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Sample records for competitive receptor antagonist

  1. Competitive molecular docking approach for predicting estrogen receptor subtype ? agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that interfere with the endocrine system of vertebrates, often through direct or indirect interactions with nuclear receptor proteins. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are particularly important protein targets and many EDCs are ER binders, capable of altering normal homeostatic transcription and signaling pathways. An estrogenic xenobiotic can bind ER as either an agonist or antagonist to increase or inhibit transcription, respectively. The receptor conformations in the complexes of ER bound with agonists and antagonists are different and dependent on interactions with co-regulator proteins that vary across tissue type. Assessment of chemical endocrine disruption potential depends not only on binding affinity to ERs, but also on changes that may alter the receptor conformation and its ability to subsequently bind DNA response elements and initiate transcription. Using both agonist and antagonist conformations of the ER?, we developed an in silico approach that can be used to differentiate agonist versus antagonist status of potential binders. Methods The approach combined separate molecular docking models for ER agonist and antagonist conformations. The ability of this approach to differentiate agonists and antagonists was first evaluated using true agonists and antagonists extracted from the crystal structures available in the protein data bank (PDB), and then further validated using a larger set of ligands from the literature. The usefulness of the approach was demonstrated with enrichment analysis in data sets with a large number of decoy ligands. Results The performance of individual agonist and antagonist docking models was found comparable to similar models in the literature. When combined in a competitive docking approach, they provided the ability to discriminate agonists from antagonists with good accuracy, as well as the ability to efficiently select true agonists and antagonists from decoys during enrichment analysis. Conclusion This approach enables evaluation of potential ER biological function changes caused by chemicals bound to the receptor which, in turn, allows the assessment of a chemical's endocrine disrupting potential. The approach can be used not only by regulatory authorities to perform risk assessments on potential EDCs but also by the industry in drug discovery projects to screen for potential agonists and antagonists. PMID:25349983

  2. Competitive (AP7) and non-competitive (MK-801) NMDA receptor antagonists differentially alter glucose utilization in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, D.W.; Lee, S.J.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    The effects of D,L-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on regional brain metabolism were studied in unanesthetized, freely moving rats by using the quantitative {sup 14}C2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic procedure. AP7 (338 or 901 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity throughout most of the regions studied including sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. In contrast, MK-801 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity in sensory cortices, and an increase in limbic regions such as the hippocampal stratum lacunosum moleculare and entorhinal cortex. MK-801 also produced a biphasic response in agranular motor cortex, whereby the low dose increased while the high dose decreased labeling. In addition, MK-801 produced heterogeneous effects on regional cerebral metabolism in sensory cortices. Metabolic activity decreased in layer IV relative to layer Va following MK-801 treatment in primary somatosensory (SI) and visual (VI) cortices, suggesting a shift in activity from afferent fibers innervating layer IV to those innervating layer Va. MK-801 administration also decreased metabolic activity in granular SI relative to dysgranular SI, and in VI relative to secondary visual cortex (VII), thus providing a relative sparing of activity in dysgranular SI and VII. Thus, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist suppressed activity from extrinsic neocortical sources, enhancing relative intracortical activity and stimulating limbic regions, while the competitive NMDA antagonist depressed metabolic activity in all cortical regions.

  3. Competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists increase the proportion of functional high-affinity alpha6 subunit-containing receptors in granule cells of adult rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wall, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the properties of alpha6 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from granule cells in adult rat cerebellar slices. In control, only currents evoked by low concentrations of GABA were significantly reduced in amplitude by furosemide, the alpha6 subunit-containing receptor antagonist. However, in the presence of competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the furosemide block of currents evoked by higher GABA concentrations was markedly increased. Zinc, which preferentially blocks alpha6 subunit-containing receptors, also produced an increased block in the presence of bicuculline. To investigate whether similar effects occurred at synaptic receptors, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded. In most cells, furosemide produced little or no reduction in evoked IPSC amplitude. However in the presence of SR95531, a competitive antagonist, furosemide markedly reduced IPSC amplitude. One hypothesis, which could account for these observations, is that competitive antagonists prevent the continual activation of alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors by endogenous GABA and thus prevent their desensitisation. This hypothesis appears feasible as prolonged applications of low concentrations of GABA to recombinant alpha6beta2gamma2s receptors resulted in their desensitisation. PMID:12559122

  4. BAY36-7620: a potent non-competitive mGlu1 receptor antagonist with inverse agonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Fiona Y.; Stolle, Andreas; Beart, Philip M.; Voerste, Arnd; Brabet, Isabelle; Mauler, Frank; Joly, Cécile; Antonicek, Horst; Bockaert, Joël; Müller, Thomas; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Prézeau, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    L-glutamate (Glu) activates at least eight different G protein-coupled receptors, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which mostly act as regulators of synaptic transmission. These receptors consist of two domains: an extracellular one where agonists bind, and a transmembrane heptahelix region involved in G-protein activation. Although new mGlu receptor agonists and antagonists have been described, few are selective for a single mGlu subtype. Here, we have examined the effects of a novel compound BAY36-7620 [(3aS,6aS)-6a-Naphtalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydro-cyclopental[c]furan-1-on], on mGlu receptors (mGlu1-8), transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. BAY36-7620 is a potent (IC50 = 0.16 ?M) and selective antagonist at mGlu1 receptors and inhibits >60% of mGlu1a receptor constitutive activity (IC50 = 0.38 ?M). BAY36-7620 is therefore the first described mGlu1 receptor inverse agonist. To address the mechanism of action of BAY36-7620, Glu dose-response curves were performed in the presence of increasing concentrations of BAY36-7620. The results show that BAY36-7620 largely decreases the maximal effect of Glu. Moreover, BAY36-7620 did not displace the [3H]quisqualate binding from the Glu-binding pocket., further indicating that BAY36-7620 is a non-competitive mGlu1 antagonist. We then looked for its site of action. Studies of chimeric receptors containing regions of mGlu1, and regions of DmGluA, mGlu2 or mGlu5, revealed that the transmembrane region of mGlu1 is necessary for activity of BAY36-7620. Transmembrane helices 4–7 are shown to play a critical role in the selectivity of BAY36-7620. This specific site of action of BAY36-7620 differs from that of competitive antagonists, and indicates that the transmembrane region plays a pivotal role in the agonist-independent activity of this receptor. BAY36-7620 will be useful to further delineate the functional importance of the mGlu1 receptor, including its putative agonist-independent activity. PMID:11306677

  5. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, in a range of animal models

    PubMed Central

    Gigler, G; Móricz, K; ágoston, M; Simó, A; Albert, M; Benedek, A; Kapus, G; Kertész, S; Vegh, M; Barkóczy, J; Markó, B; Szabó, G; Matucz, É; Gacsályi, I; Lévay, G; Hársing, L G; Szénási, G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Blockade of AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate. Experimental approach: AMPA antagonist effects of EGIS-8332 were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332 were evaluated in various experimental models, relative to those of GYKI 53405. Key results: EGIS-8332 inhibited AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibited the AMPA- and quisqualate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of telencephalon neurons (IC50=5.1-9.0??M), in vitro. Good anticonvulsant actions were obtained in maximal electroshock-, sound- and chemically-induced seizures (range of ED50=1.4-14.0 mg kg?1 i.p.) in mice. Four days after transient global cerebral ischaemia, EGIS-8332 decreased neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area in gerbils and rats. EGIS-8332 dose-dependently reduced cerebral infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and rats (minimum effective dose=3 mg kg?1 i.p.). Side effects of EGIS-8332 emerged much above its pharmacologically active doses. A tendency for better efficacy of GYKI 53405 than that of EGIS-8332 was observed in anticonvulsant tests that reached statistical significance in few cases, while the contrary was perceived in cerebral ischaemia tests. Conclusions and implications: EGIS-8332 seems suitable for further development for the treatment of epilepsy, ischaemia and stroke based on its efficacy in a variety of experimental disease models, and on its low side effect potential. PMID:17603549

  6. Negative allosteric modulation of AMPA-preferring receptors by the selective isomer GYKI 53784 (LY303070), a specific non-competitive AMPA antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Jérôme; Guitton, Matthieu J; Puell, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    GYKI 53784 or LY303070 [(-)1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-4,5-dihydro-3-methylcarbamoyl-2,3-benzodiazepine] belongs to a new family of 2,3-benzodiazepine compounds (also called homophtalazines) selective and non-competitive antagonists at alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. These compounds include the original GYKI-52466, its more potent derivative GYKI 53655 and the active isomer of the latter, GYKI 53784. This review summarizes current knowledge of this novel AMPA antagonist: GYKI 53784. GYKI 53784 is the most potent of the compounds in the 2,3-benzodiazepine class, blocking AMPA receptor-mediated responses. In contrast to the compounds of the quinoxalinedione family, that block AMPA as well as kainate receptors, GYKI 53784 does not block the activation of kainate receptors. Furthermore, GYKI 53784 does not act at the same receptor site as positive AMPA modulators (i.e., cyclothiazide, BDP-12, 1-BCP or aniracetam). GYKI 53784 is a powerful neuroprotective agent in both in vitro and in vivo models of AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. In contrast to NMDA receptor antagonists, whose favorable clinical actions are compromised by important side effects such as the impairment of memory functions, the selective AMPA antagonist, GYKI 53784, may be of potential clinical value, both in acute (stroke and trauma) and chronic (Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy) neurological disorders. PMID:12353057

  7. Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis

    E-print Network

    Obbard, Darren

    LETTER Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis Jennie Garbutt,1 competitiveness arises from faster growth. However, diverse modes of parasite competition (resource, mixed infections were less virulent than single-strain infections, and between-strain competition tended

  8. Methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at the ?4?2 and ?3* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and an agonist at the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Talka, Reeta; Salminen, Outi; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine-methadone interactions have been studied in human beings and in various experimental settings regarding addiction, reward and pain. Most methadone maintenance treatment patients are smokers, and methadone administration has been shown to increase cigarette smoking. Previous in vitro studies have shown that methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at rat ?3?4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and an agonist at human ?7 nAChRs. In this study, we used cell lines expressing human ?4?2, ?7 and ?3* nAChRs to compare the interactions of methadone at the various human nAChRs under the same experimental conditions. A [(3) H]epibatidine displacement assay was used to determine whether methadone binds to the nicotinic receptors, and (86) Rb(+) efflux and changes in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+) ]i were used to assess changes in the functional activity of the receptors. Methadone displaced [(3) H]epibatidine from nicotinic agonist-binding sites in SH-EP1-h?7 and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in SH-EP1-h?4?2 cells. The Ki values for methadone were 6.3 ?M in SH-EP1-h?7 cells and 19.4 ?M and 1008 ?M in SH-SY5Y cells. Methadone increased [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and in SH-EP1-h?7 cells, the effect was more pronounced than the effect of nicotine treatment. In SH-EP1-h?4?2 cells, the effect of methadone was negligible compared to that of nicotine. Methadone pre-treatment abolished the nicotine-induced response in [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines expressing nAChRs. In SH-EP1-h?4?2 and SH-SY5Y cells, methadone had no effect on the (86) Rb(+) efflux, but it antagonized the nicotine-induced (86) Rb(+) ion efflux in a non-competitive manner. These results suggest that methadone is an agonist at human ?7 nAChRs and a non-competitive antagonist at human ?4?2 and ?3* nAChRs. This study adds further support to the previous findings that opioids interact with nAChRs, which may underlie their frequent co-administration in human beings and might be of interest to the field of drug discovery. PMID:25196810

  9. Effects of non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonists injected into some brain areas of WAG/Rij rats, an animal model of generalized absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Citraro, Rita; Russo, Emilio; Gratteri, Santo; Di Paola, Eugenio Donato; Ibbadu, Guido Ferreri; Curinga, Carmela; Gitto, Rosaria; Chimirri, Alba; Donato, Giuseppe; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2006-11-01

    CFM-2 [1-(4-aminophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-7,8-dimethoxy-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-one] and THIQ-10c [N-acetyl-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline], are two non-competitive 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl) propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists, which demonstrated to antagonize generalized tonic-clonic seizures in different animal models. We have evaluated the effects of such compounds in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy, the WAG/Rij rat. Animals were focally microinjected into specific brain areas of the cortico-thalamic circuit in order to evaluate the effects of these compounds on the number and duration of epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and better characterize the role of AMPA neurotransmission in this animal model. The focal microinjection of the two AMPA antagonists into some thalamic nuclei (ventralis posteromedialis (VPM), reticularis (NRT), ventralis posterolateralis (VPL) and the primary somatosensory forelimb region (S1FL)) was, generally, not able to significantly modify the occurrence of SWDs. Whereas, both compounds were able to reduce the number and duration of SWDs dose-dependently when microinjected into the peri-oral region of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1po). These findings suggest that AMPA receptor antagonists might play a role in absence epilepsies and that it might depend on the involvement of specific neuronal areas. PMID:16901515

  10. Non-competitive antagonism and inverse agonism as mechanism of action of non-peptidergic antagonists at primate and rodent CXCR3 chemokine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Verzijl, Dennis; Storelli, Stefania; Scholten, Danny; Bosch, Leontien; Reinhart, Todd A.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Tensen, Cornelis P.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; Zaman, Guido J.R.; Pease, James E.; de Esch, Iwan J.P.; Smit, Martine J.; Leurs, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and allograft rejection in transplantation patients. The CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 are expressed at sites of inflammation and attract CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes, thus contributing to the inflammatory process. Here, we characterize 5 non-peptidergic compounds of different chemical classes that block the action of CXCL10 and CXCL11 at the human CXCR3, i.e. VUF10472/NBI-74330, VUF10085/AMG-487, VUF5834, VUF10132 and TAK-779. In order to understand the action of these CXCR3 antagonists in various animal models of disease, the compounds were also tested at rat and mouse CXCR3, as well as at CXCR3 from rhesus macaque, cloned and characterized for the first time in this study. Except for TAK-779, all compounds show slightly lower affinity for rodent CXCR3 than for primate CXCR3. Additionally, we have characterized the molecular mechanism of action of the various antagonists at the human CXCR3 receptor. All tested compounds act as noncompetitive antagonists at CXCR3. Moreover, this non-competitive behavior is accompanied by inverse agonistic properties of all 5 compounds as determined on an identified constitutively active mutant of CXCR3, CXCR3 N3.35A. Interestingly, all compounds except TAK-779 act as full inverse agonists at CXCR3 N3.35A. TAK-779 shows weak partial inverse agonism at CXCR3 N3.35A, and likely has a different mode of interaction with CXCR3 than the other three classes of small molecule inverse agonists. PMID:18270317

  11. Endothelin Receptors and Their Antagonists???

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Janet J.; Davenport, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary All three members of the endothelin (ET) family of peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, are expressed in the human kidney, with ET-1 being the predominant isoform. ET-1 and ET-2 bind to two G-protein–coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, whereas at physiological concentrations ET-3 has little affinity for the ETA receptor. The human kidney is unusual among the peripheral organs in expressing a high density of ETB. The renal vascular endothelium only expresses the ETB subtype and ET-1 acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to release vasodilators. Endothelial ETB in kidney, as well as liver and lungs, also has a critical role in scavenging ET-1 from the plasma. The third major function is ET-1 activation of ETB in in the nephron to reduce salt and water re-absorption. In contrast, ETA predominate on smooth muscle, causing vasoconstriction and mediating many of the pathophysiological actions of ET-1. The role of the two receptors has been delineated using highly selective ETA (BQ123, TAK-044) and ETB (BQ788) peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists, bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan, that are either mixed ETA/ETB antagonists or display ETA selectivity, have been approved for clinical use but to date are limited to pulmonary hypertension. Ambrisentan is in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. This review summarizes ET-receptor antagonism in the human kidney, and considers the relative merits of selective versus nonselective antagonism in renal disease. PMID:25966344

  12. Endothelin receptors and their antagonists.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    All three members of the endothelin (ET) family of peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, are expressed in the human kidney, with ET-1 being the predominant isoform. ET-1 and ET-2 bind to two G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, whereas at physiological concentrations ET-3 has little affinity for the ET(A) receptor. The human kidney is unusual among the peripheral organs in expressing a high density of ET(B). The renal vascular endothelium only expresses the ET(B) subtype and ET-1 acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to release vasodilators. Endothelial ETB in kidney, as well as liver and lungs, also has a critical role in scavenging ET-1 from the plasma. The third major function is ET-1 activation of ET(B) in in the nephron to reduce salt and water re-absorption. In contrast, ET(A) predominate on smooth muscle, causing vasoconstriction and mediating many of the pathophysiological actions of ET-1. The role of the two receptors has been delineated using highly selective ET(A) (BQ123, TAK-044) and ET(B) (BQ788) peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists, bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan, that are either mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonists or display ET(A) selectivity, have been approved for clinical use but to date are limited to pulmonary hypertension. Ambrisentan is in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. This review summarizes ET-receptor antagonism in the human kidney, and considers the relative merits of selective versus nonselective antagonism in renal disease. PMID:25966344

  13. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grandi?, Marjana; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Turk, Tom; Sep?i?, Kristina; Benoit, Evelyne; Frangež, Robert

    2012-12-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 ?M), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 ?M. The compound (0.007–3.40 ?M) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 ?M, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 ?M) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 ?M. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (?1{sub 2}?1??) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 ?M), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (?1{sub 2}?1??) than for the mouse (?1{sub 2}?1??) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ? APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ? APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

  14. Neuroprotection by NMDA receptor antagonists in a variety of neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G C

    2001-09-01

    Because of adverse reactions, early efforts to introduce high affinity competitive or use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists into patients suffering from stroke, head trauma or epilepsy met with failure. Later it was discovered that both low affinity use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists and compounds with selective affinity for the NR2B receptor subunit met the criteria for safe administration into patients. Furthermore, these low affinity antagonists exhibit significant mechanistic differences from their higher affinity counterparts. Success of the latter is attested to the ability of the following low affinity compounds to be marketed: 1) Cough suppressant-dextromethorphan (available for decades); 2) Parkinson's disease--amantadine, memantine and budipine; 3) Dementia--memantine; and 4) Epilepsy--felbamate. Moreover, Phase III clinical trials are ongoing with remacemide for epilepsy and Huntington's disease and head trauma for HU-211. A host of compounds are or were under evaluation for the possible treatment of stroke, head trauma, hyperalgesia and various neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the fact that other drugs with associated NMDA receptor mechanisms have reached clinical status, this review focuses only on those competitive and use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists that reached clinical trails. The ensuing discussions link the in vivo pharmacological investigations that led to the success/mistakes/ failures for eventual testing of promising compounds in the clinic. PMID:11554551

  15. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  16. Peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors. Can they be classified with the available antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the so-called 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin, spiperone, trazodone and methysergide were studied in isolated preparations of the rabbit aorta, rat jugular vein, and rat caudal artery. Trazodone and spiperone were apparently simple competitive antagonists since they produced antagonism that was surmountable over the concentration range studied and, in each tissue, their apparent affinity appeared to be independent of the antagonist concentration. Furthermore, concentration-ratios obtained with the two antagonists in combination suggested that antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of 5-HT receptors. Ketanserin was a non-surmountable antagonist of 5-HT in the rat caudal artery and methysergide demonstrated surmountable, competitive antagonism only in the rabbit aorta. Antagonist dissociation constants estimated for apparently competitive interactions showed that ketanserin, spiperone and trazodone expressed affinities which differed according to the tissue used. In the case of trazodone, affinity estimates differed by as much as 12 fold. These discrepancies were independent of the 5-HT receptor agonist used and could not be attributed to an inadequate equilibration of the antagonist. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either the receptors in the different tissues are heterogeneous or the antagonists used here must be considered as unreliable probes for the classification of 5-HT2-like receptors. PMID:2943354

  17. NMDA Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ates-Alagoz, Zeynep; Adejare, Adeboye

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Individuals battling this disorder commonly experience high rates of relapse, persistent residual symptoms, functional impairment, and diminished well-being. Medications have important utility in stabilizing moods and daily functions of many individuals. However, only one third of patients had considerable improvement with a standard antidepressant after 2 months and all patients had to deal with numerous side effects. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor family has received special attention because of its critical role in psychiatric disorders. Direct targeting of the NMDA receptor could result in more rapid antidepressant effects. Antidepressant-like effects of NMDA receptor antagonists have been demonstrated in different animal models. MK-801 (a use-dependent channel blocker), and CGP 37849 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) have shown antidepressant properties in preclinical studies, either alone or combined with traditional antidepressants. A recent development is use of ketamine clinically for refractory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine and analyze current literature on the role of NMDA receptor antagonists for treatment of depression and whether this is a feasible route in drug discovery. PMID:24276119

  18. Competitive binding of antagonistic peptides fine-tunes stomatal patterning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Suk; Hnilova, Marketa; Maes, Michal; Lin, Ya-Chen Lisa; Putarjunan, Aarthi; Han, Soon-Ki; Avila, Julian; Torii, Keiko U

    2015-06-25

    During development, cells interpret complex and often conflicting signals to make optimal decisions. Plant stomata, the cellular interface between a plant and the atmosphere, develop according to positional cues, which include a family of secreted peptides called epidermal patterning factors (EPFs). How these signalling peptides orchestrate pattern formation at a molecular level remains unclear. Here we report in Arabidopsis that Stomagen (also called EPF-LIKE9) peptide, which promotes stomatal development, requires ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinases and interferes with the inhibition of stomatal development by the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2)-ER module. Both EPF2 and Stomagen directly bind to ER and its co-receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS. Stomagen peptide competitively replaced EPF2 binding to ER. Furthermore, application of EPF2, but not Stomagen, elicited rapid phosphorylation of downstream signalling components in vivo. Our findings demonstrate how a plant receptor agonist and antagonist define inhibitory and inductive cues to fine-tune tissue patterning on the plant epidermis. PMID:26083750

  19. Effects of two novel non-peptide antagonists at the rabbit bradykinin B2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Marceau, F; Houle, S; Bouthillier, J; Said, N B; Garratt, P J; Dziadulewicz, E K

    2001-09-01

    Large species differences have been previously observed in the pharmacology of bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists. We investigated the effect of two novel non-peptide antagonists, compound 9 (a benzodiazepine peptidomimetic related to icatibant) and the thiosemicarbazide bradyzide on the rabbit B2 receptor (contractility of the jugular vein, competition of [3H]BK binding to a B2 receptor-green fluorescent protein (B2R-GFP) conjugate, subcellular distribution of B2R-GFP). While compound 9 is about 9000-fold less potent than icatibant, it shares with the latter peptide drug a selective, insurmountable and largely irreversible antagonist behavior against BK and the capacity to translocate B2R-GFP from the membrane into the cells. Bradyzide, reportedly very potent at rodent B2 receptors, was a competitive and reversible antagonist of moderate potency at the rabbit B2 receptor (contractility pA2 6.84, binding competition IC50 5 nM). The C-terminal region of icatibant, reproduced by compound 9, is likely to be important in the non-equilibrium behavior of icatibant. Bradyzide, a non-peptide antagonist developed on different structural grounds, is competitive at the rabbit B2 receptor. PMID:11514020

  20. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-? and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  1. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai ; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; MPI Research, Mattawan, MI ; Wang, Ming-Wei; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  2. Stilbenes as ?-selective, non-nitrogenous opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Alyssa M; Beutler, John A; Navarro, Hernán A; Wiemer, David F; Neighbors, Jeffrey D

    2014-02-28

    The natural stilbene pawhuskin A has been shown to function as an opioid receptor antagonist, with preferential binding to the ? receptor. This finding encouraged assembly of a set of analogues to probe the importance of key structural features. Assays on these compounds determined that one (compound 29) shows potent opioid receptor binding activity and significantly improved selectivity for the ? receptor. These studies begin to illuminate the structural features of these non-nitrogenous opioid receptor antagonists that are required for activity. PMID:24456556

  3. Stilbenes as ?-Selective, Non-nitrogenous Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The natural stilbene pawhuskin A has been shown to function as an opioid receptor antagonist, with preferential binding to the ? receptor. This finding encouraged assembly of a set of analogues to probe the importance of key structural features. Assays on these compounds determined that one (compound 29) shows potent opioid receptor binding activity and significantly improved selectivity for the ? receptor. These studies begin to illuminate the structural features of these non-nitrogenous opioid receptor antagonists that are required for activity. PMID:24456556

  4. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  5. Snake neurotoxin ?-bungarotoxin is an antagonist at native GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Saad; Mortensen, Martin; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    The snake neurotoxin ?-bungarotoxin (?-Bgtx) is a competitive antagonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is widely used to study their function and cell-surface expression. Increasingly, ?-Bgtx is also used as an imaging tool for fluorophore-labelling studies, and given the structural conservation within the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, we assessed whether ?-Bgtx could bind to recombinant and native ?-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Applying fluorophore-linked ?-Bgtx to recombinant ?x?1/2?2 GABAARs expressed in HEK-293 cells enabled clear cell-surface labelling of ?2?1/2?2 contrasting with the weaker staining of ?1/4?1/2?2, and no labelling for ?3/5/6?1/2?2. The labelling of ?2?2?2 was abolished by bicuculline, a competitive antagonist at GABAARs, and by d-tubocurarine (d-Tc), which acts in a similar manner at nAChRs and GABAARs. Labelling by ?-Bgtx was also reduced by GABA, suggesting that the GABA binding site at the receptor ?–? subunit interface forms part of the ?-Bgtx binding site. Using whole-cell recording, high concentrations of ?-Bgtx (20 ?M) inhibited GABA-activated currents at all ?x?2?2 receptors examined, but at lower concentrations (5 ?M), ?-Bgtx was selective for ?2?2?2. Using ?-Bgtx, at low concentrations, permitted the selective inhibition of ?2 subunit-containing GABAARs in hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells, reducing synaptic current amplitudes without affecting the GABA-mediated tonic current. In conclusion, ?-Bgtx can act as an inhibitor at recombinant and native GABAARs and may be used as a selective tool to inhibit phasic but not tonic currents in the hippocampus. PMID:25634239

  6. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 is more effective in counteracting NMDA antagonist- than dopamine agonist-induced hyperactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M L; Martin, P; Nilsson, M; Sorensen, S M; Carlsson, A; Waters, S; Waters, N

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 in different psychosis models. The classical neuroleptic haloperidol was used as reference compound. Two hyperdopaminergia and two hypoglutamatergia mouse models were used. Hyperdopaminergia was produced by the DA releaser d-amphetamine or the DA uptake inhibitor GBR 12909. Hypoglutamatergia was produced by the un-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist D-CPPene. M100907 was found to counteract the locomotor stimulant effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and D-CPPene, but spontaneous locomotion, d-amphetamine- and GBR-12909-induced hyperactivity were not significantly affected. Haloperidol, on the other hand, antagonized both NMDA antagonist- and DA agonist-induced hyperactivity, as well as spontaneous locomotion in the highest dose used. Based on the present and previous results we draw the conclusion that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists are particularly effective against behavioural anomalies resulting from hypoglutamatergia of various origins. The clinical implications of our results and conclusions would be that a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, due to i a the low side effect liability, could be the preferable treatment strategy in various disorders associated with hypoglutamatergia; such conditions might include schizophrenia, childhood autism and dementia disorders. PMID:10226932

  7. Identification and characterisation of a prototype for a new class of competitive PPAR? antagonists.

    PubMed

    Knape, Tilo; Flesch, Daniel; Kuchler, Laura; Sha, Lisa K; Giegerich, Annika K; Labocha, Sandra; Ferreirós, Nerea; Schmid, Tobias; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Proschak, Eugen; Brüne, Bernhard; Parnham, Michael J; von Knethen, Andreas

    2015-05-15

    Understanding of the physiological role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) offers new opportunities for the treatment of cancers, immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. In contrast to PPAR? agonists, few PPAR? antagonists have been studied, though they do exert immunomodulatory effects. Currently, no therapeutically useful PPAR? antagonist is commercially available. The aim of this study was to identify and kinetically characterise a new competitive PPAR? antagonist for therapeutic use. A PPAR?-dependent transactivation assay was used to kinetically characterise (E)-2-(5-((4-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinolin-6-yl)methoxy)-2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)-benzylidene)-hexanoic acid (MTTB) in kidney, T and monocytic cell lines. Cytotoxic effects were analysed and intracellular accumulation of MTTB was assessed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Potential interactions of MTTB with the PPAR? protein were suggested by molecular docking analysis. In contrast to non-competitive, irreversible inhibition caused by 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide (GW9662), MTTB exhibited competitive antagonism against rosiglitazone in HEK293T and Jurkat T cells, with IC50 values in HEK293T cells of 4.3µM and 1.6µM, using the PPAR? ligand binding domain (PPAR?-LBD) and the full PPAR? protein, respectively. In all cell lines used, however, MTTB showed much higher intracellular accumulation than GW9662. MTTB alone exhibited weak partial agonistic effects and low cytotoxicity. Molecular docking of MTTB with the PPAR?-LBD supported direct interaction with the nuclear receptor. MTTB is a promising prototype for a new class of competitive PPAR? antagonists. It has weak partial agonistic and clear competitive antagonistic characteristics associated with rapid cellular uptake. Compared to commercially available PPAR? modulators, this offers the possibility of dose regulation of PPAR? and immune responses. PMID:25746464

  8. Label-Free Kinetics: Exploiting Functional Hemi-Equilibrium to Derive Rate Constants for Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Riddy, Darren M; Valant, Celine; Rueda, Patricia; Charman, William N; Sexton, Patrick M; Summers, Roger J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Langmead, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Drug receptor kinetics is as a key component in drug discovery, development, and efficacy; however, determining kinetic parameters has historically required direct radiolabeling or competition with a labeled tracer. Here we present a simple approach to determining the kinetics of competitive antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors by exploiting the phenomenon of hemi-equilibrium, the state of partial re-equilibration of agonist, antagonist, and receptor in some functional assays. Using functional [Ca(2+)]i-flux and extracellular kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation assays that have short incubation times and therefore are prone to hemi-equilibrium "behaviors," we investigated a wide range of structurally and physicochemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists. Using a combined operational and hemi-equilibrium model of antagonism to both simulate and analyze data, we derived estimates of association and dissociation rates for the test set of antagonists, identifying both rapidly dissociating (4-DAMP, himbacine) and slowly dissociating (tiotropium, glycopyrrolate) ligands. The results demonstrate the importance of assay incubation time and the degree of receptor reserve in applying the analytical model. There was an excellent correlation between estimates of antagonist pK(B), k(on), and k(off) from functional assays and those determined by competition kinetics using whole-cell [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine binding, validating this approach as a rapid and simple method to functionally profile receptor kinetics of competitive antagonists in the absence of a labeled tracer. PMID:26243731

  9. Approaches to the rational design of selective melanocortin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Victor J; Cai, Minying; Nyberg, Joel; Muthu, Dhanasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When establishing the physiological roles of specific receptors in normal and disease states, it is critical to have selective antagonist ligands for each receptor in a receptor system with several subtypes. The melanocortin receptors have five subtypes referred to as the melanocortin 1 receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, melanocortin 3 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and melanocortin 5 receptor, and they are of critical importance for many aspects of human health and disease. Areas covered This article reviews the current efforts to design selective antagonistic ligands for the five human melanocortin receptors summarizing the currently published orthosteric and allosteric antagonists for each of these receptors. Expert opinion Though there has been progress, there are still few drugs available that address the many significant biological activities and diseases that are associated with these receptors, which is possibly due to the lack of receptor selectivity that these designed ligands are currently showing. The authors believe that further studies into the antagonists’ 3D conformational and topographical properties in addition to future mutagenesis studies will provide greater insight into these ligands which could play a role in the treatment of various diseases in the future. PMID:22646078

  10. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  11. Eprosartan mesylate, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-Jing; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Gu, Jianming; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, eprosartan mesylate {systematic name: 2-butyl-1-(4-carb­oxy­benz­yl)-5-[(E)-2-carb­oxy-3-(thio­phen-2-yl)prop-1-en­yl]-1H-imidazol-3-ium methane­sulfonate}, C23H25N2O4S+·CH3O3S?, one of the angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, is effective in regulating hypertension, induced or exacerbated by angiotensin II, and in the treatment of congestive heart failure, renal failure and glaucoma. In the eprosartan residue, which appears in this crystal in the cationic imidazolium form, the benzene ring plane is almost orthogonal to that of the imidazole ring, making a dihedral angle of 87.89?(2)°. The thio­phene ring forms dihedral angles of 66.54?(2) and 67.12?(2)° with the benzene and imidazole rings, respectively. The imidazolium NH group and the H atom of the aromatic carboxyl group participate in hydrogen bonds with the the O atoms of the anion, thus forming centrosymmetric aggregates made up of two cations and two anions each. The second carboxyl group further links the above-mentioned aggregates through a conventional centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonding motif into infinite chains along [011]. PMID:21754064

  12. GnRH receptor antagonists for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Emily; Whitson, Melissa; Smith, Amy; Parnell, Jamin; Thomas, Suzanne E; Blankenship, Clint C

    2013-07-01

    GnRH receptor antagonists can reduce testosterone levels without the adverse reactions caused by other drugs used to treat prostate cancer. These drugs also offer hope for prolonged control of metastasis. PMID:23923287

  13. A High-Throughput Ligand Competition Binding Assay for the Androgen Receptor and other Nuclear Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Féau, Clémentine; Arnold, Leggy A.; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2008-01-01

    Standardized, automated ligand binding assays facilitate evaluation of endocrine activities of environmental chemicals and identification of antagonists of nuclear receptor ligands. Many current assays rely on fluorescently labeled ligands which are significantly different from the native ligands. We describe a radiolabeled ligand competition scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for the androgen receptor (AR) using Ni-coated 384-well FlashPlates® and liganded AR-LBD protein. This highly reproducible, low cost assay is well-suited for automated HTS. Additionally, we show that this assay can be adapted to measure ligand affinities for other nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferation activated receptor ?, thyroid receptors ? and ?). PMID:19171919

  14. Discovery of cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists by virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gil Nam; Kim, Kwang Rok; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae; Kang, Nam Sook

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we tried to find a new scaffold for a CB1 receptor antagonist using virtual screening. We first analyzed structural features for the known cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists and, then, we built pharmacophore models using the HipHop concept and carried out a docking study based on our homology CB1 receptor 3D structure. The most active compound, including thiazole-4-one moiety, showed an activity value of 125 nM IC(50), with a good PK profile. PMID:20667724

  15. Slow Receptor Dissociation Kinetics Differentiate Macitentan from Other Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gatfield, John; Mueller Grandjean, Celia; Sasse, Thomas; Clozel, Martine; Nayler, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Two endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), bosentan and ambrisentan, are currently approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a devastating disease involving an activated endothelin system and aberrant contraction and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). The novel ERA macitentan has recently concluded testing in a Phase III morbidity/mortality clinical trial in PAH patients. Since the association and dissociation rates of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists can influence their pharmacological activity in vivo, we used human PASMC to characterize inhibitory potency and receptor inhibition kinetics of macitentan, ambrisentan and bosentan using calcium release and inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) assays. In calcium release assays macitentan, ambrisentan and bosentan were highly potent ERAs with Kb values of 0.14 nM, 0.12 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively. Macitentan, but not ambrisentan and bosentan, displayed slow apparent receptor association kinetics as evidenced by increased antagonistic potency upon prolongation of antagonist pre-incubation times. In compound washout experiments, macitentan displayed a significantly lower receptor dissociation rate and longer receptor occupancy half-life (ROt1/2) compared to bosentan and ambrisentan (ROt1/2?17 minutes versus 70 seconds and 40 seconds, respectively). Because of its lower dissociation rate macitentan behaved as an insurmountable antagonist in calcium release and IP1 assays, and unlike bosentan and ambrisentan it blocked endothelin receptor activation across a wide range of endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations. However, prolongation of the ET-1 stimulation time beyond ROt1/2 rendered macitentan a surmountable antagonist, revealing its competitive binding mode. Bosentan and ambrisentan behaved as surmountable antagonists irrespective of the assay duration and they lacked inhibitory activity at high ET-1 concentrations. Thus, macitentan is a competitive ERA with significantly slower receptor dissociation kinetics than the currently approved ERAs. Slow dissociation caused insurmountable antagonism in functional PASMC-based assays and this could contribute to an enhanced pharmacological activity of macitentan in ET-1-dependent pathologies. PMID:23077657

  16. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. PMID:26548625

  17. Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz?, Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M.

    2010-08-12

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  18. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (?)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

  19. A Functionalized Congener Approach to Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: Amino Acid Conjugates of 1,3-Dipropylxanthine

    PubMed Central

    JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; KIRK, KENNETH L.; PADGETT, WILLIAM L.; DALY, JOHN W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY 1,3-Dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine, a synthetic analog of theophylline and a potent antagonist of adenosine at A1 and A2-adenosine receptors, has been attached covalently through a functionalized chain to amino acids and oligopeptides. The xanthine conjugates have been studied as competitive inhibitors of the specific binding of [3H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to A1-receptors of rat cerebral cortical membranes and for inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation elicited by 2-chloroadenosine in guinea pig brain slices through A2-receptors. A free amino group on the extended chain generally resulted in high potency at A1-receptors. The potency (in some cases extending into the subnanomolar range) and selectivity for A1-receptors (up to 200-fold) suggest that this approach can yield a versatile class of “functionalized congeners” of adenosine receptor antagonists in which distal modifications of the attached moiety (“carrier”) can serve also to improve pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The water solubility in many of the more potent analogs has been enhanced by two orders of magnitude over that of simple, uncharged 8-phenyl xanthine derivatives. Analogs in which the carrier contains d-tyrosine have potential for development of iodinated radioligands for adenosine receptors. The functionalized congener approach is potentially applicable to other drugs and for development of prodrugs. PMID:3005825

  20. Configurationally Restricted Bismacrocyclic CXCR4 Receptor Antagonists

    E-print Network

    Hubin, Tim

    synthesized and shown to adopt only one configuration in solution. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals with aspartate on the receptor protein surface. The zinc(II) complex is highly active against HIV infection that AMD3100 inhibits infection by the human immu- nodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2) at micromolar

  1. The renal effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Stefano; Batini, Valentina; Bigazzi, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Beyond its well known classic effects on renal water and electrolytes metabolism, an increasing amount of experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aldosterone contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. The binding of aldosterone on epithelial and non-epithelial cells of the kidney induces many deleterious effects, such as podocyte apoptosis and injury, mesangial cell proliferation and deformability and tubulointerstitial inflammation, finally resulting in glomerular fibrosis and sclerosis. Moreover, aldosterone acting by fast non-genomic mechanisms, may induce other potential deleterious effects on kidney function and structure. Indeed, many experimental studies have shown that aldosterone participates to the progression of kidney disease through hemodynamic and direct cellular actions and that antagonists of aldosterone may retard the progression of kidney disease, independently of effects on blood pressure. Therefore, blockade of the aldosterone pathway may prove to be a beneficial therapy for kidney disease. In this brief review we summarize the reported data that support an independent role of aldosterone in inducing kidney damage both in human and experimental models, and interventional studies that highlight how strategies aimed to antagonize its action may favorably modify the progressive decline of renal function in patient with kidney disease and in patients with extrarenal disease frequently associated with kidney function impairment. PMID:26049733

  2. An update on non-peptide angiotensin receptor antagonists and related RAAS modulators.

    PubMed

    Aulakh, G K; Sodhi, R K; Singh, M

    2007-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is an important regulator of blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte homeostasis. RAAS has been implicated in pathogenesis of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. Aliskiren is the first non-peptide orally active renin inhibitor approved by FDA. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors are associated with frequent side effects such as cough and angio-oedema. Recently, the role of ACE2 and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in the formation of an important active metabolite/mediator of RAAS, ang 1-7, has initiated attempts towards development of ACE2 inhibitors and combined ACE/NEP inhibitors. Furukawa and colleagues developed a series of low molecular weight nonpeptide imidazole analogues that possess weak but selective, competitive AT1 receptor blocking property. Till date, many compounds have exhibited promising AT1 blocking activity which cause a more complete RAAS blockade than ACE inhibitors. Many have reached the market for alternative treatment of hypertension, heart failure and diabetic nephropathy in ACE inhibitor intolerant patients and still more are waiting in the queue. But, the hallmark of this area of drug research is marked by a progress in understanding molecular interaction of these blockers at the AT1 receptor and unraveling the enigmatic influence of AT2 receptors on growth/anti-growth, differentiation and the regeneration of neuronal tissue. Different modeling strategies are underway to develop tailor made molecules with the best of properties like Dual Action (Angiotensin And Endothelin) Receptor Antagonists (DARA), ACE/NEP inhibitors, triple inhibitors, AT2 agonists, AT1/TxA2 antagonists, balanced AT1/AT2 antagonists, and nonpeptide renin inhibitors. This abstract gives an overview of these various angiotensin receptor antagonists. PMID:17692338

  3. Effects of dopamine receptor antagonists on sucrose consumption and preference.

    PubMed

    Muscat, R; Willner, P

    1989-01-01

    Effects of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and the D1 antagonist SCH-23390 were examined, in rats, in two-bottle preference tests (sucrose versus water) and in single-bottle tests, at different sucrose concentrations. Both drugs decreased sucrose intake in single bottle tests, at low sucrose concentrations, but had no effect at high concentrations; reducing drive level had exactly the opposite pattern of effects. In two-bottle tests, both drugs reduced preference for the weakest sucrose concentration (0.7%) but increased preference for the strongest concentration (34%). The effects of antagonizing either subtype of DA receptor appear to be similar to those of reducing the concentration of sucrose. PMID:2506610

  4. Pharmacological characterization of a receptor for platelet-activating factor on guinea pig peritoneal macrophages using [3H]apafant, a selective and competitive platelet-activating factor antagonist: evidence that the noncompetitive behavior of apafant in functional studies relates to slow kinetics of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Ring, P C; Seldon, P M; Barnes, P J; Giembycz, M A

    1993-02-01

    In this paper we report the characterization of a receptor for platelet-activating factor (PAF) on guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, using a radiolabeled hydrophilic PAF antagonist, [3H] apafant. [3H]Apafant bound to intact macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner that was specific, saturable, reversible, and inhibited competitively by C18-PAF (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glyceryl- 3-phosphocholine). Scatchard transformation and Hill analysis of these data revealed that [3H]apafant identified a homogeneous population of noninteracting sites with a pKd of 8.22 nM and a Bmax of 31,600 sites/cell. The rate at which [3H]apafant associated with (Kon = 2.9 x 10(6) M-1.min-1) and dissociated from (Koff = 0.043 min-1) intact macrophages was slow, with t1/2 values of 15 and 50 min, respectively; the kinetically derived pKd was 8.3. In competition studies C18-PAF inhibited in a biphasic manner the binding of [3H]apafant to intact macrophages, which could be resolved into high (pKi = 8.27; 60%) and low (pKi = 6.06; 40%) affinity components. In macrophage membranes, the affinity of C18-PAF (pKi = 8.48) determined from competition studies with [3H]apafant was significantly reduced (pKi = 6.95) by guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate, whereas the mean slope of the inhibition curves was increased from 0.470 to 0.700. Functionally, C18-PAF (10 nM to 10 microM) evoked concentration-dependent .O2- generation that was biphasic in nature. Pretreatment of macrophages with apafant antagonized in a noncompetitive manner the first phase of C18-PAF (< 100 nM)-induced respiratory burst, whereas the second component (> 1 microM C18-PAF) of this response was unaffected. It is concluded that guinea pig peritoneal macrophages express receptors for PAF for which apafant has high affinity. The biphasic competition curves obtained with C18-PAF in binding experiments and the effect of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate are consistent with the hypothesis that these apafant-sensitive PAF receptors are coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and can exist in at least two guanine nucleotide-regulated conformational states. It is also suggested that the noncompetitive antagonism of PAF-induced .O2- generation by apafant may be a consequence of the slow rate at which this antagonist dissociates from PAF receptors on intact macrophages. PMID:8381515

  5. Discovery of dopamine D? receptor antagonists with planar chirality.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Ortner, Birgit; Hübner, Harald; Löber, Stefan; Tschammer, Nuska; Gmeiner, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Employing the D4 selective phenylpiperazine 2 as a lead compound, planar chiral analogs with paracyclophane substructure were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to bind and activate dopamine receptors. The study revealed that the introduction of a [2.2]paracyclophane moiety is tolerated by dopamine receptors of the D2 family. Subtype selectivity for D4 and ligand efficacy depend on the absolute configuration of the test compounds. Whereas the achiral single-layered lead 2 and the double-layered paracyclophane (R)-3 showed partial agonist properties, the enantiomer (S)-3 behaved as a neutral antagonist. PMID:23428965

  6. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  7. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to produce a multivalent conjugate exhibiting a desired biological effect, i.e., antithrombotic action.

  8. Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Cho-Rong; Park, Chul-Seung; Chang, Sunghoe; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2011-04-15

    The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5 in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  9. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of ciproxifan, a potent histamine H3-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ligneau, X; Lin, J; Vanni-Mercier, G; Jouvet, M; Muir, J L; Ganellin, C R; Stark, H; Elz, S; Schunack, W; Schwartz, J

    1998-11-01

    Ciproxifan, i.e., cyclopropyl-(4-(3-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyloxy) phenyl) ketone, belongs to a novel chemical series of histamine H3-receptor antagonists. In vitro, it behaved as a competitive antagonist at the H3 autoreceptor controlling [3H]histamine release from synaptosomes and displayed similar Ki values (0.5-1.9 nM) at the H3 receptor controlling the electrically-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum or at the brain H3 receptor labeled with [125I]iodoproxyfan. Ciproxifan displayed at least 3-orders of magnitude lower potency at various aminergic receptors studied in functional or binding tests. In vivo, measurement of drug plasma levels, using a novel radioreceptor assay in mice receiving ciproxifan p.o. or i.v., led to an oral bioavailability ratio of 62%. Oral administration of ciproxifan to mice enhanced by approximately 100% histamine turnover rate and steady state level of tele-methylhistamine with an ED50 of 0.14 mg/kg. Ciproxifan reversed the H3-receptor agonist induced enhancement of water consumption in rats with and ID50 of 0.09 +/- 0.04 mg/kg, i.p. In cats, ciproxifan (0.15-2 mg/kg, p.o.) induced marked signs of neocortical electroencephalogram activation manifested by enhanced fast-rhythms density and an almost total waking state. In rats, ciproxifan enhanced attention as evaluated in the five-choice task performed using a short stimulus duration. Ciproxifan appears to be an orally bioavailable, extremely potent and selective H3-receptor antagonist whose vigilance- and attention-promoting effects are promising for therapeutic applications in aging disorders. PMID:9808693

  10. Structure of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel ELIC cocrystallized with its competitive antagonist acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianjun; Chen, Qiang; Willenbring, Dan; Yoshida, Ken; Tillman, Tommy; Kashlan, Ossama B; Cohen, Aina; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    ELIC, the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi, is a prototype for Cys-loop receptors. Here we show that acetylcholine is a competitive antagonist for ELIC. We determine the acetylcholine-ELIC cocrystal structure to a 2.9-Å resolution and find that acetylcholine binding to an aromatic cage at the subunit interface induces a significant contraction of loop C and other structural rearrangements in the extracellular domain. The side chain of the pore-lining residue F247 reorients and the pore size consequently enlarges, but the channel remains closed. We attribute the inability of acetylcholine to activate ELIC primarily to weak cation-? and electrostatic interactions in the pocket, because an acetylcholine derivative with a simple quaternary-to-tertiary ammonium substitution activates the channel. This study presents a compelling case for understanding the structural underpinning of the functional relationship between agonism and competitive antagonism in the Cys-loop receptors, providing a new framework for developing novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:22395605

  11. Structure of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel ELIC cocrystallized with its competitive antagonist acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianjun; Chen, Qiang; Willenbring, Dan; Yoshida, Ken; Tillman, Tommy; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Cohen, Aina; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    ELIC, the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi, is a prototype for Cys-loop receptors. Here we show that acetylcholine is a competitive antagonist for ELIC. We determine the acetylcholine–ELIC cocrystal structure to a 2.9-Å resolution and find that acetylcholine binding to an aromatic cage at the subunit interface induces a significant contraction of loop C and other structural rearrangements in the extracellular domain. The side chain of the pore-lining residue F247 reorients and the pore size consequently enlarges, but the channel remains closed. We attribute the inability of acetylcholine to activate ELIC primarily to weak cation-? and electrostatic interactions in the pocket, because an acetylcholine derivative with a simple quaternary-to-tertiary ammonium substitution activates the channel. This study presents a compelling case for understanding the structural underpinning of the functional relationship between agonism and competitive antagonism in the Cys-loop receptors, providing a new framework for developing novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:22395605

  12. Suvorexant: The first orexin receptor antagonist to treat insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ashok K.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Mediratta, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    Primary insomnia is mainly treated with drugs acting on benzodiazepine receptors and a few other classes of drugs used for different co-morbidities. A novel approach to treat insomnia has been introduced recently, with the approval of suvorexant, the first in a new class of orexin receptor antagonists. Orexin receptors in the brain have been found to play an important role in the regulation of various aspects of arousal and motivation. The drugs commonly used for insomnia therapy to date, have often been associated with adverse effects, such as, day-time somnolence, amnesia, confusion, and gait disturbance, apart from the risk of dependence on chronic use. Suvorexant has not shown these adverse effects because of its unique mechanism of action. It also appears to be suitable as a chronic therapy for insomnia, because of minimal physical dependence. The availability of this new drug as an effective and safe alternative is an important and welcome development in insomnia management. PMID:25969666

  13. Crystal Structure of Antagonist Bound Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Chrencik, Jill E; Roth, Christopher B; Terakado, Masahiko; Kurata, Haruto; Omi, Rie; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Warshaviak, Dora; Nakade, Shinji; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Mileni, Mauro; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Griffith, Mark T; Rodgers, Caroline; Han, Gye Won; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Chun, Jerold; Stevens, Raymond C; Hanson, Michael A

    2015-06-18

    Lipid biology continues to emerge as an area of significant therapeutic interest, particularly as the result of an enhanced understanding of the wealth of signaling molecules with diverse physiological properties. This growth in knowledge is epitomized by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which functions through interactions with at least six cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Herein, we present three crystal structures of LPA1 in complex with antagonist tool compounds selected and designed through structural and stability analyses. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics identified a basis for ligand access to the LPA1 binding pocket from the extracellular space contrasting with the proposed access for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Characteristics of the LPA1 binding pocket raise the possibility of promiscuous ligand recognition of phosphorylated endocannabinoids. Cell-based assays confirmed this hypothesis, linking the distinct receptor systems through metabolically related ligands with potential functional and therapeutic implications for treatment of disease. PMID:26091040

  14. From NMDA receptor antagonists to discovery of selective ?? receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Rosaria; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Scala, Angela; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Parenti, Carmela; Prezzavento, Orazio; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Chimirri, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Following previous studies focused on the search for new molecules targeting GluN2B-containing NMDA, a small series of 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone derivatives has been synthesized by using Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS). Given that GluN2B ligands frequently exert off-target effects we also tested their affinity towards sigma receptors. Binding assay revealed that only the 1-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone (7a) retained GluN2B affinity. Interestingly, the 5-methoxyindoles 5a and 6a were efficient and selective ligands toward ?? receptor (Ki values of 10nM and 20 nM, respectively). Thus, in this case the discovery of new ?? receptor selective ligands was an unexpected result emerging from the screening of cross-activity against other CNS receptors. PMID:24290063

  15. New Agonists / Antagonists for Toll-like Receptors (TLR7 and TLR9)

    E-print Network

    New Agonists / Antagonists for Toll-like Receptors (TLR7 and TLR9) Technologieangebot B 67104 Description Toll-like receptors (TLRs) contribute to the recognition of ,,foreign" molecules including structure to bind to Toll-like receptors (preferably 7 and 9). As a result, new agonists / antagonists

  16. Safety profile of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: Spironolactone and eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Pelliccia, Francesco; Rosano, Giuseppe; Vitale, Cristiana; Schiariti, Michele; Greco, Cesare; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more mineralocorticoid receptor-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone has been shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure. Also, spironolactone is safe and protective in arterial hypertension, particularly in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Eplerenone is the second oral aldosterone antagonist available for the treatment of arterial hypertension and heart failure. Treatment with eplerenone has been associated with decreased blood pressure and improved survival for patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Due to the selectivity of eplerenone for the aldosterone receptor, severe adverse effects such as gynecomastia and vaginal bleeding seem to be less likely in patients who take eplerenone than in those who take spironolactone. The most common and potentially dangerous side effect of spironolactone--hyperkalemia--is also observed with eplerenone but the findings from clinical trials do not indicate more hyperkalemia induced drug withdrawals. Treatment with eplerenone should be initiated at a dosage of 25mg once daily and titrated to a target dosage of 50mg once daily preferably within 4 weeks. Serum potassium levels and renal function should be assessed prior to initiating eplerenone therapy, and periodic monitoring is recommended, especially in patients at high risk of developing hyperkalemia. PMID:26404748

  17. Selectivity profiling of the novel EP2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, in functional bioassay systems: atypical affinity at the guinea pig EP2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Mark A; Maher, Sarah A; Buckley, James; Dale, Nicole; Bonvini, Sara; Raemdonck, Kristof; Pullen, Nick; Giembycz, Mark A; Belvisi, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Understanding the role of the EP2 receptor has been hampered by the lack of a selective antagonist. Recently, a selective EP2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, has been discovered. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the selectivity profile of PF-04418948 for the EP2 receptor over other EP receptors using a range of isolated tissue systems. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PF-04418948 was profiled on a range of isolated tissues to assess its EP receptor potency and selectivity: ONO-DI-004-induced contraction of guinea pig trachea (EP1); ONO-AE1-259 and PGE2- induced relaxation of mouse and guinea pig trachea (EP2); PGE2-induced depolarization of guinea pig isolated vagus (EP3); PGE2-induced relaxation of human and rat trachea (EP4). PF-04418948 was also profiled in functional murine TP, IP, DP and FP receptor assays. KEY RESULTS In bioassay systems, where assessment of potency/selectivity is made against the ‘native’ receptor, PF-04418948 only acted as an antagonist of EP2 receptor-mediated events. PF-04418948 competitively inhibited relaxations of murine and guinea pig trachea induced by ONO-AE1-259 and PGE2 respectively. However, the affinity of PF-04418948 was not equal in the two preparations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Using a wide range of bioassay systems, we have demonstrated that PF-04418948 is a selective EP2-receptor antagonist. Interestingly, an atypically low affinity was found on the guinea pig trachea, questioning its utility as an EP2 receptor assay system. Nevertheless, this compound should be an invaluable tool for investigating the biological activity of PGE2 and the role of EP2 receptors in health and disease. PMID:22747912

  18. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80?mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR)?=?0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR?=?0.13, 95% CI?=?0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40?mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR?=?0.47, 95% CI?=?0.37 to 0.60) nor 125?mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR?=?0.32, 95% CI?=?0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4?mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  19. Evodiamine as a novel antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hui; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 ; Tu, Yongjiu; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xia; Wang, Xi; Wang, Zhanli; Liang, Huaping

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Evodiamine interacted with the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine inhibited the specific binding of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD to the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine acts as an antagonist of the AhR. -- Abstract: Evodiamine, the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Wu-Chu-Yu, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activities. In this study, we investigated the interaction between evodiamine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Molecular modeling results revealed that evodiamine directly interacted with the AhR. Cytosolic receptor binding assay also provided the evidence that evodiamine could interact with the AhR with the K{sub i} value of 28.4 {+-} 4.9 nM. In addition, we observed that evodiamine suppressed the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and the expression of CYP1A1 dose-dependently. These results suggested that evodiamine was able to bind to the AhR as ligand and exhibit antagonistic effects.

