrophobic tail and the address sequence of Deltorphin-II (Glu-Val-Val-Gly-NH(2)) and key pharmacophore elements of melanotropins. Some of the ligands designed, c[Xxx-Yyy-Zzz-Arg-Trp-Glu]-Val-Val-Gly-NH(2) [XXX = nothing, Gly, beta-Ala, gamma-Abu, 6-Ahx; YYY = His, His(3-Bom), (S)-cyclopentylglycine (Cpg); ZZZ = Phe, d-Phe; d-Nal(2')], show high potency at melanocortin receptors. One ligand, GXH-32B-c[beta-Ala-His-d-Nal(2')-Arg-Trp-Glu]-Val-Val-Gly-NH(2), the most potent of the chimeric analogues tested, displayed agonist activity at each of the MC receptor subtypes analyzed, with an EC(50) of 2 nM at the amphibian MC1 receptor. In contrast, GXH-38B-c[Gly-Cpg-d-Nal(2')-Arg-Trp-Glu]-Val-Val-Gly-NH(2) (Cpg = cyclopentyl glycine) was an antagonist with a IC(50) of 43 nM at the amphibian receptor, and among the human subtypes tested, was the most potent at the MC1 receptor subtype where it also acted as an antagonist (K(i) = 53 nM), which is the first potent antagonist discovered for the human MC1 receptor. These results provide strong evidence supporting our hypothesis that ligand scaffolds for different G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be used to design ligands for other GPCRs and to design more potent ligands to treat diseases associated with the human MC1 receptor. PMID:12593660

Han, G; Quillan, J M; Carlson, K; Sadée, W; Hruby, V J



Antidepressant Effects of the Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptor Antagonist Scopolamine: A Review  

PubMed Central

The muscarinic cholinergic receptor system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, with physiological evidence indicating this system is overactive or hyperresponsive in depression and with genetic evidence showing that variation in genes coding for receptors within this system are associated with higher risk for depression. In studies aimed at assessing whether a reduction in muscarinic cholinergic receptor function would improve depressive symptoms, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine manifested antidepressant effects that were robust and rapid relative to conventional pharmacotherapies. Here, we review the data from a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving subjects with unipolar or bipolar depression treated with parenteral doses of scopolamine. The onset and duration of the antidepressant response are considered in light of scopolamine's pharmacokinetic properties and an emerging literature that characterizes scopolamine's effects on neurobiological systems beyond the cholinergic system that appear relevant to the neurobiology of mood disorders. Scopolamine infused at 4.0 ?g/kg intravenously produced robust antidepressant effects versus placebo, which were evident within 3 days after the initial infusion. Placebo-adjusted remission rates were 56% and 45% for the initial and subsequent replication studies, respectively. While effective in male and female subjects, the change in depression ratings was greater in female subjects. Clinical improvement persisted more than 2 weeks following the final infusion. The timing and persistence of the antidepressant response to scopolamine suggest a mechanism beyond that of direct muscarinic cholinergic antagonism. These temporal relationships suggest that scopolamine-induced changes in gene expression and synaptic plasticity may confer the therapeutic mechanism. PMID:23200525

Drevets, Wayne C.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Furey, Maura L.



Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.  

PubMed Central

The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of MBP with the M2 muscarinic receptor is allosteric. This effect of MBP suggests that it may function as an endogenous allosteric inhibitor of agonist binding to the M2 muscarinic receptor. Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by MBP was reversible by treatment with heparin, which binds and neutralizes MBP. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) also inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors and inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes. On a molar basis, EPO is less potent than MBP. Neither eosinophil cationic protein nor eosinophil-derived neurotoxin affected binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors. Thus both MBP and EPO are selective allosteric antagonists at M2 receptors. The effects of these proteins may be important causes of M2 receptor dysfunction and enhanced vagally mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma. Images PMID:8473484

Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A D



Mechanisms for Antagonistic Regulation of AMPA and NMDA-D1 Receptor Complexes at Postsynaptic Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the analysis of these pathways we conclude that postsynaptic processes that regulate synaptic transmission undergo significant cross-talk with respect to glutamatergic and neuromodulatory (dopamine) signals. The main hypothesis is that of a compensatory regulation, a competitive switch between the induction of increased AMPA conductance by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and reduced expression of PP2A, and increased D1 receptor sensitivity and expression by increased PKA, PP2A and decreased PP-1/calcineurin expression. Both types of plasticity are induced by NMDA receptor activation and increased internal calcium, they require different internal conditions to become expressed. Specifically we propose that AMPA regulation and D1 regulation are inversely coupled;The net result may be a bifurcation of synaptic state into predominantly AMPA or NMDA-D1 synapses. This could have functional consequences: stable connections for AMPA and conditional gating for NMDA-D1 synapses.

Schumann, Johann; Scheler, Gabriele



Characterization of the binding of a novel nonxanthine adenosine antagonist radioligand, ( sup 3 H)CGS 15943, to multiple affinity states of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex  

SciTech Connect

The triazoloquinazoline CGS 15943 is the first reported nonxanthine adenosine antagonist that has high affinity for brain adenosine receptors. In the present study, the binding of (3H) CGS 15943 to recognition sites in rat cortical membranes was characterized. Saturation experiments revealed that (3H)CGS 15943 labeled a single class of recognition sites with high affinity and limited capacity. Competition studies revealed that the binding of (3H)CGS 15943 was consistent with the labeling of brain adenosine A1 receptors. Adenosine agonists inhibited 1 nM (3H)CGS 15943 binding with the following order of activity N6-cyclopentyladenosine (IC50 = 15 nM) greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than (R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 5'-N6-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than (S)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than CGS 21680 greater than CV 1808 (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). The potency order for adenosine antagonists was CGS 15943 (IC50 = 5 nM) greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-amino-2-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than theophylline = caffeine (IC50 greater than 10,000 nM). Antagonist inhibition curves were steep and best described by a one-site binding model. In contrast, adenosine A1 agonist competition curves were shallow, as indicated by Hill coefficients less than unity. Computer analysis revealed that these inhibition curves were best described by a two-site binding model. Agonist competition curves generated in the presence of 1 mM GTP resulted in a rightward shift and steepening of the inhibition-concentration curves, whereas antagonist binding was not altered in the presence of GTP. The complex binding interactions found with adenosine agonists indicate that (3H)CGS 15943 labels both high and low affinity components of the adenosine A1 receptor in the rat cortex.

Jarvis, M.F.; Williams, M.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A. (CIBA-GEIGY Corp., Summit, NJ (USA))



Binding mechanism of the farnesoid X receptor marine antagonist suvanine reveals a strategy to forestall drug modulation on nuclear receptors. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel ligands.  


Here, we report suvanine, a marine sponge sesterterpene, as an antagonist of the mammalian bile acid sensor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). Using suvanine as a template, we shed light on the molecular bases of FXR antagonism, identifying the essential conformational changes responsible for the transition from the agonist to the antagonist form. Molecular characterization of the nuclear corepressor NCoR and coactivator Src-1 revealed that receptor conformational changes are associated with a specific dynamic of recruitment of these cofactors to the promoter of OST?, a FXR regulated gene. Using suvanine as a novel hit, a library of semisynthetic derivatives has been designed and prepared, leading to pharmacological profiles ranging from agonism to antagonism toward FXR. Deep pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that derivative 19 represents a new chemotype of FXR modulator, whereas alcohol 6, with a simplified molecular scaffold, exhibits excellent antagonistic activity. PMID:23656455

Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Festa, Carmen; D'Amore, Claudio; De Marino, Simona; Renga, Barbara; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano



Role of interleukin 1 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in the mediation of rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Chronic arthritis is characterised by chronic joint inflammation and concurrent joint erosion and destruction. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) has been shown to be a key mediator in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin 1 mediates bone resorption and cartilage destruction, but may not play as dominant a part in joint swelling and inflammation. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) selectively inhibits the effects of IL1 by competing for the IL1 receptor on all surfaces of the synovium. In a randomised controlled trial in 472 patients with active disease, IL1Ra 30 mg/day, 75 mg/day or 150 mg/day given by subcutaneous injection significantly reduced the signs and symptoms of RA at 24 weeks. An American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20% response was seen in 43% of the patients treated with 150 mg/day at 24 weeks. IL1Ra was well tolerated; injection site reactions were the most common adverse event. In another trial, in 419 patients with active RA treated concomitantly with methotrexate, there were ACR 20% responses after 24 weeks in 42% of the patients treated with 1 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection and in 35% of those treated with 2 mg/kg/day. I1Ra offers a unique selective, targeted mechanism of action to block the IL1 mediated effects of RA.?? PMID:11053099

Schiff, M.



Crystal structure of the ?-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist  

PubMed Central

Summary Opium is one of the world’s oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many of their undesirable side effects (sedation, apnea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled ?-opioid receptor (?OR) in the central nervous system. Here we describe the 2.8 Å crystal structure of the ?OR in complex with an irreversible morphinan antagonist. Compared to the buried binding pocket observed in most GPCRs published to date, the morphinan ligand binds deeply within a large solvent-exposed pocket. Of particular interest, the ?OR crystallizes as a two-fold symmetric dimer through a four-helix bundle motif formed by transmembrane segments 5 and 6. These high-resolution insights into opioid receptor structure will enable the application of structure-based approaches to develop better drugs for the management of pain and addiction. PMID:22437502

Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Mathiesen, Jesper M.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Pardo, Leonardo; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Granier, Sebastien



Designed abscisic acid analogs as antagonists of PYL-PP2C receptor interactions.  


The plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for several abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is normally repressed by group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), but stress-induced ABA binds Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) receptors, which then bind and inhibit PP2Cs. X-ray structures of several receptor-ABA complexes revealed a tunnel above ABA's 3' ring CH that opens at the PP2C binding interface. Here, ABA analogs with sufficiently long 3' alkyl chains were predicted to traverse this tunnel and block PYL-PP2C interactions. To test this, a series of 3'-alkylsulfanyl ABAs were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Physiological, biochemical and structural analyses revealed that a six-carbon alkyl substitution produced a potent ABA antagonist that was sufficiently active to block multiple stress-induced ABA responses in vivo. This study provides a new approach for the design of ABA analogs, and the results validated structure-based design for this target class. PMID:24792952

Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Akiyama, Tomonori; Muto, Takuya; Yajima, Shunsuke; Sue, Masayuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Cutler, Sean R; Todoroki, Yasushi



Clinical and preclinical rationale for CGRP-receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine.  


Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to migraine and other primary headache disorders. It is found in every location described in migraine genesis and processing, including meninges, trigeminal ganglion, trigeminocervical complex, brainstem nuclei, and cortex. It is released in animal models following stimulation of the CNS similar to that seen in migraine, and triptans inhibit this release. Injection of CGRP into migraineurs results in delayed headache similar to migraine. Elevation of CGRP occurs during migraine, resolving following migraine-specific treatment. Finally, and most importantly, CGRP receptor antagonists terminate migraine with efficacy similar to triptans. Both intravenous olcegepant (BIBN 4096 BS) and oral telcagepant (MK-0974) have been effective, safe, and well tolerated in phase I and II studies. Telcagepant is currently in phase III trials, and preliminary results are favorable. The potential for a migraine-specific medication without vasoconstrictive or vascular side effects is enormous. CGRP receptor blockade may also have applications in other pathologic and pain syndromes. PMID:18808506

Tepper, Stewart J; Stillman, Mark J



Structure of the Human Dopamine D3 Receptor in Complex with a D2/D3 Selective Antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the intracellular side of the receptor, a locked conformation of the ionic lock and two distinctly different conformations of intracellular loop 2 are observed. Docking of R-22, a D3R-selective antagonist, reveals an extracellular extension of the eticlopride binding site that comprises a second binding pocket for the aryl amide of R-22, which differs between the highly homologous D2R and D3R. This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications.

Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Hanson, Michael A.; Shi, Lei; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C. (Cornell); (Scripps); (NIDA); (Columbia); (UCSD); (Receptos)



Effect of Bradykinin Receptor Antagonists on Vincristine and Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced and Diabetic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of bradykinin receptor blockade in the development of neuropathies caused by diabetes mellitus and vincristine was examined. The effects of a potent and selective B1 receptor antagonist (des-Arg10-HOE 140) as well as a specific antagonist of B2 receptors (HOE 140) were investigated. Both agents significantly decreased hyperalgesia caused otherwise by vincristine. In a diabetic neuropathy model, both agents

Magdalena Bujalska; Jan Tatarkiewicz



Is there an inherent limit to the efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists in the acute treatment of migraine? A comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are a new treatment principle in acute migraine attacks. Intravenous\\u000a olcegepant 2.5 mg resulted in 66% headache relief after 2 h, whereas subcutaneous sumatriptan resulted in 81–92% headache\\u000a relief after 2 h. The intrinsic activity of a parenteral triptan, a 5HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist, is thus higher than the maximum effect of the parenteral CGRP receptor antagonist olcegepant.

Peer C. Tfelt-Hansen



Antagonists of the human adenosine A 2A receptor. Part 1: Discovery and synthesis of thieno[3,2- d]pyrimidine-4-methanone derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (?)-(11R,2?S)-enantiomer of the antimalarial drug mefloquine has been found to be a reasonably potent and moderately selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. Further investigation of this compound has led to the discovery of a series of keto-aryl thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives, which are potent and selective antagonists of the adenosine A2A receptor. These derivatives show selectivity against the A1 receptor. Furthermore, some

Roger J. Gillespie; David R. Adams; David Bebbington; Karen Benwell; Ian A. Cliffe; Claire E. Dawson; Colin T. Dourish; Allan Fletcher; Suneel Gaur; Paul R. Giles; Allan M. Jordan; Antony R. Knight; Lars J. S. Knutsen; Anthony Lawrence; Joanne Lerpiniere; Anil Misra; Richard H. P. Porter; Robert M. Pratt; Robin Shepherd; Rebecca Upton; Simon E. Ward; Scott M. Weiss; Douglas S. Williamson



Fine Specificity and Molecular Competition in SLAM Family Receptor Signalling  

PubMed Central

SLAM family receptors regulate activation and inhibition in immunity through recruitment of activating and inhibitory SH2 domain containing proteins to immunoreceptor tyrosine based switch motifs (ITSMs). Binding of the adaptors, SAP and EAT-2 to ITSMs in the cytoplasmic regions of SLAM family receptors is important for activation. We analysed the fine specificity of SLAM family receptor phosphorylated ITSMs and the conserved tyrosine motif in EAT-2 for SH2 domain containing signalling proteins. Consistent with the literature describing dependence of CRACC (SLAMF7) on EAT-2, CRACC bound EAT-2 (KD?=?0.003 ?M) with approximately 2 orders of magnitude greater affinity than SAP (KD?=?0.44 ?M). RNA interference in cytotoxicity assays in NK92 cells showed dependence of CRACC on SAP in addition to EAT-2, indicating selectivity of SAP and EAT-2 may depend on the relative concentrations of the two adaptors. The concentration of SAP was four fold higher than EAT-2 in NK92 cells. Compared with SAP, the significance of EAT-2 recruitment and its downstream effectors are not well characterised. We identified PLC?1 and PLC?2 as principal binding partners for the EAT-2 tail. Both PLC?1 and PLC?2 are functionally important for cytotoxicity in NK92 cells through CD244 (SLAMF4), NTB-A (SLAMF6) and CRACC. Comparison of the specificity of SH2 domains from activating and inhibitory signalling mediators revealed a hierarchy of affinities for CD244 (SLAMF4) ITSMs. While binding of phosphatase SH2 domains to individual ITSMs of CD244 was weak compared with SAP or EAT-2, binding of tandem SH2 domains of SHP-2 to longer peptides containing tandem phosphorylated ITSMs in human CD244 increased the affinity ten fold. The concentration of the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2 was in the order of a magnitude higher than the adaptors, SAP and EAT-2. These data demonstrate a mechanism for direct recruitment of phosphatases in inhibitory signalling by ITSMs, while explaining competitive dominance of SAP and EAT-2. PMID:24642916

Wilson, Timothy J.; Garner, Lee I.; Metcalfe, Clive; King, Elliott; Margraf, Stefanie; Brown, Marion H.



Anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like profile of a new CRF 1 receptor antagonist, R278995\\/CRA0450  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-[8-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylquinolin-4-yl]-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxamide benzenesulfonate (R278995\\/CRA0450) is a newly synthesized corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles of R278995\\/CRA0450 were investigated. R278995\\/CRA0450 showed high affinity for recombinant and native CRF1 receptors without having affinity for the CRF2 receptor. R278995\\/CRA0450 attenuated CRF-induced cyclic AMP formation in AtT-20 cells and CRF-induced forepaw treading in

Shigeyuki Chaki; Atsuro Nakazato; Ludo Kennis; Masato Nakamura; Claire Mackie; Masayuki Sugiura; Petra Vinken; David Ashton; Xavier Langlois; Thomas Steckler



Behavioral effects of AMI193, a 5HT 2A- and dopamine D 2-receptor antagonist, in the squirrel monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

8-[3-(4-Fluorophenoxy) propyl]-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]decan-4-one (AMI-193) was developed as a 5-HT2A-selective antagonist with in vivo activity suitable for behavioral studies. However, AMI-193 is a potent dopamine D2-receptor antagonist with low nanomolar affinity. Accordingly, D2-actions may contribute to its behavioral pharmacology. In the present study, the effects of AMI-193 on operant behavior were characterized in squirrel monkeys. In subjects trained under a fixed-interval (FI)

Paul W Czoty; Leonard L Howell



Ticagrelor: The First Reversibly Binding Oral P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Ticagrelor (AZD6140) is the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist that blocks ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Unlike thienopyridines, which irreversibly bind to the P2Y12 receptor for the lifetime of the platelet, ticagrelor binds reversibly to the receptor and exhibits rapid onset and offset of effect, which closely follow drug exposure levels. Animal models indicate greater separation between antithrombotic effects and bleeding effects with ticagrelor than with thienopyridines. Unlike the thienopyridines, ticagrelor does not require metabolic activation. It is quickly absorbed and exhibits a rapid antiplatelet effect, with higher and more consistent levels of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) being maintained across the dosing interval than with clopidogrel. IPA levels decline with plasma drug levels after discontinuation of dosing. In the phase II DISPERSE-2 trial of 990 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS), ticagrelor treatment with 90 mg and 180 mg twice daily showed comparable rates of major and minor bleeding compared with clopidogrel 75 mg while there were numerically fewer myocardial infarctions. Ticagrelor resulted in greater IPA in clopidogrel-naïve patients and produced substantial additional reductions in platelet aggregation activity in patients pretreated with clopidogrel. Ticagrelor treatment was well tolerated in DISPERSE-2, and discontinuation rates were comparable to those observed for clopidogrel. An increased risk of mild to moderate dyspnea and mostly asymptomatic ventricular pauses were observed in phase II studies. The mechanisms for these effects are currently being investigated. The efficacy and safety of ticagrelor are being further evaluated in the phase III PLATO trial, involving approximately 18,000 patients with ACS, including both ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation ACS. PMID:19604248

Husted, Steen; van Giezen, JJJ



Effects of a farnesoid X receptor antagonist on hepatic lipid metabolism in primates.  


We aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-dyslipidemic effect of compound-T3, a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, by investigating its effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-human primates. We administered lipid-lowering drugs for 7 days to cynomolgus monkeys receiving a high-fat diet, and subsequently measured the levels of lipid parameters in plasma, feces, and hepatic tissue fluids. Compound-T3 (0.3 and 3mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the plasma levels of non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in a dose-dependent manner. It also decreased the mRNA levels of hepatic small heterodimer partner-1, induced the mRNA expression of hepatic cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase, reduced hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels, increased fecal bile acid excretion, and upregulated the expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Furthermore, compound-T3 significantly increased plasma HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I tended to increase after compound-T3 treatment. Compound-T3 also induced accumulation of hepatic bile acids and decreased the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic bile acid export pump. The effects of cholestyramine (300mg/kg p.o.) on the plasma and hepatic lipid parameters were similar to those of compound-T3, and it increased fecal bile acid levels without causing accumulation of hepatic bile acids. These findings suggest that LDL receptor-mediated hepatic LDL incorporation due to cholesterol catabolism catalyzed by cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase decreases plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels. Upregulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I mRNA expression may partially contribute to the increase in HDL cholesterol levels mediated by compound-T3. PMID:24361308