  20. 3D pharmacophore models for thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Yixi; Wang, Songqing

    2009-10-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative closely correlated to thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The action of TXA(2) can be effectively inhibited with TXA(2) receptor antagonists (TXRAs). Previous studies have attempted to describe the interactions between the TXA(2) receptor and its ligands, but their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is used as a new and effective way to investigate the structure-activity relationship of TXRAs. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models of TXRAs were built with HypoGenRefine and HipHop modules in CATALYST software. The optimal HypoGenRefine model was developed on the basis of 25 TXRAs. It consists of two hydrophobic groups, one aromatic ring, one hydrogen-bond acceptor and four excluded volumes. The optimal HipHop model contains two hydrophobic groups and two hydrogen-bond acceptors. These models describe the key structure-activity relationship of TXRAs, can predict their activities, and can thus be used to design novel antagonists. PMID:19263096

  1. Endothelin B receptor antagonist increases preproendothelin-1 transcription in bovine aortic endothelial cells and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peled, Michael; Shaish, Aviv; Frishman, Liron; Cohen, Hofit; Tal, Reshef; Harats, Dror

    2006-05-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor antagonists increase plasma immunoreactive ET-1 levels. However, their effect on preproendothelin-1 (PPE-1) mRNA levels is still controversial. Few studies have found a decrease in PPE-1 mRNA levels in endothelial cells treated with the nonselective ETA/B receptor antagonist, and others demonstrated that an ETB blockade by the selective antagonist BQ788 increases PPE-1 mRNA levels. We studied the effect of ETA and ETB selective receptor antagonists on PPE-1 transcription, both in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial cells, transiently transfected with PPE-1 luciferase plasmid, were treated with ET-1 receptor antagonists. Bosentan, a dual ETA/B receptor antagonist, and BQ788 (ETB receptor antagonist) treatment resulted in a 1.6-fold and 1.3-fold increase, respectively in luciferase activity as compared with the untreated control. In contrast, the ETA receptor antagonist, BQ123, had no effect on luciferase activity. Transgenic mice that express the luciferase gene under the control of PPE-1 promoter were treated with Bosentan. Luciferase activity, PPE-1 mRNA levels, and plasma immunoreactive ET-1 levels were increased by 1.6-fold to 2.0-fold in the Bosentan-treated group compared with the untreated, control group. ET-1 receptor blockade increased PPE-1 transcription both in vitro and in vivo. The increased transcription can be attributed to ETB receptor blockade, because BQ-788, but not BQ-123, increased PPE-1 transcription. PMID:16775506

  2. Purification and reconstitution of the calcium antagonist receptor of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment with digitonin solubilized the calcium antagonist receptor as a stable complex with (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine from rat brain membranes. The solubilized complex retains allosteric coupling to binding sites for diltiazem, verapamil, and inorganic calcium antagonist sites. The calcium antagonist receptor from cardiac sarcolemma and the transverse-tubule membrane of skeletal muscle is also efficiently solubilized with digitonin and the receptor in all three tissues is a large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor complex was extensively purified by a combination of chromatography on WGA-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography, and sedimentation on sucrose gradients to yield preparations estimated to be 41% homogeneous by specific activity and 63% homogeneous by SDS gel electrophoresis. Analysis of SDS gels detect three polypeptides termed ..cap alpha..(Mr 135,000), ..beta..(Mr 50,000), and ..gamma..(Mr 32,000) as noncovalently associated subunits of the calcium antagonist receptor. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. subunits are glycosylated polypeptides, and the molecular weight of the core polypeptides are 108,000 and 24,000 respectively. The calcium antagonist receptor was reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer by adding CHAPS and exogeneous lipid to the purified receptor followed by rapid detergent removal. This procedure resulted in the incorporation of 45% of the calcium antagonist receptor into closed phospholipid vesicles. Data suggests that the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. subunits of the T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor are sufficient to form a functional calcium channel.

  3. Interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptor antagonists with different selectivity profiles: Effects on locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Collins, Patricia; Jones, Shawnet K; Port, Russell G; Paul, Nicholas E; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2010-08-25

    Forebrain dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverse many of the behavioral effects of DA antagonists, and A(2A) receptors are co-localized with D(2) receptors on striatal medium spiny neurons. The present work was undertaken to determine if the ability of an A(2A) antagonist, a non-selective adenosine antagonist, or an A(1) antagonist to reverse the locomotor effects of DA blockade in rats differed depending upon whether D(1) or D(2) family receptors were being antagonized. The adenosine antagonists MSX-3, caffeine, DPCPX and CPT were studied for their ability to reverse the locomotor suppression induced by the D(1) antagonist SCH 39166 (ecopipam) and the D(2) antagonist eticlopride. The D(1) and D(2) antagonists suppressed locomotion in all experiments. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) significantly reversed the suppression of locomotion induced by eticlopride. The non-selective adenosine antagonist caffeine (5.0-20.0 mg/kg IP) also reversed the effect of eticlopride, though the effect was not as robust as that seen with MSX-3. The adenosine A(1) antagonists DPCPX (0.375-1.5 mg/kg) and CPT (3.0-12.0 mg/kg IP) were unable to reverse the locomotor impairment elicited by eticlopride. Furthermore, the attenuation of locomotion induced by the D(1) antagonist could only be reversed by the highest dose of MSX-3, but not by caffeine, DPCPX or CPT. DA and adenosine receptor antagonists interact in the regulation of locomotor activation, but the nature of this interaction appears to depend upon the receptor selectivity profiles of the specific drugs being tested. PMID:20211657

  4. Inhibition of Morphine Withdrawal by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801 in Rat

    E-print Network

    Barr, Gordon A.

    Inhibition of Morphine Withdrawal by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801 in Rat Is Age morphine dependence; preweaning; MK-801; age-dependent; with- drawal ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on the development of morphine dependence in 7-, 14

  5. Structure-function studies of agonist binding to the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the development of a trifunctional non-competitive antagonist suitable for activity-dependent profiling

    E-print Network

    Tantama, Mathew C

    2008-01-01

    The muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel required for fast synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. It is the archetype of the Cys-Loop superfamily of receptors and ...

  6. Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-05-01

    A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 ?M, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 ?M against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue. PMID:24726305

  7. Identification of Glycyrrhiza as the rikkunshito constituent with the highest antagonistic potential on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A receptors due to the action of flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Japanese phytomedicine rikkunshito is traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders, cachexia and nausea. These effects indicate 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. E.g., setrons, specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the strongest antiemetics, developed so far. Therefore, the antagonistic effects of the eight rikkunshito constituents at heterologously expressed 5-HT3Areceptors were analyzed using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results indicate that tinctures from Aurantii, Ginseng, Zingiberis, Atractylodis and Glycyrrhiza inhibited the 5-HT3A receptor response, whereas the tinctures of Poria cocos, Jujubae and Pinellia exhibited no effect. Surprisingly, the strongest antagonism was found for Glycyrrhiza, whereas the Zingiberis tincture, which is considered to be primarily responsible for the effect of rikkunshito, exhibited the weakest antagonism of 5-HT3A receptors. Rikkunshito contains various vanilloids, ginsenosides and flavonoids, a portion of which show an antagonistic effect on 5-HT3 receptors. A screening of the established ingredients of the active rikkunshito constituents and related substances lead to the identification of new antagonists within the class of flavonoids. The flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin, glabridin and licochalcone A from Glycyrrhiza species were found to be the most effective inhibitors of the 5-HT-induced currents in the screening. The flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin and hesperetin from Aurantii inhibited the receptor response in a non-competitive manner, whereas glabridin and licochalcone A exhibited a potential competitive antagonism. Furthermore, licochalcone A acts as a partial antagonist of 5-HT3A receptors. Thus, this study reveals new 5-HT3A receptor antagonists with the aid of increasing the comprehension of the complex effects of rikkunshito. PMID:26191003

  8. GLP-1 receptor antagonist as a potential probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Eri; Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo ; Toyoda, Kentaro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo ; Ueda, Masashi; Temma, Takashi; Hirao, Konomu; Nagakawa, Kenji; Saji, Hideo; Inagaki, Nobuya; CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation , Kyoto

    2009-11-20

    We examined exendin(9-39), an antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), as a potential probe for imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cells. To evaluate in vitro receptor specificity, binding assay was performed using dispersed mouse islet cells. Binding assay showed competitive inhibition of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) binding by non-radioactive exendin(9-39). To assess in vivo selectivity, the biodistribution was evaluated by intravenous administration of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) to mice. Radioactivity of harvested pancreas reached highest levels at 60 and 120 min among organs examined except lung. Pre-administration of excess non-radioactive exendin(9-39) remarkably and specifically blocked the radioactivity of pancreas. After [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) injection into transgenic mice with pancreatic {beta}-cells expressing GFP, fluorescent and radioactive signals of sections of pancreas were evaluated with an image analyzer. Imaging analysis showed that the fluorescent GFP signals and the radioactive signals were correspondingly located. Thus, the GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) may serve as a useful probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging.

  9. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  10. Role of endothelin and endothelin receptor antagonists in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Neuhofer, W; Pittrow, D

    2006-09-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide with pro-inflammatory, mitogenic, and pro-fibrotic properties that is closely involved in both normal renal physiology and pathology. ET-1 exerts a wide variety of biological effects, including constriction of cortical and medullary vessels, mesangial cell contraction, stimulation of extracellular matrix production, and inhibition of sodium and water reabsorption along the collecting duct, effects that are primarily mediated in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Increasing evidence indicates that the ET system is involved in an array of renal disorders. These comprise chronic proteinuric states associated with progressive glomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, including diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and others. In addition, ET-1 is causally linked to renal disorders characterized by increased renal vascular resistance, including acute ischaemic renal failure, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, endotoxaemia, hepatorenal syndrome and others. Furthermore, derangement of the ET system may be involved in conditions associated with inappropriate sodium and water retention; for example, in congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. Both selective and non-selective ET receptor antagonist have been developed and tested in animal models with promising results. As key events in progressive renal injury like inflammation and fibrosis are mediated via both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, while constrictor effects are primarily transduced by ET(A) receptors, dual ET receptor blockade may be superior over selective ET(A) antagonism. Several compounds have been developed with remarkable effects in several models of acute and progressive renal injury. Thus, clinical studies are required to assess whether these results can be confirmed in humans, hopefully leading to novel and effective therapeutic options with few side effects. PMID:16919017

  11. Vasopressin receptor antagonists and their role in clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Narayen, Girish; Mandal, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients. Its treatment is based not only on extracellular fluid volume status of patients but also on its pathogenetic mechanisms. Conventional treatment of hyponatremia like fluid restriction, which is useful in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, has very poor patient compliance over long term. Vasopressin receptor antagonists (Vaptans) are a new group of nonpeptide drugs which have been used in various clinical conditions with limited success. Whereas conivaptan is to be administered intravenously, the other vaptans like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan are effective as oral medication. They produce aquaresis by their action on vasopressin type 2 (V2R) receptors in the collecting duct and thus increase solute free water excretion. Vaptans are being used as an alternative to fluid restriction in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremic patients. Efficacy of vaptans is now well accepted for management of correction of hyponatremia over a short period. However, its efficacy in improving the long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hyponatremia due to cirrhosis and heart failure is yet to be established. Vaptans have not become the mainstay treatment of hyponatremia yet. PMID:22470853

  12. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of DH?E Analogues as Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dihydro-?-erythroidine (DH?E) is a member of the Erythrina family of alkaloids and a potent competitive antagonist of the ?4?2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Guided by an X-ray structure of DH?E in complex with an ACh binding protein, we detail the design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of a series of DH?E analogues in which two of the four rings in the natural product has been excluded. We found that the direct analogue of DH?E maintains affinity for the ?4?2-subtype, but further modifications of the simplified analogues were detrimental to their activities on the nAChRs. PMID:25050162

  13. Endothelin receptor B antagonists decrease glioma cell viability independently of their cognate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jennifer P; Patterson, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin receptor antagonists inhibit the progression of many cancers, but research into their influence on glioma has been limited. Methods We treated glioma cell lines, LN-229 and SW1088, and melanoma cell lines, A375 and WM35, with two endothelin receptor type B (ETRB)-specific antagonists, A-192621 and BQ788, and quantified viable cells by the capacity of their intracellular esterases to convert non-fluorescent calcein AM into green-fluorescent calcein. We assessed cell proliferation by labeling cells with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and quantifying the fluorescence by FACS analysis. We also examined the cell cycle status using BrdU/propidium iodide double staining and FACS analysis. We evaluated changes in gene expression by microarray analysis following treatment with A-192621 in glioma cells. We examined the role of ETRB by reducing its expression level using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results We report that two ETRB-specific antagonists, A-192621 and BQ788, reduce the number of viable cells in two glioma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We describe similar results for two melanoma cell lines. The more potent of the two antagonists, A-192621, decreases the mean number of cell divisions at least in part by inducing a G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Microarray analysis of the effects of A-192621 treatment reveals up-regulation of several DNA damage-inducible genes. These results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, reducing expression of ETRB with siRNAs does not abrogate the effects of either A-192621 or BQ788 in glioma or melanoma cells. Furthermore, BQ123, an endothelin receptor type A (ETRA)-specific antagonist, has no effect on cell viability in any of these cell lines, indicating that the ETRB-independent effects on cell viability exhibited by A-192621 and BQ788 are not a result of ETRA inhibition. Conclusion While ETRB antagonists reduce the viability of glioma cells in vitro, it appears unlikely that this effect is mediated by ETRB inhibition or cross-reaction with ETRA. Instead, we present evidence that A-192621 affects glioma and melanoma viability by activating stress/DNA damage response pathways, which leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This is the first evidence linking ETRB antagonist treatment to enhanced expression of DNA damage-inducible genes. PMID:19040731

  14. Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on opioid-induced respiratory depression and acute antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Vincent L H; Vermeyen, Karel M; Adriaensen, Hugo F; Meert, Theo F

    2003-03-01

    Although exogenous opioids alter the responses of animals to tissue-damaging stimuli and therefore are the cornerstone in the treatment of acute antinociception, they have profound side effects on ventilation. To diminish ventilatory effects, combination therapies have been advocated. Recent studies reported the effectiveness of the addition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as ketamine to morphine in the treatment of acute pain. However, NMDA receptors, together with non-NMDA receptors are known to be involved in the neurotransmission of inspiratory drive to phrenic motoneurons. Co-administration of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists has been shown to be deleterious to respiratory function. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the association of opioids and NMDA receptor antagonists may add to the impairment of respiratory parameters. In male Wistar rats, combinations of opioids (fentanyl or morphine) at antinociceptive doses and NMDA receptor antagonists (ketamine, 40 mg/kg, or dextromethorphan, 10 mg/kg) at subanesthetic doses were administered intraperitoneally. Antinociception was tested with the tail-withdrawal reaction (TWR) test, while the effect on respiratory parameters was investigated with blood-gas analysis. We found that, in rats, co-administration of NMDA receptor antagonists and opioids may result in an increased respiratory depression as compared to the opioids alone. The effect of the NMDA receptor antagonists on opioid-induced antinociception was limited. PMID:12667908

  15. Antagonist of prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 induces metabolic alterations in liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Limin; An, Yanpeng; Zhang, Lulu; Song, Yipeng; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2015-03-01

    Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is one of the receptors for prostaglandin E2 and plays important roles in various biological functions. EP4 antagonists have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. To investigate the effects of an EP4 antagonist (L-161982) on the endogenous metabolism in a holistic manner, we employed a mouse model, and obtained metabolic and transcriptomic profiles of multiple biological matrixes, including serum, liver, and urine of mice with and without EP4 antagonist (L-161982) exposure. We found that this EP4 antagonist caused significant changes in fatty acid metabolism, choline metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. EP4 antagonist exposure also induced oxidative stress to mice. Our research is the first of its kind to report information on the alteration of metabolism associated with an EP4 antagonist. This information could further our understanding of current and new biological functions of EP4. PMID:25669961

  16. Modulation of Glutamate Transport and Receptor Binding by Glutamate Receptor Antagonists in EAE Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sulkowski, Grzegorz; D?browska-Bouta, Beata; Sali?ska, El?bieta; Stru?y?ska, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently unknown. However, one potential mechanism involved in the disease may be excitotoxicity. The elevation of glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid, as well as changes in the expression of glutamate receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs) and excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), have been observed in the brains of MS patients and animals subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is the predominant animal model used to investigate the pathophysiology of MS. In the present paper, the effects of glutamatergic receptor antagonists, including amantadine, memantine, LY 367583, and MPEP, on glutamate transport, the expression of mRNA of glutamate transporters (EAATs), the kinetic parameters of ligand binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and the morphology of nerve endings in EAE rat brains were investigated. The extracellular level of glutamate in the brain is primarily regulated by astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST). Excess glutamate is taken up from the synaptic space and metabolized by astrocytes. Thus, the extracellular level of glutamate decreases, which protects neurons from excitotoxicity. Our investigations showed changes in the expression of EAAT mRNA, glutamate transport (uptake and release) by synaptosomal and glial plasmalemmal vesicle fractions, and ligand binding to NMDA receptors; these effects were partially reversed after the treatment of EAE rats with the NMDA antagonists amantadine and memantine. The antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), including LY 367385 and MPEP, did not exert any effect on the examined parameters. These results suggest that disturbances in these mechanisms may play a role in the processes associated with glutamate excitotoxicity and the progressive brain damage in EAE. PMID:25426719

  17. Biomolecular recognition of antagonists by ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Antagonistic mechanism and structure-activity relationships studies.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei

    2015-08-30

    As the key constituent of ligand-gated ion channels in the central nervous system, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and neurodegenerative diseases are strongly coupled in the human species. In recently years the developments of selective agonists by using nAChRs as the drug target have made a large progress, but the studies of selective antagonists are severely lacked. Currently these antagonists rest mainly on the extraction of partly natural products from some animals and plants; however, the production of these crude substances is quite restricted, and artificial synthesis of nAChR antagonists is still one of the completely new research fields. In the context of this manuscript, our primary objective was to comprehensively analyze the recognition patterns and the critical interaction descriptors between target ?7 nAChR and a series of the novel compounds with potentially antagonistic activity by means of virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, and meanwhile these recognition reactions were also compared with the biointeraction of ?7 nAChR with a commercially natural antagonist - methyllycaconitine. The results suggested clearly that there are relatively obvious differences of molecular structures between synthetic antagonists and methyllycaconitine, while the two systems have similar recognition modes on the whole. The interaction energy and the crucially noncovalent forces of the ?7 nAChR-antagonists are ascertained according to the method of Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area. Several amino acid residues, such as B/Tyr-93, B/Lys-143, B/Trp-147, B/Tyr-188, B/Tyr-195, A/Trp-55 and A/Leu-118 played a major role in the ?7 nAChR-antagonist recognition processes, in particular, residues B/Tyr-93, B/Trp-147 and B/Tyr-188 are the most important. These outcomes tally satisfactorily with the discussions of amino acid mutations. Based on the explorations of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships, the structure-antagonistic activity relationships of antagonists and the characteristics of ?7 nAChR-ligand recognitions were received a reasonable summary as well. These attempts emerged herein would not only provide helpful guidance for the design of ?7 nAChR antagonists, but shed new light on the subsequent researches in antagonistic mechanism. PMID:25963024

  18. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX exerts anti-seizure but not antiepileptogenic effects in the intrahippocampal kainate mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Twele, Friederike; Bankstahl, Marion; Klein, Sabine; Römermann, Kerstin; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    The AMPA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors, which mediates fast synaptic excitation, is of primary importance in initiating epileptiform discharges, so that AMPA receptor antagonists exert anti-seizure activity in diverse animal models of partial and generalized seizures. Recently, the first AMPA receptor antagonist, perampanel, was approved for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of resistant partial seizures in patients. Interestingly, the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX has recently been reported to prevent development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in a neonatal seizure model in rats, indicating the AMPA antagonists may exert also antiepileptogenic effects. This prompted us to evaluate competitive (NBQX) and noncompetitive (perampanel) AMPA receptor antagonists in an adult mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In this model, SRS develop after status epilepticus (SE) induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainate. Focal electrographic seizures in this model are resistant to several major antiepileptic drugs. In line with previous studies, phenytoin was not capable of blocking such seizures in the present experiments, while they were markedly suppressed by NBQX and perampanel. However, perampanel was less tolerable than NBQX in epileptic mice, so that only NBQX was subsequently tested for antiepileptogenic potential. When mice were treated over three days after kainate-induced SE with NBQX (20 mg/kg t.i.d.), no effect on development or frequency of seizures was found in comparison to vehicle controls. These results suggest that AMPA receptor antagonists, while being effective in suppressing resistant focal seizures, are not exerting antiepileptogenic effects in an adult mouse model of partial epilepsy. PMID:25839899

  19. Crystal structure of the human urokinase plasminogen activator receptor bound to an antagonist peptide

    PubMed Central

    Llinas, Paola; Hélène Le Du, Marie; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Danø, Keld; Ploug, Michael; Gilquin, Bernard; Stura, Enrico A; Ménez, André

    2005-01-01

    We report the crystal structure of a soluble form of human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87), which is expressed at the invasive areas of the tumor-stromal microenvironment in many human cancers. The structure was solved at 2.7 Å in association with a competitive peptide inhibitor of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)–uPAR interaction. uPAR is composed of three consecutive three-finger domains organized in an almost circular manner, which generates both a deep internal cavity where the peptide binds in a helical conformation, and a large external surface. This knowledge combined with the discovery of a convergent binding motif shared by the antagonist peptide and uPA allowed us to build a model of the human uPA–uPAR complex. This model reveals that the receptor-binding module of uPA engages the uPAR central cavity, thus leaving the external receptor surface accessible for other protein interactions (vitronectin and integrins). By this unique structural assembly, uPAR can orchestrate the fine interplay with the partners that are required to guide uPA-focalized proteolysis on the cell surface and control cell adhesion and migration. PMID:15861141

  20. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  1. The Selective Serotonin-2A Receptor Antagonist M100907 Reverses Behavioral Deficits in Dopamine Transporter

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. MiceThe Selective Serotonin-2A Receptor Antagonist M100907 Reverses Behavioral Deficits in Dopamine transporter (DAT) model behavioral deficits that simulate the above conditions. As novel treatment strategies

  2. Anti-inflammatory properties of a novel peptide interleukin 1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is implicated in neuroinflammation, an essential component of neurodegeneration. We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide antagonist of IL-1 signaling, Ilantide. Methods We investigated the binding of Ilantide to IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) using surface plasmon resonance, the inhibition of Il-1?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in HEK-Blue cells that contained an IL-1?-sensitive reporter, the secretion of TNF-? in macrophages, protection against IL-1-induced apoptosis in neonatal pancreatic islets, and the penetration of Ilantide through the blood–brain barrier using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We studied the effects of the peptide on social behavior and memory in rat models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and amyloid-induced neuroinflammation, respectively, and its effect in a rat model of experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis. Results Ilantide bound IL-1RI, inhibited the IL-1?-induced activation of NF-?B, and inhibited the secretion of TNF-? in vitro. Ilantide protected pancreatic islets from apoptosis in vitro and reduced inflammation in an animal model of arthritis. The peptide penetrated the blood–brain barrier. It reduced the deficits in social activity and memory in LPS- and amyloid-treated animals and delayed the development of experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis. Conclusions These findings indicate that Ilantide is a novel and potent IL-1RI antagonist that is able to reduce inflammatory damage in the central nervous system and pancreatic islets. PMID:24490798

  3. Dipyrimidine Amines: A Novel Class of Chemokine Receptor Type 4 Antagonists with High Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Aizhi; Zhan, Weiqiang; Liang, Zhongxing; Yoon, Younghyoun; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Xu, Jianguo; Rojas, Mauricio; Lockwood, Mark; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2010-01-01

    The C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade play a key role in metastasis and inflammation. Based on the previously published CXCR4 antagonist 5 (WZ811), a series of novel non-peptidic anti-CXCR4 small molecules have been designed and synthesized to improve potency. Following a structure-activity profile around 5, more advanced compounds in the N, N'-(1, 4-phenylenebis(methylene)) dipyrimidin-2-amines series were discovered and shown to possess higher CXCR4 binding potential and specificity than 5. Compound 26 (508MCl) is the leading compound, and exhibits subnanomolar potency in three in vitro assays including competitive binding, Matrigel invasion, and G?i cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulation signaling. Furthermore, compound 26 displays promising effects by interfering with CXCR4 function in three mouse models: paw inflammation, Matrigel plug angiogenesis, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis. These data demonstrate that dipyrimidine amines are unique CXCR4 antagonists with high potency and specificity. PMID:21105715

  4. High-throughput screening of antagonists for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Zhu, Lin-yun; Liu, Qing; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Wang, Ming-wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To discover antagonists of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139 through high-throughput screening of a collection of diverse small molecules. Methods: Calcium mobilization assays were used to identify initial hits and for subsequent confirmation studies. Results: Five small molecule antagonists, representing 4 different scaffolds, were identified following high-throughput screening of 16 000 synthetic compounds. Conclusion: The findings provide important tools for further study of this orphan G-protein coupled receptor. PMID:26027661

  5. SST3-selective potent peptidic somatostatin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Schaer, Jean-Claude; Wenger, Sandra; Hoeger, Carl; Erchegyi, Judit; Waser, Beatrice; Rivier, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A family of octapeptide derivatives of somatostatin cyclized via a disulfide bridge (des-AA1,2,4,5,12,13[d-2Nal8]-somatostatin-14, ODN-8) was identified that has high affinity and selectivity for the human sst3 somatostatin receptor subtype transfected in CCL39 cells. The binding affinity of carbamoyl-des-AA1,2,4,5,12,13[d-Cys3,Tyr7,d-Agl8(Me,2-naphthoyl)]-somatostatin-14 (sst3-ODN-8) is equal to that of somatostatin-28 for sst3 and less than one-thousandth that for the other four somatostatin receptor subtypes. Compound sst3-ODN-8 potently reverses the somatostatin-28-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production (pKB = 9.07) and reverses the somatostatin-28-induced stimulation of phospholipase C activity (pKi = 9.22) in sst3-transfected CCL39 cells. [125I-Tyr7]sst3-ODN-8 selectively labels sst3-expressing cells with subnanomolar binding affinity (KD = 0.27 nM). With the use of this radioligand, sst3-expressing human tumors, particularly inactive pituitary adenomas, can be identified with receptor autoradiography; moreover, areas of the human lymphoreticular system express sst3 binding sites selectively displaced by nanomolar concentrations of sst3-ODN-8. Based on the structure–activity relationship of selected analogs substituted at positions 3, 7, and 8, we hypothesize that the basis for sst3 selectivity, high affinity, and possibly antagonism resides in the ring size of the analog and the unique conformational and structural character of the N-methylated amino-2-naphthoyl side chain of aminoglycine at position 8 and not in the Tyr7 substitution or in the d-configuration at position 3. The family of labeled and unlabeled sst3-ODN-8 analogs represents highly innovative, potent, and specific sst3-selective antagonist tools for the study of sst3-mediated physiological and pathophysiological conditions that may suggest novel clinical applications. PMID:11095748

  6. Different affinity states of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors defined by agonists and antagonists in bovine aorta plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, G.; Deth, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    Evidence for a nonlinear relationship between alpha-1 adrenergic receptor occupancy and tissue responses, together with the finding of different affinity states for agonist binding, has raised the possibility of functional heterogeneity of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We have conducted studies to examine: 1) binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, 2) competition of antagonists at these sites and 3) different affinity states of the receptor for agonists and modulation of these states by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p). A plasma membrane-enriched vesicular fraction (F2; 15%/33% sucrose interphase) was prepared from the muscular medial layer of bovine thoracic aorta. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding was characterized by a monophasic saturation isotherm (KD = 0.116 nM, Bmax = 112 fmol/mg of protein). Antagonist displacement studies yielded a relative potency order of prazosin greater than or equal to WB4104 much greater than phentolamine greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine greater than or equal to idazoxan greater than rauwolscine. Competition curves for unlabeled prazosin, WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4 benzodioxane) and phentolamine were shallow and were best modeled to two binding sites with picomolar and nanomolar KD values. Gpp(NH)p was without effect on antagonist affinity. Agonist (epinephrine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine) competition with (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding was biphasic with pseudo-Hill slopes less than 1.0. Binding was best described by a two-site model in which the average contribution of high affinity sites was 23% of total binding. KD values for the high affinity site ranged from 2.9 to 18 nM, and 3.9 to 5.0 microM for the low affinity site.

  7. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to A?-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-? level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-?B, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications. PMID:25377794

  8. Investigation of the SSRI augmentation properties of 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Boothman, Laura J; Mitchell, Stephen N; Sharp, Trevor

    2006-05-01

    Recent evidence that 5-HT(2) receptors exert a negative influence on central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurones suggests that 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists may augment the effects of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The present study investigated whether pre-treatment with 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists enhances the effect of SSRI administration on hippocampal extracellular 5-HT of freely moving rats. Administration of the SSRI citalopram at a low (2mg kg(-1)) and higher (4 mg kg(-1)) dose, increased dialysate 5-HT by 5- and 8-fold, respectively. Pre-treatment with the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserin (4 mg kg(-1)) augmented the effect of 4 mg kg(-1) but not 2mg kg(-1) citalopram. The effect of 4 mg kg(-1) citalopram was also augmented by pre-treatment with either the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 (0.5mg kg(-1)) or the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100907 (0.5mg kg(-1)). As with citalopram, fluoxetine elevated dialysate 5-HT at both a low (5mg kg(-1)) and higher (20mg kg(-1)) dose. However, neither dose of fluoxetine was augmented by ketanserin (4 mg kg(-1)). These results confirm recent findings that 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists augment the effect of citalopram on extracellular 5-HT, and indicate the involvement of 5-HT(2C) and possibly 5-HT(2A) receptors. The lack of augmentation of fluoxetine might reflect the intrinsic 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist properties of this drug. PMID:16434063

  9. Peripheral neural serotonin receptors: identification and characterization with specific antagonists and agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Mawe, G M; Branchek, T A; Gershon, M D

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to be a neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Although 5-HT is a mediator of slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of interganglionic connectives, the precise role it plays in the physiology of the gut is unclear. Research has been hampered by an inadequate knowledge of the types of 5-HT receptor in the ENS and thus the lack of well-characterized antagonists. We now report the identification of two classes of enteric neural 5-HT receptor, the effects of activating these receptors on myenteric type II/AH neurons, and their characterization with specific agonists and antagonists. One class, which we propose to call 5-HT1P, is characterized by a high affinity for [3H]5-HT in radioligand binding assays. This class of receptor mediates a slow depolarization of myenteric type II/AH neurons associated with an increase in input resistance. Agonists at this receptor include, in addition to 5-HT (in order of potency), 5- and 6-hydroxyindalpine and 2-methyl-5-HT. 5-HT1P-mediated responses are specifically antagonized by 5-hydroxytryptophyl-5-hydroxytryptophan amide. The other class of 5-HT receptor, which we propose to call 5-HT2P, appears not to have a high affinity for [3H]5-HT. This receptor mediates a brief depolarization of myenteric II/AH neurons associated with a fall in input resistance. 2-Methyl-5-HT, at low concentrations, is a specific agonist at this receptor and ICS 205-930 is a specific antagonist. Binding of [3H]5-HT to enteric membranes is inhibited by 5-HT1P receptor agonists and antagonists but not by the 5-HT2P receptor antagonist ICS 205-930 or by MDL 72222, another compound reported to be an antagonist of 5-HT at peripheral receptors. Images PMID:3467338

  10. Structural and pharmacological characterization of novel potent and selective monoclonal antibody antagonists of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Peter; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Kunze, Susan; Matthews, Evelyn; Priest, Claire; O'Brien, Siobhan; Collinson, Andie; Papworth, Monika; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Jermutus, Lutz; Benthem, Lambertus; Gruetter, Markus; Jackson, Ronald H

    2013-07-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an endogenous hormonal factor (incretin) that, upon binding to its receptor (GIPr; a class B G-protein-coupled receptor), stimulates insulin secretion by beta cells in the pancreas. There has been a lack of potent inhibitors of the GIPr with prolonged in vivo exposure to support studies on GIP biology. Here we describe the generation of an antagonizing antibody to the GIPr, using phage and ribosome display libraries. Gipg013 is a specific competitive antagonist with equally high potencies to mouse, rat, dog, and human GIP receptors with a Ki of 7 nm for the human GIPr. Gipg013 antagonizes the GIP receptor and inhibits GIP-induced insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. A crystal structure of Gipg013 Fab in complex with the human GIPr extracellular domain (ECD) shows that the antibody binds through a series of hydrogen bonds from the complementarity-determining regions of Gipg013 Fab to the N-terminal ?-helix of GIPr ECD as well as to residues around its highly conserved glucagon receptor subfamily recognition fold. The antibody epitope overlaps with the GIP binding site on the GIPr ECD, ensuring competitive antagonism of the receptor. This well characterized antagonizing antibody to the GIPr will be useful as a tool to further understand the biological roles of GIP. PMID:23689510

  11. Interactions of a Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist with Glutamate NMDA Receptor Antagonists on the Volitional Consumption of Ethanol by the mHEP Rat.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brian A; Lommatzsch, Courtney L; Sayonh, Michael J; Williams, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of the dopamine D1 receptor is reported to cause the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at the thre34 position and activates the protein. If intracellular Ca2+ is increased, such as after activation of the glutamate NMDA receptor, calcineurin activity increases and the phosphates will be removed. This balance of phosphorylation control suggests that a D1 receptor agonist and a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist should have additive or synergistic actions to increase activated DARPP-32 and consequent behavioral effects. This hypothesis was tested in a volitional consumption of ethanol model: the selectively bred Myers' high ethanol preferring (mHEP) rat. A 3-day baseline period was followed by 3-days of twice daily injections of drug(s) or vehicle(s) and then a 3-day post-treatment period. Vehicle, the D1 agonist SKF 38393, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, or their combination were injected 2 h before and after lights out. The combination of 5.0 mg/kg SKF 38393 with either 3.0 or 10 mg/kg memantine did not produce an additive or synergistic effect. For example, 5.0 mg/kg SKF reduced consumption of ethanol by 27.3% and 10 mg/kg memantine by 39.8%. When combined, consumption declined by 48.2% and the proportion of ethanol solution to total fluids consumed declined by 17%. However, the consumption of food also declined by 36.6%. The latter result indicates that this dose combination had a non-specific effect. The combination of SKF 38393 with (+)-MK-801, another NMDA receptor antagonist, also failed to show an additive effect. The lack of additivity and specificity suggests that the hypothesis may not be correct for this in vivo model.  The interaction of these different receptor systems with intraneuronal signaling and behaviors needs to be studied further. PMID:24276118

  12. Pharmacophore modeling of dual angiotensin II and endothelin A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Zhe; Lü, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Zhan-Li

    2009-09-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were generated for AT1 and ET(A) receptors based on highly selective AT1 and ET(A) antagonists using the program Catalyst/HipHop. Both the best pharmacophore model for selective AT1 antagonists (Hypo-AT(1)-7) and ETA antagonists (Hypo-ET(A)-1) were obtained through a careful validation process. All five features contained in Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1 (hydrogen-bond acceptor (A), hydrophobic aliphatic (Z), negative ionizable (N), ring aromatic (R), and hydrophobic aromatic (Y)) seem to be essential for antagonists in terms of binding activity. Dual AT1 and ET(A) receptor antagonists (DARAs) can map to both Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1, separately. Comparison of Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1, not only AT1 and ET(A) antagonist pharmacophore models consist of essential features necessary for compounds to be highly active and selective toward their corresponding receptor, but also have something in common. The results in this study will act as a valuable tool for designing and researching structural relationship of novel dual AT1 and ET(A) receptor antagonists. PMID:20055175

  13. New beta-alanine derivatives are orally available glucagon receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jesper; Behrens, Carsten; Sidelmann, Ulla G; Knudsen, Lotte B; Lundt, Behrend; Sams, Christian; Ynddal, Lars; Brand, Christian L; Pridal, Lone; Ling, Anthony; Kiel, Dan; Plewe, Michael; Shi, Shengua; Madsen, Peter

    2007-01-11

    A weak human glucagon receptor antagonist with an IC50 of 7 microM was initially found by screening of libraries originally targeted to mimic the binding of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) hormone to its receptor. Optimization of this hit for binding affinity for the glucagon receptor led to ligands with affinity in the nanomolar range. In addition to receptor binding, optimization efforts were made to stabilize the molecules against fast metabolic turnover. A potent antagonist of the human human glucagon receptor was obtained that had 17% oral availability in rats with a plasma half-life of 90 min. The major metabolites of this lead were identified and used to further optimize this series with respect to pharmacokinetic properties. This final optimization led to a potent glucagon antagonist that was orally available in rats and dogs and was efficacious in lowering blood glucose levels in a diabetic animal model. PMID:17201415

  14. Modeling the G-protein-coupled neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor agonist and antagonist binding sites.

    PubMed

    Du, P; Salon, J A; Tamm, J A; Hou, C; Cui, W; Walker, M W; Adham, N; Dhanoa, D S; Islam, I; Vaysse, P J; Dowling, B; Shifman, Y; Boyle, N; Rueger, H; Schmidlin, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Branchek, T A; Weinshank, R L; Gluchowski, C

    1997-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and mediate several physiological responses, such as blood pressure, food intake, sedation and memory retention. To understand the interactions between the NPY Y1 receptor subtype and its ligands, computer modeling was applied to the natural peptide agonist, NPY and a small molecule antagonist, BIBP3226. An agonist and antagonist binding domain was elucidated using mutagenesis data for the Y1 receptor as well as for other GPCR families. The agonist and antagonist ligands which were investigated appear to share common residues for their interaction within the transmembrane regions of the Y1 receptor structure, including Gln120, Asn283 and His306. This is in contrast to findings with tachykinin receptors where the binding domains of the non-peptide antagonists have very little in common with the binding domains of the agonist, substance-P. In addition, a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of Tyr36 of NPY and the side chain of Gln219, an interaction that is absent in the model complex between Y1 and the antagonist BIBP3226, is proposed as one of the potential interactions necessary for receptor activation. PMID:9089810

  15. Investigation of the binding and functional properties of extended length D3 dopamine receptor-selective antagonists.

    PubMed

    Furman, Cheryse A; Roof, Rebecca A; Moritz, Amy E; Miller, Brittney N; Doyle, Trevor B; Free, R Benjamin; Banala, Ashwini K; Paul, Noel M; Kumar, Vivek; Sibley, Christopher D; Newman, Amy Hauck; Sibley, David R

    2015-09-01

    The D3 dopamine receptor represents an important target in drug addiction in that reducing receptor activity may attenuate the self-administration of drugs and/or disrupt drug or cue-induced relapse. Medicinal chemistry efforts have led to the development of D3 preferring antagonists and partial agonists that are >100-fold selective vs. the closely related D2 receptor, as best exemplified by extended-length 4-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Based on the D3 receptor crystal structure, these molecules are known to dock to two sites on the receptor where the 4-phenylpiperazine moiety binds to the orthosteric site and an extended aryl amide moiety docks to a secondary binding pocket. The bivalent nature of the receptor binding of these compounds is believed to contribute to their D3 selectivity. In this study, we examined if such compounds might also be "bitopic" such that their aryl amide moieties act as allosteric modulators to further enhance the affinities of the full-length molecules for the receptor. First, we deconstructed several extended-length D3-selective ligands into fragments, termed "synthons", representing either orthosteric or secondary aryl amide pharmacophores and investigated their effects on D3 receptor binding and function. The orthosteric synthons were found to inhibit radioligand binding and to antagonize dopamine activation of the D3 receptor, albeit with lower affinities than the full-length compounds. Notably, the aryl amide-based synthons had no effect on the affinities or potencies of the orthosteric synthons, nor did they have any effect on receptor activation by dopamine. Additionally, pharmacological investigation of the full-length D3-selective antagonists revealed that these compounds interacted with the D3 receptor in a purely competitive manner. Our data further support that the 4-phenylpiperazine D3-selective antagonists are bivalent and that their enhanced affinity for the D3 receptor is due to binding at both the orthosteric site as well as a secondary binding pocket. Importantly, however, their interactions at the secondary site do not allosterically modulate their binding to the orthosteric site. PMID:25583363

  16. PET imaging detection of macrophages with a formylpeptide receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Kundu, Bijoy; Zhong, Min; Huang, Tao; Li, Jing; Chen, Mei-Hua; Pan, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Shi, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are a major inflammatory cell type involved in the development and progression of many important chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously found that apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe?/?) mice with the C57BL/6 (B6) background develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and accelerated atherosclerosis when fed a Western diet and that there are increased macrophage infiltrations in pancreatic islets and aorta. The formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) is abundantly expressed on the surface of macrophages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of cinnamoyl-F-(D)L-F-(D)L-F (cFLFLF), a natural FPR1 antagonist, to detection of macrophages in the pancreatic islets and aorta. 64Cu labeled cFLFLF and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were administered to mice with or without T2DM. Diabetic mice showed an increased 18FDG uptake in the subcutaneous fat compared with control mice, but pancreatic uptake was minimal for either group. In contrast, diabetic mice exhibited visually noticeable more cFLFLF-64Cu retention in pancreas and liver than control mice. The heart and pancreas isolated from diabetic mice contained more macrophages and showed stronger PET signals than those of control mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the presence of macrophages but not neutrophils in pancreatic islets. Real-time PCR analysis revealed much higher FPR1 expression in pancreatic islets of diabetic over control mice. Autoradiography and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed abundant FPR1 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, 64Cu-labeled cFLFLF peptide is a more effective PET agent for detecting macrophages compared to FDG. PMID:25532700

  17. NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ~90 minutes after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  18. The Oxytocin-Oxytocin Receptor System and Its Antagonists as Tocolytic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M.; Sifakis, Stavros; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Iliodromiti, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin, a hormone involved in numerous physiologic processes, plays a central role in the mechanisms of parturition and lactation. It acts through its receptor, which belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, while Gq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) is the main pathway via which it exerts its action in the myometrium. Changes in receptor levels, receptor desensitization, and locally produced oxytocin are factors that influence the effect of oxytocin on uterine contractility in labor. Activation of oxytocin receptor causes myometrial contractions by increasing intracellular Ca+2 and production of prostaglandins. Since oxytocin induces contractions, the inhibition of its action has been a target in the management of preterm labor. Atosiban is today the only oxytocin receptor antagonist that is available as a tocolytic. However, the quest for oxytocin receptor antagonists with a better pharmacological profile has led to the synthesis of peptide and nonpeptide molecules such as barusiban, retosiban, L-368,899, and SSR-126768A. Many of these oxytocin receptor antagonists are used only as pharmacological tools, while others have tocolytic action. In this paper, we summarize the action of oxytocin and its receptor and we present an overview of the clinical and experimental data of oxytocin antagonists and their tocolytic action. PMID:22190926

  19. The oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system and its antagonists as tocolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M; Sifakis, Stavros; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Iliodromiti, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin, a hormone involved in numerous physiologic processes, plays a central role in the mechanisms of parturition and lactation. It acts through its receptor, which belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, while Gq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) is the main pathway via which it exerts its action in the myometrium. Changes in receptor levels, receptor desensitization, and locally produced oxytocin are factors that influence the effect of oxytocin on uterine contractility in labor. Activation of oxytocin receptor causes myometrial contractions by increasing intracellular Ca(+2) and production of prostaglandins. Since oxytocin induces contractions, the inhibition of its action has been a target in the management of preterm labor. Atosiban is today the only oxytocin receptor antagonist that is available as a tocolytic. However, the quest for oxytocin receptor antagonists with a better pharmacological profile has led to the synthesis of peptide and nonpeptide molecules such as barusiban, retosiban, L-368,899, and SSR-126768A. Many of these oxytocin receptor antagonists are used only as pharmacological tools, while others have tocolytic action. In this paper, we summarize the action of oxytocin and its receptor and we present an overview of the clinical and experimental data of oxytocin antagonists and their tocolytic action. PMID:22190926

  20. Pharmacological lineage analysis revealed the binding affinity of broad-spectrum substance P antagonists to receptors for gonadotropin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kazune; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Fujiwara, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Nobuya; Shibata, Katsushi; Koshimizu, Taka-aki

    2015-02-15

    A group of synthetic substance P (SP) antagonists, such as [Arg(6),D-Trp(7,9),N(Me)Phe(8)]-substance P(6-11) and [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]-substance P, bind to a range of distinct G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family members, including V1a vasopressin receptors, and they competitively inhibit agonist binding. This extended accessibility enabled us to identify a GPCR subset with a partially conserved binding site structure. By combining pharmacological data and amino acid sequence homology matrices, a pharmacological lineage of GPCRs that are sensitive to these two SP antagonists was constructed. We found that sensitivity to the SP antagonists was not limited to the Gq-protein-coupled V1a and V1b receptors; Gs-coupled V2 receptors and oxytocin receptors, which couple with both Gq and Gi, also demonstrated sensitivity. Unexpectedly, a dendrogram based on the amino acid sequences of 222 known GPCRs showed that a group of receptors sensitive to the SP antagonists are located in close proximity to vasopressin/oxytocin receptors. Gonadotropin-releasing peptide receptors, located near the vasopressin receptors in the dendrogram, were also sensitive to the SP analogs, whereas ?1B adrenergic receptors, located more distantly from the vasopressin receptors, were not sensitive. Our finding suggests that pharmacological lineage analysis is useful in selecting subsets of candidate receptors that contain a conserved binding site for a ligand with broad-spectrum binding abilities. The knowledge that the binding site of the two broad-spectrum SP analogs partially overlaps with that of distinct peptide agonists is valuable for understanding the specificity/broadness of peptide ligands. PMID:25592317

  1. From virtual to clinical: The discovery of PGN-1531, a novel antagonist of the prostanoid EP4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jon; Clark, David E; Higgs, Christopher; de Groot, Marcel J; Harris, Neil V; Taylor, Andrea; Lockey, Peter M; Maubach, Karen; Woodrooffe, Amanda; Davis, Richard J; Coleman, Robert A; Clark, Kenneth L

    2014-05-01

    In this Letter, we present the results of a hit-finding and lead optimization programme against the EP4 receptor (EP4R). In a short time period, we were able to discover five structurally diverse series of hit compounds using a combination of virtual screening methods. The most favoured hit, compound 6, was demonstrated to be a competitive antagonist of the EP4R. Compound 73 was identified following several rounds of optimization, which centred on improving both the primary EP4R affinity and selectivity against the related EP2R as well as the aqueous solubility. This work culminated in the preparation of PGN-1531, the sodium salt of 73, which showed a marked improvement in solubility (>10 mg/mL). PGN-1531 is a potent and selective antagonist at EP4Rs in vitro and in vivo, with the potential to alleviate the symptoms of migraine that result from cerebral vasodilatation. PMID:24703233

  2. The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and memantine preferentially increase the choice for a small, immediate reward in low-impulsive rats

    PubMed Central

    Iemolo, Attilio; Narayan, Aditi R.; Kwak, Jina; Momaney, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Impulsive behavior is categorically differentiated between impulsive action, the inability to withhold from acting out a response, and impulsive choice, the greater preference for an immediate and smaller reward over a delayed but more advantageous reward. While the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists on impulsive action have been extensively characterized, there are very few and conflicting reports on the effects of this class of drugs on impulsive choice. Objectives Using a modified adjusting delay task, we investigated the effects of uncompetitive and competitive blockade of NMDA receptors on impulsive choice. Methods Male Wistar rats were trained in a modified adjusting delay task, which involved repeated choice between a low reinforcing solution delivered immediately and a highly reinforcing solution delivered after a variable delay. Rats were then administered either the NMDA receptor uncompetitive antagonists ketamine or memantine, or the competitive antagonists D-AP-5 or CGS 19755. Results Ketamine treatment dose-dependently increased impulsive choice, and this effect was selective for low-impulsive but not high-impulsive rats. Similarly, memantine treatment dose-dependently increased impulsive choice with a preferential effect for low-impulsive rats. While D-AP-5 treatment did not affect impulsive choice, CGS 19755 increased impulsivity, however, at the same doses at which it caused a marked response inhibition. Conclusions NMDA receptor uncompetitive, but not competitive, antagonists significantly increased impulsive choice, preferentially in low-impulsive rats. These findings demonstrate that the effects of NMDA receptor blockade on impulsive choice are not generalizable and depend on the specific mechanism of action of the antagonist used. PMID:23104264

  3. Antagonist but not agonist labeling of serotonin-1A receptors is decreased in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stockmeier, Craig A.; Howley, Eimear; Shi, Xiaochun; Sobanska, Anna; Clarke, Gerard; Friedman, Lee; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-1A receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. In postmortem brain tissue, agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors is reportedly increased or unchanged in depression or suicide, while neuroimaging studies report a decrease in antagonist binding to these receptors in subjects with depression. In this study, both agonist and antagonist radioligand binding to serotonin-1A receptors were examined in postmortem orbitofrontal cortex from subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Brain tissue was collected at autopsy from 11 subjects with MDD and 11 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects. Two depressed subjects had a recent psychoactive substance use disorder. Six subjects with MDD had a prescription for an antidepressant drug in the last month of life, and, of these six, postmortem bloods from only two subjects tested positive for an antidepressant drug. There was no significant difference between cohorts for age, postmortem interval or tissue pH. The receptor agonist [3H]8-OH-DPAT or the antagonist [3H]MPPF were used to autoradiographically label serotonin-1A receptors in frozen sections from cytoarchitectonically-defined left rostral orbitofrontal cortex (area 47). There was no significant difference between depressed and control subjects in agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors. However, antagonist binding was significantly decreased in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. This observation in postmortem tissue confirms reports using an antagonist radioligand in living subjects with depression. Decreased antagonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex suggests diminished receptor signaling and may be linked to corresponding neuronal changes detected previously in these depressed subjects. PMID:19215942

  4. Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,

    E-print Network

    Zoeller, R. Thomas

    Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist at its receptor (TR). Recently bisphenol-A (BPA, 4,4 isopropylidenediphe- nol) was reported to bind) recently reported that the estrogenic compound bisphenol-A (BPA, 4,4 isopropylidenediphenol) binds

  5. In silico binding characteristics between human histamine H1 receptor and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Yang, Qian; Li, Minyong; Yin, Dali; You, Qidong

    2010-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the H(1) receptor antagonists have important therapeutic significance in the treatment of various allergic disorders, but little was known about the binding mode between the receptor and antagonists since the crystal structure of G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs) were hard to obtain. In this paper, a theoretical three-dimensional model of human histamine H(1) receptor (HHR1) was developed on the basis of recently reported high resolution structures of human A(2A) adenosine receptor, human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and turkey beta(1)-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, three representative H(1) receptor antagonists were chosen for docking studies. Subsequently, a qualitative pharmacophore model was developed by Hiphop algorithm based on the docking conformations of these three antagonists. In this paper, active environment, certain key residues, and the corresponding pharmacophore features of H(1) receptor were identified by such combinations of receptor-based and ligand-based approaches, which would give sufficient guidance for the rational design of novel antihistamine agents. PMID:20179978

  6. Benzotriazonine as a new core structure for the design of CCK-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Escherich, A; Escrieut, C; Fourmy, D; Moroder, L

    1999-03-01

    The search for heterocyclic scaffolds for the design of non-peptidic and highly selective agonists or antagonists of peptide hormone receptors led to 4-N-benzyl-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H-1,4,7-benzotriazonin-2, 6-dione with a 9-membered core structure as a new low mass lead compound that exhibits submicromolar antagonistic activity at the CCK-A receptor with a 54-fold selectivity over the CCK-B/gastrin receptor. PMID:10323559

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of substituted desloratadines as potent arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mu, Shuai; Liu, Ying; Gong, Min; Liu, Deng-Ke; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-one non-peptide substituted desloratadine class compounds were synthesized as novel arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists from desloratadine via successive acylation, reduction and acylation reactions. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR and HRMS, their biological activity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro binding assay and cAMP accumulation assay indicated that these compounds are potent selective V2 receptor antagonists. Among them compounds 1n, 1t and 1v exhibited both high affinity and promising selectivity for V2 receptors. The in vivo diuretic assay demonstrated that 1t presented remarkable diuretic activity. In conclusion, 1t is a potent novel AVP V2 receptor antagonist candidate. PMID:24566331

  8. Pharmacological characterization of GSK1004723, a novel, long-acting antagonist at histamine H1 and H3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Slack, RJ; Russell, LJ; Hall, DA; Luttmann, MA; Ford, AJ; Saunders, KA; Hodgson, ST; Connor, HE; Browning, C; Clark, KL

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Preclinical pharmacological characterization of GSK1004723, a novel, dual histamine H1 and H3 receptor antagonist. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH GSK1004723 was characterized in vitro and in vivo using methods that included radioligand binding, intracellular calcium mobilization, cAMP production, GTP?S binding, superfused human bronchus and guinea pig whole body plethysmography. KEY RESULTS In cell membranes over-expressing human recombinant H1 and H3 receptors, GSK1004723 displayed high affinity, competitive binding (H1 pKi = 10.2; H3 pKi = 10.6). In addition, GSK1004723 demonstrated slow dissociation from both receptors with a t1/2 of 1.2 and 1.5 h for H1 and H3 respectively. GSK1004723 specifically antagonized H1 receptor mediated increases in intracellular calcium and H3 receptor mediated increases in GTP?S binding. The antagonism exerted was retained after cell washing, consistent with slow dissociation from H1 and H3 receptors. Duration of action was further evaluated using superfused human bronchus preparations. GSK1004723 (100 nmol·L?1) reversed an established contractile response to histamine. When GSK1004723 was removed from the perfusate, only 20% recovery of the histamine response was observed over 10 h. Moreover, 21 h post-exposure to GSK1004723 there remained almost complete antagonism of responses to histamine. In vivo pharmacology was studied in conscious guinea pigs in which nasal congestion induced by intranasal histamine was measured indirectly (plethysmography). GSK1004723 (0.1 and 1 mg·mL?1 intranasal) antagonized the histamine-induced response with a duration of up to 72 h. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS GSK1004723 is a potent and selective histamine H1 and H3 receptor antagonist with a long duration of action and represents a potential novel therapy for allergic rhinitis. PMID:22022805

  9. Endothelin B receptor antagonists block proliferation and induce apoptosis in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Mayra; Russo, Marika A; Curti, Daniela; Lanni, Cristina; Schinelli, Sergio

    2010-04-01

    The proliferative and antiapoptotic actions of endothelin (ET)-1 in cancer cells have been documented and ET receptor antagonists have been exploited as potential anticancer drugs. Glioblastoma cell lines express both ETA and ETB receptors and previous works have shown that ETB receptors are involved in the proliferation of different cancer cell types. In this study we have investigated the effects of two structurally unrelated ETB receptor antagonists, BQ788 and A192621, on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis in 1321-N1, U87 and IPDDCA2 glioma cell lines. BQ788 and A192621 reduced glioma cells viability and proliferation assessed by BrdU incorporation and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, while in contrast the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 had no effect on cell survival. TUNEL assay and immunocytochemical experiments showed that BQ788 and A192621 trigger apoptotic processes mainly via activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-9 activation, AIF release and cytochrome c translocation. Furthermore, treatment with ETB antagonists downregulates ERK- and p38MAPK-dependent pathways but does not affect VEGF mRNA levels. Our findings support the hypothesis that ETB antagonists represent a new promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of high grade gliomas. PMID:19931393

  10. A Distinct Functional Site in ?-Neurotoxins: Novel Antagonists of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from Snake Venom.

    PubMed

    Hassan-Puttaswamy, Varuna; Adams, David J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2015-12-18

    Snake venom ?-neurotoxins from the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family are competitive antagonists with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Here, we report the characterization of a new group of competitive nAChR antagonists: ?-neurotoxins. Although they belong to the 3FTx family, the characteristic functional residues of ?-neurotoxins are not conserved. We evaluated the subtype specificity and structure-function relationships of Oh9-1, an ?-neurotoxin from Ophiophagus hannah venom. Recombinant Oh9-1 showed reversible postsynaptic neurotoxicity in the micromolar range. Experiments with different nAChR subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes indicated Oh9-1 is selective for rat muscle type ?1?1?? (adult) and ?1?1?? (fetal) and rat neuronal ?3?2 subtypes. However, Oh9-1 showed low or no affinity for other human and rat neuronal subtypes. Twelve individual alanine-scan mutants encompassing all three loops of Oh9-1 were evaluated for binding to ?1?1?? and ?3?2 subtypes. Oh9-1's loop-II residues (M25, F27) were the most critical for interactions and formed the common binding core. Mutations at T23 and F26 caused a significant loss in activity at ?1?1?? receptors but had no effect on the interaction with the ?3?2 subtype. Similarly, mutations at loop-II (H7, K22, H30) and -III (K45) of Oh9-1 had a distinctly different impact on its activity with these subtypes. Thus, Oh9-1 interacts with these nAChRs via distinct residues. Unlike ?-neurotoxins, the tip of loop-II is not involved. We reveal a novel mode of interaction, where both sides of the ?-strand of Oh9-1's loop-II interact with ?1?1??, but only one side interacts with ?3?2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed functional organization of the ?-neurotoxins independent of ?-neurotoxins. Thus, ?-neurotoxin: Oh9-1 may be a new, structurally distinct class of 3FTxs that, like ?-neurotoxins, antagonize nAChRs. However, Oh9-1 binds to the ACh binding pocket via a different set of functional residues. PMID:26448325

  11. Fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 are muscarinic receptor antagonists: intravital visualization of receptor occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Burman, Miriam; Palovich, Michael; Belmonte, Kristen E; Canning, Brendan J

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 have been used to visualize the endocytic and exocytic processes involved in neurotransmission in a variety of central and peripheral nerve preparations. Their utility is limited to some extent by a poorly understood vesicular-independent labelling of cells and tissues. We show here that one likely cause of this troublesome background labelling is that FM1-43 and FM2-10 are selective and competitive antagonists at both cloned and endogenously expressed muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In radioligand binding studies, FM1-43 and FM2-10 bound with moderate affinity (23–220 nm) to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing cloned human muscarinic receptors (M1–M5). In functional studies in vitro, FM1-43 and FM2-10 inhibited electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine-induced cholinergic contractions of guinea-pig tracheal strips (IC50: FM1-43, 0.4 ± 0.1; FM2-10, 1.6 ± 0.1 ?m; concentration of antagonist producing a 2-fold leftward shift in the acetylcholine concentration–response curve (Kb): FM1-43, 0.3 ± 0.1; FM2-10, 15.8 ± 10.1 ?m). Neither compound inhibited EFS-evoked, non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve-mediated relaxations or contractions of the airways, or contractions mediated by histamine H1 receptor or tachykinin NK2 receptor activation. Incubating freshly excised tracheal whole-mount preparations with 5 ?m FM1-43 resulted in intense fluorescence labelling of the smooth muscle that was reduced by up to 90% in the presence of selective M2 and M3 receptor antagonists. The potency of the FM dyes as muscarinic receptor antagonists is within the concentration range used to study vesicular cycling at nerve terminals. Given that muscarinic receptors play a key role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release from a variety of neurones, the anticholinergic properties of FM dyes may have important implications when studying vesicular events in the nervous system. In addition, these dyes may provide a novel tool for visualizing muscarinic receptor occupancy in living tissue or cell preparations. PMID:16728454

  12. A selective delta opioid receptor antagonist based on a stilbene core.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Alyssa M; Navarro, Hernan A; Wiemer, David F; Neighbors, Jeffrey D

    2015-12-01

    Studies of directed ortho metalation reactions on an aromatic substrate with multiple potential directing groups have identified conditions that favor either of two regioisomers. One of these regioisomers has been converted to an analogue of the stilbene pawhuskin A, and been shown to have high selectivity as an antagonist of the delta opioid receptor. Docking studies have suggested that this compound can adopt a conformation similar to naltrindole, a known delta antagonist. PMID:26525865

  13. Discovery of BMS-641988, a Novel Androgen Receptor Antagonist for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Balog, Aaron; Rampulla, Richard; Martin, Gregory S; Krystek, Stanley R; Attar, Ricardo; Dell-John, Janet; DiMarco, John D; Fairfax, David; Gougoutas, Jack; Holst, Christian L; Nation, Andrew; Rizzo, Cheryl; Rossiter, Lana M; Schweizer, Liang; Shan, Weifang; Spergel, Steven; Spires, Thomas; Cornelius, Georgia; Gottardis, Marco; Trainor, George; Vite, Gregory D; Salvati, Mark E

    2015-08-13

    BMS-641988 (23) is a novel, nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist designed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The compound has high binding affinity for the AR and acts as a functional antagonist in vitro. BMS-641988 is efficacious in multiple human prostate cancer xenograft models, including CWR22-BMSLD1 where it displays superior efficacy relative to bicalutamide. Based on its promising preclinical profile, BMS-641988 was selected for clinical development. PMID:26288692

  14. Selective opioid receptor antagonist effects upon intake of a high-fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K; Bodnar, R J

    1990-02-01

    Short-term (2 h) intake of a high-fat diet in rats was significantly inhibited by intravenous (0.1-10 mg/kg: 39-67%) and central (1-5 micrograms, i.c.v.: 51%) naloxone. The irreversible mu opioid antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (10 micrograms, i.c.v.: 37%), but not the irreversible mu 1 antagonist, naloxonazine (10 mg/kg, i.v.) inhibited intake, suggesting mu 2 receptor mediation. The delta antagonist, ICI 174864 (1-10 micrograms, i.c.v.: 41%) inhibited high-fat diet intake only at doses that also produced motor dysfunction. PMID:2155039

  15. The combination of glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 with tamoxifen and its active metabolites potentiates their antiproliferative activity in mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Nunes-Correia, Isabel; Santos, Armanda E; Custódio, José B A

    2014-02-15

    Recent reports suggest that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade by MK-801 decreases tumor growth. Thus, we investigated whether other ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists were also able to modulate the proliferation of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) decreases the proliferation of melanoma cells, and is included in combined therapies for melanoma. As the efficacy of TAM is limited by its metabolism, we investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 in combination with TAM and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and endoxifen (EDX). The NMDAR blockers MK-801 and memantine decreased mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cell proliferation. In contrast, the NMDAR competitive antagonist APV and the AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist NBQX did not affect cell proliferation, suggesting that among the iGluR antagonists only the NMDAR channel blockers inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. The combination of antiestrogens with MK-801 potentiated their individual effects on cell biomass due to diminished cell proliferation, since it decreased the cell number and DNA synthesis without increasing cell death. Importantly, TAM metabolites combined with MK-801 promoted cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, the data obtained suggest that the activity of MK-801 and antiestrogens in K1735-M2 cells is greatly enhanced when used in combination. PMID:24240127

  16. Molecular basis for selectivity of high affinity peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Tokita, K; Katsuno, T; Hocart, S J; Coy, D H; Llinares, M; Martinez, J; Jensen, R T

    2001-09-28

    Few gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters have high affinity peptide receptor antagonists, and little is known about the molecular basis of their selectivity or affinity. The receptor mediating the action of the mammalian bombesin (Bn) peptide, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), is an exception, because numerous classes of peptide antagonists are described. To investigate the molecular basis for their high affinity for the GRPR, two classes of peptide antagonists, a statine analogue, JMV594 ([d-Phe(6),Stat(13)]Bn(6-14)), and a pseudopeptide analogue, JMV641 (d-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leupsi(CHOH-CH(2))-(CH(2))(2)-CH(3)), were studied. Each had high affinity for the GRPR and >3,000-fold selectivity for GRPR over the closely related neuromedin B receptor (NMBR). To investigate the basis for this, we used a chimeric receptor approach to make both GRPR loss of affinity and NMBR gain of affinity chimeras and a site-directed mutagenesis approach. Chimeric or mutated receptors were transiently expressed in Balb/c 3T3. Only substitution of the fourth extracellular (EC) domain of the GRPR by the comparable NMBR domain markedly decreased the affinity for both antagonists. Substituting the fourth EC domain of NMBR into the GRPR resulted in a 300-fold gain in affinity for JMV594 and an 11-fold gain for JMV641. Each of the 11 amino acid differences between the GRPR and NMBR in this domain were exchanged. The substitutions of Thr(297) in GRPR by Pro from the comparable position in NMBR, Phe(302) by Met, and Ser(305) by Thr decreased the affinity of each antagonist. Simultaneous replacement of Thr(297), Phe(302), and Ser(305) in GRPR by the three comparable NMBR amino acids caused a 500-fold decrease in affinity for both antagonists. Replacing the comparable three amino acids in NMBR by those from GRPR caused a gain in affinity for each antagonist. Receptor modeling showed that each of these three amino acids faced inward and was within 5 A of the putative binding pocket. These results demonstrate that differences in the fourth EC domain of the mammalian Bn receptors are responsible for the selectivity of these two peptide antagonists. They demonstrate that Thr(297), Phe(302), and Ser(305) of the fourth EC domain of GRPR are the critical residues for determining GRPR selectivity and suggest that both receptor-ligand cation-pi interactions and hydrogen bonding are important for their high affinity interaction. PMID:11463790

  17. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonist reverses naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Pais, Gwendolyn; Tapia, Melissa; Gulati, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Long-term use of opioids for pain management results in rapid development of tolerance and dependence leading to severe withdrawal symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate analgesic tolerance. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of central ET mechanisms in opioid withdrawal. The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 on morphine and oxycodone withdrawal was determined in male Swiss Webster mice. Opioid tolerance was induced and withdrawal was precipitated by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Expression of ETA and ETB receptors, nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor was determined in the brain using Western blotting. BQ123 pretreatment reversed hypothermia and weight loss during withdrawal. BQ123 also reduced wet shakes, rearing behavior, and jumping behavior. No changes in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, ETA receptors, and ETB receptors were observed during withdrawal. NGF expression was unaffected in morphine withdrawal but significantly decreased during oxycodone withdrawal. A decrease in NGF expression in oxycodone- but not in morphine-treated mice could be due to mechanistic differences in oxycodone and morphine. It is concluded that ETA receptor antagonists attenuate opioid-induced withdrawal symptoms. PMID:26440527

  18. An Antagonistic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Variant Inhibits VEGF-Stimulated Receptor Autophosphorylation and Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemeister, Gerhard; Schirner, Michael; Reusch, Petra; Barleon, Bernhard; Marme, Dieter; Martiny-Baron, Georg

    1998-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen with a unique specificity for endothelial cells and a key mediator of aberrant endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in a variety of human pathological situations, such as tumor angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. VEGF is a symmetric homodimeric molecule with two receptor binding interfaces lying on each pole of the molecule. Herein we report on the construction and recombinant expression of an asymmetric heterodimeric VEGF variant with an intact receptor binding interface at one pole and a mutant receptor binding interface at the second pole of the dimer. This VEGF variant binds to VEGF receptors but fails to induce receptor activation. In competition experiments, the heterodimeric VEGF variant antagonizes VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of endothelial cells. A 15-fold excess of the heterodimer was sufficient to inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 50%, and a 100-fold excess resulted in an almost complete inhibition. By using a rational approach that is based on the structure of VEGF, we have shown the feasibility to construct a VEGF variant that acts as an VEGF antagonist.

  19. Attenuation of D-1 antagonist-induced D-1 receptor upregulation by conccomitant D-2 receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Parashos, S.A.; Barone, P.; Tucci, I.; Chase, T.N.

    1987-11-16

    The effect of chronic selective D-1 and/or D-2 dopamine receptor blockade on regional D-1 receptor binding was studied in rat brain following chronic treatment with the specific D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 and/or the predominantly D-2 antagonist haloperidol. D-1 receptor density and affinity were evaluated by quantitative autoradiography using /sup 125/I-SCH 23982. Chronic SCH 23390 treatment increased D-1 receptor density by 30 to 40% in the striatum, accumbens and tuberculum olfactorium; receptor affinity remained unchanged. Haloperidol had no effect on D-1 receptor Bmax or Kd values, although, when administered with SCH 23390, reduced the D-1 receptor upregulation induced by the D-1 antagonist in striatum and tuberculum olfactorium, but not in nucleus accumbens, These results may be attributable to D-1/D-2 dopamine receptor interactions occurring in the striatum and tuberculum olfactorium and may have implications for the prevention and treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Orexin 1 receptor antagonists in compulsive behavior and anxiety: possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Merlo Pich, Emilio; Melotto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years after the discovery of hypocretin/orexin a large body of evidence has been collected supporting its critical role in the modulation of several regulatory physiological functions. While reduced levels of hypocretin/orexin were initially associated with narcolepsy, increased levels have been linked in recent years to pathological states of hypervigilance and, in particular, to insomnia. The filing to FDA of the dual-activity orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) suvorexant for the indication of insomnia further corroborates the robustness of such evidences. However, as excessive vigilance is also typical of anxiety and panic episodes, as well as of abstinence and craving in substance misuse disorders. In this review we briefly discuss the evidence supporting the development of hypocretin/orexin receptor 1 (OX1) antagonists for these indications. Experiments using the OX1 antagonist SB-334867 and mutant mice have involved the OX1 receptor in mediating the compulsive reinstatement of drug seeking for ethanol, nicotine, cocaine, cannabinoids and morphine. More recently, data have been generated with the novel selective OX1 antagonists GSK1059865 and ACT-335827 on behavioral and cardiovascular response to stressors and panic-inducing agents in animals. Concluding, while waiting for pharmacologic data to become available in humans, risks and benefits for the development of an OX1 receptor antagonist for Binge Eating and Anxiety Disorders are discussed. PMID:24592206

  1. Targeted Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence. However, treatments requiring daily administration, such as naltrexone, are inconsistently adhered to in substance abusing populations, and constant medication exposure can increase risk of adverse outcomes, e.g., hepatotoxicity. This has fostered a ‘targeted’ or ‘as needed’ approach to opioid receptor antagonist treatment, in which medications are used only in anticipation of or during high-risk situations, including times of intense cravings. Initial studies of the ability of targeted naltrexone to reduce drinking-related outcomes were conducted in problem drinkers and have been extended into larger, multi-site, placebo-controlled investigations with positive results. Another ?-opioid receptor antagonist, nalmefene, has been studied on an ‘as-needed’ basis to reduce heavy drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. These studies include three large multi-site trials in Europe of up to 1 year in duration, and serve as the basis for the recent approval of nalmefene by the European Medicines Agency as an ‘as-needed’ adjunctive treatment for alcohol dependence. We review potential moderators of opioid receptor antagonist treatment response including subjective assessments, objective clinical measures and genetic variants. In sum, the targeted or ‘as-needed’ approach to treatment with opioid antagonists is an efficacious harmreduction strategy for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23881605

  2. Distinct CCK-2 receptor conformations associated with ?-arrestin-2 recruitment or phospholipase-C activation revealed by a biased antagonist.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Rémi; Escrieut, Chantal; Gigoux, Véronique; De, Kavita; Clerc, Pascal; Niu, Fan; Azema, Joelle; Masri, Bernard; Cordomi, Arnau; Baltas, Michel; Tikhonova, Irina G; Fourmy, Daniel

    2013-02-20

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), form the largest class of cell surface membrane receptors, involving several hundred members in the human genome. Nearly 30% of marketed pharmacological agents target 7TMRs. 7TMRs adopt multiple conformations upon agonist binding. Biased agonists, in contrast to non-biased agonists, are believed to stabilize conformations preferentially activating either G-protein- or ?-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways. However, proof that cognate conformations of receptors display structural differences within their binding site where biased agonism initiates, are still lacking. Here, we show that a non-biased agonist, cholecystokinin (CCK) induces conformational states of the CCK2R activating Gq-protein-dependent pathway (CCK2R(G)) or recruiting ?-arrestin2 (CCK2R(?)) that are pharmacologically and structurally distinct. Two structurally unrelated antagonists competitively inhibited both pathways. A third ligand (GV150013X) acted as a high affinity competitive antagonist on CCK2R(G) but was nearly inefficient as inhibitor of CCK2R(?). Several structural elements on both GV150013X and in CCK2R binding cavity, which hinder binding of GV150013X only to the CCK2R(?) were identified. At last, proximity between two conserved amino acids from transmembrane helices 3 and 7 interacting through sulfur-aromatic interaction was shown to be crucial for selective stabilization of the CCK2R(?) state. These data establish structural evidence for distinct conformations of a 7TMR associated with ?-arrestin-2 recruitment or G-protein coupling and validate relevance of the design of biased ligands able to selectively target each functional conformation of 7TMRs. PMID:23323542

  3. CGRP receptor antagonists: A new frontier of anti-migraine medications

    PubMed Central

    de Prado, Blanca Marquez; Russo, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic pain condition that affects 12% of the population. Currently, the most effective treatments are the triptans, but they are limited in their efficacy and have potentially deleterious cardiovascular complications. Based on basic science studies over the past decade, a new generation of anti-migraine drugs is now being developed. At the forefront of these studies is a new calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist that is as effective as triptans in the acute treatment of migraines, without the cardiovascular effects. This review will address the likely mechanisms and therapeutic potential of CGRP receptor antagonists. PMID:19784396

  4. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, W. David; Daugherty, Jennifer; Gao, ChongFeng; Xie, Qian; Miranti, Cindy; Gherardi, Ermanno; Vande Woude, George; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Met receptor tyrosine kinase by binding and promoting receptor dimerization. Here we describe a mechanistic basis for designing Met antagonists based on NK1, a natural variant of HGF containing the N-terminal and the first kringle domain. Through detailed biochemical and structural analyses, we demonstrate that both mouse and human NK1 induce Met dimerization via a conserved NK1 dimer interface. Mutations designed to alter the NK1 dimer interface abolish its ability to promote Met dimerization but retain full Met-binding activity. Importantly, these NK1 mutants act as Met antagonists by inhibiting HGF-mediated cell scattering, proliferation, branching, and invasion. The ability to separate the Met-binding activity of NK1 from its Met dimerization activity thus provides a rational basis for designing Met antagonists. This strategy of antagonist design may be applicable for other growth factor receptors by selectively abolishing the receptor activation ability but not the receptor binding of the growth factors.

  5. (?) Arctigenin and (+) Pinoresinol Are Antagonists of the Human Thyroid Hormone Receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lignans are important biologically active dietary polyphenolic compounds. Consumption of foods that are rich in lignans is associated with positive health effects. Using modeling tools to probe the ligand-binding pockets of molecular receptors, we found that lignans have high docking affinity for the human thyroid hormone receptor ?. Follow-up experimental results show that lignans (?) arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor ?. The modeled complexes show key plausible interactions between the two ligands and important amino acid residues of the receptor. PMID:25383984

  6. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  7. Thioperamide, a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, protects against PTZ-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Vohora, D; Pal, S N; Pillai, K K

    2000-04-21

    The effect of selective histamine H3-receptor antagonist thioperamide was studied on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. Thioperamide significantly protected clonic seizures induced by PTZ in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of thioperamide was completely countered by pretreatment with R (alpha)-methylhistamine (RAMH), a selective H3-receptor agonist suggesting that the observed effect of thioperamide was elicited by histamine H3-receptors. RAMH alone did not significantly modify PTZ seizures. The findings are consistent with a role for the histaminergic neuronal system in seizures and suggest that H3-receptors may play an important role in modulating clonic seizures induced by PTZ in mice. PMID:10834305

  8. Enantiomeric Propanolamines as selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate 2B Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Geballe, Matthew; Gruszecka-Kowalik, Ewa; Myers, Scott J.; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; French, Adam; Irier, Hasan; Choi, Woo-baeg; Easterling, Keith; Yuan, Hongjie; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Kotloski, Robert; McNamara, James O.; Dingledine, Raymond; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Snyder, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Enantiomeric propanolamines have been identified as a new class of NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. The most effective agents are biaryl structures, synthesized in six steps with overall yields ranging from 11–64%. The compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of NR2B-containing recombinant NMDA receptors with IC50 values between 30–100 nM. Potency is strongly controlled by substitution on both rings and the centrally located amine nitrogen. SAR analysis suggests that well-balanced polarity and chain-length factors provide the greatest inhibitory potency. Structural comparisons based on 3D shape analysis and electrostatic complementarity support this conclusion. The antagonists are neuroprotective in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic cell death. In addition, some compounds exhibit anticonvulsant properties. Unlike earlier generation NMDA receptor antagonists and some NR2B-selective antagonists, the present series of propanolamines does not cause increased locomotion in rodents. Thus, the NR2B-selective antagonists exhibit a range of therapeutically interesting properties. PMID:18800760

  9. Sisters' curse: sexually antagonistic effects constrain the spread of a mitochondrial haplogroup superior in sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Padua, Michael V; Zeh, David W; Bonilla, Melvin M; Zeh, Jeanne A

    2014-12-22

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve with implications for male longevity, disease susceptibility and infertility. Because males are an evolutionary dead end for mitochondria, mitochondrial mutations that are harmful or beneficial to males but not females cannot respond directly to selection. Although the importance of this male/female asymmetry in evolutionary response depends on the extent to which mitochondrial mutations exert antagonistic effects on male and female fitness, few studies have documented sex-specific selection acting on mitochondria. Here, we exploited the discovery of two highly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A and B2) in central Panamanian populations of the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest that selection on the ND4 and ND4L mitochondrial genes may partially explain sexually antagonistic mitochondrial effects on reproduction. Males carrying the rare B2 mitochondrial haplogroup enjoy a marked advantage in sperm competition, but B2 females are significantly less sexually receptive at second mating than A females. This reduced propensity for polyandry is likely to significantly reduce female lifetime reproductive success, thereby limiting the spread of the male beneficial B2 haplogroup. Our findings suggest that maternal inheritance of mitochondria and sexually antagonistic selection can constrain male adaptation and sexual selection in nature. PMID:25377452

  10. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1-blockers, ARBs, sartans): similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A survey is presented of the registered non-peptidergic angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1 blockers, ARBs, sartans) and their general properties and similarities. Accordingly, their receptor profile, pharmacokinetic and therapeutic applications are discussed. In addition, attention is paid to the individual characteristics of the AT1 blockers now available. A few components of this category offer additional potentially beneficial properties, owing to their pharmacological or metabolic characteristics. Such additional properties are critically discussed for eprosartan, losartan, telmisartan and valsartan. PMID:25696573

  11. Remote functionalization of SCH 39166: discovery of potent and selective benzazepine dopamine D1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, T K; Burnett, Duane A; Greenlee, William J; Smith, Michelle; Fawzi, Ahmad; Zhang, Hongtao; Lachowicz, Jean E

    2010-02-01

    A series of novel benzazepine derived dopamine D(1) antagonists have been discovered. These compounds are highly potent at D(1) and showed excellent selectivity over D(2) and D(4) receptors. SAR studies revealed that a variety of functional groups are tolerated on the D-ring of known tetracyclic benzazepine analog 2, SCH 39166, leading to compounds with nanomolar potency at D(1) and good selectivity over D(2)-like receptors. PMID:20064718

  12. Monitoring ligand-induced conformational changes for the identification of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Wrangowski, Svenja C; Rauh, Daniel

    2015-03-27

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that are important targets for current drug discovery efforts as they play a role in many pathological processes. Their activity can be regulated by small molecules like hormones and drugs that can have agonistic or antagonistic functions. These ligands bind to the receptor and account for diverse conformational changes that are crucial determinants for the receptor activity. Here, we set out to develop FLiN (fluorescent labels in nuclear receptors), a direct binding assay that detects conformational changes in the estrogen receptor. The assay is based on the introduction of a cysteine residue and subsequent specific labeling of the receptor with a thiol-reactive fluorophore. Changes in the receptor conformation upon ligand binding lead to differences in the microenvironment of the fluorophore and alter its emission spectrum. The FLiN assay distinguishes between different binding modes and is suitable for high-throughput screening. PMID:25664555

  13. Identifying bias in CCR1 antagonists using radiolabelled binding, receptor internalization, ?-arrestin translocation and chemotaxis assays

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, A; Gauntner, T D; Fazzini, A; Alley, K M; Pyen, D S; Ahn, J; Ha, S J; Willett, A; Sansom, S E; Yarfi, J L; Bachovchin, K A; Mazzoni, M R; Merritt, J R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Investigators have suggested that the chemokine receptor CCR1 plays a role in multiple myeloma. Studies using antisense and neutralizing antibodies to CCR1 showed that down-regulation of the receptor altered disease progression in a mouse model. More recently, experiments utilizing scid mice injected with human myeloma cells demonstrated that the CCR1 antagonist BX471 reduced osteolytic lesions, while the CCR1 antagonist MLN-3897 prevented myeloma cell adhesion to osteoclasts. However, information is limited regarding the pharmacology of CCR1 antagonists in myeloma cells. Experimental Approach We compared several well-studied CCR1 antagonists including AZD4818, BX471, CCX354, CP-481715, MLN-3897 and PS899877 for their ability to inhibit binding of [125I]-CCL3 in vitro using membranes prepared from RPMI 8226 cells, a human multiple myeloma cell line that endogenously expresses CCR1. In addition, antagonists were assessed for their ability to modulate CCL3-mediated internalization of CCR1 and CCL3-mediated cell migration using RPMI 8226 cells. As many GPCRs signal through ?–arrestin-dependent pathways that are separate and distinct from those driven by G-proteins, we also evaluated the compounds for their ability to alter ?-arrestin translocation. Key Results There were clear differences between the CCR1 antagonists in their ability to inhibit CCL3 binding to myeloma cells, as well as in their ability to inhibit G–protein-dependent and -independent functional responses. Conclusions and Implications Our studies demonstrate that tissue phenotype seems to be relevant with regards to CCR1. Moreover, it appears that for CCR1 antagonists, inhibition of ?-arrestin translocation is not necessarily linked to chemotaxis or receptor internalization. PMID:24990525

  14. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  15. CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST HALTS PROGRESSION OF PANCREATIC CANCER PRECURSOR LESIONS AND FIBROSIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jill P.; Cooper, Timothy K.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Matters, Gail L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved with the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. Methods The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK-receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1mg/ml). Pancreas from mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2 or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Results Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared to controls (p=0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared to vehicle (pitalic>0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Use of CCK-receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high risk subjects, and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment. PMID:25058882

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of (-)-hydroxyclemastine as a versatile intermediate for the H1 receptor antagonist clemastine.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jung Wha; Kim, Hee-Doo

    2007-12-01

    Hydroxyclemastine was targeted as a versatile analogue of clemastine with H1 receptor antagonist activity. Stereoselective synthesis of (-)-hydroxyclemastine was performed in which the key step was chelation-controlled diastereoselective 1,2-addition of Grignard reagent to alpha-alkoxyketone. PMID:18254238

  17. THE METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE 2/3 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST LY341495 DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS RECOGNITION MEMORY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Kaffe, Eleanna; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists affect cognitive function, although contradictory findings have been reported. To clarify the role of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists in one aspect of cognition, the present study investigated the effects of a broad range of doses of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on post-training recognition memory components (storage and/or retrieval) in rats. The efficacy of LY341495 in antagonizing the extinction of recognition memory was also investigated. The novel object recognition test was used as the memory test. The highest LY341495 doses administered (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) disrupted performance in this recognition memory procedure in rats at all delay conditions tested, whereas administration of lower doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not impair recognition memory. Moreover, administration of the low LY341495 doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) counteracted the extinction of recognition memory. The present results indicate that administration of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 can either impair or enhance recognition memory in rats, depending on the dose of the compound and delay period used. Thus, together with previously reported findings, the present data suggest complex effects of this compound on cognitive function, particularly recognition memory. PMID:22586715

  18. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  19. Effects of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonist MCPG on Phosphoinositide Turnover and Synaptic Plasticity in

    E-print Network

    Bear, Mark

    Effects of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonist MCPG on Phosphoinositide Turnover- servation that the developmental decline in glutamate-stimulated PI turnover is well correlated-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, it fails to block PI turnover and changes in spike adaptation stimulated

  20. III. Identification of novel CXCR3 chemokine receptor antagonists with a pyrazinyl-piperazinyl-piperidine scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Heon; Anilkumar, Gopinadhan N; Zawacki, Lisa Guise; Zeng, Qingbei; Yang, De-Yi; Shao, Yuefei; Dong, Guizhen; Xu, Xiaolian; Yu, Wensheng; Jiang, Yueheng; Jenh, Chung-Her; Hall, James W; Carroll, Carolyn Diianni; Hobbs, Doug W; Baldwin, John J; McGuinness, Brian F; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Kozlowski, Joseph A; Shankar, Bandarpalle B; Shih, Neng-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The SAR of a novel pyrazinyl-piperazinyl-piperidine scaffold with CXCR3 receptor antagonist activity was explored. Optimization of the DMPK profile and reduction of hERG inhibition is described. Compound 16e with single-digit CXCR3 affinity, good rat PK and hERG profiles has been identified as a lead for further study. PMID:22018463

  1. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  2. A potent, nonpeptidyl 1H-quinolone antagonist for the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    DeVita, R J; Walsh, T F; Young, J R; Jiang, J; Ujjainwalla, F; Toupence, R B; Parikh, M; Huang, S X; Fair, J A; Goulet, M T; Wyvratt, M J; Lo, J L; Ren, N; Yudkovitz, J B; Yang, Y T; Cheng, K; Cui, J; Mount, G; Rohrer, S P; Schaeffer, J M; Rhodes, L; Drisko, J E; McGowan, E; MacIntyre, D E; Vincent, S; Carlin, J R; Cameron, J; Smith, R G

    2001-03-15

    Extensive development of the structure-activity relationships of a screening lead determined three important pharmacophores for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist activity. Incorporation of the 3,4,5-trimethylphenyl group at the 3-position, 2-(2(S)-azetidinyl)ethoxy group at the 4-position, and N-4-pyrimidinylcarboxamide at the 6-position of the quinolone core resulted in the identification of 4-(2-(azetidin-2(S)-yl)ethoxy)-7-chloro-2-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethylphenyl)-1,2-dihydroquinoline-6-carboxylic acid pyrimidin-4-ylamide (1) as a potent antagonist of the GnRH receptor. A 10(4)-fold increase in in vitro binding affinity is observed for the GnRH receptor as compared to the initial screening lead. Compound 1 exhibits nanomolar binding activity and functional antagonism at the human receptor and is 7-fold less active at the rhesus receptor. Intravenous administration of compound 1 to rhesus monkeys results in a significant decrease of the serum levels of downstream hormones, luteinizing hormone (79% decrease in area under the curve) and testosterone (92% decrease in area under the curve), at a dose of 3 mg/kg. Quinolone 1 is a potent nonpeptidyl antagonist for the human GnRH receptor that is efficacious for the suppression of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in primates. PMID:11300873

  3. Selection for biocontrol bacteria antagonistic toward Rosellinia necatrix by enrichment of competitive avocado root tip colonizers.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Clara; Cazorla, Francisco Manuel; González-Sánchez, María Angeles; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; de Vicente, Antonio; Ramos, Cayo

    2007-06-01

    Biological control of soil-borne pathogens is frequently based on the application of antagonistic microorganisms selected solely for their ability to produce in vitro antifungal factors. The aim of this work was to select bacteria that efficiently colonize the roots of avocado plants and display antagonism towards Rosellinia necatrix, the causal agent of avocado white root rot. A high frequency of antagonistic strains (ten isolates, 24.4%) was obtained using a novel procedure based on the selection of competitive avocado root tip colonizers. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with biochemical characterization, showed that eight and two of the selected isolates belonged to the genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, respectively. Characterization of antifungal compounds produced by the antagonistic strains showed variable production of exoenzymes and HCN. Only one of these strains, Pseudomonas sp. AVO94, produced a compound that could be related to antifungal antibiotics. All of the ten selected strains showed twitching motility, a cell movement involved in competitive colonization of root tips. Production of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and indole-3-acetic acid was also reported for some of these isolates. Resistance to several bacterial antibiotics was tested, and three strains showing resistance to only one of them were selected for biocontrol assays. The three selected strains persisted in the rhizosphere of avocado plants at levels considered crucial for efficient biocontrol, 10(5)-10(6) colony forming units/g of root; two of them, Pseudomonas putida AVO102 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes AVO110, demonstrated significant protection of avocado plants against white root rot. PMID:17467245

  4. Competitive Androgen Receptor Antagonism as a Factor Determining the Predictability of Cumulative Antiandrogenic Effects of Widely Used Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many pesticides in current use have recently been revealed as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their combined effects is lacking. Objective: We investigated the combined effects and the competitive AR antagonism of pesticide mixtures. Methods: We used the MDA-kb2 assay to test a combination of eight AR antagonists that did not also possess AR agonist properties (“pure” antagonists; 8 mix: fludioxonil, fenhexamid, ortho-phenylphenol, imazalil, tebuconazole, dimethomorph, methiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl), a combination of five AR antagonists that also showed agonist activity (5 mix: cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, vinclozolin, chlorpropham, linuron), and all pesticides combined (13 mix). We used concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) to formulate additivity expectations, and Schild plot analyses to investigate competitive AR antagonism. Results: A good agreement between the effects of the mixture of eight “pure” AR antagonists and the responses predicted by CA was observed. Schild plot analysis revealed that the 8 mix acted by competitive AR antagonism. However, the observed responses of the 5 mix and the 13 mix fell within the “prediction window” boundaries defined by the predicted regression curves of CA and IA. Schild plot analysis with these mixtures yielded anomalous responses incompatible with competitive receptor antagonism. Conclusions: A mixture of widely used pesticides can, in a predictable manner, produce combined AR antagonist effects that exceed the responses elicited by the most potent component alone. Inasmuch as large populations are regularly exposed to mixtures of antiandrogenic pesticides, our results underline the need for considering combination effects for these substances in regulatory practice. PMID:23008280

  5. Identification of potent, selective non-peptide CC chemokine receptor-3 antagonist that inhibits eotaxin-, eotaxin-2-, and monocyte chemotactic protein-4-induced eosinophil migration.

    PubMed

    White, J R; Lee, J M; Dede, K; Imburgia, C S; Jurewicz, A J; Chan, G; Fornwald, J A; Dhanak, D; Christmann, L T; Darcy, M G; Widdowson, K L; Foley, J J; Schmidt, D B; Sarau, H M

    2000-11-24

    Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Several CC chemokines including eotaxin (CCL-11), eotaxin-2 (CCL-24), RANTES (CCL-5), and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, CCL-7) and 4 (MCP-4, CCL-13) are potent eosinophil chemotactic and activating peptides acting through CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3). Thus, antagonism of CCR3 could have a therapeutic role in asthma and other eosinophil-mediated diseases. A high throughput, cellular functional screen was configured using RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CCR3 (RBL-2H3-CCR3) to identify non-peptide receptor antagonists. A small molecule CCR3 antagonist was identified, SK&F 45523, and chemical optimization led to the generation of a number of highly potent, selective CCR3 antagonists including SB-297006 and SB-328437. These compounds were further characterized in vitro and demonstrated high affinity, competitive inhibition of (125)I-eotaxin and (125)I-MCP-4 binding to human eosinophils. The compounds were potent inhibitors of eotaxin- and MCP-4-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in RBL-2H3-CCR3 cells and eosinophils. Additionally, SB-328437 inhibited eosinophil chemotaxis induced by three ligands that activate CCR3 with similar potencies. Selectivity was affirmed using a panel of 10 seven-transmembrane receptors. This is the first description of a non-peptide CCR3 antagonist, which should be useful in further elucidating the pathophysiological role of CCR3 in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:10969084

  6. Selective sigma-1 (sigma1) receptor antagonists: emerging target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Luis; Zamanillo, Daniel; Corbera, Jordi; Baeyens, José Manuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Pericàs, Miquel Angel; Vela, José Miguel; Torrens, Antoni

    2009-09-01

    A large number of therapeutic roles have been proposed for sigma(1) receptors but the involvement of sigma(1) receptor in non-acute pain had not been well explored up to now. sigma(1) receptor knock-out mice became available offering us the possibility to study the role of sigma(1) receptor in nociception, particularly in models where central sensitization processes play a significant role. Given the attractive therapeutic potential, we have developed a chemical program aimed at the discovery of novel and selective sigma(1) ligands. Herein we discuss the rational basis of this approach and report preliminary pharmacological results of several chemical series and aspects of their structure-activity relationship on sigma(1) receptor. Functional data in pain models are presented mainly on one series that provide evidence to consider selective sigma(1) receptor antagonists an innovative and alternative approach for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:20021351

  7. Inverse antagonist activities of parabens on human oestrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?): In vitro and in silico studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Hu, Ying; Jiao, Jian; Hu, Jianying

    2013-07-01

    Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters that have been used extensively as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, drugs and toiletries. These intact esters are commonly detected in human breast cancer tissues and other human samples, thus arousing concern about the involvement of parabens in human breast cancer. In this study, an in vitro nuclear receptor coactivator recruiting assay was developed and used to evaluate the binding activities of parabens, salicylates and benzoates via antagonist competitive binding on the human oestrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?), which is known as both a diagnostic biomarker and a treatment target of breast cancer. The results showed that all of the test parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben) possessed clear inverse antagonist activities on ERR?, with a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 10{sup ?7} M and the 50% relative effective concentrations (REC50) varying from 3.09 × 10{sup ?7} to 5.88 × 10{sup ?7} M, whereas the salicylates possessed much lower activities and the benzoates showed no obvious activity. In silico molecular docking analyses showed that parabens fitted well into the active site of ERR?, with hydrogen bonds forming between the p-hydroxyl group of parabens and the Glu275/Arg316 of ERR?. As the paraben levels reported in breast cancer tissues are commonly higher than the LOELs observed in this study, parabens may play some role via ERR? in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer. In addition, parabens may have significant effects on breast cancer patients who are taking tamoxifen, as ERR? is regarded as a treatment target for tamoxifen. - Highlights: • An oestrogen-related receptor ? coactivator recruiting assay was developed. • Strong binding activities of parabens with oestrogen-related receptor ? were found. • The paraben levels reported in breast cancer tissues were higher than their LOELs. • Parabens may play some role via ERR? in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer. • Parabens may have significant effects in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen.