Amano, Yuichiro; Shimada, Mitsuyuki; Miura, Shotaro; Adachi, Ryutaro; Tozawa, Ryuichi



VIP and endothelin receptor antagonist: An effective combination against experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) remains a therapeutic challenge, and the search continues for more effective drugs and drug combinations. We recently reported that deletion of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene caused the spontaneous expression of a PH phenotype that was fully corrected by VIP. The objectives of this investigation were to answer the questions: 1) Can VIP protect against PH in other experimental models? and 2) Does combining VIP with an endothelin (ET) receptor antagonist bosentan enhance its efficacy? Methods Within 3 weeks of a single injection of monocrotaline (MCT, s.c.) in Sprague Dawley rats, PAH developed, manifested by pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, RV hypertrophy, and death within the next 2 weeks. MCT-injected animals were either untreated, treated with bosentan (p.o.) alone, with VIP (i.p.) alone, or with both together. We selected this particular combination upon finding that VIP down-regulates endothelin receptor expression which is further suppressed by bosentan. Therapeutic outcomes were compared as to hemodynamics, pulmonary vascular pathology, and survival. Results Treatment with VIP, every other day for 3 weeks, begun on the same day as MCT, almost totally prevented PAH pathology, and eliminated mortality for 45 days. Begun 3 weeks after MCT, however, VIP only partially reversed PAH pathology, though more effectively than bosentan. Combined therapy with both drugs fully reversed the pathology, while preventing mortality for at least 45 days. Conclusions 1) VIP completely prevented and significantly reversed MCT-induced PAH; 2) VIP was more effective than bosentan, probably because it targets a wider range of pro-remodeling pathways; and 3) combination therapy with VIP plus bosentan was more effective than either drug alone, probably because both drugs synergistically suppressed ET-ET receptor pathway. PMID:22029879



Complex Actions of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist NH-3 on Gene Promoters in Different Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

It is desirable to obtain new antagonists for thyroid hormone (TRs) and other nuclear receptors (NRs). We previously used X-ray structural models of TR ligand binding domains (LBDs) to design compounds, such as NH-3, that impair coactivator binding to activation function 2 (AF-2) and block thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) actions. However, TRs bind DNA and are transcriptionally active without ligand. Thus, NH-3 could modulate TR activity via effects on other coregulator interaction surfaces, such as activation function (AF-1) and corepressor binding sites. Here, we find that NH-3 blocks TR-LBD interactions with coactivators and corepressors and also inhibits activities of AF-1 and AF-2 in transfections. While NH-3 lacks detectable agonist activity at T3-activated genes in GC pituitary cells it nevertheless activates spot 14 (S14) in HTC liver cells with the latter effect accompanied by enhanced histone H4 acetylation and coactivator recruitment at the S14 promoter. Surprisingly, T3 promotes corepressor recruitment to target promoters. NH-3 effects vary; we observe transient recruitment of N-CoR to S14 in GC cells and dismissal and rebinding of N-CoR to the same promoter in HTC cells. We propose that NH-3 will generally behave as an antagonist by blocking AF-1 and AF-2 but that complex effects on coregulator recruitment may result in partial/mixed agonist effects that are independent of blockade of T3 binding in some contexts. These properties could ultimately be utilized in drug design and development of new selective TR modulators. PMID:18930112

Shah, Vanya; Nguyen, Phuong; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Togashi, Marie; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Baxter, John D.; Webb, Paul



In silico identification of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist with biological activity in vitro and in vivo.  