  8. N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antagonists Have Variable Affect in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Carbery, Timothy; Geddes, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that excitotoxicity and oxidative stress resulting from excessive activation of glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate) NMDA receptors are major participants in striatal degeneration associated with 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) administration. Although excitotoxic and oxidative mechanisms are implicated in 3NP toxicity, there are conflicting reports as to whether NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate or exacerbate the 3NP-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors in striatal degeneration, protein oxidation and motor impairment following systemic 3NP administration. We examined whether NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, influence the neurotoxicity of 3NP. The development of striatal lesion and protein oxidation following 3NP administration is delayed by memantine but not affected by ifenprodil. However, in behavioral experiments, memantine failed to improve and ifenprodil exacerbated the motor deficits associated with 3NP toxicity. Together, these findings suggest caution in the application of NMDA receptor antagonists as a neuroprotective agent in neurodegenerative disorders associated with metabolic impairment. PMID:18688711

  9. SCH 23390-induced hypophagia is blocked by the selective CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide, but not by the CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist L-365,260.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S J; Barber, D J

    1990-04-01

    The selective dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (30 micrograms/kg, SC) significantly reduced palatable food consumption by nondeprived rats in a 30-min test period. Prior administration of the selective CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide (MK 329; L-364,718) blocked the hypophagic effect of SCH 23390. In contrast, prior administration of the selective CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist L-365,260 had no effect. Devazepide did not antagonize a matched hypophagic effect produced by the dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, SC). These data direct attention to possible dopamine-cholecystokinin interactions in relation to the control of ingestional responses, and, more specifically, indicate possible functional relationships between D-1 and CCK-A receptor mechanisms. PMID:2141538

  10. Novel 3-Aryl Indoles as Progesterone Receptor Antagonists for Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of novel 3-aryl indoles as potent and efficacious progesterone receptor (PR) antagonists with potential for the treatment of uterine fibroids. These compounds demonstrated excellent selectivity over other steroid nuclear hormone receptors such as the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). They were prepared from 2-bromo-6-nitro indole in four to six steps using a Suzuki cross-coupling as the key step. Compound 8f was orally active in the complement 3 model of progesterone antagonism in the rat uterus and demonstrated partial antagonism in the McPhail model of progesterone activity. PMID:24900294

  11. Antagonistic action of AA-2414 on thromboxane A2/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor in platelets and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Imura, Y; Terashita, Z; Shibouta, Y; Inada, Y; Nishikawa, K

    1990-01-01

    AA-2414, (+/-)-7-(3,5,6-trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinon-2-yl)-7-phenylheptanoi c acid, inhibited the aggregation of guinea pig platelets induced by a prostaglandin endoperoxide (PGH2) analogue, U-44069 and the specific binding of another analogue, [3H]U-46619 to washed guinea pig platelets with IC50 values of 3.1 x 10(-7) and 8.2 x 10(-9) M, respectively. AA-2414 competitively inhibited the contraction of rabbit aorta and pig coronary arteries induced by U-44069 with pA2 values of 8.3 and 9.0, respectively. AA-2414 also inhibited the contraction of rabbit aorta induced by PGF2 alpha (pA2: 7.8) and the contraction of pig coronary arteries induced by PGF2 alpha, PGD2 and 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 with pA2 values of 7.8, 8.6 and 7.8, respectively. But, AA-2414 had no effect on the antiaggregatory effect of PGD2 on the aggregation of guinea pig platelets. In experiments with guinea pigs ex vivo, AA-2414 (0.1-1 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by U-44069; the inhibition at a dose of 1 mg/kg was 100% at 1 hr and was 89% even at 24 hr after the administration. The thromboxane (TX) A2/PGH2 receptor antagonistic action of AA-2414 was stereospecific. These results show that AA-2414 is a potent, orally active and long acting TXA2/PGH2 receptor antagonist. In addition, AA-2414 has PGF2 alpha, PGD2 and 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 antagonistic effects. PMID:2137886

  12. Discovery of potent transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonists: design and synthesis of phenoxyacetamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiki; Hirano, Noriyuki; Nagahara, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Momen, Shinobu; Yokokawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ryoji

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to discover a novel type of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist because such antagonists are possible drug candidates for treating various disorders. We modified the structure of hit compound 7 (human TRPV1 IC50=411 nM) and converted its pyrrolidino group to a (hydroxyethyl)methylamino group, which substantially improved inhibitory activity (15d; human TRPV1 IC50=33 nM). In addition, 15d ameliorated bladder overactivity in rats in vivo. PMID:23632270

  13. Discovery of new SCH 39166 analogs as potent and selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Li; Sasikumar, T K; Burnett, Duane A; Su, Jing; Tang, Haiqun; Ye, Yuanzan; Mazzola, Robert D; Zhu, Zhaoning; McKittrick, Brian A; Greenlee, William J; Fawzi, Ahmad; Smith, Michelle; Zhang, Hongtao; Lachowicz, Jean E

    2010-02-01

    A series of novel dopamine D(1) antagonists derived from functionalization of the D-ring of SCH 39166 were prepared. A number of these compounds displayed subnanomolar D(1) activity and more than 1000-fold selectivity over D(2). We found C-3 derivatization afforded compounds with superior overall profile in comparison to the C-2 and C-4 derivatization. A number of highly potent D(1) antagonists were discovered which have excellent selectivity over other dopamine receptors and improved PK profile compared to SCH 39166. PMID:20061148

  14. A new frontier in the treatment of cancer: NK-1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Rosso, M; Coveñas, R

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an exponential increase in research into cancer. This effort, however, has not been translated into better perspectives as regards the problem, although several fields of research have certainly been promising (the human genome project, gene therapy, the search for new cytostatic agents and stem cell research). New pathways must be opened up to offer future hope to oncologic patients. Thus, there is a need to explore other research initiatives in cancer ways to improve this chronic global problem. Substance P (SP) has a widespread distribution in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is known that after binding to the specific neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, SP regulates biological functions related to cancer, such as tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration of the tumour cells for invasion and metastasis. By contrast, it is also known that after binding to NK-1 receptors, the NK-1 receptor antagonists specifically inhibit tumour cell proliferation (tumour cells die by apoptosis), angiogenesis and the migration of the tumour cells. It is also known that NK-1 receptors are overexpressed in tumours. All these observations suggest that the SP/NK-1 receptor system could play an important role in the development of cancer and metastasis; that the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising target in the treatment of cancer, and that NK-1 receptor antagonists could improve cancer treatment. PMID:20015033

  15. Discovery and development of orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutics for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Winrow, CJ; Renger, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia persistently affects the quality and quantity of sleep. Currently approved treatments for insomnia primarily target ?-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptor signalling and include benzodiazepines and GABA-A receptor modulators. These drugs are used to address this sleep disorder, but have the potential for side effects such as tolerance and dependence, making them less attractive as maintenance therapy. Forward and reverse genetic approaches in animals have implicated orexin signalling (also referred to as hypocretin signalling) in the control of vigilance and sleep/wake states. Screening for orexin receptor antagonists using in vitro and in vivo methods in animals has identified compounds that block one or other of the orexin receptors (single or dual orexin receptor antagonists [SORAs and DORAs], respectively) in animals and humans. SORAs have primarily been used as probes to further elucidate the roles of the individual orexin receptors, while a number of DORAs have progressed to clinical development as pharmaceutical candidates for insomnia. The DORA almorexant demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant sleep parameters in animal models and in patients with insomnia but its development was halted. SB-649868 and suvorexant have demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in Phase II and III trials respectively. Furthermore, suvorexant is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the publication of recent non-clinical and clinical data, orexin receptor antagonists potentially represent a targeted, effective and well-tolerated new class of medications for insomnia. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:23731216

  16. Preclinical anticonvulsant and neuroprotective profile of 8319, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, S.; Wilker, J.C.; Chernack, J.; Ramirez, V.; Wilmot, C.A.; Martin, L.L.; Payack, J.F.; Cornfeldt, M.L.; Rudolphi, K.A.; Rush, D.K. )

    1990-01-01

    8319, ((+-)-2-Amino-N-ethyl-alpha- (3-methyl-2-thienyl) benzeneethanamine 2HCl), is a novel compound with the profile of a non-competitive NMDA antagonist. The compound displaced (3H) TCP with high affinity (IC50 = 43 nM), but was inactive at the NMDA, benzodiazepine and GABA sites; in vivo, 8319 showed good efficacy as an anticonvulsant and potential neuroprotective agent. It blocked seizures induced by NMDLA, supramaximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin, and thiosemicarbazide with ED50's of 1-20 mg/kg ip. As a neuroprotective agent, 8319 (30-100 mg/kg sc) prevented the death of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells induced by direct injection of 20 nmol NMDA. At 15 mg/kg ip, the compound was also effective against hippocampal neuronal necrosis induced via bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries in gerbils. In summary, 8319 is a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with good anticonvulsant activity and may possess neuroprotective properties useful in the treatment of brain ischemia.

  17. Discovery of novel purine-based heterocyclic P2X7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Yun-Jin; Lee, So-Deok; Kim, Yong-Chul; Ko, Hyojin

    2015-08-01

    The pyridine core skeleton of the previously reported dichloropyridine-based potent hP2X7 receptor antagonist 5 (IC50 = 13 nM in hP2X7-expressing HEK293 cells) was modified with various heterocyclic scaffolds. Among the derivatives with quinoline, quinazoline, acridine, and purine scaffolds, the chloropurine-based analog 9o exhibited the most potent antagonistic activity, with an IC50 value of 176 ± 37 nM in an ethidium bromide uptake assay. In addition, 9o significantly inhibited IL-1? release in THP-1 cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-?/BzATP (IC50 = 120 ± 15 nM). Although 9o was less active than the previous antagonist 5, 9o exhibited greatly improved metabolic stability in the in vitro evaluation (71.4% in human, 72.3% in mouse). PMID:26123174

  18. A PET study comparing receptor occupancy by five selective cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Stephan; Karlsson, Cecilia; Jucaite, Aurelija; Varnäs, Katarina; Wählby Hamrén, Ulrika; Johnström, Peter; Gulyás, Balázs; Donohue, Sean R; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2016-02-01

    There is a medical need for safe and efficacious anti-obesity drugs with acceptable side effect profiles. To mitigate the challenge posed by translating target interaction across species and balancing beneficial vs. adverse effects, a positron emission tomography (PET) approach could help guide clinical dose optimization. Thus, as part of a compound differentiation effort, three novel selective CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists, developed by AstraZeneca (AZ) for the treatment of obesity, were compared with two clinically tested reference compounds, rimonabant and taranabant, with regard to receptor occupancy relative to dose and exposure. A total of 42 PET measurements were performed in 6 non-human primates using the novel CB1R antagonist radioligand [(11)C]SD5024. The AZ CB1R antagonists bound in a saturable manner to brain CB1R with in vivo affinities similar to that of rimonabant and taranabant, compounds with proven weight loss efficacy in clinical trials. Interestingly, it was found that exposures corresponding to those needed for optimal clinical efficacy of rimonabant and taranabant resulted in a CB1R occupancy typically around ?20-30%, thus much lower than what would be expected for classical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists in other therapeutic contexts. These findings are also discussed in relation to emerging literature on the potential usefulness of 'neutral' vs. 'classical' CB1R (inverse agonist) antagonists. The study additionally highlighted the usefulness of the radioligand [(11)C]SD5024 as a specific tracer for CB1R in the primate brain, though an arterial input function would ideally be required in future studies to further assure accurate quantitative analysis of specific binding. PMID:25791528

  19. Binding domains of the oxytocin receptor for the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist barusiban in comparison to the agonists oxytocin and carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Gimpl, Gerald; Postina, Rolf; Fahrenholz, Falk; Reinheimer, Torsten

    2005-03-01

    We have analyzed binding domains of the oxytocin receptor for barusiban, a highly selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, in comparison to the combined vasopressin V1A/oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban and the agonists oxytocin and carbetocin. For this purpose, chimeric 'gain-in function' oxytocin/vasopressin V2 receptors were expressed in COS-7 cells. These recombinant receptors have been produced by transfer of domains from the oxytocin receptor into the related vasopressin V2 receptor and have already been successfully employed for the identification of ligand binding domains at the oxytocin receptor (Postina, R., Kojro, E., Fahrenholz, F., 1996. Separate agonist and peptide antagonist binding sites of the oxytocin receptor defined by their transfer into the V2 vasopressin receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31593-31601). In displacement studies with 10 chimeric receptor constructs, the binding profile of barusiban was compared with the binding profiles of the ligands oxytocin, [Arg8]vasopressin, carbetocin, and atosiban. The binding profiles for the agonists oxytocin and carbetocin were found to be similar. For both agonists, important binding domains were the extracellular N-terminus (=E1) and the extracellular loops E2 and E3 from the oxytocin receptor. For the vasopressin V1A/oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban, none of the receptor constructs were able to provide a binding with higher affinity than the starting vasopressin V2 receptor. In contrast, the binding of barusiban was significantly improved when the transmembrane domains 1 and 2 were transferred from the oxytocin receptor to the vasopressin V2 receptor. The binding domain of barusiban differs from the binding domain of the agonists and the nonselective oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH2)5[Tyr-(Me)2,Thr4,Orn8,Tyr9]vasotocin that has been used in previous studies. Overall, the data supported the concept of a central pocket site within the oxytocin receptor. PMID:15740719

  20. Discovery of a Novel Series of CRTH2 (DP2) Receptor Antagonists Devoid of Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antagonism of the CRTH2 receptor represents a very attractive target for a variety of allergic diseases. Most CRTH2 antagonists known to date possess a carboxylic acid moiety, which is essential for binding. However, potential acid metabolites O-acyl glucuronides might be linked to idiosynchratic toxicity in humans. In this communication, we describe a new series of compounds that lack the carboxylic acid moiety. Compounds with high affinity (Ki < 10 nM) for the receptor have been identified. Subsequent optimization succeeded in reducing the high metabolic clearance of the first compounds in human and rat liver microsomes. At the same time, inhibition of the CYP isoforms was optimized, giving rise to stable compounds with an acceptable CYP inhibition profile (IC50 CYP2C9 and 2C19 > 1 ?M). Taken together, these data show that compounds devoid of carboxylic acid groups could represent an interesting alternative to current CRTH2 antagonists in development. PMID:24900284

  1. Thermodynamic assessment of the stability of thrombin receptor antagonistic peptides in hydrophobic environments.

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Reinhard I; Jong, Agnes J O; Hearn, Milton T W

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a general procedure is described to determine thermodynamic parameters associated with the interaction of thrombin receptor antagonistic peptides (TRAPs) with immobilized nonpolar ligands. The results show that these interactions were associated with nonlinear van't Hoff dependencies over a wide temperature range. Moreover, changes in relevant thermodynamic parameters, namely the changes in Gibbs free energy of interaction, DeltaG(0)assoc, enthalpy of interaction, DeltaH(0)assoc, entropy of interaction, DeltaS(0)assoc, and heat capacity, DeltaC(0)p, have been related to the structural properties of these TRAP analogs. The implications of these investigations for the design of thrombin receptor agonists/antagonists with structures stabilized by intramolecular hydrophobic interactions are discussed. PMID:11964219

  2. Discovery and characterization of a potent and selective EP4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Schiffler, Matthew A; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Fisher, Matthew J; Harvey, Anita; Kuklish, Steven L; Wang, Xu-Shan; Warshawsky, Alan M; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2015-08-15

    EP4 is a prostaglandin E2 receptor that is a target for potential anti-nociceptive therapy. Described herein is a class of amphoteric EP4 antagonists which reverses PGE2-induced suppression of TNF? production in human whole blood. From this class, a potent and highly bioavailable compound (6) has been selected for potential clinical studies. EP4 binding and functional data, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties of this compound are included. PMID:26091726

  3. Pathophysiology of a severe case of Puumala hantavirus infection successfully treated with bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Vapalahti, Olli; Jarva, Hanna; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Antonen, Jaakko; Leppänen, Ilona; Mäkelä, Satu; Meri, Seppo; Mustonen, Jukka

    2014-11-01

    We recently described a patient with very severe Puumala hantavirus infection manifested by capillary leakage syndrome and shock. He was successfully treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist, icatibant (Antonen et al., 2013). Here we report analysis of the pathophysiology which indicated pronounced complement activation, prolonged leukocytosis, extensive fibrinolysis, circulating histones, and defects in liver function. The patient had an uncommon HLA-phenotype, which may have contributed to the severe course of the disease. PMID:25194993

  4. Nonpeptide urotensin-II receptor antagonists: a new ligand class based on piperazino-phthalimide and piperazino-isoindolinone subunits.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Edward C; Luci, Diane K; Ghosh, Shyamali; Kinney, William A; Reynolds, Charles H; Qi, Jenson; Smith, Charles E; Wang, Yuanping; Minor, Lisa K; Haertlein, Barbara J; Parry, Tom J; Damiano, Bruce P; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2009-12-10

    We have discovered two related chemical series of nonpeptide urotensin-II (U-II) receptor antagonists based on piperazino-phthalimide (5 and 6) and piperazino-isoindolinone (7) scaffolds. These structure types are distinctive from those of U-II receptor antagonist series reported in the literature. Antagonist 7a exhibited single-digit nanomolar potency in rat and human cell-based functional assays, as well as strong binding to the human U-II receptor. In advanced pharmacological testing, 7a blocked the effects of U-II in vitro in a rat aortic ring assay and in vivo in a rat ear-flush model. A discussion of U-II receptor antagonist pharmacophores is presented, and a specifically defined model is suggested from tricycle 13, which has a high degree of conformational constraint. PMID:19731961

  5. The pharmacological rationale for combining muscarinic receptor antagonists and ?-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of airway and bladder disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Philippa R; Cernecka, Hana; Schmidt, Martina; Dowling, Mark R; Charlton, Steven J; Pieper, Michael P; Michel, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor antagonists and ?-adrenoceptor agonists are used in the treatment of obstructive airway disease and overactive bladder syndrome. Here we review the pharmacological rationale for their combination. Muscarinic receptors and ?-adrenoceptors are physiological antagonists for smooth muscle tone in airways and bladder. Muscarinic agonism may attenuate ?-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation more than other contractile stimuli. Chronic treatment with one drug class may regulate expression of the target receptor but also that of the opposing receptor. Prejunctional ?2-adrenoceptors can enhance neuronal acetylcholine release. Moreover, at least in the airways, muscarinic receptors and ?-adrenoceptors are expressed in different locations, indicating that only a combined modulation of both systems may cause dilatation along the entire bronchial tree. While all of these factors contribute to a rationale for a combination of muscarinic receptor antagonists and ?-adrenoceptor agonists, the full value of such combination as compared to monotherapy can only be determined in clinical studies. PMID:24682092

  6. Endothelin A receptor antagonist modulates lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration, hyperreactivity and mucus in murine asthma.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Richardt G; Jancar, Sonia

    2008-12-20

    Levels of endothelins are particularly high in the lung, and there is evidence that these peptides are involved in asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with lymphocyte infiltration. In the present study, we used a murine model of asthma to investigate the role of endothelins in lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration into the airway hyperreactivity and mucus secretion. Sensitized C57Bl/6 mice were treated with endothelin ETA receptor antagonist (BQ123) or endothelin ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788) 30 min before an antigen aerosol challenge. After 24 h, dose response curves to methacholine were performed in isolated lungs, FACS analysis of lymphocytes and eosinophil counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and mucus index was determined by histopathology. In sensitized and antigen-challenged mice there is a marked increase in the T CD4+, T CD8+, B220+, Tgammadelta+ and NK1.1+ lymphocyte subsets. Treatment with BQ123 further increased these cell populations. The number of eosinophils, airway hyperreactivity and mucus were all reduced by BQ123 treatment. The BQ 788 had no significant effect on the parameters analyzed. Treatment with BQ123 reduced the endothelin concentration in lung homogenates, suggesting that endothelins exert a positive feedback on their synthesis. We show here that in murine asthma the ETA receptor antagonist up-regulates lymphocyte infiltration and reduces eosinophils, hyperreactivity and mucus. PMID:18793757

  7. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, a class beyond spironolactone--Focus on the special pharmacologic properties of eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Seferovic, Petar M; Pelliccia, Francesco; Zivkovic, Ivana; Ristic, Arsen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Seferovic, Jelena; Simeunovic, Dejan; Milinkovic, Ivan; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be blocked at specific levels by using different classes of pharmacologic agents, including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Broad use of the latter, such as spironolactone, has been limited by significant incidence of gynecomastia and other sex-related adverse effects. These problems can be overcome with use of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Eplerenone has been specifically developed to bind selectively to the mineralocorticoid receptors in order to minimize binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors. In the last decade, multiple scientific evidences have been accumulated showing the efficacy and safety of the drug in multiple clinical conditions, including heart failure and arterial hypertension. Eplerenone is generally well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being hyperkalemia, with sexual adverse events (i.e. gynecomastia) being more uncommon, due to the selectivity of eplerenone. This review focuses on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of eplerenone, thus providing the scientific basis to fully understand drug-to-drug interactions, in particular, and its efficacy and tolerability, in general. Noteworthy, the activity of eplerenone in special conditions and different patient populations is summarized. PMID:26404746

  8. The combination of glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 with tamoxifen and its active metabolites potentiates their antiproliferative activity in mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Mariana P.C.; Nunes-Correia, Isabel; Santos, Armanda E.; Custódio, José B.A.

    2014-02-15

    Recent reports suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade by MK-801 decreases tumor growth. Thus, we investigated whether other ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists were also able to modulate the proliferation of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) decreases the proliferation of melanoma cells, and is included in combined therapies for melanoma. As the efficacy of TAM is limited by its metabolism, we investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 in combination with TAM and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and endoxifen (EDX). The NMDAR blockers MK-801 and memantine decreased mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cell proliferation. In contrast, the NMDAR competitive antagonist APV and the AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist NBQX did not affect cell proliferation, suggesting that among the iGluR antagonists only the NMDAR channel blockers inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. The combination of antiestrogens with MK-801 potentiated their individual effects on cell biomass due to diminished cell proliferation, since it decreased the cell number and DNA synthesis without increasing cell death. Importantly, TAM metabolites combined with MK-801 promoted cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, the data obtained suggest that the activity of MK-801 and antiestrogens in K1735-M2 cells is greatly enhanced when used in combination. - Highlights: • MK-801 and memantine decrease melanoma cell proliferation. • The combination of MK-801 with antiestrogens inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. • These combinations greatly enhance the effects of the compounds individually. • MK-801 combined with tamoxifen active metabolites induces cell cycle arrest in G1. • The combination of MK-801 and antiestrogens is an innovative strategy for melanoma.

  9. Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein regulation of competitive antagonism: a problem of interpretation

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, David M; Bowie, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Synaptic AMPA receptors are greatly influenced by a family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) which control trafficking, channel gating and pharmacology. The prototypical TARP, stargazin (or ?2), shifts the blocking ability of several AMPAR-selective compounds including the commonly used quinoxalinedione antagonists, CNQX and NBQX. Stargazin's effect on CNQX is particularly intriguing as it not only apparently lowers the potency of block, as with NBQX, but also renders it a partial agonist. Given this, agonist behaviour by CNQX has been speculated to account for its weaker blocking effect on AMPAR–TARP complexes. Here we show that this is not the case. The apparent effect of stargazin on CNQX antagonism can be almost entirely explained by an increase in the apparent affinity for l-glutamate (l-Glu), a full agonist and neurotransmitter at AMPAR synapses. Partial agonism at best plays a minor role but not through channel gating per se but rather because CNQX elicits AMPAR desensitization. Our study reveals that CNQX is best thought of as a non-competitive antagonist at glutamatergic synapses due to the predominance of non-equilibrium conditions. Consequently, CNQX primarily reports the proportion of AMPARs available for activation but may also impose additional block by receptor desensitization. PMID:21969453

  10. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yong; Peng, XiangPing; Liu, Wei; Zhao, FeiYan; Feng, DanDan; Han, JianZhong; Huang, YanHong; Luo, SiWei; Li, Lian; Yue, Shao Jie; Cheng, QingMei; Huang, XiaoTing; Luo, ZiQiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Large amount of glutamate can overstimulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), causing neuronal injury and death. Recently, NMDAR has been reported to be found in the lungs. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of memantine, a NMDAR channel blocker, on bleomycin-induced lung injury mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally injected with bleomycin (BLM) to induce lung injury. Mice were randomized to receive saline, memantine (Me), BLM, BLM plus Me. Lungs and BALF were harvested on day 3 or 7 for further evaluation. Results BLM caused leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary edema and increase in cytokines, and imposed significant oxidative stress (MDA as a marker) in lungs. Memantine significantly mitigated the oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury caused by BLM. Moreover, activation of NMDAR enhances CD11b expression on neutrophils. Conclusions Memantine mitigates oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury in BLM challenged mice. PMID:25942563

  11. Antitumor activity of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists in MG-63 human osteosarcoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Miguel; Berger, Michael; Rosso, Marisa; Gonzalez-Ortega, Ana; Carranza, Andrés; Coveñas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Aprepitant is a selective high?affinity antagonist of the human neurokinin?1 (NK?1) receptor (NK1R) with robust antitumor activity. No data exist on the presence of NK1R in osteosarcoma and whether this tumor responds to NK1R antagonists. Here, we analyzed the expression of NK1R in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 with western blot analysis and PCR and found significant expression both at the protein and mRNA levels. We further studied the growth inhibitory capacity of aprepitant and other NK1R antagonists on MG-63 in vitro using an MTS cytotoxicity assay and DAPI staining. All antagonists induced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis. Synergism was observed for the combination of L-733,060 with common cytostatic drugs in MG-63, but not in non-malignant HEK293 cells. Pretreatment of HEK293 with L-733,060 prior to exposure to cytostatic drugs partially protected HEK293 cells from inhibition by these drugs. Furthermore, nanomolar concentrations of substance P (SP), the natural ligand of the NK1R, increased the growth rate of MG?63 cells and micromolar concentrations of aprepitant inhibited SP-induced growth in a dose?dependent manner. In vivo, a xenograft for MG-63 was created in nude mice and treated with peritumoral s.c. injections of fosaprepitant, which resulted in a significant reduction of tumor volume. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the NK1R is expressed in human osteosarcoma cell line MG?63 and that this receptor can be targeted with NK1R antagonists both in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:24190675

  12. Chemical function based pharmacophore generation of endothelin-A selective receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Funk, Oliver F; Kettmann, Viktor; Drimal, Jan; Langer, Thierry

    2004-05-20

    Both quantitative and qualitative chemical function based pharmacophore models of endothelin-A (ET(A)) selective receptor antagonists were generated by using the two algorithms HypoGen and HipHop, respectively, which are implemented in the Catalyst molecular modeling software. The input for HypoGen is a training set of 18 ET(A) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging between 0.19 nM and 67 microM. The best output hypothesis consists of five features: two hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI) function. The highest scoring Hip Hop model consists of six features: three hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI). It is the result of an input of three highly active, selective, and structurally diverse ET(A) antagonists. The predictive power of the quantitative model could be approved by using a test set of 30 compounds, whose activity values spread over 6 orders of magnitude. The two pharmacophores were tested according to their ability to extract known endothelin antagonists from the 3D molecular structure database of Derwent's World Drug Index. Thereby the main part of selective ET(A) antagonistic entries was detected by the two hypotheses. Furthermore, the pharmacophores were used to screen the Maybridge database. Six compounds were chosen from the output hit lists for in vitro testing of their ability to displace endothelin-1 from its receptor. Two of these are new potential lead compounds because they are structurally novel and exhibit satisfactory activity in the binding assay. PMID:15139753

  13. Actions of picrodendrin antagonists on dieldrin-sensitive and -resistant Drosophila GABA receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Ozoe, Y.; Koike, K.; Ohmoto, T.; Nikaido, T.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. A series of terpenoid compounds, recently isolated from Picrodendron baccatum, share a picrotoxane skeleton with picrotoxinin, an antagonist of ionotropic GABA receptors. Referred to as picrodendrins, they inhibit the binding of [35S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to rat GABAA receptors. Hitherto, their effects on GABA receptors have not been investigated electrophysiologically. Under two-electrode voltage-clamp, the actions of picrodendrins and related terpenoids have been assayed on homooligomeric GABA receptors formed by the expression of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit (RDLac) in Xenopus oocytes. 2. All the terpenoids tested, dose-dependently antagonized currents induced by 30 microM (EC50) GABA. 3. Tutin and its analogues (dihydrotutin and isohyenanchin) differ in the structure of their axial C4 substituents. Of these compounds, tutin, which bears an isopropenyl group at this carbon atom, was the most potent antagonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, whereas isohyenanchin, which bears a hydroxyisopropyl group, was the least potent antagonist tested. 4. Picrodendrins differ mainly in the structure of their C9 substituents. The IC50s of picrodendrins ranged from 17 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-Q) to 1006 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-O). As such, the most potent picrodendrins (Q, A and B) were approximately equipotent with picrotoxinin as antagonists of RDLac homo-oligomers. 5. Certain picrodendrin compounds effected a use-dependent blockade of RDLac homo-oligomers. Such a biphasic block was not observed with tutin analogues. 6. Picrotoxin-resistant RDLacA3025 homo-oligomers, which have a single amino acid substitution (A302S) in the 2nd transmembrane region, were markedly less sensitive to picrodendrin-O than the wild-type, dieldrin-sensitive, homo-oligomers. 7. The relative potency of tutin analogues demonstrates that the structure-activity relationship of the C4 substituent of picrotoxane-based compounds is conserved in vertebrates and insects. However, the relative order of potency of picrodendrins on RDLac homo-oligomers is distinctly different from that observed in previous radioligand binding studies performed on vertebrate GABAA receptors. As picrodendrin compounds differ in the structure of their C9 substituents, these data suggest that the optimal convulsant pharmacophores of vertebrate GABAA receptors and RDLac homo-oligomers differ with respect to this substituent. PMID:8982503

  14. Oxytocin differentially modulates compromise and competitive approach but not withdrawal to antagonists from own vs. rivaling other groups.

    PubMed

    Ten Velden, Femke S; Baas, Matthijs; Shalvi, Shaul; Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-09-11

    In humans, oxytocin promotes cognitive and motivational tendencies that benefit the groups on which humans depend for their survival and prosperity. Here we examined decision making in an incentivized two-player poker game with either an in-group or out-group antagonist. Sixty nine healthy males received 24 IU oxytocin or matching placebo, and played four rounds of a simplified poker game. On each round they received either low or high value cards to create differences in competitive strength, and then responded to a bet placed by their (simulated) (in-group or out-group) antagonist. Under placebo, participants withdrew and competed depending on their own (low vs. high) competitive strength, regardless of their antagonist's group membership. Under oxytocin, however, participants settled more and competed less with an in-group as compared to an out-group antagonist; withdrawal was unaffected by group membership. We conclude that oxytocin sensitizes humans to the group membership of their interaction partner, rendering them relatively more benevolent and less competitive towards those seen as belonging to their own group. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. PMID:24055737

  15. Antidepressant-Like Effects of ?-Opioid Receptor Antagonists in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V; Bangasser, Debra A; Bethea, Thelma; Young, Matthew; Valentino, Rita J; Lucki, Irwin

    2010-01-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is a putative genetic model of comorbid depression and anxiety. Previous research showing increased ?-opioid receptor (KOR) gene expression in the brains of WKY rats, combined with studies implicating the KOR in animal models of depression and anxiety, suggests that alterations in the KOR system could have a role in the WKY behavioral phenotype. Here, the effects of KOR antagonists in the forced swim test (FST) were compared with the WKY and the Sprague–Dawley (SD) rat strains. As previously reported, WKY rats showed more immobility behavior than SD rats. The KOR antagonists selectively produced antidepressant-like effects in the WKY rats. By contrast, the antidepressant desipramine reduced immobility in both strains. Brain regions potentially underlying the strain-specific effects of KOR antagonists in the FST were identified using c-fos expression as a marker of neuronal activity. The KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine produced differential effects on the number of c-fos-positive profiles in the piriform cortex and nucleus accumbens shell between SD and WKY rats. The piriform cortex and nucleus accumbens also contained higher levels of KOR protein and dynorphin A peptide, respectively, in the WKY strain. In addition, local administration of nor-binaltorphimine directly into the piriform cortex produced antidepressant-like effects in WKY rats further implicating this region in the antidepressant-like response to KOR antagonists. These results support the use of the WKY rat as a model of affective disorders potentially involving KOR overactivity and provide more evidence that KOR antagonists could potentially be used as novel antidepressants. PMID:19924112

  16. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of 6?- and 6?-N-Heterocyclic Substituted Naltrexamine Derivatives as ? Opioid Receptor Selective Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Aschenbach, Lindsey C.; Chen, Jianyang; Cassidy, Michael P.; Stevens, David L.; Gabra, Bichoy H.; Selley, Dana E.; Dewey, William L.; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Opioid receptor selective antagonists are important pharmacological probes in opioid receptor structural characterization and opioid agonist functional study. Thus far, a nonpeptidyl, highly selective and reversible ? opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist is unavailable. On the basis of our modeling studies, a series of novel naltrexamine derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Among them, two compounds were identified as leads based on the results of in vitro and in vivo assays. Both of them displayed high binding affinity for the MOR (Ki = 0.37 and 0.55 nM). Compound 6 (NAP) showed over 700-fold selectivity for the MOR over the ? receptor (DOR) and more than 150-fold selectivity over the ? receptor (KOR). Compound 9 (NAQ) showed over 200-fold selectivity for the MOR over the DOR and approximately 50-fold selectivity over the KOR. Thus these two novel ligands will serve as leads to further develop more potent and selective antagonists for the MOR. PMID:19199782

  17. Pharmacological properties of FK886, a new, centrally active neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Yoshino-Furukawa, Takako; Maeda, Yasue; Kikuchi, Aya; Sakuma, Hiroyuki; Imazumi, Katsunori; Yamakuni, Hisashi; Sogabe, Hajime; Matsuo, Masahiko; Manda, Toshitaka; Uchida, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological properties of the novel neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonist FK886, ([3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl][(2R)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzyl)-4-{2-[(2S)-2-(methoxymethyl)morpholin-4-yl]ethyl}piperazin-1-yl]methanone dihydrochloride), were studied. FK886 potently inhibited the binding of [(125)I]Bolton-Hunter-labeled substance P ([(125)I]BH-SP; 100?pM) to human NK(1) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (IC(50)=0.70?nM). It also possessed high affinities for dog, ferret, gerbil and guinea pig NK(1) receptors, but not for rat NK(1) receptor. FK886 was highly selective for the NK(1) receptor, with 250- and >20000-fold selectivity for human NK(1) over NK(2) and NK(3), respectively. Further, it did not inhibit radioligand binding at 54 different sites, including receptors, ion channels and transporters. FK886 inhibited substance P (3.2?nM)-induced inositol phosphate formation in human NK(1) receptor-expressing CHO cells (IC(50)=1.4?nM) without stimulating NK(1) receptors. The antagonism exerted by FK886 against human NK(1) receptor was insurmountable in saturation binding experiments, with both the affinity and B(max) of [(125)I]BH-SP being significantly reduced. After intravenous administration, FK886 (0.01-0.1?mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the foot-tapping behavior induced by intracerebroventricular administration of a selective NK(1) receptor agonist, GR73632 (10?pmol), in gerbils, with significant inhibition being observed at doses of 0.032-0.1?mg/kg, indicating excellent brain penetration. The brain penetration of FK886 was further demonstrated by the cerebral distribution of radioactivity after intravenous injection of radiolabeled FK886. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FK886 is a potent, highly selective and centrally active, insurmountable antagonist of the NK(1) receptor, and suggest that FK886 antagonizes various NK(1) receptor-mediated biological effects in the central nervous system. PMID:23302639

  18. The role of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor antagonists in inflammatory response and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Agata; Kleniewska, Paulina; Kolodziejczyk, Michal; Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, mainly secreted by endothelial cells. It acts through two types of receptors: ETA and ETB. Apart from a vasoconstrictive action, ET-1 causes fibrosis of the vascular cells and stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. It is claimed that ET-1 induces proinflammatory mechanisms, increasing superoxide anion production and cytokine secretion. A recent study has shown that ET-1 is involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-?B and expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-1, and IL-6. It has been also indicated that during endotoxaemia, the plasma level of ET-1 is increased in various animal species. Some authors indicate a clear correlation between endothelin plasma level and morbidity/mortality rate in septic patients. These pathological effects of ET-1 may be abrogated at least partly by endothelin receptor blockade. ET-1 receptor antagonists may be useful for prevention of various vascular diseases. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding endothelin receptor antagonists and the role of ET-1 in sepsis and inflammation. PMID:25288367

  19. Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: chemical feature based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Krovat, Eva M; Langer, Thierry

    2003-02-27

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were elaborated for angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT(1)) antagonists using both a quantitative and a qualitative approach (Catalyst HypoGen and HipHop algorithms, respectively). The training sets for quantitative model generation consisted of 25 selective AT(1) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 nM to 150 microM. Additionally, a qualitative pharmacophore hypothesis was derived from multiconformational structure models of the two highly active AT(1) antagonists 4u (IC(50) = 0.2 nM) and 3k (IC(50) = 0.7 nM). In the case of the quantitative model, the best pharmacophore hypothesis consisted of a five-features model (Hypo1: seven points, one hydrophobic aromatic, one hydrophobic aliphatic, a hydrogen bond acceptor, a negative ionizable function, and an aromatic plane function). The best qualitative model consisted of seven features (Hypo2: 11 points, two aromatic rings, two hydrogen bond acceptors, a negative ionizable function, and two hydrophobic functions). The obtained pharmacophore models were validated on a wide set of test molecules. They were shown to be able to identify a range of highly potent AT(1) antagonists, among those a number of recently launched drugs and some candidates presently undergoing clinical tests and/or development phases. The results of our study provide confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore models to retrieve structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activity by virtual screening. PMID:12593652

  20. 3D-pharmacophere models for CC chemokine receptor 1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yixi; Andre, Philippe; Wei, Jing; Zhao, Kang

    2009-07-01

    The CC Chemokine Receptor 1 (CCR1) is closely related to various chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and plays a crucial role in transplant rejection. Inhibiting its activity with CCR1 antagonists has been proved to be effective in preventing some diseases. A number of in vivo experiments have been carried out to shed light on the underlying mechanism of the interactions between the CCR1 and its ligands. However, their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is applied as a new and effective way to study the structure-activity relationship of CCR1 antagonists. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were generated for CCR1 antagonists, using both HypoGen and HipHop algorithms in Catalyst software. Two optimal pharmacophore models were defined through careful qualification processes. Both of them have four features: one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one positive ionable and two hydrophobic groups. Additional information was obtained through comparison between the two models. Our results can be valuable tools for the discovery and development of specific, highly potent CCR1 antagonists. For Supplement material, please see the online version of the article. PMID:19689388

  1. Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Khuder; Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

  2. Amino acid conjugates of lithocholic acid as antagonists of the EphA2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Incerti, Matteo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Russo, Simonetta; Pala, Daniele; Giorgio, Carmine; Hassan-Mohamed, Iftiin; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B.; Vicini, Paola; Piersanti, Silvia; Rivara, Silvia; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor–ephrin system is an emerging target for the development of novel antiangiogenetic agents. We recently identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a small molecule able to block EphA2-dependent signals in cancer cells, suggesting that its (5?)-cholan-24-oic acid scaffold can be used as a template to design a new generation of improved EphA2 antagonists. Here, we report the design and synthesis of an extended set of LCA derivatives obtained by conjugation of its carboxyl group with different ?-amino acids. Structure-activity relationships indicate that the presence of a lipophilic amino acid side chain is fundamental to achieve good potencies. The L-Trp derivative (20, PCM126) was the most potent antagonist of the series disrupting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction and blocking EphA2 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells at low ?M concentrations, thus being significantly more potent than LCA. Compound 20 is among the most potent small molecule antagonists of the EphA2 receptor. PMID:23489211

  3. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  4. CRF Receptor Antagonist Astressin-B Reverses and Prevents Alopecia in CRF Over-Expressing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rivier, Jean; Rivier, Catherine; Craft, Noah; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P.; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways are involved in the stress response, and there is growing evidence supporting hair growth inhibition of murine hair follicle in vivo upon stress exposure. We investigated whether the blockade of CRF receptors influences the development of hair loss in CRF over-expressing (OE)-mice that display phenotypes of Cushing's syndrome and chronic stress, including alopecia. The non-selective CRF receptors antagonist, astressin-B (5 µg/mouse) injected peripherally once a day for 5 days in 4–9 months old CRF-OE alopecic mice induced pigmentation and hair re-growth that was largely retained for over 4 months. In young CRF-OE mice, astressin-B prevented the development of alopecia that occurred in saline-treated mice. Histological examination indicated that alopecic CRF-OE mice had hair follicle atrophy and that astressin-B revived the hair follicle from the telogen to anagen phase. However, astressin-B did not show any effect on the elevated plasma corticosterone levels and the increased weights of adrenal glands and visceral fat in CRF-OE mice. The selective CRF2 receptor antagonist, astressin2-B had moderate effect on pigmentation, but not on hair re-growth. The commercial drug for alopecia, minoxidil only showed partial effect on hair re-growth. These data support the existence of a key molecular switching mechanism triggered by blocking peripheral CRF receptors with an antagonist to reset hair growth in a mouse model of alopecia associated with chronic stress. PMID:21359208

  5. P2X7 receptor antagonist activity of the anti-allergic agent oxatomide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Ito, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Isao

    2015-11-15

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP is associated with various immune responses including allergic inflammation. Anti-allergic agents, such as H1-antihistamines, are known to inhibit the effects of different chemical mediators such as acetylcholine and platelet-activating factor. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anti-allergic agents might affect P2X7 receptor function. Using N18TG2 and J774 cells, which express functional P2X7 receptors, the effects of several anti-allergic agents on P2X7 receptor function were investigated by monitoring the ATP-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i). Among the various agents tested, oxatomide significantly inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)]i elevation in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the P2Y2 receptor-mediated response in both N18TG2 and J774 cells. Consistently, oxatomide inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated membrane current and downstream responses such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, inflammation-related gene induction, and cell death. In addition, oxatomide inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated degranulation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Whole cell patch clamp analyses in HEK293 cells expressing human, mouse, and rat P2X7 receptors revealed that the inhibitory effect of oxatomide on ATP-induced current was most prominent for the human P2X7 receptor and almost non-existent for the rat P2X7 receptor. The potent inhibitory effects of oxatomide on human P2X7 receptor-mediated function were confirmed in RPMI8226 human B cell-like myeloma cells, which endogenously express the P2X7 receptor. Our results demonstrated that the antihistamine oxatomide also acts as a P2X7 receptor antagonist. Future studies should thus evaluate whether P2X7 receptor antagonism contributes to the anti-allergic effects of oxatomide. PMID:26463039

  6. Predicting the relative binding affinity of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists by density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Roos, Katarina; Hogner, Anders; Ogg, Derek; Packer, Martin J; Hansson, Eva; Granberg, Kenneth L; Evertsson, Emma; Nordqvist, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of binding affinity ahead of synthesis to aid compound prioritization is still hampered by the low throughput of the more accurate methods and the lack of general pertinence of one method that fits all systems. Here we show the applicability of a method based on density functional theory using core fragments and a protein model with only the first shell residues surrounding the core, to predict relative binding affinity of a matched series of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Antagonists of MR are used for treatment of chronic heart failure and hypertension. Marketed MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, are also believed to be highly efficacious in treatment of chronic kidney disease in diabetes patients, but is contra-indicated due to the increased risk for hyperkalemia. These findings and a significant unmet medical need among patients with chronic kidney disease continues to stimulate efforts in the discovery of new MR antagonist with maintained efficacy but low or no risk for hyperkalemia. Applied on a matched series of MR antagonists the quantum mechanical based method gave an R(2) = 0.76 for the experimental lipophilic ligand efficiency versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional in gas phase and an R(2) = 0.64 for experimental binding affinity versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional including an implicit solvation model. The quantum mechanical approach using core fragments was compared to free energy perturbation calculations using the full sized compound structures. PMID:26572910

  7. Repurposing Registered Drugs as Antagonists for Protease-Activated Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijun; Lim, Junxian; Goh, Chai-Yeen; Suen, Jacky Y; Jiang, Yuhong; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Wu, Kai-Chen; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P

    2015-10-26

    Virtual screening of a drug database identified Carvedilol, Loratadine, Nefazodone and Astemizole as PAR2 antagonists, after ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulations using a PAR2 homology model and a putative binding mode of a known PAR2 ligand. The drugs demonstrated competitive binding and antagonism of calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CHO-hPAR2 transfected cells, while inhibiting IL-6 secretion in PAR2 expressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This research highlights opportunities for GPCR hit-finding from FDA-approved drugs. PMID:26445028

  8. Selective blockade and recovery of cell surface alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Studies with the irreversible antagonist benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Strickland, W.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors are present on human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells, both on the cell surface and in a sequestered compartment. In the current study we show that benextramine, a hydrophilic irreversible antagonist, can be used to investigate alpha 2-adrenergic receptor compartmentation in these cells. In membranes prepared from HEL cells, benextramine competed for all alpha 2-adrenergic receptors ( (/sup 3/H)yohimbine sites). In intact cells, at 4 degrees, benextramine exhibited a biphasic competition curve for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, with EC50 values of approximately 10 microM and greater than 1 mM for the high and low affinity components, respectively. We propose that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptors preferentially blocked by benextramine are those on the surface of the cell, whereas those with low affinity are sequestered receptors because: 1) only epinephrine-accessible sites are removed by prior treatment of cells with benextramine, 2) a preparation enriched with surface membranes is also enriched in receptors with a high affinity for benextramine; and 3) after blockade of cell surface receptors (54 +/- 6% of total sites, n = 7) by benextramine, the ability of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists epinephrine and UK-14,304 to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation is lost. The latter result implies that only cell surface and not sequestered receptors are functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase. The return of receptors from the sequestered compartment to the cell surface and the recovery of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor function were measured after HEL cells were treated with benextramine (50 microM for 1 hr at 4 degrees). The recovery of receptor binding (t1/2 = 25 min) was somewhat slower than the recovery of function (t1/2 approximately 8 min).

  9. Action of adenosine receptor antagonists on the cardiovascular response to defence area stimulation in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    St Lambert, J H; Dawid-Milner, M S; Silva-Carvalho, L; Spyer, K M

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of adenosine in the mediation of the cardiovascular changes associated with the defence reaction has been investigated in the rat using two A1 receptor antagonists. 2. Cumulative doses of 1,3 dipropyl-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) (0.3-3 mg kg-1) and ethanol (0.03-0.25 ml) and bolus doses of DPCPX (3 mg kg-1) and 8-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) (20 mg kg-1) were given into alpha-chloralose, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. Recordings were made of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. 3. Ethanol, the vehicle for DPCPX, failed to modify the magnitude of the defence response; however, cumulative doses of DPCPX produced a dose-dependent decrease in the HDA (hypothalamic defence area)-evoked increase in arterial blood pressure, accompanied by a similar fall in the magnitude of the evoked heart rate response. 4. The evoked rise in arterial blood pressure was reduced significantly by intravenous injection of DPCPX (3 mg kg-1) but not 8-SPT (20 mg kg-1), a purely peripherally acting adenosine antagonist. 5. These results suggest that adenosine acting at A1 receptors located in the central nervous system, is involved in the HDA-evoked pressor response. Whilst the site of action of the A1 receptors is not known, possible locations are discussed. PMID:7812606

  10. KW-3902, a selective high affinity antagonist for adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, H.; Ichimura, M.; Takeda, M.; Kanda, T.; Shimada, J.; Suzuki, F.; Kase, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. We demonstrate that 8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KW-3902) is a very potent and selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, assessed by radioligand binding and cyclic AMP response in cells. 2. In rat forebrain adenosine A1 receptors labelled with [3H]-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), KW-3902 had a Ki value of 0.19 nM, whereas it showed a Ki value of 170 nM in rat striatal A2A receptors labelled with [3H]-2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoad enosine (CGS21680), indicating 890 fold A1 receptor selectivity versus the A2A receptor. KW-3902 at 10 microM showed no effect on recombinant rat A3 receptors expressed on CHO cells. 3. Saturation studies with [3H]-KW-3902 revealed that it bound with high affinity (Kd = 77 pM) and limited capacity (Bmax = 470 fmol mg-1 of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. A high positive correlation was observed between the pharmacological profile of adenosine ligands inhibiting the binding of [3H]-KW-3902 and that of [3H]-CHA. 4. KW-3902 showed potent A1 antagonism against the inhibition of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in DDT1 MF-2 cells by the A1-selective agonist, cyclopentyladenosine with a dissociation constant (KB value) of 0.34 nM. KW-3902 antagonized 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine-elicited cyclic AMP accumulation via A2B receptors with a KB value of 52 nM. 5. KW-3902 exhibited marked species-dependent differences in the binding affinities. The highest affinity was for the rat A1 receptor (ki = 0.19 nM) and these values for guinea-pig and dog A1 receptors were 1.3 and 10 nM, respectively. PMID:8732272

  11. The Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist Almorexant Induces Sleep and Decreases Orexin-Induced Locomotion by Blocking Orexin 2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; Dürst, Thomas; Bürki, Hugo; Imobersteg, Stefan; Abramowski, Dorothee; Schuepbach, Edi; Hoyer, Daniel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Orexin peptides activate orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R), regulate locomotion and sleep-wake. The dual OX1R/OX2R antagonist almorexant reduces activity and promotes sleep in multiple species, including man. The relative contributions of the two receptors in locomotion and sleep/wake regulation were investigated in mice. Design: Mice lacking orexin receptors were used to determine the contribution of OX1R and OX2R to orexin A-induced locomotion and to almorexant-induced sleep. Setting: N/A. Patients or Participants: C57BL/6J mice and OX1R+/+, OX1R-/-, OX2R+/+, OX2R-/- and OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Interventions: Intracerebroventricular orexin A; oral dosing of almorexant. Measurements and Results: Almorexant attenuated orexin A-induced locomotion. As in other species, almorexant dose-dependently increased rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and nonREM sleep in mice. Almorexant and orexin A were ineffective in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Both orexin A-induced locomotion and sleep induction by almorexant were absent in OX2R-/- mice. Interestingly, almorexant did not induce cataplexy in wild-type mice under conditions where cataplexy was seen in mice lacking orexins and in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Almorexant dissociates very slowly from OX2R as measured functionally and in radioligand binding. Under non equilibrium conditions in vitro, almorexant was a dual antagonist whereas at equilibrium, almorexant became OX2R selective. Conclusions: In vivo, almorexant specifically inhibits the actions of orexin A. The two known orexin receptors mediate sleep induction by almorexant and orexin A-induced locomotion. However, OX2R activation mediates locomotion induction by orexin A and antagonism of OX2R is sufficient to promote sleep in mice. Citation: Mang GM; Dürst T; Bürki H; Imobersteg S; Abramowski D; Schuepbach E; Hoyer D; Fendt M; Gee CE. The dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant induces sleep and decreases orexin-induced locomotion by blocking orexin 2 receptors. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1625-1635. PMID:23204605

  12. Pharmacological characterization of a novel centrally permeable P2X7 receptor antagonist: JNJ-47965567

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Wang, Qi; Ao, Hong; Shoblock, James R; Lord, Brian; Aluisio, Leah; Fraser, Ian; Nepomuceno, Diane; Neff, Robert A; Welty, Natalie; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Wickenden, Alan D; Letavic, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An increasing body of evidence suggests that the purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2X7) in the CNS may play a key role in neuropsychiatry, neurodegeneration and chronic pain. In this study, we characterized JNJ-47965567, a centrally permeable, high-affinity, selective P2X7 antagonist. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We have used a combination of in vitro assays (calcium flux, radioligand binding, electrophysiology, IL-1? release) in both recombinant and native systems. Target engagement of JNJ-47965567 was demonstrated by ex vivo receptor binding autoradiography and in vivo blockade of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release in the rat brain. Finally, the efficacy of JNJ-47965567 was tested in standard models of depression, mania and neuropathic pain. KEY RESULTS JNJ-47965567 is potent high affinity (pKi 7.9 ± 0.07), selective human P2X7 antagonist, with no significant observed speciation. In native systems, the potency of the compound to attenuate IL-1? release was 6.7 ± 0.07 (human blood), 7.5 ± 0.07 (human monocytes) and 7.1 ± 0.1 (rat microglia). JNJ-47965567 exhibited target engagement in rat brain, with a brain EC50 of 78 ± 19 ng·mL?1 (P2X7 receptor autoradiography) and functional block of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release. JNJ-47965567 (30 mg·kg?1) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and exhibited modest, yet significant efficacy in the rat model of neuropathic pain. No efficacy was observed in forced swim test. Conclusion and Implications JNJ-47965567 is centrally permeable, high affinity P2X7 antagonist that can be used to probe the role of central P2X7 in rodent models of CNS pathophysiology. PMID:23889535

  13. Neuroprotection afforded by antagonists of endothelin-1 receptors in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Octavio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Agulla, Jesús; Barral, David; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Castillo, José

    2012-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved on the development of cerebral edema in acute ischemic stroke. As edema is a therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia, our aim was to study the effect of antagonists for ET-1 receptors (Clazosentan® and BQ-788, specific antagonists for receptors A and B, respectively) on the development of edema, infarct volume and sensorial-motor deficits in rats subjected to ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). We used Wistar rats (280-320 g) submitted to ischemia by intraluminal transient (90 min) MCAO. After ischemia, rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6) treated with; 1) control group (saline), 2) Clazosentan® group (10 mg/kg iv), 3) BQ-788 group (3 mg/kg iv), and 4) combined treatment (Clazosentan® 10 mg/kg plus BQ-788 3 mg/kg iv). We observed that rats treated with Clazosentan® showed a reduction of edema, measured by MRI, at 72 h (hours) and at day 7 (both p < 0.0001), and a decrease in the serum levels of ET-1 at 72 h (p < 0.0001) and at day 7 (p = 0.009). The combined treatment also induced a reduction of edema at 24 h (p = 0.004), 72 h (p < 0.0001) and at day 7 (p < 0.0001), a reduction on infarct volume, measured by MRI, at 24 and 72 h, and at day 7 (all p < 0.01), and a better sensorimotor recovery at 24 and 72 h, and at day 7 (all p < 0.01). Moreover, Clazosentan® induced a decrease in AQP4 expression, while BQ-788 induced an increase in AQP9 expression. These results suggest that antagonists for ET-1 receptors may be a good therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia. PMID:22975409

  14. Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human Pregnane X-Receptor in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Emma Jane; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shen, Danny D.; Tracy, Julia; Shuhart, Margaret C.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Eaton, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), is an effective in vitro antagonist of ligand activation of the human pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR). PXR mediated CYP3A4 up-regulation is implicated in adverse drug-drug interactions making identification of small molecule antagonists a desirable therapeutic goal. SFN is not an antagonist to mouse or rat PXR in vitro; thus, normal rodent species are not suitable as in vivo models for human response. To evaluate whether SFN can effectively antagonize ligand activation of human PXR in vivo, a three-armed, randomized, crossover trial was conducted with 24 healthy adults. The potent PXR ligand – rifampicin (300 mg/d) was given alone for 7 days in arm 1, or in daily combination with 450 µmoles SFN (Broccoli Sprout extract) in arm 2; SFN was given alone in arm 3. Midazolam as an in vivo phenotype marker of CYP3A was administered before and after each treatment arm. Rifampicin alone decreased midazolam AUC by 70%, indicative of the expected increase in CYP3A4 activity. Co-treatment with SFN did not reduce CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with SFN alone also did not affect CYP3A4 activity in the cohort as a whole, although in the subset with the highest basal CYP3A4 activity there was a statistically significant increase in midazolam AUC (i.e., decrease in CYP3A4 activity). A parallel study in humanized PXR mice yielded similar results. The parallel effects of SFN between humanized PXR mice and human subjects demonstrate the predictive value of humanized mouse models in situations where species differences in ligand-receptor interactions preclude the use of a native mouse model for studying human ligand-receptor pharmacology. PMID:23153560

  15. Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2013-06-01

    The use of muscarinic receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established. More recently, the potential for long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) in the treatment of asthma has also been investigated. While LAMAs offer advantages over short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists, in terms of a reduced dosing frequency, there remains a need for therapies that improve symptom control throughout both the day and night, provide better management of exacerbations and deliver improved health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the potential for unwanted anticholinergic side effects, particularly cardiovascular effects, remains a concern for this class of compounds. Novel LAMAs in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory disease include: aclidinium bromide, NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), GP-MDI, EP-101, CHF-5259, umeclidinium bromide, CHF-5407, TD-4208, AZD8683 and V-0162. These compounds offer potential advantages in terms of onset of action, symptom control and safety. In addition, a number of LAMAs are also being developed as combination treatments with long-acting ?2-agonists (LABAs) or inhaled glucocorticosteroids, potentially important treatment options for patients who require combination therapy to achieve an optimal therapeutic response as their disease progresses. More recently, compounds such as GSK961081 and THRX-198321 have been identified that combine LAMA and LABA activity in the same molecule, and have the potential to offer the benefits of combination therapy in a single compound. Here, we review novel LAMAs and dual action compounds in clinical development, with a particular focus on how they may address the current unmet clinical needs in the treatment of respiratory disease, particularly COPD. PMID:23274274

  16. Theoretical evaluation of antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for prevention of vomiting induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Takayanagi, Risa; Yoshimoto, Koichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Iwase, Osamu; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2015-03-01

    5-HT(3) receptor antagonists are widely used as antiemetic agents in clinical setting, of which palonosetron, with a long elimination half life (t(1/2)), has recently become available. It is important to evaluate the concentration of serotonin when investigating the antiemetic effects of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, as those effects are not based solely on the t(1/2) value. We theoretically evaluated the antiemetic effects of three 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists (granisetron, azasetron, palonosetron) on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting by estimating the time course of the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. We estimated the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine, based on the time course of plasma concentration of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and the time course of concentration of serotonin near the 5-HT(3) receptor in the small intestine after administration of cisplatin. The antiemetic effect of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was evaluated based on the normal level of 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. Our results suggest that an adequate antiemetic effect will be provided when a dose of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin is given to patients along with any single administration of granisetron, azasetron, or palonosetron at a usual dose. On the other hand, the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin was found to be significantly lower than normal for several days after administration of palonosetron, as compared to granisetron and azasetron, indicating that constipation may be induced. Our results show that granisetron, azasetron, and palonosetron each have an adequate antiemetic effect after administration of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. PMID:24470169

  17. Pharmacological characterization of RP 62203, a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Doble, A.; Girdlestone, D.; Piot, O.; Allam, D.; Betschart, J.; Boireau, A.; Dupuy, A.; Guérémy, C.; Ménager, J.; Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    1 RP 62203 (2-[3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-piperazinyl)propyl]naphto[1,8-cd]isothiazole-1, 1-dioxide) is a novel naphtosultam derivative which shows very high affinity for 5-HT2 receptors in the rat cerebral cortex (Ki = 50.0 pM). 2 RP 62203 is relatively selective for this sub-type of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor, having lower affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor and very low affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor. RP 62203 displayed low to moderate affinity for ?1-adrenoceptors, dopamine D2 receptors and histamine H1 receptors. 3 In vivo binding experiments demonstrated that oral administration of low doses of RP 62203 led to a long-lasting (>6h) occupation of cortical 5-HT2 receptors (ID50 = 0.39 mg kg-1). 4 In cortical slices from the neonatal rat, RP 62203 potently inhibited inositol phosphate formation evoked by 5-HT, with an IC50 of 7.76 nM. 5 The activity of neurones in the raphé and their responses to microiontophoretically applied 5-HT were studied with extracellular recording electrodes in the anaesthetized rat. RP 62203 potently and dose-dependently blocked excitations evoked by 5-HT when administered at doses of 0.5–4.0 mg kg-1, i.p. In contrast, neither 5-HT-evoked depressions nor glutamate-evoked excitations of raphé neuronal firing were blocked by RP 62203 at doses as high as 8.0 mg kg-1, i.p. 6 Head twitches induced by 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) could be abolished by low doses of RP 62203 in mice (ED50 = 0.44 mg kg-1, p.o.) and in rats (ED50 = 1.54 p.o.). Similar results were obtained with mescaline and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 7 The potency of RP 62203 was compared with that of three other 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin, ICI 169,369 and ICI 170,809. In all models, RP 62203 showed similar activity to ritanserin, whilst either ICI 169,369 or ICI 170,809 was several fold less active. 8 It is concluded that RP 62203 is a potent and selective antagonist at 5-HT2 receptors in the rodent central nervous system. PMID:1596688

  18. Potentiation of the hypoglycaemic response to glipizide in diabetic patients by histamine H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Feely, J; Collins, W C; Cullen, M; el Debani, A H; MacWalter, R S; Peden, N R; Stevenson, I H

    1993-01-01

    In a randomised placebo controlled study, two groups of six maturity onset diabetic patients stabilised on glipizide were given cimetidine (400 mg) or ranitidine (150 mg) 3 h before a standardised meal. In comparison with placebo, both cimetidine and ranitidine significantly reduced the post-prandial rise in blood glucose by a mean of 40% and 25% respectively producing glucose levels of less than 3 mmol l-1 (lowest 1.5 mmol l-1) in four patients. Both drugs also significantly increased plasma glipizide AUC by approximately 20%. Caution should be exercised when initiating treatment with H2-receptor antagonists in diabetics receiving sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents. PMID:8471413

  19. Discovery of tripeptide-derived multifunctional ligands possessing delta/mu opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities.

    PubMed

    Nair, Padma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Cowell, Scott; Kulkarni, Vinod; Moye, Sharif; Navratilova, Edita; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Vanderah, Todd W; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-09-01

    Several bifunctional peptides were synthesized and characterized based on the pentapeptide-derived ligand NP30 (1: Tyr-DAla-Gly-Phe-Gly-Trp-O-[3',5'-Bzl(CF3)2]). Modification and truncation of amino acid residues were performed, and the tripeptide-derived ligand NP66 (11: Dmt-DAla-Trp-NH-[3',5'-(CF3)2-Bzl]) was obtained based on the overlapping pharmacophore concept. The Trp(3) residue of ligand 11 works as a message residue for both opioid and NK1 activities. The significance lies in the observation that the approach of appropriate truncation of peptide sequence could lead to a tripeptide-derived chimeric ligand with effective binding and functional activities for both mu and delta opioid and NK1 receptors with agonist activities at mu and delta opioid and antagonist activity at NK1 receptors, respectively. PMID:26212775

  20. Sulfur-Containing 1,3-Dialkylxanthine Derivatives as Selective Antagonists at A1-Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kiriasis, Leonidas; Barone, Suzanne; Bradbury, Barton J.; Kammula, Udai; Campagne, Jean Michel; Secunda, Sherrie; Daly, John W.; Neumeyer, John L.; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5?-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective. PMID:2754711

  1. Discovery and SAR of 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines as histamine H? receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Savall, Brad M; Chavez, Frank; Tays, Kevin; Dunford, Paul J; Cowden, Jeffery M; Hack, Michael D; Wolin, Ronald L; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P

    2014-03-27

    This report discloses the discovery and SAR of a series of 6-alkyl-2-aminopyrimidine derived histamine H4 antagonists that led to the development of JNJ 39758979, which has been studied in phase II clinical trials in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Building on our SAR studies of saturated derivatives from the indole carboxamide series, typified by JNJ 7777120, and incorporating knowledge from the tricyclic pyrimidines led us to the 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidine series. A focused medicinal chemistry effort delivered several 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines that behaved as antagonists at both the human and rodent H4 receptor. Further optimization led to a panel of antagonists that were profiled in animal models of inflammatory disease. On the basis of the preclinical profile and efficacy in several animal models, JNJ 39758979 was selected as a clinical candidate; however, further development was halted during phase II because of the observation of drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIAG) in two subjects. PMID:24495018

  2. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Peptide Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist Zyklophin.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anand A; Murray, Thomas F; Aldrich, Jane V

    2015-11-25

    The dynorphin (Dyn) A analogue zyklophin ([N-benzyl-Tyr(1)-cyclo(d-Asp(5),Dap(8))]dynorphin A(1-11)NH2) is a kappa opioid receptor (KOR)-selective antagonist in vitro, is active in vivo, and antagonizes KOR in the CNS after systemic administration. Hence, we synthesized zyklophin analogues to explore the structure-activity relationships of this peptide. The synthesis of selected analogues required modification to introduce the N-terminal amino acid due to poor solubility and/or to avoid epimerization of this residue. Among the N-terminal modifications, the N-phenethyl and N-cyclopropylmethyl substitutions resulted in analogues with the highest KOR affinities. Pharmacological results for the alanine-substituted analogues indicated that Phe(4) and Arg(6), but interestingly not the Tyr(1) phenol, are important for zyklophin's KOR affinity and that Arg(7) was important for KOR antagonist activity. In the GTP?S assay, while all of the cyclic analogues exhibited negligible KOR efficacy, the N-cyclopropylmethyl-Tyr(1) and N-benzyl-Phe(1) analogues were 28- and 11-fold more potent KOR antagonists, respectively, than zyklophin. PMID:26491810

  3. Quantitative toxicoproteomic analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to a retinoid X receptor antagonist UVI3003.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Yu, Jianlan; Shi, Huahong; Xia, Liang; Xin, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Heng; Luo, Ji; Jin, Wenhai; Li, Daoji; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists, including some environmental endocrine disruptors, have a teratogenic effect on vertebrate embryos. To investigate the toxicological mechanism on the protein expression level, a quantitative proteomic study was conducted to analyze the proteome alterations of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to gradient concentrations of a representative RXR antagonist UVI3003. Using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling coupled nano high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano HPLC-MS/MS), in total 6592 proteins were identified, among which 195 proteins were found to be differentially expressed by more than a two-fold change in exposed groups compared with the control. Gene ontology analysis showed that these differential proteins were mostly involved in anatomical structure development, biosynthetic process, ion binding and oxidoreductase activity. Moreover, the biological pathways of translation, lipoprotein metabolism, cell survival and gluconeogenesis were intensively inhibited after exposure. Some significantly downregulated proteins such as apolipoprotein A-I and vitellogenin and upregulated proteins such as calcium activated nucleotidase 1b, glutathione S-transferase and glucose 6-dehydrogenases showed a strong dose-dependent response. The results provided new insight into the molecular details of RXR antagonist-induced teratogenicity and added novel information of pathways and potential biomarkers for evaluation of RXR interfering activity. PMID:25581642

  4. Synergistic antiemetic interactions between serotonergic 5-HT3 and tachykininergic NK1-receptor antagonists in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Amos, Barry; Alkam, Tursun

    2011-10-01

    Significant electrophysiological and biochemical findings suggest that receptor cross-talk occurs between serotonergic 5-HT(3)- and tachykininergic NK(1)-receptors in which co-activation of either receptor by ineffective doses of their corresponding agonists (serotonin (5-HT) or substance P (SP), respectively) potentiates the activity of the other receptor to produce a response. In contrast, selective blockade of any one of these receptors attenuates the increase in abdominal vagal afferent activity caused by either 5-HT or SP. This interaction has important implications in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) since 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptor antagonists are the major classes of antiemetics used in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the discussed interaction produces effects at the behavioral level in a vomit-competent species, the least shrew. Our results demonstrate that pretreatment with either a 5-HT(3) (tropisetron)- or an NK(1) (CP99,994)-receptor specific antagonist, attenuates vomiting caused by a selective agonist (2-methyl 5-HT or GR73632, respectively) of both emetic receptors. In addition, relative to each antagonist alone, their combined doses were 4-20 times more potent against vomiting caused by each emetogen. Moreover, combined sub-maximal doses of the agonists 2-methyl 5-HT and GR73632, produced 8-12 times greater number of vomits relative to each emetogen tested alone. However, due to large variability in vomiting caused by the combination doses, the differences failed to attain significance. The antiemetic dose-response curves of tropisetron against both emetogens were U-shaped probably because larger doses of this antagonist behave as a partial agonist. The data demonstrate that 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptors cross-talk to produce vomiting, and that synergistic antiemetic effects occur when both corresponding antagonists are concurrently used against emesis caused by each specific emetogen. PMID:21683089

  5. Novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonists/D2 receptor partial agonists targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ko?aczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; ?niecikowska, Joanna; Paw?owski, Maciej; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Jastrz?bska-Wi?sek, Magdalena; Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Weso?owska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Pawe?; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel class of designed multiple ligands (DMLs) combining serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonism with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonism. Prototype hybrid molecules were designed using docking to receptor homology models. Diverse pharmacophore moieties yielded 3 series of hybrids with varying in vitro properties at 5-HT6R and D2R, and at M1 receptor and hERG channel antitargets. 4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-indole derivatives showed highest antagonist potency at 5-HT6R, with 7-butoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one and 2-propoxybenzamide derivatives having promising D2R partial agonism. 2-(3-(4-(1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)benzamide (47) exhibited nanomolar affinity at both 5-HT6R and D2R and was evaluated in rat models. It displayed potent antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity in the Porsolt and Vogel tests, respectively, more pronounced than that of a reference selective 5-HT6R antagonist or D2R partial agonist. In addition, 47 also showed antidepressant-like activity (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic-like activity (open field test) in aged (>18-month old) rats. In operant conditioning tests, 47 enhanced responding for sweet reward in the saccharin self-administration test, consistent with anti-anhedonic properties. Further, 47 facilitated extinction of non-reinforced responding for sweet reward, suggesting potential procognitive activity. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMLs combining 5-HT6R antagonism and D2R partial agonism may successfully target affective disorders in patients from different age groups without a risk of cognitive deficits. PMID:25557493

  6. Recent progress in the development of agonists and antagonists for melatonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Zlotos, D P

    2012-01-01

    The various physiological actions of the neurohormone melatonin are mediated mainly by two G-protein-coupled MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. The melatoninergic drugs on the market, ramelteon and agomelatine, as well as the most advanced drug candidates under clinical evaluation, tasimelteon and PD-6735, are high-affinity nonselective MT(1) and MT(2) agonists. However, exploring the exact physiological role of the MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors requires subtype selective MT(1) and MT(2) ligands. This review covers novel melatoninergic agonists and antagonists published since 2010, focusing on high-affinity and subtype selective agents. Additionally, compounds not mentioned in the previous review articles and ligands selective for the MT(3) binding site are included. PMID:22680635

  7. Treatment of acute myocardial ischaemia with a selective antagonist of thromboxane receptors (BM 13.177).

    PubMed Central

    Schrör, K.; Thiemermann, C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to elucidate the role of endogenous thromboxane A2 in myocardial ischaemia, cats were subjected to 5 h of permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and treated with the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.177 (5 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v.). In comparison with vehicle-treated LAD-occluded cats, BM 13.177 significantly attenuated the loss of creatine phosphokinase-specific activity from the ischaemic myocardium and antagonized the ischaemia-induced rise in the ST-segment of the electrocardiogram. BM 13.177 at the dose used did not reduce plasma thromboxane levels or ischaemia-induced platelet aggregate formation but considerably antagonized thromboxane-dependent platelet secretion ex vivo. The study demonstrates some beneficial effects of selective blockade of thromboxane receptors on biochemical and electrophysiological parameters of acute myocardial ischaemia. PMID:3011166

  8. Effect of meclastine, a selective H1 receptor antagonist, upon ACTH release.

    PubMed

    Allolio, B; Deuss, U; Kaulen, D; Winkelmann, W

    1983-08-01

    To elucidate further the role of histamine in the control of ACTH secretion we investigated the effect of the selective H1 receptor antagonist meclastine on the ACTH response to insulin hypoglycaemia and to metyrapone-induced hypocortisolaemia in normal subjects. Intravenous meclastine (4.8 mg/90 min) significantly inhibited the hypoglycaemia-induced ACTH and cortisol increase whereas serum GH and PRL concentrations were unaffected. Orally administered meclastine (3 X 2 mg) also reduced the ACTH feedback response to cortisol deficiency in a modified metyrapone test, compared to a placebo. Our findings support the concept of an excitatory influence of histamine upon ACTH secretion via H1 receptors, possibly by stimulation of CRF release. PMID:6309434

  9. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 5-sulfamoyl benzimidazole derivatives as novel angiotensin II receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Kaur, Amardeep; Bansal, Yogita; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Bansal, Gulshan; Singh, Manjeet

    2013-01-01

    A series of 5-alkylsulfamoyl benzimidazole derivatives have been designed and synthesized as novel angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonists. The compounds have been evaluated for in vitro Ang II antagonism and for in vivo antihypertensive activity on isolated rat aortic ring and desoxycortisone acetate induced hypertensive rats, respectively. The activity is found related to size of alkyl group. The maximum activity is observed with a compact and bulky alkyl group like tert-butyl and cyclohexyl. The compounds 4g and 4h have shown promising both in vitro and in vivo activities. A receptor binding model is also proposed on the basis on the basis of structure–activity relationship in this study. PMID:19013821

  10. A novel series of indazole-/indole-based glucagon receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Songnian; Zhang, Fengqi; Jiang, Guoqiang; Qureshi, Sajjad A; Yang, Xiaodong; Chicchi, Gary G; Tota, Laurie; Bansal, Alka; Brady, Edward; Trujillo, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Miller, Corey; Tata, James R; Zhang, Bei B; Parmee, Emma R

    2015-10-01

    A novel, potent series of glucagon receptor antagonists (GRAs) was discovered. These indazole- and indole-based compounds were designed on an earlier pyrazole-based GRA lead MK-0893. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were focused on the C3 and C6 positions of the indazole core, as well as the benzylic position on the N-1 of indazole. Multiple potent GRAs were identified with excellent in vitro profiles and good pharmacokinetics in rat. Among them, GRA 16d was found to be orally active in blunting glucagon induced glucose excursion in an acute glucagon challenge model in glucagon receptor humanized (hGCGR) mice at 1, 3 and 10mg/kg (mpk), and significantly lowered acute glucose levels in hGCGR ob/ob mice at 3mpk dose. PMID:26303893

  11. Biological and conformational evaluation of bifunctional compounds for opioid receptor agonists and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists possessing two penicillamines.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Nair, Padma; Jacobsen, Neil E; Kulkarni, Vinod; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Navratilova, Edita; Yamamura, Henry I; Vanderah, Todd W; Porreca, Frank; Lai, Josephine; Hruby, Victor J

    2010-08-12

    Neuropathic pain states and tolerance to opioids can result from system changes in the CNS, such as up-regulation of the NK1 receptor and substance P, lead to antiopioid effects in ascending or descending pain-signaling pathways. Bifunctional compounds, possessing both the NK1 antagonist pharmacophore and the opioid agonist pharmacophore with delta-selectivity, could counteract these system changes to have significant analgesic efficacy without undesirable side effects. As a result of the introduction of cyclic and topological constraints with penicillamines, 2 (Tyr-cyclo[d-Pen-Gly-Phe-Pen]-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-[3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bzl]) was found as the best bifunctional compound with effective NK1 antagonist and potent opioid agonist activities, and 1400-fold delta-selectivity over the mu-receptor. The NMR structural analysis of 2 revealed that the relative positioning of the two connected pharmacophores as well as its cyclic and topological constraints might be responsible for its excellent bifunctional activities as well as its significant delta-opioid selectivity. Together with the observed high metabolic stability, 2 could be considered as a valuable research tool and possibly a promising candidate for a novel analgesic drug. PMID:20617791

  12. Racial Differences in Resistance to P2Y12 Receptor Antagonists in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Duvernay, Matthew T.; Holinstat, Michael; Colowick, Nancy E.; Hudson, Willie J.; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance to the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel is linked to altered drug metabolism, some studies suggest that these pharmacokinetic abnormalities only partially account for drug resistance. To circumvent pharmacokinetic complications and target P2Y12 receptor function we applied the direct P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthio-AMP (2-methylthioadenosine 5?-monophosphate triethylammonium salt) to purified platelets ex vivo. Platelets were purified from healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and stimulated with thrombin or the selective protease-activated receptor agonists, protease-activated receptor 1–activating peptide (PAR1-AP), or PAR4-AP. Platelet activation as measured by ?IIb?3 activation, and P-selectin expression was monitored in 141 subjects. Our results demonstrate that, compared with healthy subjects, platelets from diabetic patients are resistant to inhibition by 2-methylthio-AMP, demonstrating P2Y12 pharmacodynamic defects among diabetic patients. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated ?IIb?3 activation by 2-methylthio-AMP was lower in diabetic platelets versus healthy platelets. Subgroup analysis revealed a racial difference in the resistance to 2-methylthio-AMP. We found no resistance in platelets from diabetic African Americans; they were inhibited by 2-methylthio-AMP equally as well as platelets from healthy African Americans. In contrast, platelets from Caucasian patients with diabetes were resistant to P2Y12 antagonism compared with healthy Caucasians. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that other variables, such as obesity, age, or gender, could not account for the differential resistance to 2-methylthio-AMP among races. These results suggest that in addition to altered drug metabolism, P2Y12 receptor function itself is altered in the Caucasian diabetic population. The racial difference in platelet function in T2DM is a novel finding, which may lead to differences in treatment as well as new targets for antiplatelet therapy. PMID:25052834

  13. Development of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity in vitro and improved therapeutic efficacy in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Eva; Barchan, Karin; Herrlander, Daniel; Höjman, Patrik; Karlsson, Marie; Ljung, Lill; Andersson, Mats; Bäckman, Eva; Hager, Ann-Christin Malmborg; Walse, Björn; Joosten, Leo; van den Berg, Wim

    2008-04-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1-mediated activation of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R). Although wild-type IL-1Ra is used for treatment of inflammatory diseases, its effect is moderate and/or short-lived. The objective of this study was to generate IL-1Ra mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity for potential therapeutic use. Using a directed evolution approach in which libraries of IL-1Ra gene mutants were generated and screened in functional assays, mutants with desired properties were identified. Initially, diversity was introduced into the IL-1Ra using random mutagenesis. Mutations resulting in enhanced antagonistic activity were identified by screening in a reporter cell assay. To further enhance the antagonistic activity, selected mutations were recombined using the DNA recombination technology Fragment-INduced Diversity (FIND). Following three rounds of FIND recombination, several mutants with up to nine times enhanced antagonistic activity (mean IC50 +/- SEM value: 0.78 +/- 0.050 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for mutant and wild-type, respectively) were identified. Sequence analysis identified the mutations D47N, E52R and E90Y as being most important for this effect, however, the mutations P38Y, H54R, Q129L and M136N further enhanced the antagonistic function. Analysis of identified mutations in protein models based on the crystal structure of the IL-1Ra/IL-1R complex suggested that mutations found to enhance the antagonistic activity had a stabilizing effect on the IL-1Ra mutants or increased the affinity for the IL-1R. Finally, the therapeutic effect of one mutant was compared to that of wild-type IL-1Ra in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Indeed, the enhanced antagonistic effect of the mutants observed in vitro was also seen in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that directed evolution of IL-1Ra is an effective means of generating highly potent therapeutic proteins. PMID:18569390

  14. Computational and functional analysis of the androgen receptor antagonist atraric acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Maria; Söderholm, Annu A; Hong, Wei; Dai, Yifan; Roediger, Julia; Roell, Daniela; Thiele, Marie; Nyrönen, Tommi H; Baniahmad, Aria

    2013-06-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists are important compounds for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). The atraric acid (AA), a natural compound, binds to the AR and acts as a specific AR antagonist. Interestingly, AA represents a novel chemical platform that could serve as a potential basis for new AR antagonists. Therefore, one objective of this study was to analyze the chemical/structural requirements for AR antagonism and to obtain predictions of where and how AA binds to the AR. Further, this study describes the chemical synthesis of 12 AA derivatives and their analysis using a combination of computational and functional assays. Functional analysis of AA derivatives indicated that none activated the AR. Both the para-hydroxyl group and the benzene ortho- and the meta-methyl groups of AA appeared to be essential to antagonize androgen-activated AR activity. Furthermore, extension of the hydrophobic side chain of AA led to slightly stronger AR antagonism. In silico data suggest that modifications to the basic AA structure change the hydrogen-bonding network with the AR ligand binding domain (LBD), so that the para-hydroxyl group of AA forms a hydrogen bond with the LBD, confirming the functional importance of this group for AR antagonism. Moreover, in silico modeling also suggested that the ortho- and meta- methyl groups of AA interact with hydrophobic residues of the ligand pocket of AR, which might explain their functional importance for antagonism. Thus, these studies identify the chemical groups of AA that play key roles in allowing the AA-based chemical platform to act as an AR antagonist. PMID:23194423

  15. Effect of ?{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Kevin D.; Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R.

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ? Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ? These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ? There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  16. Pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel, highly potent and selective non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyoshi; Homma, Tsuyoshi; Morikawa, Yuka; Ubukata, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Hiyoyuki; Aoki, Kazumasa; Ishikawa, Hirokazu; Mizuno, Makoto; Sada, Toshio

    2015-08-15

    The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In the radioligand-binding assay, CS-3150 inhibited (3)H-aldosterone binding to mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 9.4nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 36 and 713nM, respectively. CS-3150 also showed at least 1000-fold higher selectivity for mineralocorticoid receptor over other steroid hormone receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor. In the reporter gene assay, CS-3150 inhibited aldosterone-induced transcriptional activation of human mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 3.7nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 66 and 970nM, respectively. CS-3150 had no agonistic effect on mineralocorticoid receptor and did not show any antagonistic or agonistic effect on glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor even at the high concentration of 5?M. In adrenalectomized rats, single oral administration of CS-3150 suppressed aldosterone-induced decrease in urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio, an index of in vivo mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and this suppressive effect was more potent and longer-lasting than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. Chronic treatment with CS-3150 inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-loading to rats, and this antihypertensive effect was more potent than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. These findings indicate that CS-3150 is a selective and highly potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with long-lasting oral activity. This agent could be useful for the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders. PMID:26073023

  17. Naturally-Occurring Glucosinolates, Glucoraphanin and Glucoerucin, are Antagonists to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor as Their Chemopreventive Potency.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2015-01-01

    As a cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor is involved in several patho- physiological events leading to immunosuppression and cancer; hence antagonists of the Ah receptor may possess chemoprevention properties. It is known to modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzymes, for instance the CYP1 family of cytochromes P450 and quinone reductase, both important in the biotransformation of many chemical carcinogens via regulating phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Utilising chemically-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay it was revealed that intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, isolated from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica and Eruca sativa ripe seeds, respectively, are such antagonists. Both glucosinolates were poor ligands for the Ah receptor; however, they effectively antagonised activation of the receptor by the avid ligand benzo[a]pyrene. Indeed, intact glucosinolate glucoraphanin was a more potent antagonist to the receptor than glucoerucin. It can be concluded that both glucosinolates effectively act as antagonists for the Ah receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency. PMID:26320454

  18. Structure-Based Discovery of Novel Chemotypes for Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Lane, J.Robert; Lin, Judy; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Yeager, Mark; Kufareva, Irina; Stevens, Raymond C.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The recent progress in crystallography of G-protein coupled receptors opens an unprecedented venue for structure-based GPCR drug discovery. To test efficiency of the structure-based approach, we performed molecular docking and virtual ligand screening (VLS) of more than 4 million commercially available “drug-like” and ‘‘lead-like’’ compounds against the A2AAR 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure. Out of 56 high ranking compounds tested in A2AAR binding assays, 23 showed affinities under 10 µM, eleven of those had sub-µM affinities, and two compounds had affinities under 60 nM. The identified hits represent at least 9 different chemical scaffolds and are characterized by very high ligand efficiency (0.3–0.5 kcal/mol per heavy atom). Significant A2AAR antagonist activities were confirmed for 10 out of 13 ligands tested in functional assays. High success rate, novelty and diversity of the chemical scaffolds and strong ligand efficiency of the A2AAR antagonists identified in this study suggest practical applicability of receptor-based VLS in GPCR drug discovery. PMID:20095623

  19. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Theron, A. J.; Steel, H. C.; Tintinger, G. R.; Gravett, C. M.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1) antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5?-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies. PMID:24971371

  20. Antagonist of GH-releasing hormone receptors alleviates experimental ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong Jie; Chan, Sun On; Chong, Kelvin Kam Lung; Li, Benjamin Fuk Loi; Ng, Tsz Kin; Yip, Yolanda Wong Ying; Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Block, Norman L; Cheung, Herman S; Schally, Andrew V; Pang, Chi Pui

    2014-12-23

    Disruptions in immunity and occurrence of inflammation cause many eye diseases. The growth hormone-releasing hormone-growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GHRH-GH-IGF1) axis exerts regulatory effects on the immune system. Its involvement in ocular inflammation remains to be investigated. Here we studied this signaling in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) generated by LPS. The increase in GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) protein levels was parallel to the increase in mRNA levels of pituitary-specific transcription factor-1, GHRH-R splice variant 1, GHRH, and GH following LPS insult. Elevation of GHRH-R and GH receptor was localized on the epithelium of the iris and ciliary body, and GHRH-R was confined to the infiltrating macrophages and leukocytes in aqueous humor but not to those in stroma. Treatment with GHRH-R antagonist decreased LPS-stimulated surges of GH and IGF1 in aqueous humor and alleviated inflammation by reducing the infiltration of macrophages and leukocytes and the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Our results indicate that inflammation in the iris and ciliary body involves the activation of GHRH signaling, which affects the recruitment of immune cells and the production of proinflammatory mediators that contribute to EIU pathogenesis. Moreover, the results suggest that GHRH-R antagonists are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of acute ocular inflammation. PMID:25489106

  1. Antagonist of GH-releasing hormone receptors alleviates experimental ocular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yong Jie; Chan, Sun On; Chong, Kelvin Kam Lung; Li, Benjamin Fuk Loi; Ng, Tsz Kin; Yip, Yolanda Wong Ying; Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Block, Norman L.; Cheung, Herman S.; Schally, Andrew V.; Pang, Chi Pui

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in immunity and occurrence of inflammation cause many eye diseases. The growth hormone-releasing hormone–growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor-1 (GHRH–GH–IGF1) axis exerts regulatory effects on the immune system. Its involvement in ocular inflammation remains to be investigated. Here we studied this signaling in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) generated by LPS. The increase in GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) protein levels was parallel to the increase in mRNA levels of pituitary-specific transcription factor-1, GHRH-R splice variant 1, GHRH, and GH following LPS insult. Elevation of GHRH-R and GH receptor was localized on the epithelium of the iris and ciliary body, and GHRH-R was confined to the infiltrating macrophages and leukocytes in aqueous humor but not to those in stroma. Treatment with GHRH-R antagonist decreased LPS-stimulated surges of GH and IGF1 in aqueous humor and alleviated inflammation by reducing the infiltration of macrophages and leukocytes and the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Our results indicate that inflammation in the iris and ciliary body involves the activation of GHRH signaling, which affects the recruitment of immune cells and the production of proinflammatory mediators that contribute to EIU pathogenesis. Moreover, the results suggest that GHRH-R antagonists are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of acute ocular inflammation. PMID:25489106

  2. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  3. Enhancement of alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia by H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, A; Lao, B; Szutowski, M; Szczepanik, Z; Muszy?ski, J

    1997-06-01

    The oral ethanol loading test (0.5 g/kg body mass) was carried out in 3 groups with 10 healthy male volunteers each before and after 7 days of administration of either cimetidine (CAS 51481-61-9), ranitidine (CAS 66357-59-3), or famotidine (CAS 76824-35-6). The parameters determined during 6 h comprised the blood levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, glucose, lactate, pyruvate and bicarbonates, as well as blood pH, PCO2 and PO2. Only ranitidine significantly increased the mean blood ethanol concentration and none of the drugs modified the blood acetaldehyde concentration. Hypoglycaemia following alcohol ingestion was significantly enhanced by all H2-receptor antagonists, but was most pronounced after famotidine. The alcohol-induced rise in blood pyruvate and lactate rather had a tendency to decrease during the second test. The presented results suggest that the evident enhancement of alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia by H2-receptor antagonists is not dependent on the increase of ethanol absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, but represents rather a specific effect of these drugs on glucose metabolism. PMID:9239453

  4. Reversal of trauma-induced amnesia in mice by a thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Itzekson, Zeev; Maggio, Nicola; Milman, Anat; Shavit, Efrat; Pick, Chaim G; Chapman, Joab

    2014-05-01

    Minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with the existence of retrograde amnesia and microscopic bleeds containing activated coagulation factors. In an mTBI model, we report that thrombin induces amnesia through its receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). Thrombin activity was significantly elevated (32 %, p?antagonist (SCH79797) completely blocked the amnestic effects of mTBI, thrombin, and the PAR-1 agonist. Long-term potentiation, measured in hippocampal slices 24 h after mTBI, ICV thrombin or the PAR-1 agonist, was significantly impaired and this effect was completely reversed by the PAR-1 antagonist. The results support a crucial role for PAR-1 in the generation of amnesia following mTBI, revealing a novel therapeutic target for the cognitive effects of brain trauma. PMID:24352712

  5. Habit, prejudice, power and politics: issues in the conversion of H2-receptor antagonists to over-the-counter use.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R H

    1996-01-01

    H2-receptor antagonists have been widely prescribed in the last 20 years and are considered to rank among the safest drugs known. In several countries they have been switched to over-the-counter (OTC) status, and a similar move is under consideration in Canada. Some concerns have been raised as to the effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of dyspepsia and heartburn, their safety when taken for self-diagnosed symptoms, and the potential for their use to delay diagnosis or mask serious disease. The author presents evidence to support the use of OTC H2-receptor antagonists in the treatment of dyspepsia. He argues that the safety record of these drugs is reassuring and that they are unlikely to mask gastric cancer. Finally, he describes the appropriate place of OTC H2-receptor antagonists in the overall management of acid-related disorders. PMID:8542566

  6. Effects of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists on vagal hyperreactivity and neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function in antigen challenged guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Richard W; Fryer, Allison D; Belmonte, Kristen E; Jacoby, David B

    1998-01-01

    The role of tachykinin NK1 receptors in the recruitment of eosinophils to airway nerves, loss of inhibitory neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function and the development of vagal hyperreactivity was tested in antigen-challenged guinea-pigs.In anaesthetized guinea-pigs, the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine (1–100??g?kg?1, i.v), inhibited vagally induced bronchoconstriction, in control, but not in antigen-challenged guinea-pigs 24?h after antigen challenge. This indicates normal function of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in controls and loss of neuronal M2 receptor function in challenged guinea-pigs. Pretreatment of sensitized guinea-pigs with the NK1 receptor antagonists CP99994 (4?mg?kg?1, i.p.), SR140333 (1?mg?kg?1, s.c.) or CP96345 (15?mg?kg?1, i.p.) before antigen challenge, prevented M2 receptor dysfunction.Neither administration of the NK1 antagonists after antigen challenge, nor pretreatment with an NK2 receptor antagonist, MEN10376 (5??mol?kg?1, i.p.), before antigen challenge, prevented M2 receptor dysfunction.Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves caused a frequency-dependent (2–15?Hz, 10?V, 0.2?ms for 5?s) bronchoconstriction that was significantly increased following antigen challenge. Pretreatment with the NK1 receptor antagonists CP99994 or SR140333 before challenge prevented this increase.Histamine (1–20?nmol?kg?1, i.v.) caused a dose-dependent bronchoconstriction, which was vagally mediated, and was significantly increased in antigen challenged guinea-pigs compared to controls. Pretreatment of sensitized animals with CP99994 before challenge prevented the increase in histamine-induced reactivity.Bronchoalveolar lavage and histological studies showed that after antigen challenge significant numbers of eosinophils accumulated in the airways and around airway nerves. This eosinophilia was not altered by pretreatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994.These data indicate that pretreatment of antigen-sensitized guinea-pigs with NK1, but not with NK2 receptor antagonists before antigen challenge prevented the development of hyperreactivity by protecting neuronal M2 receptor function. NK1 receptor antagonists do not inhibit eosinophil accumulation around airway nerves. PMID:9641542

  7. Evaluation of the abuse potential of AM281, a new synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Pena, Irene Joy; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Seo, Joung-Wook; Jeong, Eun Ju; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-11-01

    AM281 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) is a new synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. Similar to other cannabinoid antagonists, AM281 has been suggested to have therapeutic indications. However, recent reports have suggested that cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may share similar behavioral effects with other drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine. These reports cast doubts on the safety profile of AM281. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the abuse potential (rewarding and reinforcing effects) of AM281 through two of the most widely used animal models for assessing the abuse potential of drugs: the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Experiments were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats in various dosages [CPP (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg), SA (0.005, 0.025 or 0.1mg/kg/infusion)]. We also delved into the consequences of repeated drug exposure on the subsequent response to the drug. Thus, parallel experiments were carried out in rats pretreated with AM281 for 7 or 14 days. Our findings indicated that AM281, at any dose, did not induce CPP and SA in drug-naïve rats. Interestingly, significant CPP (0.5mg/kg of AM281), but not SA, was observed in 14 days pretreated rats. These observations suggest that AM281 per se has no or minimal rewarding and reinforcing properties, but alterations in neuronal functions and behavior due to repeated AM281 exposure may contribute in part to the abuse potential of this drug. In view of this finding, we advocate the careful use, monitoring, and dispensation of AM281. PMID:26450088

  8. Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr6.63 forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr6.63 to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr3566.63 allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R.

  9. (1R, 3S)-(?)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through G?q to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(?)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (?)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (?)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (?)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (?)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  10. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F.; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hER? agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hER? versus hER? assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hER?, hER?, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  11. Endothelin-A receptor antagonists in prostate cancer treatment-a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Longwei; Liang, Yuting; Li, Na; Hu, Xiaoxia; Luo, Dongwei; Gu, Junxia; Lu, Yaojuan; Zheng, Qiping

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in men due to inefficiency of androgen deprivation therapy or androgen blockade. Endothelins (ETs) and the two endothelin receptor family members A and B (ETA and ETB) are known to play important roles in the progression of many malignancies, including prostate cancer. However, phase III clinical studies did not reach a unanimous conclusion regarding ETA receptor antagonists in prostate cancer treatment. Here, we provide a meta-analysis of clinical studies using ETA receptor antagonists to treat prostate cancer, especially the hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Data were extracted from nine studies that used Zibotentan or Atrasentan, two selective ETA receptor antagonists, to treat prostate cancer and meet the selection criteria. The results indicated that the overall survival (OS) and the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients treated with Zibotentan did not show significant difference with the patients treated with placebo (pooled hazard ratio (HR) for OS, 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06; pooled HR for PFS, 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.06). No statistically significant difference was detected either as to the OS and PFS of patients between the Atrasentan treated group and the group treated with placebo (pooled HR for OS, 0.99, 95% CI 0.90-1.08; pooled HR for PFS, 0.94, 95% CI 0.86-1.02). Notably, the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the incidence of bone pain were significantly lower in the Atrasentan treated patients compared to the controls (pooled HR for time of PSA progression, 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.97; and pooled relative risk (RR) for bone pain, 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). In addition, increasing of PSA and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were significantly delayed with Atrasentan treatment (P<0.05). Together, these data suggest that Atrasentan has an effect on cancer-related bone pain and skeletal-events in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:26064237

  12. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 antagonist JTE-013 increases the excitability of sensory neurons independently of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Chi, Xian Xuan; Xie, Wenrui; Strong, J A; Zhang, J-M; Nicol, G D

    2012-09-01

    Previously we demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR(1)) played a prominent, but not exclusive, role in enhancing the excitability of small-diameter sensory neurons, suggesting that other S1PRs can modulate neuronal excitability. To examine the potential role of S1PR(2) in regulating neuronal excitability we used the established selective antagonist of S1PR(2), JTE-013. Here we report that exposure to JTE-013 alone produced a significant increase in excitability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in 70-80% of recorded neurons. Internal perfusion of sensory neurons with guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-?-S) via the recording pipette inhibited the sensitization produced by JTE-013 as well as prostaglandin E(2). Pretreatment with pertussis toxin or the selective S1PR(1) antagonist W146 blocked the sensitization produced by JTE-013. These results indicate that JTE-013 might act as an agonist at other G protein-coupled receptors. In neurons that were sensitized by JTE-013, single-cell RT-PCR studies demonstrated that these neurons did not express the mRNA for S1PR(2). In behavioral studies, injection of JTE-013 into the rat's hindpaw produced a significant increase in the mechanical sensitivity in the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, paw. Injection of JTE-013 did not affect the withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation. Thus JTE-013 augments neuronal excitability independently of S1PR(2) by unknown mechanisms that may involve activation of other G protein-coupled receptors such as S1PR(1). Clearly, further studies are warranted to establish the causal nature of this increased sensitivity, and future studies of neuronal function using JTE-013 should be interpreted with caution. PMID:22673325

  13. Vascular Effects of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Depends on Their Selectivity for ETA Versus ETB Receptors and on the Functionality of Endothelial ETB Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Pauline; Wanner, Daniel; Rey, Markus; Hess, Patrick; Clozel, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to characterize the role of Endothelin (ET) type B receptors (ETB) on vascular function in healthy and diseased conditions and demonstrate how it affects the pharmacological activity of ET receptor antagonists (ERAs). Methods: The contribution of the ETB receptor to vascular relaxation or constriction was characterized in isolated arteries from healthy and diseased rats with systemic (Dahl-S) or pulmonary hypertension (monocrotaline). Because the role of ETB receptors is different in pathological vis-à-vis normal conditions, we compared the efficacy of ETA-selective and dual ETA/ETB ERAs on blood pressure in hypertensive rats equipped with telemetry. Results: In healthy vessels, ETB receptors stimulation with sarafotoxin S6c induced vasorelaxation and no vasoconstriction. In contrast, in arteries of rats with systemic or pulmonary hypertension, endothelial ETB-mediated relaxation was lost while vasoconstriction on stimulation by sarafotoxin S6c was observed. In hypertensive rats, administration of the dual ETA/ETB ERA macitentan on top of a maximal effective dose of the ETA-selective ERA ambrisentan further reduced blood pressure, indicating that ETB receptors blockade provides additional benefit. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that in pathology, dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonism can provide superior vascular effects compared with ETA-selective receptor blockade. PMID:25992919

  14. Small-Molecule “BRCA1-Mimetics” Are Antagonists of Estrogen Receptor-?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongxian; Tomita, York; Preet, Anju; Clarke, Robert; Englund, Erikah; Grindrod, Scott; Nathan, Shyam; De Oliveira, Eliseu; Brown, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Resistance to conventional antiestrogens is a major cause of treatment failure and, ultimately, death in breast cancer. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify small-molecule estrogen receptor (ER)-? antagonists that work differently from tamoxifen and other selective estrogen receptor modulators. Design: Based on in silico screening of a pharmacophore database using a computed model of the BRCA1-ER-? complex (with ER-? liganded to 17?-estradiol), we identified a candidate group of small-molecule compounds predicted to bind to a BRCA1-binding interface separate from the ligand-binding pocket and the coactivator binding site of ER-?. Among 40 candidate compounds, six inhibited estradiol-stimulated ER-? activity by at least 50% in breast carcinoma cells, with IC50 values ranging between 3 and 50 ?M. These ER-? inhibitory compounds were further studied by molecular and cell biological techniques. Results: The compounds strongly inhibited ER-? activity at concentrations that yielded little or no nonspecific toxicity, but they produced only a modest inhibition of progesterone receptor activity. Importantly, the compounds blocked proliferation and inhibited ER-? activity about equally well in antiestrogen-sensitive and antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. Representative compounds disrupted the interaction of BRCA1 and ER-? in the cultured cells and blocked the interaction of ER-? with the estrogen response element. However, the compounds had no effect on the total cellular ER-? levels. Conclusions: These findings suggest that we have identified a new class of ER-? antagonists that work differently from conventional antiestrogens (eg, tamoxifen and fulvestrant). PMID:25264941

  15. Synthesis and thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonistic activity of phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, S; Shiraishi, M; Terashita, Z; Ashida, Y; Inada, Y

    1992-06-12

    Consideration of possible structural similarities between thromboxane A2 and the hydroquinone form of (R)-(+)-7-(3,5,6-trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinon-2-yl)-7- phenylheptanoic acid (R-(+)-AA-2414) led to the development of a new series of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor antagonists, namely 7-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)heptanoic acids (I). These compounds were found to be potent TXA2/PGH2 receptor antagonists. Compounds having either a carbonyl or a hydroxymethyl group at the para-position of the phenolic hydroxy group exhibited most potent activities in this series. Compounds 14, 15, 18, and 26 inhibited the specific binding of [3H]U-46619 to guinea pig platelet membranes (IC50 = 4.4, 80, 32, and 13 nM, respectively), and also inhibited U-46619-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 = 310, 69, 79, and 78 nM, respectively). Comparison of the UV spectra of the compounds with a carbonyl group at the para-position of phenolic hydroxy group revealed that the activity tended to increase in accordance with a decrease in the torsional angle between the carbonyl group and the phenol ring. These results suggested that the spacial location of the carbonyl and hydroxymethyl oxygen are important for significant increase in activity and that the carbonyl and hydroxymethyl oxygen at the para-position of the phenolic hydroxy group might interact with one of the TXA2/PGH2 receptor sites. PMID:1535377

  16. Selective and Potent Agonists and Antagonists for Investigating the Role of Mouse Oxytocin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Busnelli, Marta; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Manning, Maurice; Kleinau, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to play a central role in social behaviors; as a consequence, they have been recognized as potential drugs to treat neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by impaired social interactions. However, despite the basic and preclinical relevance of mouse strains carrying genetic alterations in the OT/AVP systems to basic and preclinical translational neuroscience, the pharmacological profile of mouse OT/AVP receptor subtypes has not been fully characterized. To fill in this gap, we have characterized a number of OT and AVP agonists and antagonists at three murine OT/AVP receptors expressed in the nervous system as follows: the oxytocin (mOTR) and vasopressin V1a (mV1aR) and V1b (mV1bR) subtypes. These three receptors were transiently expressed in vitro for binding and intracellular signaling assays, and then a homology model of the mOTR structure was constructed to investigate how its molecular features compare with human and rat OTR orthologs. Our data indicate that the selectivity profile of the natural ligands, OT and AVP, is conserved in humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic peptide [Thr4Gly7]OT (TGOT) is remarkably selective for the mOTR and, like the endogenous OT ligand, activates Gq and Gi and recruits ?-arrestins. Finally, we report three antagonists that exhibit remarkably high affinities and selectivities at mOTRs. These highly selective pharmacological tools will contribute to the investigation of the specific physiologic and pathologic roles of mOTR for the development of selective OT-based therapeutics. PMID:23723434

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1? receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1? receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1? activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1? receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-?B and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1? activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  18. Multivalent benzene polyphosphate derivatives are non-Ca2+-mobilizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Stephen J; Luyten, Tomas; Erneux, Christophe; Parys, Jan B.; Potter, Barry V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3 1] mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ through the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor [InsP3R]. Although some progress has been made in the design of synthetic InsP3R partial agonists and antagonists, there are still few examples of useful small molecule competitive antagonists. A “multivalent” approach is explored and new dimeric polyphosphorylated aromatic derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The established weak InsP3R ligand benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4)P3 2] is dimerized through its 5-position in two different ways, first directly as the biphenyl derivative biphenyl 2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexakisphosphate, [BiPh(2,2?,4,4?,5,5?)P6 8] and with its regioisomeric biphenyl 3,3?,4,4?,5,5?-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3?,4,4?,5,5?)P6 11]. Secondly, a linker motif is introduced in a flexible ethylene-bridged dimer (9) with its corresponding 1,2-bisphosphate dimer (10), both loosely analogous to the very weak antagonist 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA 7). In permeabilized L15 fibroblasts overexpressing type 1 InsP3R, BiPh(2,2?,4,4?,5,5?)P6 (8) inhibits Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release in a apparently competitive fashion [IC50 187 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 dimer (9) is only slightly weaker [IC50 380 nM]. Compounds were also evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. All compounds are resistant to dephosphorylation, with BiPh(2,2?,4,4?,5,5?)P6 (8), being the most effective inhibitor of any biphenyl derivative synthesized to date [IC50 480 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 ethylene dimer (9) weaker [IC50 3.55 ?M]. BiPh(3,3?,4,4?,5,5?)P6 (11) also inhibits 5-phosphatase [IC50 730 nM] and exhibits unexpected Ca2+ releasing activity [EC50 800 nM]. Thus, relocation of only a single mirrored phenyl phosphate group in (11) from that of antagonist (8) does not markedly change enzyme inhibitory activity, but elicits a dramatic switch in Ca2+-releasing activity. Such new agents demonstrate the power of the multivalent approach and may be useful to investigate the chemical biology of signaling through InsP3R and as templates for further design. PMID:24749014

  19. Characterization of cutaneous vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor in guinea pigs and rats and its inhibition by a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.B.; Li, C.L.; Lam, M.H.; Shen, T.Y.