The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is critically involved in several physiologic processes, including cancer progression and multiple immune system activities. We, and others, have hypothesized that AHR modulators represent an important new class of targeted therapeutics. Here, ligand shape-based virtual modeling techniques were used to identify novel AHR ligands on the basis of previously identified chemotypes. Four structurally unique compounds were identified. One lead compound, 2-((2-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)oxy)acetamide (CB7993113), was further tested for its ability to block three AHR-dependent biologic activities: triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion or migration in vitro and AHR ligand-induced bone marrow toxicity in vivo. CB7993113 directly bound both murine and human AHR and inhibited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)- and TCDD-induced reporter activity by 75% and 90% respectively. A novel homology model, comprehensive agonist and inhibitor titration experiments, and AHR localization studies were consistent with competitive antagonism and blockade of nuclear translocation as the primary mechanism of action. CB7993113 (IC50 3.3 × 10(-7) M) effectively reduced invasion of human breast cancer cells in three-dimensional cultures and blocked tumor cell migration in two-dimensional cultures without significantly affecting cell viability or proliferation. Finally, CB7993113 effectively inhibited the bone marrow ablative effects of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in vivo, demonstrating drug absorption and tissue distribution leading to pharmacological efficacy. These experiments suggest that AHR antagonists such as CB7993113 may represent a new class of targeted therapeutics for immunomodulation and/or cancer therapy. PMID:25159092

Parks, Ashley J; Pollastri, Michael P; Hahn, Mark E; Stanford, Elizabeth A; Novikov, Olga; Franks, Diana G; Haigh, Sarah E; Narasimhan, Supraja; Ashton, Trent D; Hopper, Timothy G; Kozakov, Dmytro; Beglov, Dimitri; Vajda, Sandor; Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Sherr, David H



Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists inhibit the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult brain after seizures induced by pentylenetrazol.  


Seizures have been shown to promote the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult brain, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we examined the effects of selective ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on granule cell precursor proliferation in adult rats after pentylenetrazol (PTZ)-induced generalized clonic seizures. We found that the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 significantly inhibited behavioral and EEG seizures and completely blocked seizure-induced increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Although the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist DNQX was not observed to affect seizures, it significantly suppressed the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Double immunohistochemical staining showed that both the mature granule cells and the majority of BrdU-labeled, mitotically active cells expressed the NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and the AMPA/KA receptor subunit GluR2. Because accumulated evidence showed that mild seizures are sufficient to promote precursor cell proliferation, the present findings that MK-801 inhibited seizures and completely blocked seizure-induced increase in precursor cell proliferation suggest that the direct blockade action of MK-801 on NMDA receptors on the granule cell precursors may play an important role in blocking seizure-induced precursor cell proliferation. The suppression of seizure-induced proliferation of granule cell precursors by DNQX may be achieved by the direct action of DNQX on AMPA/KA receptors on the granule cell precursors. Thus, our findings indicate that seizures may promote cell proliferation in the adult rat dentate gyrus through glutamatergic mechanisms acting on both NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors. PMID:15312797

Jiang, Wen; Wolfe, Ken; Xiao, Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Yuan-Gui; Zhang, Xia



Prostaglandin F2? FP receptor antagonist improves outcomes after experimental traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Injuries to the brain promote upregulation of prostaglandins, notably the proinflammatory PGF2?, and overactivation of their cognate G-protein-coupled FP receptor, which could exacerbate neuronal damage. Our study is focused on investigation of the FP receptor as a target for novel neuroprotective drugs in a preclinical animal traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. Methods Accordingly, the effects of acute intraperitoneal post-treatment with selective FP antagonist AL-8810 were studied in wildtype (WT) and FP receptor knockout (FP-/-) mice after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Neurological impairments were evaluated using neurological deficit scores (NDS) and the grip strength test. Cortical lesions and overall brain pathology were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Morphological analyses of cerebral vasculature and anastomoses revealed no differences between WT and FP-/- mice. CCI produced cortical lesions characterized by cavitation, neuronal loss, and hematoma with a volume of 20.0?±?1.0 mm3 and significant hippocampal swelling (146.5?±?7.4% of contralateral) compared with sham (P < 0.05). Post-treatment with AL-8810 (1 to 10 mg/kg) had no significant effect on cortical lesions, which suggests the irreversible effect of primary CCI injury, but significantly reduced hippocampal swelling to a size not significantly different from the sham group. Post-treatment with AL-8810 at a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly improved NDS at 24 and 48 hours after CCI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). In the AL-8810 group, CCI-induced decrease in grip strength was three-fold (2.93?±?1.71) less and significantly different than in the saline-treated group. The FP-/- mice had significantly less hippocampal swelling, but not NDS, compared with WT mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed that pharmacologic blockade and genetic deletion of FP receptor led to attenuation of CCI-induced gliosis and microglial activation in selected brain regions. Conclusion This study provides, for the first time, demonstration of the unique role of the FP receptor as a potential target for disease-modifying CNS drugs for treatment of acute traumatic injury. PMID:24172576