    1985-06-01

    Mechanisms of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced increases of cutaneous vascular permeability in guinea pigs and in rats were further explored. PAF so far is the most potent vasoactive mediator, being more than 1000-fold more potent than histamine and bradykinin in both species. In guinea pigs, there is a time delay of 5 to 10 minutes before PAF action, whereas, in the rat, the increased vasopermeability occurs immediately following the intradermal PAF injection. Relative vasoactive potencies of PAF and several structure-related analogues in both species correlate very well with their relative inhibition of the binding of /sup 3/H-PAF to specific receptor sites on isolated rabbit platelet plasma membranes and their aggregatory abilities of rabbit platelets. Furthermore, the PAF-induced cutaneous vascular permeability is inhibitable by a competitive specific PAF receptor antagonist, kadsurenone, suggesting that binding of PAF to its specific receptor site is the first step to initiate its action of increased cutaneous vascular permeability. Several pure cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including indomethacin, diflunisal, and flurbiprofen, and the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, but not the histamine antagonists, inhibit the PAF-induced vasopermeability in guinea pigs. The inhibition by indomethacin or BW755C can be fully reversed by coinjection intradermally with PAF and prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4. Also, prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4 enhances the guinea pig in vivo response to PAF in this model. However, in rats, none of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, histamine antagonists, or BW755C inhibit the PAF effect of cutaneous phenomena.

  20. Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human pregnane X-receptor in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Poulton, Emma Jane; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington ; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W.; Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center ; Shen, Danny D.; Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington ; Tracy, Julia; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington ; Shuhart, Margaret C.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington ; Eaton, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), is an effective in vitro antagonist of ligand activation of the human pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR). PXR mediated CYP3A4 up-regulation is implicated in adverse drug-drug interactions making identification of small molecule antagonists a desirable therapeutic goal. SFN is not an antagonist to mouse or rat PXR in vitro; thus, normal rodent species are not suitable as in vivo models for human response. To evaluate whether SFN can effectively antagonize ligand activation of human PXR in vivo, a three-armed, randomized, crossover trial was conducted with 24 healthy adults. The potent PXR ligand — rifampicin (300 mg/d) was given alone for 7 days in arm 1, or in daily combination with 450 ?mol SFN (Broccoli Sprout extract) in arm 2; SFN was given alone in arm 3. Midazolam as an in vivo phenotype marker of CYP3A was administered before and after each treatment arm. Rifampicin alone decreased midazolam AUC by 70%, indicative of the expected increase in CYP3A4 activity. Co-treatment with SFN did not reduce CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with SFN alone also did not affect CYP3A4 activity in the cohort as a whole, although in the subset with the highest basal CYP3A4 activity there was a statistically significant increase in midazolam AUC (i.e., decrease in CYP3A4 activity). A parallel study in humanized PXR mice yielded similar results. The parallel effects of SFN between humanized PXR mice and human subjects demonstrate the predictive value of humanized mouse models in situations where species differences in ligand-receptor interactions preclude the use of a native mouse model for studying human ligand-receptor pharmacology. -- Highlights: ? The effects of SFN on PXR mediated CYP3A4 induction in humanized PXR mice and humans were examined. ? SFN had no effect on rifampicin mediated CYP3A4 induction in humans or humanized mice. ? SFN had a modest effect on basal CYP3A4 activity among subjects with higher baseline activity. ? Humanized PXR mice were generally predictive of the in vivo human response.

  1. Indole Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Active in a Model of Dyslipidemia Act via a Unique Association with an Agonist Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Luz, John G; Carson, Matthew W; Condon, Bradley; Clawson, David; Pustilnik, Anna; Kohlman, Daniel T; Barr, Robert J; Bean, James S; Dill, M Joelle; Sindelar, Dana K; Maletic, Milan; Coghlan, Michael J

    2015-08-27

    To further elucidate the structural activity correlation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonism, the crystal structure of the GR ligand-binding domain (GR LBD) complex with a nonsteroidal antagonist, compound 8, was determined. This novel indole sulfonamide shows in vitro activity comparable to known GR antagonists such as mifepristone, and notably, this molecule lowers LDL (-74%) and raises HDL (+73%) in a hamster model of dyslipidemia. This is the first reported crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to a nonsteroidal antagonist, and this article provides additional elements for the design and pharmacology of clinically relevant nonsteroidal GR antagonists that may have greater selectivity and fewer side effects than their steroidal counterparts. PMID:26218343

  2. Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Martin; Schlüsener, Michael P.; Ternes, Thomas A.; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MSn experiments elucidated the molecule’s structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MSn data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably, dioctyl fumarates and maleates have been overlooked by science and regulation to date. This illustrates the need to identify novel toxicologically relevant compounds to establish a more holistic picture of the human exposome. PMID:24015248

  3. Antagonists of the EP3 receptor for prostaglandin E2 are novel antiplatelet agents that do not prolong bleeding.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasbir; Zeller, Wayne; Zhou, Nian; Hategen, Georgeta; Mishra, Rama; Polozov, Alex; Yu, Peng; Onua, Emmanuel; Zhang, Jun; Zembower, David; Kiselyov, Alex; Ramírez, José L; Sigthorsson, Gudmundur; Bjornsson, Jon Mar; Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Andrésson, Thorkell; Bjarnadottir, Maria; Magnusson, Olafur; Fabre, Jean-Etienne; Stefansson, Kari; Gurney, Mark E

    2009-02-20

    Myocardial infarction and stroke are caused by blood clots forming over a ruptured or denuded atherosclerotic plaque (atherothrombosis). Production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by an inflamed plaque exacerbates atherothrombosis and may limit the effectiveness of current therapeutics. Platelets express multiple G-protein coupled receptors, including receptors for ADP and PGE(2). ADP can mobilize Ca(2+) and through the P(2)Y(12) receptor can inhibit cAMP production, causing platelet activation and aggregation. Clopidogrel (Plavix), a selective P(2)Y(12) antagonist, prevents platelets from clotting but thereby increases the risk of severe or fatal bleeding. The platelet EP(3) receptor for PGE(2), like the P(2)Y(12) receptor, also inhibits cAMP synthesis. However, unlike ADP, facilitation of platelet aggregation via the PGE(2)/EP(3) pathway is dependent on co-agonists that can mobilize Ca(2+). We used a ligand-based design strategy to develop peri-substituted bicylic acylsulfonamides as potent and selective EP(3) antagonists. We show that DG-041, a selective EP(3) antagonist, inhibits PGE(2) facilitation of platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. PGE(2) can resensitize platelets to agonist even when the P(2)Y(12) receptor has been blocked by clopidogrel, and this can be inhibited by DG-041. Unlike clopidogrel, DG-041 does not affect bleeding time in rats, nor is bleeding time further increased when DG-041 is co-administered with clopidogrel. This indicates that EP(3) antagonists potentially have a superior safety profile compared to P(2)Y(12) antagonists and represent a novel class of antiplatelet agents. PMID:19193156

  4. Anti-tumor activity of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Jennifer K; Wolter, Nikolaus E; Blanch, Alvaro; Partridge, Teresa; Cheng, Lynn; Morgenstern, Daniel A; Podkowa, Monika; Kaplan, David R; Irwin, Meredith S

    2014-01-15

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often associated with elevated catecholamines. More than half of patients with metastatic NB relapse and survival is extremely poor with current therapies. In a high-throughput screen of FDA-approved drugs we identified anti-NB activity for the nonselective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol hydrochloride. Propranolol inhibited growth of a panel of fifteen NB cell lines irrespective of MYCN status, and treatment induced apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Activity was dependent on inhibition of the ?2, and not ?1, adrenergic receptor, and treatment resulted in activation of p53 and p73 signaling in vitro. The majority of NB cell lines and primary tumors express ?2 adrenergic receptor and higher mRNA levels correlate with improved patient survival, but expression levels did not correlate with in vitro sensitivity to propranolol. Furthermore, propranolol is synergistic with the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38 and propranolol inhibits growth of NB xenografts in vivo at doses similar to those used to treat infants with hemangiomas and hypertension. Taken together, our results suggest that propranolol has activity against NB and thus should be considered in combination treatments for patients with relapsed and refractory NB. PMID:24389287

  5. Discovery, Optimization, and Characterization of Novel D2 Dopamine Receptor Selective Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The D2 dopamine receptor (D2 DAR) is one of the most validated drug targets for neuropsychiatric and endocrine disorders. However, clinically approved drugs targeting D2 DAR display poor selectivity between the D2 and other receptors, especially the D3 DAR. This lack of selectivity may lead to undesirable side effects. Here we describe the chemical and pharmacological characterization of a novel D2 DAR antagonist series with excellent D2 versus D1, D3, D4, and D5 receptor selectivity. The final probe 65 was obtained through a quantitative high-throughput screening campaign, followed by medicinal chemistry optimization, to yield a selective molecule with good in vitro physical properties, metabolic stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The optimized molecule may be a useful in vivo probe for studying D2 DAR signal modulation and could also serve as a lead compound for the development of D2 DAR-selective druglike molecules for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric and endocrine disorders. PMID:24666157

  6. Crystal structure of the[mu]-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Mathiesen, Jesper M.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Pardo, Leonardo; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Granier, Sébastien

    2012-06-27

    Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled {mu}-opioid receptor ({mu}-OR) in the central nervous system. Here we describe the 2.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of the mouse {mu}-OR in complex with an irreversible morphinan antagonist. Compared to the buried binding pocket observed in most G-protein-coupled receptors published so far, the morphinan ligand binds deeply within a large solvent-exposed pocket. Of particular interest, the {mu}-OR crystallizes as a two-fold symmetrical dimer through a four-helix bundle motif formed by transmembrane segments 5 and 6. These high-resolution insights into opioid receptor structure will enable the application of structure-based approaches to develop better drugs for the management of pain and addiction.

  7. Acute administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist impairs stress-induced antinociception in fish.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Barbosa Junior, Augusto; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda; Hoffmann, Anette

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the pre-treatment with AM251 (a cannabinoid type I receptor (CB1) selective antagonist) on the stress-induced antinociception promoted by restraint in the fish Leporinus macrocephalus. The application of 3 and 5 min of restraint stress promoted an inhibition of the behavioural response to the subcutaneous injection of 3% formaldehyde (increase in locomotor activity), suggesting the activation of an antinociceptive system. The acute intraperitoneal administration of AM251 (3 mg·kg(-1)) impaired this antinociceptive response induced by 3 and 5 min of restraint stress. The fish treated with AM251 before the application of restraint stress presented an increase in locomotor activity after the subcutaneous injection of formaldehyde, similar to fish not exposed to restraint, suggesting that the stress-induced antinociception promoted by restraint in fish is probably mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. The results presented in this paper suggest the participation of the endocannabinoid system in nociception modulation in fish, supporting the hypothesis that an endogenous antinociceptive system activated by restraint stress is present in fish and that the modulation of antinociception by the CB1 receptor is evolutionary well-conserved across vertebrates. PMID:25656689

  8. Antagonistic TNF Receptor One-Specific Antibody (ATROSAB): Receptor Binding and In Vitro Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Fabian; Liebig, Timo; Guenzi, Eric; Herrmann, Andreas; Scheurich, Peter; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Kontermann, Roland E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective inhibition of TNFR1 signaling holds the potential to greatly reduce the pro-inflammatory activity of TNF, while leaving TNFR2 untouched, thus allowing for cell survival and tissue homeostasis. ATROSAB is a humanized antagonistic anti-TNFR1 antibody developed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings The epitope of ATROSAB resides in the N-terminal region of TNFR1 covering parts of CRD1 and CRD2. By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified Arg68 and His69 of TNFR1 as important residues for ATROSAB binding. ATROSAB inhibited binding of 125I-labeled TNF to HT1080 in the subnanomolar range. Furthermore, ATROSAB inhibited release of IL-6 and IL-8 from HeLa and HT1080 cells, respectively, induced by TNF or lymphotoxin alpha (LT?). Different from an agonistic antibody (Htr-9), which binds to a region close to the ATROSAB epitope but elicits strong TNFR1 activation, ATROSAB showed a negligible induction of IL-6 and IL-8 production over a broad concentration range. We further verified that ATROSAB, comprising mutations within the Fc region known to abrogate complement fixation and antibody-mediated cellular effector functions, indeed lacks binding activity for C1q, Fc?RI (CD64), Fc?RIIB (CD32b), and Fc?RIII (CD16) disabling ADCC and CDC. Conlusions/Significance The data corroborate ATROSAB’s unique function as a TNFR1-selective antagonist efficiently blocking both TNF and LT? action. In agreement with recent studies of TNFR1 complex formation and activation, we suggest a model of the underlying mechanism of TNFR1 inhibition by ATROSAB. PMID:23977237

  9. 3D-pharmacophore models for selective A2A and A2B adenosine receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Wang, Songqing; Gao, Shaofen; Dai, Xuedong; Gao, Qingzhi

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were generated for A2A and A2B adenosine receptors (ARs) based on highly selective A2A and A2B antagonists using the Catalyst program. The best pharmacophore model for selective A2A antagonists (Hypo-A2A) was obtained through a careful validation process. Four features contained in Hypo-A2A (one ring aromatic feature (R), one positively ionizable feature (P), one hydrogen bond acceptor lipid feature (L), and one hydrophobic feature (H)) seem to be essential for antagonists in terms of binding activity and A2A AR selectivity. The best pharmacophore model for selective A2B antagonists (Hypo-A2B) was elaborated by modifying the Catalyst common features (HipHop) hypotheses generated from the selective A2B antagonists training set. Hypo-A2B also consists of four features: one ring aromatic feature (R), one hydrophobic aliphatic feature (Z), and two hydrogen bond acceptor lipid features (L). All features play an important role in A2B AR binding affinity and are essential for A2B selectivity. Both A2A and A2B pharmacophore models have been validated toward a wide set of test molecules containing structurally diverse selective antagonists of all AR subtypes. They are capable of identifying correspondingly high potent antagonists and differentiating antagonists between subtypes. The results of our study will act as a valuable tool for retrieving structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activities and designing novel selective adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:17330954

  10. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Therapy in Resistant Hypertension: Time to Implement Guidelines!

    PubMed Central

    Maiolino, Giuseppe; Azzolini, Matteo; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of anti-hypertensive medications with increasing efficacy up to 50% of hypertensive patients have blood pressure levels (BP) not at the goals set by international societies. Some of these patients are either not optimally treated or are non-adherent to the prescribed drugs. However, a proportion, despite adequate treatment, have resistant hypertension (RH), which represents an important problem in that it is associated to an excess risk of cardiovascular events. Notwithstanding a complex pathogenesis, an abundance of data suggests a key contribution for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in RH, thus fostering a potential role for its antagonists in RH. Based on these premises randomized clinical trials aimed at testing the efficacy of MR antagonists (MRAs) in RH patients have been completed. Overall, they demonstrated the efficacy of MRAs in reducing BP and surrogate markers of target organ damage, such as microalbuminuria, either compared to placebo or to other drugs. In summary, owing to the key role of the MR in the pathogenesis of RH and on the proven efficacy of MRAs we advocate their inclusion as an essential component of therapy in patients with presumed RH. Conversely, we propose that RH should be diagnosed only in patients whose BP values show to be resistant to an up-titrated dose of these drugs.

  11. Nonpeptide Small Molecule Agonist and Antagonist Original Leads for Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors (NPFF1-R and NPFF2-R), and their endogenous ligand NPFF, are one of only several systems responsible for mediating opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and dependence. Currently, no small molecules displaying good affinity or selectivity for either subtype have been reported, to decipher the role of NPFF2-R as it relates to opioid-mediated analgesia, for further exploration of NPFF1-R, or for medication development for either subtype. We report the first nonpeptide small molecule scaffold for NPFF1,2-R, the guanidino-piperidines, and SAR studies resulting in the discovery of a NPFF1 agonist (7b, Ki = 487 ± 117 nM), a NPFF1 antagonist (46, Ki = 81 ± 17 nM), and a NPFF2 partial antagonist (53a, Ki = 30 ± 5 nM), which serve as leads for the development of pharmacological probes and potential therapeutic agents. Testing of 46 alone was without effect in the mouse 48 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal test, but pretreatment with 46 prevented NPFF-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25268943

  12. Nonpeptide small molecule agonist and antagonist original leads for neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Journigan, V Blair; Mésangeau, Christophe; Vyas, Neha; Eans, Shainnel O; Cutler, Stephen J; McLaughlin, Jay P; Mollereau, Catherine; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2014-11-13

    Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors (NPFF1-R and NPFF2-R), and their endogenous ligand NPFF, are one of only several systems responsible for mediating opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and dependence. Currently, no small molecules displaying good affinity or selectivity for either subtype have been reported, to decipher the role of NPFF2-R as it relates to opioid-mediated analgesia, for further exploration of NPFF1-R, or for medication development for either subtype. We report the first nonpeptide small molecule scaffold for NPFF1,2-R, the guanidino-piperidines, and SAR studies resulting in the discovery of a NPFF1 agonist (7b, K(i) = 487 ± 117 nM), a NPFF1 antagonist (46, K(i) = 81 ± 17 nM), and a NPFF2 partial antagonist (53a, K(i) = 30 ± 5 nM), which serve as leads for the development of pharmacological probes and potential therapeutic agents. Testing of 46 alone was without effect in the mouse 48 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal test, but pretreatment with 46 prevented NPFF-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25268943

  13. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists in fetal development and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Raaf, Michiel Alexander; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Guignabert, Christophe; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Bogaard, Harm Jan

    2015-08-15

    The Pregnancy Prevention Program (PPP) is in place to prevent drug-induced developmental malformations. Remarkably, among the ten PPP-enlisted drugs are three endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor antagonists (ERA's: ambrisentan, bosentan and macitentan), which are approved for the treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH). This review describes the effects of ERA's in PAH pathobiology and cardiopulmonary fetal development. While ERA's hamper pathological remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and as such exert beneficial effects in PAH, they disturb fetal development of cardiopulmonary tissues. By blocking ET-1-mediated positive inotropic effects and myocardial fetal gene induction, ERA's may affect right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary vascular resistance in both the fetus and the adult PAH patient. PMID:26111581

  14. Overview of the safety profile of the H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hansten, P D

    1990-11-01

    Reports of adverse drug reactions due to histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are rare considering their wide usage. Cimetidine produces central nervous system and endocrine toxicities more often than other H2RAs. Drug-drug interactions are of potentially greater concern with H2RAs, especially because the critically ill patient routinely receives many drugs. H2RAs may alter the absorption, metabolism, or renal excretion of concurrently administered drugs. Gastrointestinal absorption of drugs, such as ketoconazole, that dissolve poorly in the absence of adequate acid may be reduced. Inhibition of hepatic oxidative drug metabolism of agents such as warfarin, theophylline, and phenytoin, is primarily a problem with cimetidine. Adverse effects will be seen in predisposed individuals and the time course will depend on the pharmacokinetics of the object drug. The other H2RAs are less likely to inhibit drug metabolism and affect renal clearance of procainamide than is cimetidine. PMID:1980183

  15. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists as diuretics: Can congestive heart failure learn from liver failure?

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Amirali; Ortiz, Fernando; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Schrier, Robert W; Colombo, Paolo C

    2015-05-01

    Despite significant improvements in diagnosis, understanding the pathophysiology and management of the patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), diuretic resistance, yet to be clearly defined, is a major hurdle. Secondary hyperaldosteronism is a pivotal factor in pathogenesis of sodium retention, refractory congestion in heart failure (HF) as well as diuretic resistance. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis who suffer from ascites, similar pathophysiological complications have been recognized. Administration of natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) has been well established in management of cirrhotic patients. However, this strategy in patients with ADHF has not been well studied. This article will discuss the potential use of natriuretic doses of MRAs to overcome the secondary hyperaldosteronism as an alternative diuretic regimen in patients with HF. PMID:25447845

  16. Optimization of potency and pharmacokinetic properties of tetrahydroisoquinoline transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Horne, Daniel B; Tamayo, Nuria A; Bartberger, Michael D; Bo, Yunxin; Clarine, Jeffrey; Davis, Carl D; Gore, Vijay K; Kaller, Matthew R; Lehto, Sonya G; Ma, Vu V; Nishimura, Nobuko; Nguyen, Thomas T; Tang, Phi; Wang, Weiya; Youngblood, Beth D; Zhang, Maosheng; Gavva, Narender R; Monenschein, Holger; Norman, Mark H

    2014-04-10

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel expressed in a subpopulation of sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. TRPM8 is the predominant mammalian cold temperature thermosensor and is activated by cold temperatures ranging from 8 to 25 °C and cooling compounds such as menthol or icilin. TRPM8 antagonists are being pursued as potential therapeutics for treatment of pain and bladder disorders. This manuscript outlines new developments in the SAR of a lead series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives with emphasis on strategies to improve pharmacokinetic properties and potency. Selected compounds were profiled in two TRPM8 target-specific in vivo coverage models in rats (the icilin-induced wet dog shake model and the cold pressor test). Compound 45 demonstrated robust efficacy in both pharmacodynamic models with ED90 values <3 mg/kg. PMID:24597733

  17. The D2/D3-receptor antagonist tiapride impairs concurrent but not sequential taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Mahía, Javier; Bernal, Antonio; Puerto, Amadeo

    2012-02-10

    Taste aversion learning (TAL) is a learning modality in which the animals reject a gustatory stimulus associated with the administration of noxious visceral substances. This learning can be established by concurrent or sequential procedures that involve different anatomical and functional mechanisms and may constitute distinct learning modalities. The dopaminergic system has been related to various learning processes and goal-directed behaviours. The present study examined the effect of the administration of tiapride, a D(2)/D(3) dopaminergic antagonist, on concurrent and sequential TAL. Results obtained showed that pre-treatment with tiapride blocks the acquisition of concurrent TAL but does not affect sequential TAL, including reversal learning tasks. These results demonstrate the involvement of the D(2)/D(3) dopaminergic receptors in the former but not the latter learning process. The dopaminergic system appears to participate in concurrent TAL, an "implicit" learning modality, but not in sequential TAL, which is considered a relational/explicit acquisition process. PMID:22085742

  18. Bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist off label use in short-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, C; Angeletti, P M; Mastrobuono, F; Pilotti, L; Ciccozzi, A; Guetti, C

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema type I (HAE-C1-INH) is an inherited disorder characterized by repeated severe angioedema attacks mostly triggered by traumas, emotional stress, increased estrogen levels or surgical procedures, in particular, odontostomatological interventions. Icatibant, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, has been approved for treatment of HAE attacks. In this paper we describe the ?off label? administration of icatibant as short-term prophylaxis of dental extraction in a patient with HAE with the aim of preventing perioperative angioedema attacks. The drug showed an effective and safe profile. Thus, a short-term prophylaxis of angioedema attacks in patients with HAE may be arranged on a multidisciplinary basis, according to the clinical history of each single patients. PMID:25572747

  19. Effects of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist MR-2266-BS on the acquisition of ethanol preference

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, C.; Borrell, J.; Guaza, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Using a paradigm by which rats forced to drink a weak ethanol solution develop ethanol preference in consecutive retention testing days, the effects of the administration of the kappa opioid antagonist MR-2266-BS, prior to or after the forced ethanol session, were studied. Pre-conditioning subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 1 mg/kg of MR-2266-BS induced a decrease in subsequent ethanol consumption without significantly modifying the acquisition of ethanol preference. Post-conditioning administration of MR-2266-BS induced both a dose-dependent reduction in ethanol consumption and in preference throughout the three following days. The results of the present study provide further support of the involvement of kappa-type opioids on drinking behavior, and suggest that kappa receptors may be involved in the consumption and development of preference to ethanol.

  20. N-Substituted cis-4a-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-8a-methyloctahydroisoquinolines Are Opioid Receptor Pure Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Chaudhari, Sachin; Thomas, James B.; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Gigstad, Kenneth M.; Deschamps, Jeffrey; Navarro, Hernán A.

    2008-01-01

    N-Substituted cis-4a-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-8a-methyloctahydroisoquinolines (6a–g) were designed and synthesized as conformationally constrained analogues of the trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine (4) class of opioid receptor pure antagonists. The methyloctahydroisoquinolines 6a–g can exist in conformations where the 3-hydroxyphenyl substituent is either axial or equatorial similar to the (3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidines 4. The 3-hydroxyphenyl equatorial conformation is responsible for the antagonist activity observed in the (3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine antagonists. Single crystal X-ray analysis of 6a shows that the 3-hydroxyphenyl equatorial conformation is favored in the solid state. Molecular modeling studies also suggest that the equatorial conformation has the lower potential energy relative to the axial conformation. Evaluation of compounds 6a–g in the [35S]GTP-?-S in vitro functional assay showed that they were opioid receptor pure antagonists. N-[4a-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-8a-methyl-2-(3-phenylpropyl)octahydroisoquinoline-6-yl]-3-(piperidin-1-yl)propionamide (6d) with a Ke of 0.27 nM at the ? opioid receptor with 154- and 46-fold selectively relative to the ? and ? receptors, respectively, possessed the best combination of ? potency and selectivity. PMID:16366600

  1. Spatial Discrimination Reversal Learning in Weanling Rats Is Impaired by Striatal Administration of an NMDA-Receptor Antagonist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Deborah J.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    The striatum plays a major role in both motor control and learning and memory, including executive function and "behavioral flexibility." Lesion, temporary inactivation, and infusion of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist into the dorsomedial striatum (dmSTR) impair reversal learning in adult rats. Systemic administration of MK-801…

  2. Discovery of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines as potent dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs).

    PubMed

    Behnke, Dirk; Cotesta, Simona; Hintermann, Samuel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E; Jacobson, Laura H; Laue, Grit; Meyer, Arndt; Wagner, Trixie; Badiger, Sangamesh; Chaudhari, Vinod; Chebrolu, Murali; Pandit, Chetan; Hoyer, Daniel; Betschart, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Compound rac-1 was identified by high throughput screening. Here we report SAR studies and MedChem optimization towards the highly potent dual orexin receptor antagonists (S)-2 and (S)-3. Furthermore, strategies to overcome the suboptimal physicochemical properties are highlighted and the pharmacokinetic profiles of representative compounds is presented. PMID:26522950

  3. Structure-activity relationship studies of pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives as potent P2X7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Ga-Eun; Lee, So-Deok; Ko, Hyojin; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2015-12-01

    As an optimization strategy, the flexible structure of KN-62, a known P2X7 receptor antagonist, was converted into conformationally constrained derivatives using pyrimidine-2,4-dione as the core skeleton. Various modifications at the 4-position of the piperazine moiety of the new lead compound were performed to improve P2X7 receptor antagonistic activities, which were evaluated in HEK293 cells stably expressing the human P2X7 receptor (EtBr uptake assay) and in THP-1 cells (IL-1? ELISA assay). According to the results, polycycloalkyl acyl or di-halogenated benzoyl substituents were much more favorable than the original phenyl group of KN-62. Among these compounds, the trifluoromethyl-chloro benzoyl derivative 18m and adamantyl carbonyl derivatives 19g-19i and 19k showed potent antagonistic effects, with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 nM. In addition, the in vitro adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profile of 18m was determined to be in acceptable ranges in terms of metabolic stability and cytotoxicity. These results suggest that pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives may be promising novel P2X7 receptor antagonists for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26547056

  4. Successful perioperative management of a patient with C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency with a novel bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, K T; Cottrell, A M; Prentice, R I

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 28-year-old female with a previous diagnosis of C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency presenting for dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Following prophylaxis with a new bradykinin receptor 2 antagonist (icatibant), surgery was carried out uneventfully with an unremarkable postoperative course. PMID:22577920

  5. Berberine is a dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonist and ameliorates experimentally induced colitis by suppressing innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Masaaki; Takagi, Rie; Kaneko, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sho

    2015-12-15

    Berberine is an herbal alkaloid with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. Here, we examined the effects of berberine on dopamine receptors and the ensuing anti-inflammatory responses. Berberine was found to be an antagonist at both dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors and ameliorates the development of experimentally induced colitis in mice. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated immune cells, berberine treatment modified cytokine levels, consistent with the effects of the dopamine receptor specific antagonists SCH23390 and L750667. Our findings indicate that dopamine receptor antagonists suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, providing a foundation for their use in combatting inflammatory diseases. PMID:26616870

  6. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists regulate cell surface-associated protein disulfide isomerase in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Gregory N.; Romero, Jose R.; Rivera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, disordered thiol protein status, and erythrocyte hydration status play important roles in sickle cell disease (SCD) through unresolved mechanisms. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an oxidoreductase that mediates thiol/disulfide interchange reactions. We provide evidence that PDI is present in human and mouse erythrocyte membranes and that selective blockade with monoclonal antibodies against PDI leads to reduced Gardos channel activity (1.6±0.03 to 0.56±0.02 mmol·1013 cell?1·min?1, P<0.001) and density of sickle erythrocytes (D50: 1.115±0.001 to 1.104±0.001 g/ml, P=0.012) with an IC50 of 4 ng/ml. We observed that erythrocyte associated-PDI activity was increased in the presence of ET-1 (3.1±0.2 to 5.6±0.4%, P<0.0001) through a mechanism that includes casein kinase II. Consistent with these results, in vivo treatment of BERK sickle transgenic mice with ET-1 receptor antagonists lowered circulating and erythrocyte associated-PDI activity (7.1±0.3 to 5.2±0.2%, P<0.0001) while improving hematological parameters and Gardos channel activity. Thus, our results suggest that PDI is a novel target in SCD that regulates erythrocyte volume and oxidative stress and may contribute to cellular adhesion and endothelial activation leading to vasoocclusion as observed in SCD.—Prado, G. N., Romero, J. R., Rivera, A. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists regulate cell surface-associated protein disulfide isomerase in sickle cell disease. PMID:23913858

  7. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, are antagonists of the insect Rdl GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Wells, Jennina; Brooke, Basil D; Bermudez, Isabel; Jones, Andrew K

    2015-11-01

    A mutation in the second transmembrane domain of the GABA receptor subunit, Rdl, is associated with resistance to insecticides such as dieldrin and fipronil. Molecular cloning of Rdl cDNA from a strain of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which is highly resistant to dieldrin revealed this mutation (A296G) as well as another mutation in the third transmembrane domain (T345M). Wild-type, A296G, T345M and A296G + T345M homomultimeric Rdl were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and their sensitivities to fipronil, deltamethrin, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), imidacloprid and spinosad were measured using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Spinosad and DDT had no agonist or antagonist actions on Rdl. However, fipronil, deltamethrin and imidacloprid decreased GABA-evoked currents. These antagonistic actions were either reduced or abolished with the A296G and the A296G + T345M mutations while T345M alone appeared to have no significant effect. In conclusion, this study identifies another mutation in the mosquito Rdl that is associated with insecticide resistance. While T345M itself does not affect insecticide sensitivity, it may serve to offset the structural impact of A296G. The present study also highlights Rdl as a potential secondary target for neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. We show for the first time that deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid insecticide) act directly on the insect GABA receptor, Rdl. Our findings highlight Rdl as a potential secondary target of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids mutations in which may contribute to resistance to these widely used insecticides. PMID:26296809

  8. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

    PubMed

    Capuano, Annalisa; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Sportiello, Liberata; Rossi, Francesco; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Coats, Andrew J Stewart

    2015-12-01

    The role of spironolactone and eplerenone in patients with Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) is not well defined. Since a growing medical literature has suggested that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may be beneficial for patients with HFpEF, this review gives an in-depth update on the role of spironolactone and eplerenone and their implications for therapy in the setting of HFpEF. Eleven clinical studies, including seven randomized trials, were reviewed. Two randomized controlled trials evaluated the effect of eplerenone on different end-points, including 6 minute walk distance (6 MWD), cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal reinfarction, hospitalization for unstable angina and congestive heart failure. Eplerenone did not affect either 6 MWD or event-free survival rates in the overall study population in these two reports. The effects of spironolactone on similar composite endpoints were evaluated in 7 studies in patients with HFpEF. Compared to placebo, hospitalization for heart failure was significantly lower in the spironolactone group and spironolactone was also shown to improve diastolic function and induced beneficial remodeling through a reduction in myocardial fibrosis. The safety profile of spironolactone and eplerenone has been assessed in two recent studies. Data showed that eplerenone and spironolactone are both associated with the occurrence of gynecomastia, mastodynia, and abnormal vaginal bleeding and in addition, they can increase natriuresis and cause renal retention of potassium; furthermore, eplerenone may cause hyperkalemia and promote the onset of metabolic acidosis or hyponatremia. In conclusion although the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists eplerenone and spironolactone improve clinical outcomes in patients with HFrEF, additional data will be necessary to better define their risk-benefit profile, especially for eplerenone, in the treatment of HFpEF. PMID:26404747

  9. Combination cannabinoid and opioid receptor antagonists improves metabolic outcomes in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Sarah H; Stefanidis, Aneta; Tschöp, Matthias H; Oldfield, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    The CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, causes weight loss but also produces undesirable psychiatric side effects. We investigated using a combination of rimonabant with the opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and norBNI to treat the metabolic sequelae of long-term high fat diet feeding in mice. This combination has previously been shown to have positive effects on both weight loss and mood related behaviour. Diet-induced obese mice were treated chronically with either low dose rimonabant (1 mg/kg) or the combination of rimonabant, naloxone and norBNI (rim nal BNI). After 6 days of treatment, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed and body composition analysed using DEXA. Changes in BAT thermogenesis were assessed using implantable radio telemetry probes. Behavioural responses to acute rimonabant or rim nal BNI were examined in the forced swim test and elevated plus maze. Separately, we assessed shifts in Fos immunoreactivity in response to rimonabant or rim nal BNI. Rim nal BNI was significantly better than rimonabant treatment alone at reducing body weight and food intake. In addition, it improved fasting blood glucose and fat mass. Acute low dose rimonabant did not alter behaviour in either the forced swim test or elevated plus maze. Combination rim nal BNI reversed the behavioural effects of high dose (10 mg/kg) rimonabant in obese mice. Rim nal BNI altered Rimonabant-induced Fos in a number of nuclei, with particular shifts in expression in the central and basolateral amygdala, and insular cortex. This study demonstrates that the combination of rimonabant, naloxone and norBNI is effective at producing weight loss over a sustained period of time without altering performance in standardised mouse behaviour tests. Fos expression patterns offer insight into the neuroanatomical substrates subserving these physiological and behavioural changes. These results indicate that CB1-targeted drugs for weight loss may still be feasible. PMID:26360587

  10. Cardiovascular and behavioural effects of intracerebroventricularly administered tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonists in the conscious rat

    PubMed Central

    Cellier, Eric; Barbot, Lionel; Regoli, Domenico; Couture, Réjean

    1997-01-01

    In the conscious rat, three tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonists, namely SR142801 ((S)-(N)-(1-(3-(1-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)propyl)-4-phenylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-methylacetamide), R820 (3-indolylcarbonyl-Hyp-Phg-N(Me)-Bzl) and R486 (H-Asp-Ser-Phe-Trp-?-Ala-Leu-Met-NH2) were assessed against the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) effects induced by senktide, a selective NK3 receptor agonist, on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and motor behaviour. Senktide (10–650?pmol per animal; i.c.v; n=4–16) at the lowest dose caused a significant fall in MAP (?10±6?mmHg), while at the highest doses (100 and 650?pmol), senktide caused a rise in MAP (9±3 and 12±1?mmHg, respectively) when compared to vehicle. The intermediate doses (25 and 65?pmol) had no effect on MAP. The highest two doses caused a tachycardia of 62±15 and 88±8 beats min?1, respectively. The dose of 65?pmol had a biphasic effect on HR, an initial bradycardia of 47±12 beats min?1 followed by a tachycardia of 46±14 beats min?1. The lowest doses caused either a rise of 52±10 beats min?1 (25?pmol) or no effect (10?pmol) on HR. All doses of senktide caused similar increases in face washing, sniffing and wet dog shakes except at the dose of 100?pmol, when wet dog shakes were more than double those observed with the other doses. The antagonist SR142801 (100?pmol–65?nmol per animal; i.c.v.; n=6–8) caused increases in MAP at the highest two doses (6.5 and 65?nmol) while HR, dose-dependently, increased (23±6 to 118±26 beats min?1) and the onset dose-dependently decreased. The (R)-enantiomer, SR142806 (100?pmol–65?nmol per animal; i.c.v.; n=6–8) only caused rises in MAP (13±2?mmHg) and HR (69±11 beats min?1) at the highest dose. These drugs had no apparent effect on behaviour, except for the highest dose of SR142801 which increased sniffing. The antagonist R820 (650?pmol–6.5?nmol per animal; i.c.v.; n=6) had no effect on MAP or HR and only increased sniffing behaviour at 6.5?nmol. At 650?pmol (n=6), R486 had no effect on any variable, but at 3.25?nmol, i.c.v. (n=4) a delayed tachycardia and a significant increase in all behavioural variables were observed. The cardiovascular responses induced by 6.5?nmol SR142801 and 25?pmol senktide were inhibited by R820 (6.5?nmol, 5?min earlier i.c.v.). In contrast, R820 failed to affect the central cardiovascular and behavioural responses induced by 10?pmol [Sar9, Met(O2)11]substance P, a NK1 receptor selective agonist. The senktide-induced behavioural changes were not inhibited by R820 (6.5?nmol, i.c.v.) while R486 (650?pmol, i.c.v.) blocked both the cardiovascular and behavioural responses to 25?pmol senktide. A mixture of antagonists for NK1 (RP67580; 6.5?nmol) and NK2 (SR48968; 6.5?nmol) receptors injected i.c.v. did not affect the cardiovascular response to SR142801. Cross-desensitization was shown between the central responses to SR142801 and senktide, but not between SR142801 and [Sar9, Met(O2)11]substance P. The antagonists SR142801 and SR142806 (6.5–650?nmol?kg?1; n=5–7), given i.v., did not evoke any cardiovascular or behavioural changes, except a delayed bradycardia for SR142806 (650?nmol?kg?1), and also failed to inhibit the increase in MAP evoked by senktide (4?nmol?kg?1, i.v.). However, at the highest dose, both drugs slightly reduced the senktide-induced tachycardia. Although the present data are consistent with the in vitro pharmacological bioassays and binding data, showing that SR142801 is a poor antagonist at rat peripheral NK3 receptors, they suggest that SR142801 has a partial agonist action at these receptors centrally. A separation of the cardi

  11. Intracerebroventricular responses to neuropeptide gamma in the conscious rat: characterization of its receptor with selective antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, P.; Couture, R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cardiovascular and behavioural effects elicited by the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of neuropeptide gamma (NP gamma) in the conscious rat were assessed before and 5 min after i.c.v. pretreatment with antagonists selective for NK1 (RP 67,580), NK2 (SR 48,968) and NK3 (R 820) receptors. In addition, the central effects of NP gamma before and after desensitization of the NK1 and NK2 receptors with high doses of substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) were compared. 2. Intracerebroventricular injection of NP gamma (10-780 pmol) evoked dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), face washing, head scratching, grooming and wet-dog shake behaviours. Similar injection of vehicle or 1 pmol NP gamma had no significant effect on those parameters. 3. The cardiovascular and behavioural responses elicited by NP gamma (25 pmol) were significantly and dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with 650 pmol and 6.5 nmol of SR 48,968. No inhibition of NP gamma responses was observed when 6.5 nmol of RP 67,580 was used in a similar study. Moreover, the prior co-administration of SR 48,968 (6.5 nmol) and RP 67,580 (6.5 nmol) with or without R 820 (6.5 nmol) did not reduce further the central effects of NP gamma and significant residual responses (30-50%) remained. 4. No tachyphylaxis to NP gamma-induced cardiovascular and behavioural changes was observed when two consecutive injections of 25 pmol NP gamma were given 24 h apart. 5. Simultaneous NK1 and NK2 receptor desensitization reduced significantly central effects mediated by 25 pmol NP gamma. However, significant residual responses persisted as seen after pretreatment with SR 48,968. 6. The results suggest that the central effects of NP gamma are mediated partly by NK2 receptors and by another putative tachykinin receptor subtype (NP gamma receptor?) that appears to be different from NK1 and NK3 receptors. PMID:8789375

  12. Antidepressant Effects of the Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptor Antagonist Scopolamine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Drevets, Wayne C.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Furey, Maura L.

    2014-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic receptor system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, with physiological evidence indicating this system is overactive or hyperresponsive in depression and with genetic evidence showing that variation in genes coding for receptors within this system are associated with higher risk for depression. In studies aimed at assessing whether a reduction in muscarinic cholinergic receptor function would improve depressive symptoms, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine manifested antidepressant effects that were robust and rapid relative to conventional pharmacotherapies. Here, we review the data from a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving subjects with unipolar or bipolar depression treated with parenteral doses of scopolamine. The onset and duration of the antidepressant response are considered in light of scopolamine's pharmacokinetic properties and an emerging literature that characterizes scopolamine's effects on neurobiological systems beyond the cholinergic system that appear relevant to the neurobiology of mood disorders. Scopolamine infused at 4.0 ?g/kg intravenously produced robust antidepressant effects versus placebo, which were evident within 3 days after the initial infusion. Placebo-adjusted remission rates were 56% and 45% for the initial and subsequent replication studies, respectively. While effective in male and female subjects, the change in depression ratings was greater in female subjects. Clinical improvement persisted more than 2 weeks following the final infusion. The timing and persistence of the antidepressant response to scopolamine suggest a mechanism beyond that of direct muscarinic cholinergic antagonism. These temporal relationships suggest that scopolamine-induced changes in gene expression and synaptic plasticity may confer the therapeutic mechanism. PMID:23200525

  13. A prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist prevents pregnancies during a preclinical contraceptive trial with female macaques

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, M.C.; Stanley, J.; Braeuer, N.; Rotgeri, A.; Fritzemeier, K.-H.; Fuhrmann, U.; Buchmann, B.; Adevai, T.; Murphy, M.J.; Zelinski, M.B.; Lindenthal, B.; Hennebold, J.D.; Stouffer, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can administration of a prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptor 2 (PTGER2) antagonist prevent pregnancy in adult female monkeys by blocking periovulatory events in the follicle without altering menstrual cyclicity or general health? SUMMARY ANSWER This is the first study to demonstrate that a PTGER2 antagonist can serve as an effective non-hormonal contraceptive in primates. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The requirement for PGE2 in ovulation and the release of an oocyte surrounded by expanded cumulus cells (cumulus–oocyte expansion; C-OE) was established through the generation of PTGS2 and PTGER2 null-mutant mice. A critical role for PGE2 in primate ovulation is supported by evidence that intrafollicular injection of indomethacin in rhesus monkeys suppressed follicle rupture, whereas co-injection of PGE2 with indomethacin resulted in ovulation. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION First, controlled ovulation protocols were performed in adult, female rhesus monkeys to analyze the mRNA levels for genes encoding PGE2 synthesis and signaling components in the naturally selected pre-ovulatory follicle at different times after the ovulatory hCG stimulus (0, 12, 24, 36 h pre-ovulation; 36 h post-ovulation, n = 3–4/time point). Second, controlled ovarian stimulation cycles were utilized to obtain multiple cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from rhesus monkeys to evaluate the role of PGE2 in C-OE in vitro (n = 3–4 animals/treatment; ?3 COCs/animal/treatment). Third, adult cycling female cynomolgus macaques were randomly assigned (n = 10/group) to vehicle (control) or PTGER2 antagonist (BAY06) groups to perform a contraceptive trial. After the first treatment cycle, a male of proven fertility was introduced into each group and they remained housed together for the duration of the 5-month contraceptive trial that was followed by a post-treatment reversibility trial. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Quantitative real-time PCR, COC culture and expansion, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, enzyme immunoassay, contraceptive trial, ultrasonography, complete blood counts, serum biochemistry tests and blood lipid profiles. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Several mRNAs encoding proteins involved in PGE2 synthesis, metabolism and signaling increase (P < 0.05) in the periovulatory follicle after administration of an ovulatory hCG bolus. PGE2 signaling through PTGER2 induces cumulus cell expansion and production of hyaluronic acid, which are critical events for fertilization. Moreover, chronic administration of a selective PTGER2 antagonist resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 versus vehicle-treated controls) contraceptive effect without altering steroid hormone patterns or menstrual cyclicity during a 5-months contraceptive trial. Fertility recovered as early as 1 month after ending treatment. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This is a proof-of-concept study in a non-human primate model. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of PTGER2 antagonist action in the primate ovary. Although PTGER2 antagonist treatment did not produce any obvious undesirable effects, improvements in the mode of administration, as well as the efficacy of these compounds, are necessary to consider such a contraceptive for women. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Monitoring as well as improving the efficacy and safety of female contraceptives is an important public health activity. Even though hormonal contraceptives are effective for women, concerns remain regarding their side-effects and long-term use because of the widespread actions of such steroidal products in many tissues. Moreover, some women cannot take hormones for medical reasons. Thus, development of non-hormonal contraceptives for women is warranted. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Supported by Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Contraceptive Development and Research Center (U54 HD055744), NIH Office of the Director (Oregon National Primate Research Center P51 OD011092), and a Lalor Foundation Postd

  14. S961, an insulin receptor antagonist causes hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistance and depletion of energy stores in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Ajit; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields}Insulin receptor antagonist S961 causes hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in rats. {yields}Peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone improves S961 induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. {yields}Long term treatment with insulin receptor antagonist S961 results in the decreased adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. {yields}Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. -- Abstract: Impairment in the insulin receptor signaling and insulin mediated effects are the key features of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that S961, a peptide insulin receptor antagonist induces hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia ({approx}18-fold), glucose intolerance and impairment in the insulin mediated glucose disposal in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, long-term S961 treatment (15 day, 10 nM/kg/day) depletes energy storage as evident from decrease in the adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. However, peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone significantly (P < 0.001) restored S961 induced hyperglycemia (196.73 {+-} 16.32 vs. 126.37 {+-} 27.07 mg/dl) and glucose intolerance ({approx}78%). Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. Further, results of the present study reconfirms and provide direct evidence to the crucial role of insulin receptor signaling in the glucose homeostasis and fuel metabolism.

  15. Determination of the binding mode for the cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 using a dual approach of ligand modifications and receptor mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, S; Mungalpara, J; Steen, A; Rosenkilde, M M; Våbenø, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The cyclopentapeptide FC131 (cyclo(-L-Arg1-L-Arg2-L-2-Nal3-Gly4-D-Tyr5-)) is an antagonist at the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4, which plays a role in human immunodeficiency virus infection, cancer and stem cell recruitment. Binding modes for FC131 in CXCR4 have previously been suggested based on molecular docking guided by structure–activity relationship (SAR) data; however, none of these have been verified by in vitro experiments. Experimental Approach Heterologous 125I-12G5-competition binding and functional assays (inhibition of CXCL12-mediated activation) of FC131 and three analogues were performed on wild-type CXCR4 and 25 receptor mutants. Computational modelling was used to rationalize the experimental data. Key Results The Arg2 and 2-Nal3 side chains of FC131 interact with residues in TM-3 (His113, Asp171) and TM-5 (hydrophobic pocket) respectively. Arg1 forms charge-charge interactions with Asp187 in ECL-2, while D-Tyr5 points to the extracellular side of CXCR4. Furthermore, the backbone of FC131 interacts with the chemokine receptor-conserved Glu288 via two water molecules. Intriguingly, Tyr116 and Glu288 form a H-bond in CXCR4 crystal structures and mutation of either residue to Ala abolishes CXCR4 activity. Conclusions and Implications Ligand modification, receptor mutagenesis and computational modelling approaches were used to identify the binding mode of FC131 in CXCR4, which was in agreement with binding modes suggested from previous SAR studies. Furthermore, insights into the mechanism for CXCR4 activation by CXCL12 were gained. The combined findings will facilitate future design of novel CXCR4 antagonists. PMID:25039237

  16. (/sup 3/H)52770 RP, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, and tritiated platelet-activating factor label a common specific binding site in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, O.; Robaut, C.; Cavero, I.

    1988-02-01

    In human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the tritiated platelet activating factor ((/sup 3/H)PAF) labels in a saturable manner a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 3.5 +/- 0.5 nM (n = 7) and a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 206 +/- 13 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs (n = 7). 52770 RP, a nonphospholipid antagonist of PAF receptors, fully and competitively displaced the (/sup 3/H)PAF from its binding sites with a Ki of 7.0 +/- 0.7 nM (n = 4). The high potency and the low solubility in cellular membranes of this compound led us to prepare (/sup 3/H)52770 RP. This ligand was characterized by a binding which was rapid, reversible, confined to a single site, saturable, specific and stereoselective. Its Kd and Bmax were 4.2 +/- 0.3 nM and 181 +/- 11 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the binding was suggested by the 600- and 1050-fold higher potency of the d-enantiomer with respect to l-52770 RP in displacing (/sup 3/H)52770 RP or (/sup 3/H)PAF, respectively. Several PAF analogs (e.g., lyso-PAF, 2-O-methyl-lyso-PAF), which are poorly active as PAF receptor agonists in functional tests, were weak displacers of (/sup 3/H)PAF and (/sup 3/H)52770 RP. Furthermore, for a series of 14 known PAF receptor agonists or antagonists belonging to different chemical families, there was an excellent correlation (r = 0.98) between their ability to displace (/sup 3/H)PAF and (/sup 3/H)52770 RP. Thus, (/sup 3/H)52770 RP and (/sup 3/H)PAF appear to interact with the same binding site on human PMNs which is proposed to be the PAF receptor mediating functional responses.

  17. Mechanisms for Antagonistic Regulation of AMPA and NMDA-D1 Receptor Complexes at Postsynaptic Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Scheler, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    From the analysis of these pathways we conclude that postsynaptic processes that regulate synaptic transmission undergo significant cross-talk with respect to glutamatergic and neuromodulatory (dopamine) signals. The main hypothesis is that of a compensatory regulation, a competitive switch between the induction of increased AMPA conductance by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and reduced expression of PP2A, and increased D1 receptor sensitivity and expression by increased PKA, PP2A and decreased PP-1/calcineurin expression. Both types of plasticity are induced by NMDA receptor activation and increased internal calcium, they require different internal conditions to become expressed. Specifically we propose that AMPA regulation and D1 regulation are inversely coupled;The net result may be a bifurcation of synaptic state into predominantly AMPA or NMDA-D1 synapses. This could have functional consequences: stable connections for AMPA and conditional gating for NMDA-D1 synapses.

  18. Structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor in complex with a D2/D3 selective antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ellen Y T; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Hanson, Michael A; Shi, Lei; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C

    2010-11-19

    Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the intracellular side of the receptor, a locked conformation of the ionic lock and two distinctly different conformations of intracellular loop 2 are observed. Docking of R-22, a D3R-selective antagonist, reveals an extracellular extension of the eticlopride binding site that comprises a second binding pocket for the aryl amide of R-22, which differs between the highly homologous D2R and D3R. This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications. PMID:21097933

  19. Structure of the Human Dopamine D3 Receptor in Complex with a D2/D3 Selective Antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Hanson, Michael A.; Shi, Lei; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-11-30

    Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the intracellular side of the receptor, a locked conformation of the ionic lock and two distinctly different conformations of intracellular loop 2 are observed. Docking of R-22, a D3R-selective antagonist, reveals an extracellular extension of the eticlopride binding site that comprises a second binding pocket for the aryl amide of R-22, which differs between the highly homologous D2R and D3R. This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications.

  20. Novel sulfonylurea derivatives as H3 receptor antagonists. Preliminary SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Ceras, Javier; Cirauqui, Nuria; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Monge, Antonio; Galiano, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    The combination of antagonism at histamine H(3) receptor and the stimulation of insulin secretion have been proposed as an approach to new dual therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity. We have designed and synthesized a new series of non-imidazole derivatives, based on a basic amine ring connected through an alkyl spacer of variable length to a phenoxysulfonylurea moiety. These compounds were initially evaluated for histamine H(3) receptor binding affinities, suggesting that a propoxy chain linker between the amine and the core ring could be essential for optimal binding affinity. Compound 56, 1-(naphthalen-1-yl)-3-[(p-(3-pyrrolidin-1-ylpropoxy)benzene)]sulfonylurea exhibited the best H(3) antagonism affinity. However, since all these derivatives failed to block K(ATP) channels, the link of these two related moieties should not be considered a good pharmacophore for obtaining new dual H(3) antagonists with insulinotropic activity, suggesting the necessity to propose a new chemical hybrid prototype. PMID:22444026

  1. Designed abscisic acid analogs as antagonists of PYL-PP2C receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Akiyama, Tomonori; Muto, Takuya; Yajima, Shunsuke; Sue, Masayuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Cutler, Sean R; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    The plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for several abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is normally repressed by group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), but stress-induced ABA binds Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) receptors, which then bind and inhibit PP2Cs. X-ray structures of several receptor-ABA complexes revealed a tunnel above ABA's 3' ring CH that opens at the PP2C binding interface. Here, ABA analogs with sufficiently long 3' alkyl chains were predicted to traverse this tunnel and block PYL-PP2C interactions. To test this, a series of 3'-alkylsulfanyl ABAs were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Physiological, biochemical and structural analyses revealed that a six-carbon alkyl substitution produced a potent ABA antagonist that was sufficiently active to block multiple stress-induced ABA responses in vivo. This study provides a new approach for the design of ABA analogs, and the results validated structure-based design for this target class. PMID:24792952

  2. Molecular basis for antagonistic activity of anifrolumab, an anti-interferon-? receptor 1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Oganesyan, Vaheh; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F; Damschroder, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Anifrolumab (anifrolumab) is an antagonist human monoclonal antibody that targets interferon ? receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Anifrolumab has been developed to treat autoimmune diseases and is currently in clinical trials. To decipher the molecular basis of its mechanism of action, we engaged in multiple epitope mapping approaches to determine how it interacts with IFNAR1 and antagonizes the receptor. We identified the epitope of anifrolumab using enzymatic fragmentation, phage-peptide library panning and mutagenesis approaches. Our studies revealed that anifrolumab recognizes the SD3 subdomain of IFNAR1 with the critical residue R(279). Further, we solved the crystal structure of anifrolumab Fab to a resolution of 2.3 Å. Guided by our epitope mapping studies, we then used in silico protein docking of the anifrolumab Fab crystal structure to IFNAR1 and characterized the corresponding mode of binding. We find that anifrolumab sterically inhibits the binding of IFN ligands to IFNAR1, thus blocking the formation of the ternary IFN/IFNAR1/IFNAR2 signaling complex. This report provides the molecular basis for the mechanism of action of anifrolumab and may provide insights toward designing antibody therapies against IFNAR1. PMID:25606664

  3. Ritanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, activates midbrain dopamine neurons by blocking serotonergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ugedo, L; Grenhoff, J; Svensson, T H

    1989-01-01

    The effect of systemic administration of ritanserin (R 55667), a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2) receptor antagonist, on midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons was studied with single cell recording techniques in the chloral hydrate anesthetized male rat. Dopamine cells of the zona compacta, substantia nigra (ZC-SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were identified by established criteria. Ritanserin (0.5-2.0 mg/kg, IV) dose-dependently increased both the burst firing and firing rate of the midbrain DA neurons. These effects were prevented by endogenous 5-HT depletion through pretreatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, IP, x3), which did not significantly alter the firing characteristics of the midbrain DA cells when given alone. These results suggest that 5-HT exerts an inhibitory control of midbrain DA cell activity mediated by 5-HT2 receptors. The stimulatory effect of ritanserin on midbrain DA systems might contribute to some of its clinical effects, such as improvement of mood, drive and motivation as well as its therapeutic actions in parkinsonism and type II schizophrenia. PMID:2524859

  4. In vivo receptor binding of the opiate partial agonist, buprenorphine, correlated with its agonistic and antagonistic actions.

    PubMed Central

    Dum, J. E.; Herz, A.

    1981-01-01

    1 In order to gain more insight into the mechanisms behind the actions of opiate partial agonists, an analysis of the dual agonist/antagonist properties of the partial agonist, buprenorphine, was made in conjunction with in vivo binding studies on the drug in the rat. 2 Buprenorphine revealed a bell-shaped dose-response curve for antinociception peaking at approx. 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously. It antagonized morphine antinociception at doses which normally have agonistic effects and produced maximum antagonistic effects at doses above those having prominent agonistic activity. The withdrawal precipitating potency of buprenorphine as measured in highly morphine-dependent rats was present at doses above those having agonistic activity. The entire dose-response curve for buprenorphine was shifted symmetrically to the right by the opiate antagonist, naltrexone. 3 The dose-dependent occupation of receptors in vivo by buprenorphine seemed to be almost complete over the agonist dosage range; almost no further receptor occupation over the antagonist range was seen. 4 The possibility is discussed that site-to-site receptor interactions leading to cooperativity of effect may be the best explanation of these results. PMID:6271322

  5. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropyl benzylamine derivatives as melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tucci, Fabio C; Jiang, Wanlong; Tran, Joe A; Fleck, Beth A; Hoare, Sam R; Wen, Jenny; Chen, Takung; Johns, Michael; Markison, Stacy; Foster, Alan C; Marinkovic, Dragan; Chen, Caroline W; Arellano, Melissa; Harman, John; Saunders, John; Bozigian, Haig; Marks, Daniel

    2008-05-15

    A series of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropylbenzylamine derivatives were synthesized and characterized as melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonists. Attaching an amino acid to benzylamines 7 significantly increased their binding affinity, and the resulting compounds 8-12 bound selectively to MC4R over other melanocortin receptor subtypes and behaved as functional antagonists. These compounds were also studied for their permeability using Caco-2 cell monolayers and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes. Most compounds exhibited low permeability and high efflux ratio possibly due to their high molecular weights. They also showed moderate metabolic stability which might be associated with their moderate to high lipophilicity. Pharmacokinetic properties of these MC4R antagonists, including brain penetration, were studied in mice after oral and intravenous administrations. Two compounds identified to possess high binding affinity and selectivity, 10d and 11d, were studied in a murine cachexia model. After intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 1mg/kg dose, mice treated with 10d had significantly more food intake and weight gain than the control animals, demonstrating efficacy by blocking the MC4 receptor. Similar in vivo effects were also observed when 11d was dosed orally at 20mg/kg. These results provide further evidence that a potent and selective MC4R antagonist has potential in the treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:18417348

  6. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropyl benzylamine derivatives as melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Chen C; Tucci FC; Jiang W; Tran JA; Fleck BA; Hoare SR; Wen J; Chen T; Johns M; Markison S; Foster AC; Marinkovic D; Chen CW; Arellano M; Harman J; Saunders J; Bozigian H; Marks D

    2008-05-15

    A series of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropylbenzylamine derivatives were synthesized and characterized as melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonists. Attaching an amino acid to benzylamines 7 significantly increased their binding affinity, and the resulting compounds 8-12 bound selectively to MC4R over other melanocortin receptor subtypes and behaved as functional antagonists. These compounds were also studied for their permeability using Caco-2 cell monolayers and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes. Most compounds exhibited low permeability and high efflux ratio possibly due to their high molecular weights. They also showed moderate metabolic stability which might be associated with their moderate to high lipophilicity. Pharmacokinetic properties of these MC4R antagonists, including brain penetration, were studied in mice after oral and intravenous administrations. Two compounds identified to possess high binding affinity and selectivity, 10d and 11d, were studied in a murine cachexia model. After intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 1mg/kg dose, mice treated with 10d had significantly more food intake and weight gain than the control animals, demonstrating efficacy by blocking the MC4 receptor. Similar in vivo effects were also observed when 11d was dosed orally at 20mg/kg. These results provide further evidence that a potent and selective MC4R antagonist has potential in the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  7. Antidepressant and anxiolytic profiles of newly synthesized arginine vasopressin V1B receptor antagonists: TASP0233278 and TASP0390325

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, M; Yoshimizu, T; Shimazaki, T; Tokugawa, K; Fukumoto, K; Kurosu, S; Kuwada, T; Sekiguchi, Y; Chaki, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vasopressin V1B receptor antagonists may be effective for the treatment of depression and anxiety and the objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacological profiles of two newly synthesized arginine vasopressin receptor 1B (V1B receptor) antagonists, TASP0233278 and TASP0390325. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the in vitro profiles of TASP0233278 and TASP0390325. In addition, the effect of TASP0390325 on the increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels induced by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)/desmopressin (dDAVP) was investigated. We also investigated the antidepressant and anxiolytic profiles of TASP0233278 and TASP0390325 in animal models. KEY RESULTS Both TASP0233278 and TASP0390325 showed a high affinity and potent antagonist activity for V1B receptors. Oral administration of TASP0390325 antagonized the increase in plasma ACTH levels induced by CRF/dDAVP in rats, indicating that TASP0390325 blocks the anterior pituitary V1B receptor in vivo. Oral administration of TASP0233278 or TASP0390325 also exerted antidepressant effects in two models of depression (a forced swimming test and an olfactory bulbectomy model). Moreover, TASP0233278 improved depressive-like behaviour induced by repeated treatment with corticosterone, a model that has been shown to be resistant to treatment with currently prescribed antidepressants. In addition to depression models, TASP0233278 or TASP0390325 exerted anxiolytic effects in several anxiety models (social interaction, elevated plus-maze, stress-induced hyperthermia, separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization and sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in panic-prone rats). CONCLUSION TASP0233278 and TASP0390325 are potent and orally active V1B receptor antagonists with antidepressant and anxiolytic activities in rodents. PMID:24654684

  8. Efficacy of the specific endothelin a receptor antagonist zibotentan (ZD4054) in colorectal cancer: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Haque, Samer-ul; Dashwood, Michael R; Heetun, Mohammed; Shiwen, Xu; Farooqui, Noreen; Ramesh, Bala; Welch, Hazel; Savage, Felicity J; Ogunbiyi, Olagunju; Abraham, David J; Loizidou, Marilena

    2013-08-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is overexpressed in cancer, contributing to disease progression. We previously showed that ET-1 stimulated proliferative, migratory, and contractile tumorigenic effects via the ET(A) receptor. Here, for the first time, we evaluate zibotentan, a specific ET(A) receptor antagonist, in the setting of colorectal cancer, in cellular models. Pharmacologic characteristics were further determined in patient tissues. Colorectal cancer lines (n = 4) and fibroblast strains (n = 6), isolated from uninvolved areas of colorectal cancer specimens, were exposed to ET-1 and/or ET(A)/(B) receptor antagonists. Proliferation (methylene blue), migration (scratch wounds), and contraction (gel lattices) were assessed. Receptor distribution and binding characteristics (K(d), B(max)) were determined using autoradiography on tissue sections and homogenates and cytospun cells, supported by immunohistochemistry. Proliferation was inhibited by ET(A) (zibotentan > BQ123; P < 0.05), migration by ET(B) > ET(A), and contraction by combined ET(A) and ET(B) antagonism. Intense ET-1 stromal binding correlated with fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Colorectal cancer lines and fibroblasts revealed high density and affinity ET-1 binding (B(max) = 2.435 fmol/1 × 10(6) cells, K(d) = 367.7 pmol/L; B(max) = 3.03 fmol/1 × 10(6) cells, K(d) = 213.6 pmol/L). In cancer tissues, ET(A) receptor antagonists (zibotentan; BQ123) reduced ET-1 binding more effectively (IC(50): 0.1-10 ?mol/L) than ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 (?IC(50), 1 mmol/L). ET-1 stimulated cancer-contributory processes. Its localization to tumor stroma, with greatest binding/affinity to fibroblasts, implicates these cells in tumor progression. ET(A) receptor upregulation in cancer tissues and its role in tumorigenic processes show the receptor's importance in therapeutic targeting. Zibotentan, the most specific ET(A) receptor antagonist available, showed the greatest inhibition of ET-1 binding. With its known safety profile, we provide evidence for zibotentan's potential role as adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. PMID:23723122

  9. Structure-guided optimization of estrogen receptor binding affinity and antagonist potency of pyrazolopyrimidines with basic side chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Sheng, S.; Compton, D.; Kim, Y.; Joachimiak, A.; Sharma, S.; Carlson, K.; Katzenellenbogen, B.; Nettles, K.; Greene, G.; Katzenellenbogen, J.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Chicago; The Scripps Research Inst.

    2007-01-01

    2,3-Diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists of modest potency that we have described previously. Guided by the crystal structure of an ER-ligand complex that we have obtained with one of these compounds, we prepared analogs that contain a basic side chain at the 2- or 3-aryl group and quickly found one that, according to the structure-based prediction, shows an increase in binding affinity and antagonist potency and a loss of residual agonist activity.

  10. Cloning and functional characterization of the ornithokinin receptor. Recognition of the major kinin receptor antagonist, HOE140, as a full agonist.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C; Beug, H; Müller-Esterl, W

    1997-05-01

    Kinins are proinflammatory peptides that dilate vessels, increase vascular permeability, contract smooth muscles, and provoke pain. The known mammalian kinin receptors are classified as two subtypes, i.e. the B1 receptor triggered by [des-Arg9]bradykinin and inhibited by [des-Arg9,Leu8]bradykinin, and the B2 receptor stimulated by bradykinin and antagonized by HOE140. Here we report the cloning of a non-mammalian kinin receptor gene amplified from genomic chicken DNA. The protein predicted from the open reading frame shows 31 and 49% sequence identity to the human B1 and B2 receptors, respectively, suggesting that it represents a G protein-coupled receptor of the kinin receptor family. The recombinantly expressed chicken receptor had IC50 values of 4.7 nM for the authentic ligand, ornithokinin ([Thr6,Leu8]bradykinin), 3.8 nM for HOE140, and >/=10 microM for bradykinin, [des-Arg9]bradykinin, and [des-Arg9,Leu8]bradykinin. Ornithokinin and HOE140 at nanomolar concentrations stimulated intracellular inositol phosphate accumulation and induced a significant transient rise in intracelluar free Ca2+, whereas bradykinin was ineffective even at 100 nM. Hence the principal B2 receptor antagonist HOE140 is a potent agonist of the chicken kinin receptor. This unique pharmacological profile classifies the ornithokinin receptor as a novel subtype among kinin receptors and will facilitate further molecular studies on ligand binding and receptor activation. PMID:9139696

  11. The cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 increases paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus anticholinesterases (OPs) elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to acetylcholine accumulation and overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Endocannabinoids (eCBs, e.g., arachidonoyl ethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol [2-AG]) are neuromodulators that regulate neurotransmission by reducing neurotransmitter release. The eCBs are degraded by the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, primarily involved in hydrolysis of AEA) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, primarily responsible for metabolism of 2-AG). We previously reported that the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 reduced cholinergic toxicity after paraoxon exposure. This study compared the effects of the cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 on acute toxicity following either paraoxon (PO) or chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO). CPO was more potent in vitro than PO at inhibiting AChE (? 2 fold), FAAH (? 8 fold), and MAGL (? 19 fold). Rats were treated with vehicle, PO (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg, sc) or CPO (6 and 12 mg/kg, sc) and subsets treated with AM251 (3mg/kg, ip; 30 min after OP). Signs of toxicity were recorded for 4h and rats were then sacrificed. OP-treated rats showed dose-related involuntary movements, with AM251 increasing signs of toxicity with the lower dosages. PO and CPO elicited excessive secretions, but AM251 had no apparent effect with either OP. Lethality was increased by AM251 with the higher dosage of PO, but no lethality was noted with either dosage of CPO, with or without AM251. Both OPs caused extensive inhibition of hippocampal AChE and FAAH (>80-90%), but only CPO inhibited MAGL (37-50%). These results provide further evidence that eCB signaling can influence acute OP toxicity. The selective in vivo inhibition of MAGL by CPO may be important in the differential lethality noted between PO and CPO with AM251 co-administration. PMID:25447325

  12. [Effect of gastrin and H2-receptor antagonist on electrical control activity following canine intestinal transection].

    PubMed

    Murakuni, H

    1994-06-01

    Our objective was to study the mechanism of action of gastrin and histamin H2 receptor antagonist on the motility of the gastrointestinal area. In each of 12 mongrel dogs, eight bipolar electromyograms were obtained from the antrum of the stomach to the ileum on serosal surface, and in nine dogs undergoing that the small intestine was transected 20 cm from the ligament of Treitz. The effects of tetragastrin (1.0-10.0 microgram.kg-1.h-1) were studied against the presence of atropine, cimetidine and d-chlorpheniramine maleate. The frequency of electrical control activity (ECA) along the canine small intestine, and changes in ECAs frequency were studied normal and following upper small intestinal transection. In intact, the frequency of ECAs gradient decreased aborally in a stepwise fashion in normal intestine. Although the gradient was markedly reduced or even abolished distal to the level of transection, an intrinsic ECAs frequency gradient was demonstrated, it remained at a low level indefinitely. The normal ECA pattern and its alterations following transection were significantly influenced by tetragastrin. The act of tetragastrin in a dose of 1.0 to 5.0 microgram.kg-1.h-1 had not statistically effect on ECAs frequency and its dysrhythmias, and it did cause a small increase in the frequency of ECA at the antrum, whereas, with the highest dose (10.0 microgram.kg-1.h-1) of used, the increase of mean frequency of ECA in the distal portion to the line of transection, in particular, was significantly greater compared to the change in the proximal portion. It was only cimetidine (8.0 mg.kg-1) that antagonized this action of tetragastin (10.0 microgram.kg-1.h-1). Histamine H2 receptors are suspected of being associated with the action the gastrin has of enhancing ECAs frequency. The results of this study indicate that histamine H2 receptors regularize gastrointestinal ECAs frequency. PMID:7841590

  13. Discovery of a novel series of nonacidic benzofuran EP1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Allan, Amanda C; Billinton, Andy; Brown, Susan H; Chowdhury, Anita; Eatherton, Andrew J; Fieldhouse, Charlotte; Giblin, Gerard M P; Goldsmith, Paul; Hall, Adrian; Hurst, David N; Naylor, Alan; Rawlings, D Anthony; Sime, Mairi; Scoccitti, Tiziana; Theobald, Pamela J

    2011-07-15

    We describe the discovery and optimization of a novel series of benzofuran EP(1) antagonists, leading to the identification of 26d, a novel nonacidic EP(1) antagonist which demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:21676612

  14. Antidepressant/anxiolytic potential and adverse effect liabilities of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists in animal models.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Shigeyuki; Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Nishiguchi, Mariko; Funakoshi, Takeo; Iijima, Michihiko; Ito, Akie; Kanuma, Kosuke; Sekiguchi, Yoshinori

    2015-08-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1 receptor) is known to be involved in the control of mood and stress, in addition to the regulation of feeding. Here, we report further evidence that the blockade of the MCH1 receptor exhibits antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of animal models using TASP0382650 and TASP0489838, newly synthesized MCH1 receptor antagonists, with different scaffolds. Both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 exhibited high affinities for human MCH1 receptor with IC50 values of 7.13 and 3.80nM, respectively. Both compounds showed potent antagonist activities at the MCH1 receptor, as assessed using MCH-increased [(35)S]GTP?S binding to human MCH1 receptor and an MCH-induced [Ca(2+)]i assay in rat MCH1 receptor expressing cells. In contrast, neither TASP0382650 nor TASP0489838 showed an affinity for the MCH2 receptor, another MCH receptor subtype. The oral administration of TASP0382650 or TASP0489838 significantly reduced the immobility time during the forced swimming test in rats, and reduced hyperemotionality induced by an olfactory bulbectomy, both of which are indicative of an antidepressant-like potential. In the olfactory bulbectomy model, the antidepressant effect of TASP0382650 appeared following a single administration, suggesting a faster onset of action, compared with current medications. Moreover, both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 exhibited anxiolytic effects in several animal models of anxiety. In contrast, both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, motor function, spatial memory during the Morris water maze task, or the convulsion threshold to pentylenetetrazole. These findings provide additional evidence that the blockade of the MCH1 receptor exhibits antidepressant- and anxiolytic activities with no adverse effects in experimental animal models. PMID:26044968

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of spirocyclic antagonists of CCR2 (chemokine CC receptor subtype 2).

    PubMed

    Strunz, Ann Kathrin; Zweemer, Annelien J M; Weiss, Christina; Schepmann, Dirk; Junker, Anna; Heitman, Laura H; Koch, Michael; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2015-07-15

    Activation of chemokine CC receptors subtype 2 (CCR2) plays an important role in chronic inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. A diverse set of spirocyclic butanamides 4 (N-benzyl-4-(3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,4'-piperidin]-1'-yl)butanamides) was prepared by different combination of spirocyclic piperidines 8 (3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,4'-piperidines]) and ?-halobutanamides 11. A key step in the synthesis of spirocyclic piperidines 8 was an Oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction of ?-phenylethanols 5 with piperidone acetal 6. The substituted ?-hydroxybutanamides 11c-e were prepared by hydroxyethylation of methyl acetates 13 with ethylene sulfate giving the ?-lactones 14c and 14e. Aminolysis of the ?-lactones 14c and 14e with benzylamines provided the ?-hydroxybutanamides 15c-e, which were converted into the bromides 11c-e by an Appel reaction using polymer-bound PPh3. In radioligand binding assays the spirocyclic butanamides 4 did not displace the iodinated radioligand (125)I-CCL2 from the human CCR2. However, in the Ca(2+)-flux assay using human CCR2 strong antagonistic activity of butanamides 4 was detected. Analysis of the IC50-values led to clear relationships between the structure and the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-flux. 4g (4-(3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,4'-piperidin]-1'-yl)-N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethylbenzyl)]-2-(4-fluorophenyl)butanamide) and 4o (N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-2-cyclopropyl-4-(3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,4'-piperidin]-1'-yl)butanamide) represent the most potent CCR2 antagonists with IC50-values of 89 and 17nM, respectively. Micromolar activities were found in the ?-arrestin recruitment assay with murine CCR2, but the structure-activity-relationships detected in the Ca(2+)-flux assay were confirmed. PMID:25766632

  16. Peripheral selectivity of the novel cannabinoid receptor antagonist TM38837 in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Linda E; Fridberg, Marianne; de Kam, Marieke L; Little, Paul B; Jensen, Niels Ole; Kleinloog, Hendrik D; Elling, Christian E; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2013-01-01

    Aim Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonists show central side effects, whereas beneficial effects are most likely peripherally mediated. In this study, the peripherally selective CB1 antagonist TM38837 was studied in humans. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. On occasions 1–4, 24 healthy subjects received 5 × 4 mg THC with TM38837 100 mg, 500 mg or placebo, or placebos only. During occasion 5, subjects received placebo TM38837 + THC with rimonabant 60 mg or placebo in parallel groups. Blood collections and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects were assessed frequently. Pharmacokinetics (PK) and PD were quantified using population PK?PD modelling. Results The TM38837 plasma concentration profile was relatively flat compared with rimonabant. TM38837 showed an estimated terminal half-life of 771 h. THC induced effects on VAS feeling high, body sway and heart rate were partly antagonized by rimonabant 60 mg [?26.70% [90% confidence interval (CI) ?40.9, ?12.6%]; ?7.10%, (90%CI ?18.1, 5.3%); ?7.30%, (90% CI ?11.5%, ?3.0%) respectively] and TM38837 500 mg [?22.10% (90% CI ?34.9, ?9.4%); ?12.20% (90% CI ?21.6%, ?1.7%); ?8.90% (90% CI ?12.8%, ?5.1%) respectively]. TM38837 100 mg had no measurable feeling high or body sway effects and limited heart rate effects. Conclusions Rimonabant showed larger effects than TM38837, but the heart rate effects were similar. TM38837 100 mg had no impact on CNS effects, suggesting that this dose does not penetrate the brain. This TM38837 dose is predicted to be at least equipotent to rimonabant with regard to metabolic disorders in rodent models. These results provide support for further development of TM38837 as a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist for indications such as metabolic disorders, with a reduced propensity for psychiatric side effects. PMID:23601084

  17. Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC-1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies. We investigated if treatment with ADC-1004, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce infarct size and microvascular obstruction in a large animal myocardial infarct model. Methods In anesthetized pigs (42-53 kg), a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Twenty minutes after balloon inflation the pigs were randomized to an intravenous bolus administration of ADC-1004 (175 mg, n = 8) or saline (9 mg/ml, n = 8). Area at risk (AAR) was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. The observers were blinded to the treatment at randomization and analysis. Results ADC-1004 treatment reduced infarct size by 21% (ADC-1004: 58.3 ± 3.4 vs control: 74.1 ± 2.9%AAR, p = 0.007). Microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups (ADC-1004: 2.2 ± 1.2 vs control: 5.3 ± 2.5%AAR, p = 0.23). The mean plasma concentration of ADC-1004 was 83 ± 8 nM at sacrifice. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood-gas data. Conclusions ADC-1004 treatment reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and represents a novel treatment strategy of myocardial infarct with potential clinical applicability. PMID:20875134

  18. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor binding protein decrease osteoclast formation and bone resorption in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, R; Kimble, R B; Vannice, J L; Kung, V T; Pacifici, R

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF to the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by estrogen deficiency, ovariectomized (ovx) mice were treated with either IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a competitive inhibitor of IL-1, TNF binding protein (TNFbp), an inhibitor of TNF, or the anti-IL-6 antibody (Ab) 20F3 for the first 2 wk after surgery. ovx increased the bone marrow cells secretion of IL-1 and TNF, but not IL-6, and the formation of TRAP-positive osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) in bone marrow cultures treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. The increase in MNC formation induced by ovx was prevented by in vivo treatment with either 17 beta estradiol, IL-1ra, TNFbp, or anti-IL-6 Ab. However, the percent change in MNC formation induced by the anti-IL-6 Ab was similar in ovx and sham-operated animals, whereas IL-1ra and TNFbp were effective only in ovx mice. MNC formation was also decreased by in vitro treatment of bone marrow cultures with IL-1ra and TNFbp, but not with anti-IL-6 Ab. Ovx also increased bone resorption in vivo and in vitro, as assessed by the urinary excretion of pyridinoline cross links and the formation of resorption pits, respectively. IL-1ra, TNFbp and estrogen decreased bone resorption in vivo and in vitro whereas the anti-IL-6 Ab inhibited bone resorption in vitro but not in vivo. In conclusion, these data indicate that IL-1 and TNF play a direct role in mediating the effects of ovx on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The data also suggest that IL-6 is not essential for increasing bone resorption in the early postovariectomy period. Images PMID:7989596

  19. In silico identification of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist with biological activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley J; Pollastri, Michael P; Hahn, Mark E; Stanford, Elizabeth A; Novikov, Olga; Franks, Diana G; Haigh, Sarah E; Narasimhan, Supraja; Ashton, Trent D; Hopper, Timothy G; Kozakov, Dmytro; Beglov, Dimitri; Vajda, Sandor; Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Sherr, David H

    2014-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is critically involved in several physiologic processes, including cancer progression and multiple immune system activities. We, and others, have hypothesized that AHR modulators represent an important new class of targeted therapeutics. Here, ligand shape-based virtual modeling techniques were used to identify novel AHR ligands on the basis of previously identified chemotypes. Four structurally unique compounds were identified. One lead compound, 2-((2-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)oxy)acetamide (CB7993113), was further tested for its ability to block three AHR-dependent biologic activities: triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion or migration in vitro and AHR ligand-induced bone marrow toxicity in vivo. CB7993113 directly bound both murine and human AHR and inhibited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)- and TCDD-induced reporter activity by 75% and 90% respectively. A novel homology model, comprehensive agonist and inhibitor titration experiments, and AHR localization studies were consistent with competitive antagonism and blockade of nuclear translocation as the primary mechanism of action. CB7993113 (IC50 3.3 × 10(-7) M) effectively reduced invasion of human breast cancer cells in three-dimensional cultures and blocked tumor cell migration in two-dimensional cultures without significantly affecting cell viability or proliferation. Finally, CB7993113 effectively inhibited the bone marrow ablative effects of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in vivo, demonstrating drug absorption and tissue distribution leading to pharmacological efficacy. These experiments suggest that AHR antagonists such as CB7993113 may represent a new class of targeted therapeutics for immunomodulation and/or cancer therapy. PMID:25159092

  20. In Silico Identification of an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist with Biological Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Ashley J.; Pollastri, Michael P.; Hahn, Mark E.; Stanford, Elizabeth A.; Novikov, Olga; Franks, Diana G.; Haigh, Sarah E.; Narasimhan, Supraja; Ashton, Trent D.; Hopper, Timothy G.; Kozakov, Dmytro; Beglov, Dimitri; Vajda, Sandor; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is critically involved in several physiologic processes, including cancer progression and multiple immune system activities. We, and others, have hypothesized that AHR modulators represent an important new class of targeted therapeutics. Here, ligand shape–based virtual modeling techniques were used to identify novel AHR ligands on the basis of previously identified chemotypes. Four structurally unique compounds were identified. One lead compound, 2-((2-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)oxy)acetamide (CB7993113), was further tested for its ability to block three AHR-dependent biologic activities: triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion or migration in vitro and AHR ligand–induced bone marrow toxicity in vivo. CB7993113 directly bound both murine and human AHR and inhibited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)– and TCDD-induced reporter activity by 75% and 90% respectively. A novel homology model, comprehensive agonist and inhibitor titration experiments, and AHR localization studies were consistent with competitive antagonism and blockade of nuclear translocation as the primary mechanism of action. CB7993113 (IC50 3.3 × 10?7 M) effectively reduced invasion of human breast cancer cells in three-dimensional cultures and blocked tumor cell migration in two-dimensional cultures without significantly affecting cell viability or proliferation. Finally, CB7993113 effectively inhibited the bone marrow ablative effects of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in vivo, demonstrating drug absorption and tissue distribution leading to pharmacological efficacy. These experiments suggest that AHR antagonists such as CB7993113 may represent a new class of targeted therapeutics for immunomodulation and/or cancer therapy. PMID:25159092

  1. Recent Progress in the Use of Glucagon and Glucagon Receptor Antago-nists in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Mohamed; Kalasz, Huba; Szalai, Gyorgy; Singh, Jaipaul; Adeghate, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon is an important pancreatic hormone, released into blood circulation by alpha cells of the islet of Langerhans. Glucagon induces gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in hepatocytes, leading to an increase in hepatic glucose production and subsequently hyperglycemia in susceptible individuals. Hyperglucagonemia is a constant feature in patients with T2DM. A number of bioactive agents that can block glucagon receptor have been identified. These glucagon receptor antagonists can reduce the hyperglycemia associated with exogenous glucagon administration in normal as well as diabetic subjects. Glucagon receptor antagonists include isoserine and beta-alanine derivatives, bicyclic 19-residue peptide BI-32169, Des-His1-[Glu9] glucagon amide and related compounds, 5-hydroxyalkyl-4-phenylpyridines, N-[3-cano-6- (1,1 dimethylpropyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothien-2-yl]-2-ethylbutamide, Skyrin and NNC 250926. The absorption, dosage, catabolism, excretion and medicinal chemistry of these agents are the subject of this review. It emphasizes the role of glucagon in glucose homeostasis and how it could be applied as a novel tool for the management of diabetes mellitus by blocking its receptors with either monoclonal antibodies, peptide and non-peptide antagonists or gene knockout techniques. PMID:25674162

  2. Chronic treatment with the vasopressin 1b receptor antagonist SSR149415 prevents the dysphoria associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia; Ji, Yue; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine addiction is a chronic brain disorder that is characterized by dysphoria upon smoking cessation and relapse after brief periods of abstinence. It has been hypothesized that the negative mood state associated with nicotine withdrawal is partly mediated by a heightened activity of brain stress systems. Animal studies suggest that blockade of vasopressin 1b (V1b) receptors diminishes high levels of drug intake in dependent animals and attenuates the emotional response to stressors. The goal of the present studies was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic treatment with the V1b receptor antagonist SSR149415 on the negative mood state associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. An intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure was used to assess mood states and nicotine dependence was induced using minipumps. The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine was used to precipitate withdrawal. Mecamylamine elevated the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine dependent rats, which reflects a negative mood state. Mecamylamine did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Chronic treatment with SSR149415 completely prevented the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with nicotine withdrawal while acute treatment only partly prevented nicotine withdrawal. These data suggest that chronic treatment with V1b receptor antagonists may prevent the dysphoria associated with smoking cessation and thereby improve relapse rates. PMID:26112757

  3. Effect of leukotriene receptor antagonists on vascular permeability during endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.A.; Li, E.J.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Halushka, P.V. )

    1990-11-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sulfidopeptide leukotrienes are significant pathogenic mediators of certain hematologic and hemodynamic sequelae of endotoxic shock. In the present study, the effects of a selective LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, LY171883 (LY), or a selective LTD4 receptor antagonist, SKF-104353 (SKF), were assessed on splanchnic and pulmonary localization of 99mTechnetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) in acute endotoxic shock in the rat. Dynamic gamma camera imaging of heart (H), midabdominal (GI), and lung regions of interest generated time activity curves for baseline and at 5-35 min after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Slopes of GI/H and lung/H activity (permeability index, GI/H or lung/H X 10(-3)/min) provided indices of intestinal and lung localization. Rats received LY (30 mg/kg, i.v.), LY vehicle (LY Veh), SKF (10 mg/kg), or SKF vehicle (SK Veh) 10 min prior to endotoxin or endotoxin vehicle. In rats receiving the LY Veh and endotoxin (n = 8) or SKF Veh and endotoxin (n = 12), the splanchnic permeability indices to 99mTc-HSA were increased 11.2-fold and 5.1-fold, respectively (P less than 0.05) compared to vehicle control groups not given endotoxin (n = 5). Pulmonary permeability index for 99mTc-HSA was increased (P less than 0.05) to a lesser extent (3.2-fold) by endotoxin compared to vehicle controls. Pretreatment with SKF reduced the mesenteric permeability index to control levels (P less than 0.05) during the 5-35 min time interval post-endotoxin. LY reduced the mesenteric permeability index by 70%. Pulmonary relative permeability to 99mTc-HSA was not affected by LY pretreatment. Both splanchnic and lung relative permeability to the isotope was transient; at 135-225 min post-endotoxin, splanchnic localization of 99mTc-HSA (n = 4) was not significantly different from vehicle controls in these vascular beds.

  4. Preclinical efficacy of THRX-200495, a dual pharmacology muscarinic receptor antagonist and ?(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (MABA).

    PubMed

    McNamara, Alexander; Steinfeld, Tod; Pulido-Rios, Maria Teresa; Stangeland, Eric; Hegde, Sharath S; Mammen, Mathai; Martin, William J

    2012-10-01

    Combinations of a muscarinic receptor antagonist (MA) and a ?(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (BA) improve bronchodilation in COPD patients to a greater extent than drugs with either mechanism alone. Here, using an in vivo model of bronchoprotection in guinea pigs, we characterize a single agent with dual-acting MA and BA activity, THRX-200495 (MABA). THRX-200495 was compared to a fixed-dose combination of a short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (SAMA) and a ?(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (SABA). The SAMA/SABA combination consisted of a 1:5.7 ratio of ipratropium and albuterol (the components of Combivent®). Conscious guinea pigs received aqueous nebulized solutions of vehicle or test compound by aerosol exposure. Bronchoprotective potency was estimated in anesthetized, tracheotomized and ventilated guinea pigs at predetermined time points after aerosol exposure by measuring changes in ventilation pressure. The individual (MA, BA) and composite (MABA) pharmacologies were assessed by determining protection against bronchoconstrictor responses induced by methacholine in the presence of propranolol (for MA activity), histamine (for BA activity) or methacholine (MABA activity). Bronchoprotection was calculated as percent inhibition of methacholine or histamine response relative to the vehicle group. THRX-200495 exhibited matched MA (ID(50) = 11.4 ?g/mL) and BA (ID(50) = 11.2 ?g/mL) potency and potent dual pharmacology (MABA ID(50) = 3.5 ?g/mL) that persisted for over 24 h. The combination of ipratropium/albuterol exhibited bronchoprotective activity that was 2.6-fold more potent as a BA (ID(50) = 5.7 ?g/mL) than as an MA (ID(50) = 14.6 ?g/mL) at 0.5 h post-dose and 37-fold more potent as an MA (ID(50) = 4.3 ?g/mL) than a BA (ID(50) = 159 ?g/mL) at 1.5 h post aerosol exposure. Under MABA pharmacological conditions, ipratropium/albuterol produced potent bronchoprotective activity (ID(50) = 2.0/11.4 ?g/mL) and an apparent additive effect of the two pharmacologies. In conclusion, a dual-acting prototypical MABA, THRX-200495, demonstrated potent, balanced and long-lasting bronchodilation in a guinea pig model of bronchoprotection that was greater than either the MA or BA mechanisms alone. PMID:22766316

  5. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hER? agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hER? versus hER? assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA>BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA>TBBPA>BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. PMID:23714657

  6. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists in relation to epilepsy and neurodegeneration: a systemic consideration of recent progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, M; Khanam, R; Vohora, D

    2012-12-01

    The central histaminergic actions are mediated by H(1) , H(2) , H(3) and H(4) receptors. The histamine H(3) receptor regulates the release of histamine and a number of other neurotransmitters and thereby plays a role in cognitive and homeostatic processes. Elevated histamine levels suppress seizure activities and appear to confer neuroprotection. The H(3) receptors have a number of enigmatic features like constitutive activity, interspecies variation, distinct ligand binding affinities and differential distribution of prototypic splice variants in the CNS. Furthermore, this Gi/Go-protein-coupled receptor modulates several intracellular signalling pathways whose involvement in epilepsy and neurotoxicity are yet to be ascertained and hence represent an attractive target in the search for new anti-epileptogenic drugs. So far, H(3) receptor antagonists/inverse agonists have garnered a great deal of interest in view of their promising therapeutic properties in various CNS disorders including epilepsy and related neurotoxicity. However, a number of experiments have yielded opposing effects. This article reviews recent works that have provided evidence for diverse mechanisms of antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects that were observed in various experimental models both in vitro and in vivo. The likely reasons for the apparent disparities arising from the literature are also discussed with the aim of establishing a more reliable basis for the future use of H(3) receptor antagonists, thus improving their utility in epilepsy and associated neurotoxicity. PMID:22758607

  7. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists in relation to epilepsy and neurodegeneration: a systemic consideration of recent progress and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, M; Khanam, R; Vohora, D

    2012-01-01

    The central histaminergic actions are mediated by H1, H2, H3 and H4 receptors. The histamine H3 receptor regulates the release of histamine and a number of other neurotransmitters and thereby plays a role in cognitive and homeostatic processes. Elevated histamine levels suppress seizure activities and appear to confer neuroprotection. The H3 receptors have a number of enigmatic features like constitutive activity, interspecies variation, distinct ligand binding affinities and differential distribution of prototypic splice variants in the CNS. Furthermore, this Gi/Go-protein-coupled receptor modulates several intracellular signalling pathways whose involvement in epilepsy and neurotoxicity are yet to be ascertained and hence represent an attractive target in the search for new anti-epileptogenic drugs. So far, H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists have garnered a great deal of interest in view of their promising therapeutic properties in various CNS disorders including epilepsy and related neurotoxicity. However, a number of experiments have yielded opposing effects. This article reviews recent works that have provided evidence for diverse mechanisms of antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects that were observed in various experimental models both in vitro and in vivo. The likely reasons for the apparent disparities arising from the literature are also discussed with the aim of establishing a more reliable basis for the future use of H3 receptor antagonists, thus improving their utility in epilepsy and associated neurotoxicity. PMID:22758607

  8. The differential antiemetic properties of GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39) in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Chan, Sze Wa; Lu, Zengbing; Lin, Ge; Yew, David Tai Wai; Yeung, Chi Kong; Rudd, John A

    2014-08-01

    The use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with nausea and vomiting. Previous studies using Suncus murinus revealed that the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, induces emesis via the brainstem and/or hypothalamus. The present study investigated the mechanism of exendin-4-induced emesis in more detail. Ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and CP-99,994 (10 mg/kg, s.c) failed to reduce emesis induced by exendin-4 (3 nmol, i.c.v.), suggesting that 5-HT3 and NK1 receptors are not involved in the mechanism. In other studies, the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), antagonised emesis and c-Fos expression in the brainstem and the paraventricular hypothalamus induced by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.; p < 0.05), but not the emesis induced by nicotine (5 mg/kg, s.c.; p > 0.05), or copper sulphate pentahydrate (120 mg/kg, p.o.; p > 0.05). GLP-1 receptors may therefore represent a potential target for drugs to prevent chemotherapy-induced emesis in situations where 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists fail. PMID:24726308

  9. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults. PMID:25000290

  10. Amelioration of Cold Injury-Induced Cortical Brain Edema Formation by Selective Endothelin ETB Receptor Antagonists in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults. PMID:25000290

  11. New Multi-target Antagonists of ?1A-, ?1D-Adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A Receptors Reduce Human Hyperplastic Prostate Cell Growth and the Increase of Intraurethral Pressure.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Viana, Jéssica B; Carvalho, Aline R; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Chagas-Silva, Fernanda; Souza, Pedro A R; Romeiro, Luiz Antonio S; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo; Noël, François; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by stromal cell proliferation and contraction of the periurethral smooth muscle, causing lower urinary tract symptoms. Current BPH treatment, based on monotherapy with ?1A-adrenoceptor antagonists, is helpful for many patients, but insufficient for others, and recent reports suggest that stimulation of ?1D-adrenoceptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)1A receptors contributes to cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the potential of three N-phenylpiperazine derivatives (LDT3, LDT5, and LDT8) as multi-target antagonists of BPH-associated receptors. The affinity and efficacy of LDTs were estimated in isometric contraction and competition-binding assays using tissues (prostate and aorta) and brain membrane samples enriched in specific on- or off-target receptors. LDTs' potency was estimated in intracellular Ca(2+) elevation assays using cells overexpressing human ?1-adrenoceptor subtypes. The antiproliferative effect of LDTs on prostate cells from BPH patients was evaluated by viable cell counting and 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assays. We also determined LDTs' effects on rat intraurethral and arterial pressure. LDT3 and LDT5 are potent antagonists of ?1A-, ?1D-adrenoceptors, and 5-HT1A receptors (Ki values in the nanomolar range), and fully inhibited phenylephrine- and 5-HT-induced proliferation of BPH cells. In vivo, LDT3 and LDT5 fully blocked the increase of intraurethral pressure (IUP) induced by phenylephrine at doses (ED50 of 0.15 and 0.09 ?g.kg(-1), respectively) without effect on basal mean blood pressure. LDT3 and LDT5 are multi-target antagonists of key receptors in BPH, and are capable of triggering both prostate muscle relaxation and human hyperplastic prostate cell growth inhibition in vitro. Thus, LDT3 and LDT5 represent potential new lead compounds for BPH treatment. PMID:26493747

  12. Lack of effect of H2-receptor antagonists on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol consumed after food at lunchtime.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, M J; Spannuth, F; Walt, R P; Gibson, G J; Hale, K A; Braithwaite, R; Langman, M J

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of a pharmacokinetic interaction between H2-receptor antagonists and alcohol consumed at lunchtime, was investigated in 24 healthy non-alcoholic male subjects, each receiving ranitidine 150 mg four times daily, cimetidine 400 mg four times daily, famotidine 20 mg four times daily and placebo in an open, four-way cross-over study. The subjects consumed 50 g alcohol after a standard lunch on the eighth day of dosing with study medication. Blood samples taken during the 6 h after alcohol consumption were analysed for alcohol concentrations by gas liquid chromatography using head space analysis. None of the H2-receptor antagonists had any statistically significant effects on any of the pharmacokinetic parameters for alcohol. Mean Cmax (95% CI) results for ranitidine were 547 (516, 580), cimetidine 531 (501, 563), famotidine 563 (530, 598) and placebo 529 (499, 561) mg l-1. PMID:8018458

  13. Covalent labeling of hydrosmotic toad bladder receptors with an antagonist of vasotocin

    SciTech Connect

    Eggena, P.; Buku, A.; Ma, C.L.; Somoza, L.I.; Wyssbrod, H.R.; Schwartz, I.L.; Glass, J.D.

    1987-06-01

    A photoreactive analogue of vasotocin, (1-desamino,4-lysine(azidobenzoyl),8-arginine)vasotocin (4-N3-AVT), has been examined in the isolated toad urinary bladder for biological activity and binding to hormonal receptors. Although 4-N3-AVT induced only a small increase in bladder permeability to water, it behaved as a potent inhibitor of hydrosmotic action of (8-arginine)vasotocin (AVT) and (8-arginine)vasopressin (AVP). The inhibitory action of 4-N3-AVT was readily reversed on removal of the analogue from the serosal bathing solution. On the other hand, when bladders were exposed to 4-N3-AVT in the presence of long wavelength UV light (365 nm), the inhibition by 4-N3-AVT was not reversed on washout of the analogue. The dose of vasopressin required for a half-maximal response (ED50 value) was increased from 5 X 10(-9) to 1.3 X 10(-7) M in bladders photolabeled with 4-N3-AVT and the maximal response capacity of the tissue (intrinsic activity) was reduced to 79% of nonphotolabeled controls. A crude membrane preparation derived from bladders photolabeled with 4-N3-AVT contained 72 fmol of specific binding sites for tritium-labeled vasopressin per milligram protein, whereas nonphotolabeled controls had 136 fmol of specific binding sites per milligram protein. These observations suggest that 4-N3-AVT forms a covalent bond with hydrosmotic receptors in the presence of UV light. This is the first antagonistic photoaffinity analogue observed in the toad bladder and it may serve as a useful tool for analyzing the cellular mechanism of action of antidiuretic hormone.