In-vitro characterization of YM872, a selective, potent and highly water-soluble alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor antagonist.  


The in-vitro pharmacological properties of (2,3-dioxo-7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-quinoxal inyl)-acetic acid monohydrate, YM872, a novel and highly water-soluble alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-receptor antagonist were investigated. YM872 is highly water soluble (83 mg mL(-1) in Britton-Robinson buffer) compared with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo(F)quinoxaline (NBQX), 6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-7-nitro-2,3(1H,4H)-quinoxalinedione hydrochloride (YM90K) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). YM872 potently inhibits [3H]AMPA binding with a Ki (apparent equilibrium dissociation constant) value of 0.096 +/- 0.0024 microM. However, YM872 had very low affinity for other ionotropic glutamate receptors, as measured by competition with [3H]kainate (high-affinity kainate binding site, concentration resulting in half the maximum inhibition (IC50) = 4.6 +/- 0.14 microM), [3H]glutamate (N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor glutamate binding site, IC50 > 100 microM) and [3H]glycine (NMDA receptor glycine-binding site, IC50 > 100 microM). YM872 competitively antagonized kainate-induced currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes which express rat AMPA receptors, with a pA2 value of 6.97 +/- 0.01. In rat hippocampal primary cultures, YM872 blocked a 20-microM AMPA-induced increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration with an IC50 value of 0.82 +/- 0.031 microM, and blocked 300-microM kainate-induced neurotoxicity with an IC50 value of 1.02 microM. These results show that YM872 is a potent and highly water-soluble AMPA antagonist with great potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke. PMID:9720630

Kohara, A; Okada, M; Tsutsumi, R; Ohno, K; Takahashi, M; Shimizu-Sasamata, M; Shishikura, J; Inami, H; Sakamoto, S; Yamaguchi, T



N-fluoroalkylated and N-alkylated analogues of the dopaminergic D-2 receptor antagonist raclopride  

SciTech Connect

A series of raclopride ((S)-2-((3,5-dichloro-6-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzamido)methyl)-1-ethylpyrrolidine) derivatives bearing pyrrolidino N-fluoroalkyl or -alkyl substituents were synthesized and evaluated as potential dopaminergic receptor-based positron tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Radiosynthetic procedures for producing the corresponding N-(18F)fluoroalkylated analogues of raclopride from 18F- (beta+, t1/2 = 110 min) in high specific activity were also developed. In vitro binding assays using competitive displacement of (3H)spiperone from primate caudate tissue indicated that the N-alkylated analogues of raclopride had Ki values of 5-40 nM, whereas the corresponding values for analogous N-fluoroalkylated derivatives ranged from 90-160 nM. The relatively low D-2 binding affinity of these fluorinated salicylamides was corroborated by in vivo tissue biodistribution results in rodents. On the basis of structure-binding correlations, the impact of intramolecular hydrogen bonding, ligand basicity, and steric bulk on the affinity of the benzamides for D-2 receptor binding are discussed. Strategies are presented for the development of alternative fluorinated salicylamides that are both receptor active and metabolically stable.

Lannoye, G.S.; Moerlein, S.M.; Parkinson, D.; Welch, M.J. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (USA))