  14. Role of endothelin receptor antagonist; bosentan in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Alieh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Moeini, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoconstrictor peptide that mediates cell proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation. ET-1 has 2 receptors A and B. Objectives: The present study investigated whether administration of ET-1 receptor type A antagonist leads to protect cisplatin (CP) induced nephrotoxicity in ovariectomized-estradiol (Es) treated rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six ovariectomized Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Group 1 received CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) for one week. Groups 2 and 3 received 2 different doses of Es (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week) for 3 weeks, but CP was started in the third week. Group 4 was treated as group 1, but bosentan (BOS, 30 mg/kg/day) was also added. Groups 5 and 6 treated similar to groups 2 and 3 but CP and BOS were added in the third week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for histopathological investigation of kidney tissue. Results: The serum levels of creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increased by CP; however, BOS significantly elevated the BUN and Cr levels that were increased by CP administration (P < 0.05). Co-treatment of Es, BOS, and CP decreased the serum levels of BUN, Cr, and malondialdehyde (MDA) when compared with the group treated with BOS plus CP (P < 0.05). Such finding was obtained for kidney tissue damage score (KTDS). As expected, Es significantly increased uterus weight (P < 0.05). The groups were not significantly different in terms of serum and kidney nitrite, kidney weight (KW), and bodyweight Conclusions: According to our findings, BOS could not protect renal functions against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. In contrast, Es alone or accompanied with BOS could protect the kidney against CP-induced nephrotoxicity via reduction of BUN, Cr, and KTDS. PMID:26457261

  15. IL-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism in patients with secondary acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, S E; Linch, D C

    1998-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) may not only occur as a de novo disease but may evolve from a preceding myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or may result from therapy for a previous malignancy. These secondary acute myeloid leukaemias (sAML) possess some common biological and clinical features of the corresponding de novo disorders. The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to have a role in haematopoiesis, and modulation of its action might contribute to the deregulation of proliferation seen in leukaemia. It has recently been reported that a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene is closely associated with the severity of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and may also play a role in the pathogenesis of sAML. We sought to confirm this finding in a large group of patients classified as having sAML. We found no differences in either the genotypic or allele frequencies of the polymorphism studied when compared with those of normal controls or other haematological disorders. No differences were observed in allele frequencies between younger and older patients, or between those patients who had an antecedent myelodysplasia and those who had received prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We conclude that the described polymorphism in the IL-1ra gene is not associated with the development of sAML. PMID:9557211

  16. Dehydro-?-proline Containing ?4?1 Integrin Antagonists: Stereochemical Recognition in Ligand-Receptor Interplay.

    PubMed

    Tolomelli, Alessandra; Baiula, Monica; Viola, Angelo; Ferrazzano, Lucia; Gentilucci, Luca; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi; Juaristi, Eusebio; Escudero, Margarita

    2015-06-11

    A novel class of dehydro-?-proline-containing peptidomimetics, designed to be effective as ?4?1 integrin ligands, has been developed on the basis of the fundamental requirements for the interactions of these transmembrane receptors with bioactive ligands. Dehydro-?-proline ring has been synthesized through an original pathway, involving ring closing metathesis of a diallylamino derivative. The synthesized products showed to be effective and selective as ?4?1 integrin antagonists and displayed IC50 values in the nanomolar range in cell adhesion inhibition assays and in VCAM-1-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases. Significant activity was observed also toward the homologous integrin ?4?7, while they did not display any activity toward selected members of ?1, ?2, and ?3 families. A strong dependence on the stereochemistry of the heterocyclic central core could be observed. The great importance of ?4?1 integrin in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases suggests a possible exploitation of these ligands as lead compounds for therapeutic tools development. PMID:26101577

  17. Do vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists benefit cirrhotics with refractory ascites?

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent complication of advanced cirrhosis with ascites associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is caused by an impairment in the renal capacity to eliminate solute-free water and is considered to be related to persistent secretion of vasopressin despite low serum osmolality. This nonosmotic release of vasopressin is mediated by the autonomic nervous system, which senses the underfilling of arterial vascular component. This reduction of effective arterial blood volume is closely related to the development of ascites. Although the short-time effects of vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists (vaptans) on hyponatremia and ascites have been repeatedly reported, their effects on the long-term management of cirrhotic ascites have not been established yet. Considering that their effects on water diuresis and their safety are limited by severe underfilling state of patients, cautious approaches with adequate monitoring are needed to advanced cirrhosis. Proper indication, adequate doses and new possibility of combination therapy should be explored in the future controlled study. As hyponatremia is frequent obstacle to ascites management, judicious combination with low-dose diuretics may decrease the incidence of refractory ascites. Although vaptans show much promise in the treatment of advanced cirrhosis, the problem of high cost should be solved for the future. PMID:26556988

  18. Dopamine receptor antagonist thioridazine inhibits tumor growth in a murine breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    YIN, TAO; HE, SISI; SHEN, GUOBO; YE, TINGHONG; GUO, FUCHUN; WANG, YONGSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological factors have been shown to influence tumor progression and therapeutic response. The present study investigated the effect of the dopamine receptor antagonist thioridazine on murine breast cancer. The anti-tumor efficacy of thioridazine was assessed using a murine breast cancer model. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed in vitro using flow cytometry (FCM) and the MTT assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to assess Akt, phosphorylated (p)-Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, p-STAT3 and p-p65 in tumor cells following treatment with thioridazine. The Ki67 index and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells were assessed in the tumor sections. Thioridazine was found to reduce tumor growth, inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Thioridazine was also found to markedly inhibit tumor proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis in vivo as shown by the lower Ki67 index and increase in TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, thioridazine was observed to inhibit the activation of the canonical nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway and exert anti-tumor effects by remodeling the tumor stroma, as well as inhibit angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, thioridazine was found to significantly inhibit breast tumor growth and the potential for thioridazine to be used in cancer therapy may be re-evaluated and investigated in clinical settings. PMID:26095429

  19. Do vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists benefit cirrhotics with refractory ascites?

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent complication of advanced cirrhosis with ascites associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is caused by an impairment in the renal capacity to eliminate solute-free water and is considered to be related to persistent secretion of vasopressin despite low serum osmolality. This nonosmotic release of vasopressin is mediated by the autonomic nervous system, which senses the underfilling of arterial vascular component. This reduction of effective arterial blood volume is closely related to the development of ascites. Although the short-time effects of vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists (vaptans) on hyponatremia and ascites have been repeatedly reported, their effects on the long-term management of cirrhotic ascites have not been established yet. Considering that their effects on water diuresis and their safety are limited by severe underfilling state of patients, cautious approaches with adequate monitoring are needed to advanced cirrhosis. Proper indication, adequate doses and new possibility of combination therapy should be explored in the future controlled study. As hyponatremia is frequent obstacle to ascites management, judicious combination with low-dose diuretics may decrease the incidence of refractory ascites. Although vaptans show much promise in the treatment of advanced cirrhosis, the problem of high cost should be solved for the future. PMID:26556988

  20. Oxmetidine: clinical pharmacological studies with a new H2-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Mills, J G; Brunet, P L; Griffiths, R; Hunt, R H; Vincent, D; Milton-Thompson, G J; Burland, W L

    1982-02-01

    The gastric antisecretory effects of oxmetidine, a new H2-receptor antagonist, have been studied in 33 healthy subjects. The relative potency of oxmetidine compared with that of cimetidine depended on the route of administration and the experimental conditions. Oxmetidine intravenously infused was approximately four times as potent as cimetidine, weight for weight, in inhibiting impromidine stimulated gastric acid secretion but was twice as potent when food was used as a stimulus. After oral administration there were no differences in the weight-for-weight potency of oxmetidine and cimetidine, although oxmetidine was twice as potent on a molar basis. These apparent differences according to the route of drug administration are probably due to first pass metabolism of oxmetidine. There were no differences in the duration of action of oxmetidine and cimetidine. Twenty-four hour monitoring of intragastric pH showed that oxmetidine 400 mg twice daily reduced mean hourly 24 hour intragastric pH by 59%, suggesting that a twice daily dosage regimen should be evaluated in the treatment of duodenal ulceration. PMID:6121744

  1. IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Treatment Aggravates Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis and Sepsis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abukar; Na, Manli; Svensson, Mattias N. D.; Magnusson, Malin; Welin, Amanda; Schwarze, Jan-Christoph; Mohammad, Majd; Josefsson, Elisabet; Pullerits, Rille; Jin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the primary therapy against autoinflammatory syndromes with robust efficacy in reducing systemic inflammation and associated organ injury. However, patients receiving IL-1Ra might be at increased risk of acquiring serious infections. Aims To study whether IL-1Ra treatment deteriorates Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) septic arthritis and sepsis in mice. Method NMRI mice were treated with anakinra (IL-1Ra) daily for 7 days before intravenous inoculation with S. aureus strain Newman in both arthritogenic and lethal doses. The clinical course of septic arthritis, histopathological and radiological changes of the joints, as well as the mortality were compared between IL-1Ra treated and control groups. Results IL-1Ra treated mice developed more frequent and severe clinical septic arthritis. Also, the frequency of polyarthritis was significantly higher in the mice receiving IL-1Ra therapy. In line with the data from clinical arthritis, both histological and radiological signs of septic arthritis were more pronounced in IL-1Ra treated group compared to controls. Importantly, the mortality of IL-1Ra treated mice was significantly higher than PBS treated controls. Conclusion IL-1Ra treatment significantly aggravated S. aureus induced septic arthritis and increased the mortality in these mice. PMID:26135738

  2. Genetic Determinants of Circulating Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Levels and Their Association With Glycemic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Shah, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Brunner, Eric J.; Carstensen, Maren; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kivimäki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kristiansson, Kati; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Luotola, Kari; Marzi, Carola; Müller, Christian; Peters, Annette; Prokisch, Holger; Raitakari, Olli; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Salmi, Marko; Schramm, Katharina; Swerdlow, Daniel; Tabak, Adam G.; Thorand, Barbara; Wareham, Nick; Wild, Philipp S.; Zeller, Tanja; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Witte, Daniel R.; Kumari, Meena; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko

    2014-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? is implicated in the development of insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction, whereas higher circulating levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1?, has been suggested to improve glycemia and ?-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the protective role of IL-1RA, this study aimed to identify genetic determinants of circulating IL-1RA concentration and to investigate their associations with immunological and metabolic variables related to cardiometabolic risk. In the analysis of seven discovery and four replication cohort studies, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were independently associated with circulating IL-1RA concentration (rs4251961 at the IL1RN locus [n = 13,955, P = 2.76 × 10?21] and rs6759676, closest gene locus IL1F10 [n = 13,994, P = 1.73 × 10?17]). The proportion of the variance in IL-1RA explained by both SNPs combined was 2.0%. IL-1RA–raising alleles of both SNPs were associated with lower circulating C-reactive protein concentration. The IL-1RA–raising allele of rs6759676 was also associated with lower fasting insulin levels and lower HOMA insulin resistance. In conclusion, we show that circulating IL-1RA levels are predicted by two independent SNPs at the IL1RN and IL1F10 loci and that genetically raised IL-1RA may be protective against the development of insulin resistance. PMID:24969107

  3. Interaction of pyridostigmine with the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Capacio, B.R.; Byers, C.E.; Matthews, R.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Anders, J.C.

    1993-05-13

    Serotonin receptor subtype three (5HT3) antagonists, such as the drug ondansetron (OND), have been developed as effective anti-emetic compounds. The purpose of this study was to assess the drug interactions of OND (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) with the organophosphorus pretreatment compound pyridostigmine (PYR; 0.94 mg/kg) after simultaneous oral administration to guinea pigs. Compatibility was assessed by determining (1) OND pharmacokinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and presence (Phase 2) of pyridostigmine (PYR) and (2) PYR-induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition kinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and the presence (Phase 2) of OND. AChE inhibition was examined because it has been shown to be an indicator of PYR efficacy against OP-induced lethality. The pharmacokinetics of OND alone and in the presence of PYR were linear and best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rate kinetics. For OND 30 mg/kg the K10 was found to be significantly smaller in Phase 2 than Phase 1 (p < 0.05).

  4. Bosentan, a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist, induces antidepressant-like activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Borghi, Sergio M; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Filgueiras, Guilherme B; Estanislau, Célio; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2014-02-01

    Endothelins are peptides described initially as potent vasoactive mediators. Recently, studies reported that endothelins can modulate the production and release of cytokines by immune cells. In turn, cytokines are involved in depression disorders and also in the effectiveness of some antidepressants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of treating mice with bosentan, a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist, in widely used models for assessing antidepressant activity of compounds, the forced swimming (FST) and the tail suspension tests (TST). Moreover, the influence of bosentan treatment on circulating IL-6 levels was also addressed after FST. The results show that bosentan treatment induced a bell shaped dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect with increase in circulating IL-6 levels in animals exposed to FST. Bosentan also presented antidepressant-like effect in TST. Similar results were obtained with nortriptyline treatment in the FST and TST. Possible anxiogenic effect of bosentan was excluded using the elevated plus maze test. Therefore, this is the first study to demonstrate the antidepressant-like activity of bosentan in mice, unveiling a previous unrecognized role of endothelin in depression and its possible relation with increased circulating IL-6 levels. PMID:24361136

  5. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel I.; Becker, Howard C.; Adams, Benjamin L.; Jesudason, Cynthia D.; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption. PMID:24616657

  6. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-04-17

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24530739

  7. Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonist (GSK598809) Potentiates the Hypertensive Effects of Cocaine in Conscious, Freely-Moving Dogs.

    PubMed

    Appel, Nathan M; Li, Shou-Hua; Holmes, Tyson H; Acri, Jane B

    2015-09-01

    The chronic and relapsing nature of addiction presents unique challenges for ensuring the safety of a potential medication. A patient may use cocaine, for example, while taking the medication or take more medication than prescribed. Thus, a potential medication must be safe and not exacerbate the effects of cocaine. Multiple published studies support antagonism of brain dopamine D3 receptor function as a potential mechanism of action for an anti-addiction medication. Dopamine D3 receptors are widely distributed outside the central nervous system, however; for example, dopamine D3 receptors in the kidneys are implicated in regulating blood pressure. The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist GSK598809 [1-(2-fluoro-4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-{3-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-oxazol-5-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-propyl}-3-aza-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane] has been proposed as a medication to treat cocaine and other substance use disorders. The US Food and Drug Administration has established guidelines recommending safety studies to investigate potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of a substance in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above. Hence, we assessed the interaction between this selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist and cocaine on hemodynamics and cardiac function in freely-moving, telemetered dogs before conducting a clinical trial. GSK598809 increased the hemodynamic effect of cocaine in this model. Thus, the increase in blood pressure after intravenous cocaine was greater in animals that had been pretreated with GSK598809 compared with vehicle. This finding suggests that GSK598809 in particular, and perhaps dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as a class, may produce unacceptable cardiovascular risks as medications to treat cocaine use disorder. PMID:26177654

  8. Infantile Spasms: Hypothesis-Driven Therapy and Pilot Human Infant Experiments Using Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Brunson, Kristen; Haden, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background and Rationale Infantile spasms (IS) are an age-specific seizure disorder occurring in 1:2,000 infants and associated with mental retardation in ~90% of affected individuals. The costs of IS in terms of loss of lifetime productivity and emotional and financial burdens on families are enormous. It is generally agreed that the seizures associated with IS respond poorly to most conventional anticonvulsants. In addition, in the majority of patients, a treatment course with high-dose corticotropin (ACTH) arrests the seizures completely within days, often without recurrence on discontinuation of the hormone. However, the severe side effects of ACTH require development of better treatments for IS. Based on the rapid, all-or-none and irreversible effects of ACTH and on the established physiological actions of this hormone, it was hypothesized that ACTH eliminated IS via an established neuroendocrine feedback mechanism involving suppression of the age-specific endogenous convulsant neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Indeed, IS typically occur in the setting of injury or insult that activate the CNS stress system, of which CRH is a major component. CRH levels may be elevated in the IS brain, and the neuropeptide is known to cause seizures in infant rats, as well as neuronal death in brain regions involved in learning and memory. If ‘excess’ CRH is involved in the pathogenesis of IS, then blocking CRH receptors should eliminate both seizures and the excitotoxicity of CRH-receptor-rich neurons subserving learning and memory. Patients and Methods With FDA approval, ?-helical CRH, a competitive antagonist of the peptide, was given as a phase I trial to 6 infants with IS who have either failed conventional treatment or who have suffered a recurrence. The study was performed at the Clinical Research Center of the Childrens Hospital, Los Angeles. The effects of ?-helical CRH on autonomic parameters (blood pressure, pulse, temperature, respiration) were determined. In addition, immediate and short-term effects on ACTH and cortisol and on electrolytes and glucose were examined. The potential efficacy of ?-helical CRH for IS was studied, using clinical diaries and video EEG. Results ?-Helical CRH, a peptide, did not alter autonomic or biochemical parameters. Blocking peripheral CRH receptors was evident from a transient reduction in plasma ACTH and cortisol. No evidence for the compound’s penetration of the blood-brain barrier was found, since no central effects on arousal, activity or seizures and EEG patterns were observed. In addition, a striking resistance of the patients’ plasma ACTH to the second infusion of ?-helical CRH was noted. Conclusions Peptide analogs of CRH do not cross the blood-brain barrier, and their effects on peripheral stress hormones are transient and benign. Nonpeptide compouds that reach CNS receptors are required to test the hypothesis that blocking CRH receptors may ameliorate IS and its cognitive consequencs. PMID:10575251

  9. Identification and Optimization of Benzimidazole Sulfonamides as Orally Bioavailable Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Antagonists with in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Edward J; Oza, Vibha; Adam, Ammar; Byth, Kate; Castriotta, Lillian; Grewal, Gurmit; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Kamhi, Victor M; Lewis, Paula; Li, Danyang; Lyne, Paul; Öster, Linda; Rooney, Michael T; Saeh, Jamal C; Sha, Li; Su, Qibin; Wen, Shengua; Xue, Yafeng; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-10

    We report here a novel series of benzimidazole sulfonamides that act as antagonists of the S1P1 receptor, identified by exploiting an understanding of the pharmacophore of a high throughput screening (HTS)-derived series of compounds described previously. Lead compound 2 potently inhibits S1P-induced receptor internalization in a cell-based assay (EC50 = 0.05 ?M), but has poor physical properties and metabolic stability. Evolution of this compound through structure-activity relationship development and property optimization led to in vivo probes such as 4. However, this compound was unexpectedly found to be a potent CYP3A inducer in human hepatocytes, and thus further chemistry efforts were directed at addressing this liability. By employing a pregnane X receptor (PXR) reporter gene assay to prioritize compounds for further testing in human hepatocytes, we identified lipophilicity as a key molecular property influencing the likelihood of P450 induction. Ultimately, we have identified compounds such as 46 and 47, which demonstrate the desired S1P1 antagonist activity while having greatly reduced risk of CYP3A induction in humans. These compounds have excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and exhibit pharmacodynamic effects of S1P1 antagonism in several in vivo models following oral dosing. Relatively modest antitumor activity was observed in multiple xenograft models, however, suggesting that selective S1P1 antagonists would have limited utility as anticancer therapeutics as single agents. PMID:26291341

  10. Effect of combined leukotriene D(4) and thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonist on mediator-controlled resistance in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Arakida, Y; Ohga, K; Okada, Y; Morio, H; Suwa, K; Yokota, M; Yamada, T

    2000-09-01

    The effects of YM158 (3-[(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl)methoxy]-5'-[3-(4-chlorobenzenesu lfonyl )propyl]-2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethoxy)benzanilide monosodium salt monohydrate), a new dual antagonist for leukotriene D(4) and thromboxane A(2) receptors, on antigen-induced increases in airway resistance were investigated in mediator-controlled novel asthmatic models using actively sensitized guinea pigs. While the predominant mediator was thromboxane A(2), complete inhibition of cyclooxygenase induced mediation by cysteinyl-leukotrienes. About 1-mg/kg indomethacin induced a state where both mediators participated equally. YM158 inhibited increases in resistance whether only one or both mediators were involved. When leukotriene D(4) and thromboxane A(2) equally participated, ED(50) values for 4-oxo-8-[4-(4-phenylbutoxy)benzoylamino]-2-(tetrazol-5-yl)-4 H-1-benzo pyran hemihydrate (pranlukast; 3.9 mg/kg) and 7-(3,5,6-trimethyl-1, 4-benzoquinon-2-yl)-7-phenylheptanoic acid (seratrodast; 2.1 mg/kg) were similar to that for YM158 (8.3 mg/kg), although those effects on the corresponding mediator-induced reaction were 10 times stronger than those of YM158. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of YM158 was stronger than those of either single receptor antagonist. In conclusion, YM158 has a potentially greater efficacy in wider types of experimental asthmatic models than single receptor antagonists. PMID:10969159

  11. The role of opioid antagonist efficacy and constitutive opioid receptor activity in the opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Navani, Dipesh M; Sirohi, Sunil; Madia, Priyanka A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of efficacy, opioid antagonists are classified as inverse opioid agonists (e.g. naltrexone) or neutral opioid antagonists (e.g. 6?-naltrexol). This study examined the interaction between naltrexone and 6?-naltrexol in the precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in morphine dependent mice. Furthermore, the possible contribution of constitutive opioid receptor activity to precipitated withdrawal was evaluated using increasing levels of morphine dependence. In the first experiment, low doses of 6?-naltrexol antagonized naltrexone precipitated withdrawal while high doses acted additively. All doses of naltrexone increased 6?-naltrexol's potency to precipitate withdrawal. The next experiment examined changes in antagonist potency to precipitate withdrawal with increasing morphine dependence. Mice were exposed to morphine for 1-6 days and then withdrawal was precipitated. Naltrexone was more potent than 6?-naltrexol at all the time points. The ED(50) of both drugs decreased at the same rate suggesting that increased dependence produced no change in constitutive opioid receptor activity. Taken together these results indicate that the functional efficacy of 6?-naltrexol is dose-dependent and that constitutive opioid receptor activity did not change as opioid dependence increased from 1 to 6 days. PMID:21736895

  12. Synthesis and SAR of novel imidazoles as potent and selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonists with high binding efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jos H M; van der Neut, Martina A W; Wals, Henri C; Kuil, Gijs D; Borst, Alice J M; Mulder, Arie; den Hartog, Arnold P; Zilaout, Hicham; Goutier, Wouter; van Stuivenberg, Herman H; van Vliet, Bernard J

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of imidazoles are described. The target compounds 6-20 represent a novel chemotype of potent and CB(2)/CB(1) selective cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonists/inverse agonists with very high binding efficiencies in combination with favourable logP and calculated polar surface area values. Compound 12 exhibited the highest CB(2) receptor affinity (K(i)=1.03 nM) in this series, as well as the highest CB(2)/CB(1) subtype selectivity (>9708-fold). PMID:20031412

  13. Identification of a novel class of androgen receptor antagonists based on the bicyclic-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione nucleus.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Mark E; Balog, Aaron; Wei, Donna D; Pickering, Dacia; Attar, Ricardo M; Geng, Jieping; Rizzo, Cheryl A; Hunt, John T; Gottardis, Marco M; Weinmann, Roberto; Martinez, Rogelio

    2005-01-17

    A novel series of isoindoledione based compounds were identified as potent antagonists of the androgen receptor (AR). SAR around this series revealed dramatic differences in binding and function in mutant variants (MT) of the AR as compared to the wild type (WT) receptor. Optimization of the aniline portion revealed substitution patterns, which yielded potent antagonist activity against the WT AR as well as the MT AR found in the LNCaP and PCa2b human prostate tumor cell lines. PMID:15603960

  14. Prokineticin Receptor 1 Antagonist PC-10 as a Biomarker for Imaging Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Orit; Weiss, Ido D.; Niu, Gang; Balboni, Gianfranco; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Lattanzi, Roberta; Salvadori, Severo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and its ligand Bv8 were shown to be expressed in inflammation-induced pain and by tumor-supporting fibroblasts. Blocking this receptor might prove useful for reducing pain and for cancer therapy. However, there is no method to quantify the levels of these receptors in vivo. Methods A nonpeptidic PKR1 antagonist, N-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine, which contains a free guanidine group, was labeled with 18F by reacting the guanidine function with N-succinimidyl-4-18F-fluorobenzoate to give the guanidinyl amide N-(4-18F-fluoro-benzoyl)-N?-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine (18F-PC-10). Inflammation was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund adjuvant in the paw. The mice were imaged with 18F-PC-10, 18F-FDG, and 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-PTSM) at 24 h after complete Freund adjuvant injection using a small-animal PET device. Results 18F-PC-10 was synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 16% ± 3% (decay-corrected). 18F-PC-10 accumulated specifically in the inflamed paw 4- to 5-fold more than in the control paw. Compared with 18F-PC-10, 18F-FDG and 64Cu-PTSM displayed higher accumulation in the inflamed paw but also had higher accumulation in the control paw, demonstrating a reduced signal-to-background ratio. 18F-PC-10 also accumulated in PKR1-expressing organs, such as the salivary gland and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion 18F-PC-10 can be used to image PKR1, a biomarker of the inflammation process. However, the high uptake of 18F-PC-10 in the gastrointestinal tract, due to specific uptake and the metabolic processing of this highly lipophilic molecule, would restrict its utility. PMID:21421710

  15. Antipsychotic-like profile of thioperamide, a selective H3-receptor antagonist in mice.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohd; Uma Devi, P; Ali, Atif; Pillai, K K; Vohora, Divya

    2006-08-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence points to a role of central histaminergic system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study was designed to study the effect of histamine H(3)-receptor ligands on neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and amphetamine-induced locomotor activities in mice. Catalepsy was induced by haloperidol (2 mg/kg p.o.), while apomorphine (1.5 mg/kg s.c.) and amphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.) were used for studying climbing behavior and locomotor activities, respectively. (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (RAMH) (5 microg i.c.v.) and thioperamide (THP) (15 mg/kg i.p.), per se did not cause catalepsy. Administration of THP (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg i.p.) 1 h prior to haloperidol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the catalepsy times (P < 0.05). However, pretreatment with RAMH significantly reversed such an effect of THP (15 mg/kg i.p.). RAMH per se showed significant reduction in locomotor time, distance traveled and average speed but THP (15 mg/kg i.p.) per se had no effect on these parameters. On amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, THP (3.75 and 7.5 mg/kg i.p.) reduced locomotor time, distance traveled and average speed (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with RAMH (5 microg i.c.v.) could partially reverse such effects of THP (3.75 mg/kg i.p.). Climbing behavior induced by apomorphine was reduced in animals treated with THP. Such an effect was, however, reversed in presence of RAMH. THP exhibited an antipsychotic-like profile by potentiating haloperidol-induced catalepsy, reducing amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and reducing apomorphine-induced climbing in mice. Such effects of THP were reversed by RAMH indicating the involvement of histamine H(3)-receptors. Findings suggest a potential for H(3)-receptor antagonists in improving the refractory cases of schizophrenia. PMID:16867021

  16. Interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with dopaminergic D3 binding sites in rat striatum. Evidence that (/sup 3/H)dopamine can label a high affinity agonist-binding state of the D1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.E.; Creese, I.

    1985-02-01

    The interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with /sup 3/H-agonist labeled D3 dopaminergic binding sites of rat striatum have been characterized by radioligand-binding techniques. When the binding of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)apomorphine to D2 dopamine receptors is blocked by the inclusion of D2 selective concentrations of unlabeled spiroperidol or domperidone, these ligands appear to label selectively the previously termed D3 binding site. Antagonist/(/sup 3/H)dopamine competition curves are of uniformly steep slope (nH . 1.0), suggesting the presence of a single D3 binding site. The relative potencies of antagonists to inhibit D3 specific (/sup 3/H)dopamine binding are significantly correlated with their potencies to block D1 dopamine receptors as measured by the inhibition of both dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase and (/sup 3/H)flupentixol-binding activities. The affinities of agonists to inhibit D3 specific (/sup 3/H)dopamine binding are also correlated with estimates of these agonists affinities for the high affinity binding component of agonist/(/sup 3/H)flupentixol competition curves. Both D3 specific (/sup 3/H) dopamine binding and the high affinity agonist-binding component of dopamine/(/sup 3/H)flupentixol competition curves show a similar sensitivity to guanine nucleotides. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the D3 binding site is related to a high affinity agonist-binding state of the D1 dopamine receptor.

  17. The Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonist CORT 108297 Decreases Neuroendocrine Stress Responses and Immobility in the Forced Swim Test

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Matia B.; Wulsin, Aynara C.; Rice, Taylor; Wick, Dayna; Myers, Brent; McKlveen, Jessica; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne; Herman, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have employed treatment with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists in an attempt to limit the deleterious behavioral and physiological effects of excess glucocorticoids. Here, we examined the effects of GR antagonists on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses, using two compounds: mifepristone, a GR antagonist that is also a progesterone receptor antagonist, and CORT 108297, a specific GR antagonist lacking anti-progestin activity. Given its well-documented impact on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses, imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) served as a positive control. Male rats were treated for five days with mifepristone (10 mg/kg), CORT 108297 (30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg), imipramine (10mg/kg) or vehicle and exposed to forced swim test (FST) or restraint stress. Relative to vehicle, imipramine potently suppressed adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to FST and restraint exposure. Imipramine also decreased immobility in the FST, consistent with antidepressant actions. Both doses of CORT 108297 potently suppressed peak corticosterone responses to FST and restraint stress. However, only the higher dose of CORT 108297 (60mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility in the FST. In contrast, mifepristone induced protracted secretion of corticosterone in response to both stressors, and modestly decreased immobility in the FST. Taken together, the data indicate distinct effects of each compound on neuroendocrine stress responses and also highlight dissociation between corticosterone responses and immobility in the FST. Within the context of the present study, our data suggest CORT 108297 may be an attractive alternative for mitigating neuroendocrine and behavioral states associated with excess glucocorticoid secretion. PMID:24530653

  18. In vivo and in vitro activity of selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Conolan, S.; Quinn, M. J.; Taylor, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The abilities of ketanserin, ritanserin, R56413 and LY53857 to inhibit 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline-induced vasoconstrictor responses both in vitro and in vivo and to lower blood pressure in the rat, were compared. In the isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation of the rat all of the compounds tested were found to be potent inhibitors of 5-HT-induced vasoconstrictor responses. Ritanserin was the most potent compound, producing more than 50% inhibition of a near maximal response to 5-HT at a concentration of 10(-11) M. All four compounds were found to be competitive antagonists of noradrenaline; ketanserin being the most potent with a pA2 value of 7.64 +/- 0.06. 5-HT-induced pressor responses in the pithed rat were inhibited by low doses (0.3-10 micrograms kg-1) of the four compounds. Ketanserin, at doses of 0.1-3.0 mg kg-1, resulted in rightward shifts of the control dose-response curve to noradrenaline in the pithed rat. None of the other compounds had any significant effect on the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses. Ketanserin (0.1-1 mg kg-1) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the mean arterial blood pressure of anaesthetized rats. The maximum decrease in blood pressure observed following a dose of 1 mg kg-1 ketanserin was 73.7 +/- 4.7 mmHg. The other compounds at doses of 1.0-3.0 mg kg-1 produced a decrease in blood pressure of a lesser magnitude than that following ketanserin. In addition, this effect did not appear to be dose-dependent. It is suggested that the acute hypotensive effect of ketanserin results predominantly from alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3801767

  19. Effects of an NMDA-receptor antagonist, MK-801, on central locomotor programming in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, F; Corio, M; Palisses, R; Viala, D

    1991-01-01

    NMDA has been shown to disclose spinal fictive locomotor activity in various in vitro preparations. In the present work the NMDA-mediated effects of endogenously released excitatory aminoacids (EAA) on fictive locomotion in the adult rabbit preparation were assessed in vivo using systemic injections of a non competitive NMDA-antagonist, MK-801. In acute low spinal and curarized preparations, the amplitude of the "spontaneous" fictive locomotor activities recorded from hindlimb muscle nerves after nialamide-DOPA pretreatment was much decreased in flexor and extensor nerves after MK-801 administration (0.25 mg/kg i.v.) whereas the locomotor period increased slightly. The more potent locomotor bursts, evoked by repetitive sural nerve stimulation at 10 Hz during 10 s, were differently affected after MK-801: the main effect was a lengthening of the locomotor period and a less drastic drop in the burst amplitude. These changes in the burst period were maximal for activities evoked by A fibre group stimulation (+100%) and less when C fibres were recruited (+70%). In decerebrate curarized preparations where the locomotor sequences were evoked either by sural nerve stimulation or by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region, MK-801 (0.25 mg/kg i.v.) caused the same drop in burst amplitude (by at least 50%) as in the spinal preparation but, in contrast, it reinforced rhythmic bursting: this was revealed by a clear shortening (up to -65%) of the locomotor period and by the prolongation of rhythmic bursting after stimulation. All these effects obtained in decerebrate preparations were maximal 20-30 min after MK-801 injection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1836763

  20. Non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) decreases functional disorders in cytotoxic brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Häntzschel, A; Andreas, K

    2000-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors were found to be involved in development of functional disorders caused by hexachlorophene. In order to specify the role of glutamate receptors we studied the protective effects of the selective antagonist of the kainate/(+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor/channel 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2, 3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide disodium (NBQX) and of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil tartrate on coordinative motor behaviour of adult male Wistar rats as assessed in a simple 'ladder-test'. Neurotoxic injury of the cerebrum after hexachlorophene administration and putative amelioration after treatment with test substances was demonstrated histologically. Hexachlorophene-induced motor disturbance remitted spontaneously when stopping the noxis, but remittance occurred significantly earlier when NBQX [0.45 and 0.6 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)] was applied as well. Ifenprodil (0.15 to 1.2 mg/kg) did not improve the motor function. Vacuolation of white matter of the whole cerebrum was observed after 3 weeks of treatment with hexachlorophene. These morphological alterations caused by hexachlorophene treatment [central nervous system (CNS) vacuolation] spontaneously revert only after 5-6 weeks. The 5-day duration with test substances was too short for remission of vacuolation which thus may not apply to the situation after treatment with glutamate antagonists, despite improvement of motor function. The results suggest that kainate/AMPA receptor channels are at least partially involved in the mechanism of brain damage induced by hexachlorophene, however, the polyamine binding site of the NMDA receptor evidently is not involved. PMID:10663390

  1. Role of CCK/gastrin receptors in gastrointestinal/metabolic diseases and results of human studies using gastrin/CCK receptor agonists/antagonists in these diseases

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the estabished and possible roles of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in gastrointestinal (GI) and metabolic diseases are reviewed and available results from human agonist/antagonist studies are discussed. While there is evidence for the involvement of CCK1R in numerous diseases including pancreatic disorders, motility disorders, tumor growth, regulation of satiety and a number of CCK-deficient states, the role of CCK1R in these conditions is not clearly defined. There are encouraging data from several clinical studies of CCK1R antagonists in some of these conditions, but their role as therapeutic agents remains unclear. The role of CCK2R in physiological (atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia) and pathological (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) hypergastrinemic states, its effects on the gastric mucosa (ECL cell hyperplasia, carcinoids, parietal cell mass) and its role in acid-peptic disorders are clearly defined. Furthermore, recent studies point to a possible role for CCK2R in a number of GI malignancies. Current data from human studies of CCK2R antagonists are presented and their potential role in the treatment of these conditions reviewed. Furthermore, the role of CCK2 receptors as targets for medical imaging is discussed. Even though cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin were among the first gastrointestinal hormones discovered [1,2], both their physiological roles as well as their roles in clinically relevant gastrointestinal diseases remain unclear and even controversial in many cases [3–6]. The structural characterization of CCK and gastrin [7,8], pharmacological identification [9–13] and cloning [14,15] of CCK and gastrin receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R), characterization of receptor location, peptide and receptor genes, development of receptor antagonists and receptor/agonist knockout animals [16–21] have led to important advancements in our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological role of CCK and gastrin signaling [3]. Most of these topics are dealt with in other papers in this volume. The present review will focus on the role of CCK and gastrin and their receptors (CCK1R and CCK2R) in gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases with special emphasis on human studies and the assessments and potential for their use for treatments for human diseases PMID:17584143

  2. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists as New Mode-of-Action Insecticide Leads for Control of Aedes and Culex Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Andrew B.; Ejendal, Karin F. K.; Doyle, Trevor B.; Meyer, Jason M.; Lang, Emma G.; Watts, Val J.; Hill, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New mode-of-action insecticides are sought to provide continued control of pesticide resistant arthropod vectors of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We previously identified antagonists of the AaDOP2 D1-like dopamine receptor (DAR) from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae as leads for novel insecticides. To extend DAR-based insecticide discovery, we evaluated the molecular and pharmacological characteristics of an orthologous DAR target, CqDOP2, from Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis and West Nile virus. Methods/Results CqDOP2 has 94.7% amino acid identity to AaDOP2 and 28.3% identity to the human D1-like DAR, hD1. CqDOP2 and AaDOP2 exhibited similar pharmacological responses to biogenic amines and DAR antagonists in cell-based assays. The antagonists amitriptyline, amperozide, asenapine, chlorpromazine and doxepin were between 35 to 227-fold more selective at inhibiting the response of CqDOP2 and AaDOP2 in comparison to hD1. Antagonists were toxic to both C. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti larvae, with LC50 values ranging from 41 to 208 ?M 72 h post-exposure. Orthologous DOP2 receptors identified from the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi and the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, had high sequence similarity to CqDOP2 and AaDOP2. Conclusions DAR antagonists represent a putative new insecticide class with activity against C. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the two most important mosquito vectors of NTDs. There has been limited change in the sequence and pharmacological properties of the DOP2 DARs of these species since divergence of the tribes Culicini and Aedini. We identified antagonists selective for mosquito versus human DARs and observed a correlation between DAR pharmacology and the in vivo larval toxicity of antagonists. These data demonstrate that sequence similarity can be predictive of target potential. On this basis, we propose expanded insecticide discovery around orthologous DOP2 targets from additional dipteran vectors. PMID:25793586

  3. Selective agonists and antagonists of formylpeptide receptors: duplex flow cytometry and mixture-based positional scanning libraries.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Clemencia; Edwards, Bruce S; Appel, Jon R; Yates-Gibbins, Tina; Giulianotti, Marc A; Medina-Franco, Jose L; Young, Susan M; Santos, Radleigh G; Sklar, Larry A; Houghten, Richard A

    2013-09-01

    The formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) and formylpeptide-like 1 receptor (FPR2) are G protein-coupled receptors that are linked to acute inflammatory responses, malignant glioma stem cell metastasis, and chronic inflammation. Although several N-formyl peptides are known to bind to these receptors, more selective small-molecule, high-affinity ligands are needed for a better understanding of the physiologic roles played by these receptors. High-throughput assays using mixture-based combinatorial libraries represent a unique, highly efficient approach for rapid data acquisition and ligand identification. We report the superiority of this approach in the context of the simultaneous screening of a diverse set of mixture-based small-molecule libraries. We used a single cross-reactive peptide ligand for a duplex flow cytometric screen of FPR1 and FPR2 in color-coded cell lines. Screening 37 different mixture-based combinatorial libraries totaling more than five million small molecules (contained in 5,261 mixture samples) resulted in seven libraries that significantly inhibited activity at the receptors. Using positional scanning deconvolution, selective high-affinity (low nM K(i)) individual compounds were identified from two separate libraries, namely, pyrrolidine bis-diketopiperazine and polyphenyl urea. The most active individual compounds were characterized for their functional activities as agonists or antagonists with the most potent FPR1 agonist and FPR2 antagonist identified to date with an EC?? of 131 nM (4 nM K(i)) and an IC?? of 81 nM (1 nM K(i)), respectively, in intracellular Ca²? response determinations. Comparative analyses of other previous screening approaches clearly illustrate the efficiency of identifying receptor selective, individual compounds from mixture-based combinatorial libraries. PMID:23788657

  4. Effects of GABA receptor antagonists on thresholds of P23H rat retinal ganglion cells to electrical stimulation of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Ralph J.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III

    2011-06-01

    An electronic retinal prosthesis may provide useful vision for patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In animal models of RP, the amount of current needed to activate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is higher than in normal, healthy retinas. In this study, we sought to reduce the stimulation thresholds of RGCs in a degenerate rat model (P23H-line 1) by blocking GABA receptor mediated inhibition in the retina. We examined the effects of TPMPA, a GABAC receptor antagonist, and SR95531, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on the electrically evoked responses of RGCs to biphasic current pulses delivered to the subretinal surface through a 400 µm diameter electrode. Both TPMPA and SR95531 reduced the stimulation thresholds of ON-center RGCs on average by 15% and 20% respectively. Co-application of the two GABA receptor antagonists had the greatest effect, on average reducing stimulation thresholds by 32%. In addition, co-application of the two GABA receptor antagonists increased the magnitude of the electrically evoked responses on average three-fold. Neither TPMPA nor SR95531, applied alone or in combination, had consistent effects on the stimulation thresholds of OFF-center RGCs. We suggest that the effects of the GABA receptor antagonists on ON-center RGCs may be attributable to blockage of GABA receptors on the axon terminals of ON bipolar cells.

  5. Short Communication: Inhibition of DC-SIGN-Mediated HIV-1 Infection by Complementary Actions of Dendritic Cell Receptor Antagonists and Env-Targeting Virus Inactivators.

    PubMed

    Pustylnikov, Sergey; Dave, Rajnish S; Khan, Zafar K; Porkolab, Vanessa; Rashad, Adel A; Hutchinson, Matthew; Fieschi, Frank; Chaiken, Irwin; Jain, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    The DC-SIGN receptor on human dendritic cells interacts with HIV gp120 to promote both infection of antigen-presenting cells and transinfection of T cells. We hypothesized that in DC-SIGN-expressing cells, both DC-SIGN ligands such as dextrans and gp120 antagonists such as peptide triazoles would inhibit HIV infection with potential complementary antagonist effects. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of dextran (D66), isomaltooligosaccharides (D06), and several peptide triazoles (HNG156, K13, and UM15) on HIV infection of B-THP-1/DC-SIGN cells. In surface plasmon resonance competition assays, D66 (IC50?=?35.4??M) and D06 (IC50?=?3.4?mM) prevented binding of soluble DC-SIGN to immobilized mannosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). An efficacious dose-dependent inhibition of DC-SIGN-mediated HIV infection in both pretreatment and posttreatment settings was observed, as indicated by inhibitory potentials (EC50) [D66 (8??M), D06 (48?mM), HNG156 (40??M), UM15 (100?nM), and K13 (25?nM)]. Importantly, both dextrans and peptide triazoles significantly decreased HIV gag RNA levels [D66 (7-fold), D06 (13-fold), HNG156 (7-fold), K-13 (3-fold), and UM15 (6-fold)]. Interestingly, D06 at the highest effective concentration showed a 14-fold decrease of infection, while its combination with 50??M HNG156 showed a 26-fold decrease. Hence, these compounds can combine to inactivate the viruses and suppress DC-SIGN-mediated virus-cell interaction that as shown earlier leads to dendritic cell HIV infection and transinfection dependent on the DC-SIGN receptor. PMID:26383762

  6. The 2.6 angstrom crystal structure of a human A2A adenosine receptor bound to an antagonist.

    PubMed

    Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Griffith, Mark T; Hanson, Michael A; Cherezov, Vadim; Chien, Ellen Y T; Lane, J Robert; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Stevens, Raymond C

    2008-11-21

    The adenosine class of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediates the important role of extracellular adenosine in many physiological processes and is antagonized by caffeine. We have determined the crystal structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor, in complex with a high-affinity subtype-selective antagonist, ZM241385, to 2.6 angstrom resolution. Four disulfide bridges in the extracellular domain, combined with a subtle repacking of the transmembrane helices relative to the adrenergic and rhodopsin receptor structures, define a pocket distinct from that of other structurally determined GPCRs. The arrangement allows for the binding of the antagonist in an extended conformation, perpendicular to the membrane plane. The binding site highlights an integral role for the extracellular loops, together with the helical core, in ligand recognition by this class of GPCRs and suggests a role for ZM241385 in restricting the movement of a tryptophan residue important in the activation mechanism of the class A receptors. PMID:18832607

  7. A calixpyrrole derivative acts as an antagonist to GPER, a G-protein coupled receptor: mechanisms and models

    PubMed Central

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Rosano, Camillo; Pisano, Assunta; Santolla, Maria Francesca; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna; De Marco, Paola; Dolce, Vincenza; Ponassi, Marco; Felli, Lamberto; Cafeo, Grazia; Kohnke, Franz Heinrich; Abonante, Sergio; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estrogens regulate numerous pathophysiological processes, mainly by binding to and activating estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER?. Increasing amounts of evidence have recently demonstrated that G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30; also known as GPER) is also involved in diverse biological responses to estrogens both in normal and cancer cells. The classical ER and GPER share several features, including the ability to bind to identical compounds; nevertheless, some ligands exhibit opposed activity through these receptors. It is worth noting that, owing to the availability of selective agonists and antagonists of GPER for research, certain differential roles elicited by GPER compared with ER have been identified. Here, we provide evidence on the molecular mechanisms through which a calixpyrrole derivative acts as a GPER antagonist in different model systems, such as breast tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) obtained from breast cancer patients. Our data might open new perspectives toward the development of a further class of selective GPER ligands in order to better dissect the role exerted by this receptor in different pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, calixpyrrole derivatives could be considered in future anticancer strategies targeting GPER in cancer cells. PMID:26183213

  8. Anti-arrhythmic and electrophysiological effects of the endothelin receptor antagonists, BQ-123 and PD161721.

    PubMed

    Crockett, T R; Scott, G A; McGowan, N W; Kane, K A; Wainwright, C L

    2001-11-30

    The effects of the endothelin ET(A), (BQ-123) and endothelin ET(A/B) (PD161721) receptor antagonists were investigated on ischaemia-induced arrhythmias and on the maximum following frequency. The study was carried out in Langendorff perfused rat hearts subjected to coronary artery occlusion in which the severity of arrhythmias, coronary perfusion pressure and heart rate were measured. The % incidence of ischaemia-induced irreversible ventricular fibrillation (ventricular fibrillation) was reduced significantly from 58%, in control rat hearts, to 0% (at 10(-7) and 10(-6) M PD161721 and 10(-6) M BQ-123 P<0.05). Maximum following frequency was measured in guinea-pig isolated atria. In the presence of normal extracellular [K(+)], BQ-123 and PD161721, at 10(-6) M, significantly decreased the maximum following frequency from 9.0+/-0.7 to 7.2+/-0.4 and from 8.3+/-0.4 to 6.7+/-0.3 Hz, respectively (P<0.05). These effects were not potentiated by raising the extracellular [K(+)] with the exception of 10(-9) M PD161721. In contrast, lignocaine's ability to reduce the maximum following frequency was greater in elevated (e.g. at 1.7x10(-4) M from 8.4+/-0.3 to 2.5+/-0.6 Hz) than in normal [K(+)] (from 9.0+/-0.3 to 4.9+/-0.5 Hz). In conclusion, both BQ-123 and PD161721 had an anti-fibrillatory effect in isolated rat hearts that may be due, at least in part, to an ability to reduce the maximum following frequency. This latter effect is unlikely to be due to Na(+) channel blockade since it was not markedly potentiated by elevation of extracellular [K(+)]. PMID:11734190

  9. Formulation development for the orexin receptor antagonist almorexant: assessment in two clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Gehin, Martine; Cruz, Hans Gabriel; Hoever, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Almorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, was investigated for the treatment of insomnia. The following observations initiated further formulation development: the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was sticking to the apparatus used during tablet compression; almorexant has an absolute bioavailability of 11.2%; and almorexant modestly decreased the latency to persistent sleep by 10.4 minutes in patients. Two randomized crossover studies were performed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of several new formulations in healthy subjects. In study I, the old “sticky” tablet was compared to two new formulations developed to prevent sticking: a qualitatively similar tablet but with a larger API crystal size and a tablet with 30% more excipients as well as a larger API crystal size. This latter formulation was available in two strengths. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence interval of the area under the curve (AUC) were within the bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25 for the different comparisons between formulations. In study II, 100 mg of the reference tablet was compared to 25 and 50 mg of a liquid-filled hard gelatin capsule developed to increase the bioavailability of almorexant. The geometric mean ratios of the maximum concentration and AUC comparing the new 25 and 50 mg capsule formulations to the reference tablet did not exceed 0.25 and 0.50, respectively, indicating that the new capsule formulation did not increase the maximum concentration of or the total exposure to almorexant. In conclusion, a new tablet was developed but formulation development aimed at increasing the bioavailability of almorexant failed. PMID:24812492

  10. Terfenadine, a potent histamine H1-receptor antagonist in the treatment of grass pollen sensitive asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, P; Jackson, L; Smith, R; Holgate, S T

    1990-01-01

    1. We have assessed the effect of a specific histamine H1-receptor antagonist, terfenadine, in the treatment of atopic asthmatics during the grass pollen season. 2. Eighteen mild, grass pollen sensitive asthmatics (10F, 8M, mean +/- s.e. mean age 34.7 +/- 5.6 years), all of whom were controlled on inhaled beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists alone, took part in a 9 week, double-blind, crossover study using terfenadine 180 mg three times daily and placebo. Throughout the study patients recorded peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) twice daily, symptoms of cough, wheeze, breathlessness and chest tightness (scored 0-3), and their use of bronchodilators. Methacholine inhalation challenge tests were performed each week. Data were analysed by a method suitable for a two group, two period crossover trial with baseline measurements. 3. Terfenadine significantly reduced symptoms of cough by 76.9% (P less than 0.05) and wheeze by 46.9% (P less than 0.02). Symptoms of breathlessness and chest tightness were reduced by 16.8 and 30.3% respectively but these were not statistically significant. Morning and evening PEFR rose by 5.5 (P less than 0.001) and 6.2% (P less than 0.003) respectively on treatment with terfenadine and bronchodilator use fell by 40.3%. A progressive increase in methacholine sensitivity was seen in both treatment groups throughout the study but did not reach statistical significance. 4. We conclude that treatment with terfenadine during the grass pollen season in sensitive asthmatics reduced their symptoms and bronchodilator requirements and produced a modest improvement in their lung function without affecting the development of increased methacholine sensitivity that occurred during the grass pollen season. PMID:1976343

  11. Study of cardiac repolarization in healthy volunteers performed with mizolastine, a new H1-receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chaufour, S; Caplain, H; Lilienthal, N; L’Héritier, C; Deschamps, C; Dubruc, C; Rosenzweig, P

    1999-01-01

    Aims The occurence of serious dysrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes, with terfenadine and astemizole had led to a reexamination of the potential effect of H1 antihistamines on cardiac repolarization. Mizolastine is a potent, selective, nonsedating peripherally acting H1-receptor antagonist which is registered for rhinitis and urticaria at a recommended dose of 10 mg once daily. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of mizolastine, on ventricular repolarization in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty-four healthy young volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study with three parallel groups. Each group consisted of 2 way cross-over 7 day treatment periods where mizolastine (10, 20 or 40 mg) and placebo were randomly administered. On day 1 and day 7, 12-lead ECG recordings were performed prior and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h after dosing and from day 2 to day 6, before dosing and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after. Results Whatever the analysis used (raw data, changes from baseline, incidence of individual out-of-range values) no significant differences were observed at any dose level vs placebo, on any of ECG parameters (HR, PR, QRS, QT, and QTc). In particular, no effect of mizolastine vs placebo was shown on QT and QTc although 95% CIs were wide. The only subject who exhibited a QTc?450 ms received placebo for 7 days. Conclusions This study found no evidence of an effect of mizolastine up to 40 mg (four times the therapeutic dose) on ventricular repolarization in healthy volunteers. PMID:10336575

  12. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Frank Y.; Han, Yingjie; Nikolic-Paterson, David J.; Kolkhof, Peter; Tesch, Greg H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Methods Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid) from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury. Results Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-?, IFN-?) and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin). In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction). Conclusions The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628) provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases. PMID:26700873

  13. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between almorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, and desipramine.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Hans G; Hay, Justin L; Hoever, Petra; Alessi, Federica; te Beek, Erik T; van Gerven, Joop M A; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-08-01

    Almorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) with sleep-enabling effects in humans. Insomnia is often associated with mental health problems, including depression. Hence, potential interactions with antidepressants deserve attention. Desipramine was selected as a model drug because it is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, which is inhibited by almorexant in vitro. A single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study in 20 healthy male subjects was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between almorexant and desipramine. Almorexant 200mg or matching placebo (double-blind) was administered orally once daily in the morning for 10 days, and a single oral dose of 50mg desipramine (open-label) was administered on Day 5. Almorexant increased the exposure to desipramine 3.7-fold, suggesting that almorexant is a moderate inhibitor of desipramine metabolism through inhibition of CYP2D6. Conversely, desipramine showed no relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics of almorexant. Pharmacodynamic evaluations indicated that almorexant alone reduced visuomotor coordination, postural stability, and alertness, and slightly increased calmness. Desipramine induced a reduction in subjective alertness and an increase in pupil/iris ratio. Despite the increase in exposure to desipramine, almorexant and desipramine in combination showed the same pharmacodynamic profile as almorexant alone, except for prolonging reduced alertness and preventing the miotic effect of almorexant. Co-administration also prolonged the mydriatic effect of desipramine. Overall, repeated administration of almorexant alone or with single-dose desipramine was well tolerated. The lack of a relevant interaction with antidepressants, if confirmed for other DORAs, would be a key feature for a safer class of hypnotics. PMID:24880753

  14. GABAB Receptor Antagonist CGP46381 Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia Development in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu-Ping; Schmid, Katrina L.; Han, Yu-Fei; Han, Xu-Guang; Tang, Hong-Wei; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP46381, on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in guinea pigs. Twenty-four guinea pigs had monocular visual deprivation induced using a diffuser for 11 days (day 14 to 25). The deprived eyes were treated with daily subconjunctival injections (100??l) of either 2% CGP46381, 0.2% CGP46381, or saline or received no injection. The fellow eyes were left untreated. Another six animals received no treatment. At the start and end of the treatment period, ocular refractions were measured using retinoscopy and vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and axial length (AL) using A-scan ultrasound. All of the deprived eyes developed relative myopia (treated versus untreated eyes, P < 0.05). The amount of myopia was significantly affected by the drug treatment (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.0001). The highest dose tested, 2% CGP46381, significantly inhibited myopia development compared to saline (2% CGP46381: ?1.08 ± 0.40?D, saline: ?4.33 ± 0.67?D, P < 0.01). The majority of these effects were due to less AL (2% CGP46381: 0.03 ± 0.01?mm, saline: 0.13 ± 0.02?mm, P < 0.01) and VCD (2% CGP46381: 0.02 ± 0.01?mm, saline: 0.08 ± 0.01?mm, P < 0.01) elongation. The lower dose tested, 0.2% CGP46381, did not significantly inhibit FDM (P > 0.05). Subconjunctival injections of CGP46381 inhibit FDM development in guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25649745

  15. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Protects against Lipopolysaccharide Induced Diaphragm Weakness in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Karisnan, Kanakeswary; Bakker, Anthony J.; Song, Yong; Noble, Peter B.; Pillow, J. Jane; Pinniger, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the fetal membranes) is strongly associated with preterm birth and in utero exposure to inflammation significantly impairs contractile function in the preterm lamb diaphragm. The fetal inflammatory response to intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is orchestrated via interleukin 1 (IL-1). We aimed to determine if LPS induced contractile dysfunction in the preterm diaphragm is mediated via the IL-1 pathway. Pregnant ewes received IA injections of recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) (Anakinra; 100 mg) or saline (Sal) 3 h prior to second IA injections of LPS (4 mg) or Sal at 119d gestational age (GA). Preterm lambs were killed after delivery at 121d GA (term = 150 d). Muscle fibres dissected from the right hemi-diaphragm were mounted in an in vitro muscle test system for assessment of contractile function. The left hemi-diaphragm was snap frozen for molecular and biochemical analyses. Maximum specific force in lambs exposed to IA LPS (Sal/LPS group) was 25% lower than in control lambs (Sal/Sal group; p=0.025). LPS-induced diaphragm weakness was associated with higher plasma IL-6 protein, diaphragm IL-1? mRNA and oxidised glutathione levels. Pre-treatment with rhIL-1ra (rhIL-1ra/LPS) ameliorated the LPS-induced diaphragm weakness and blocked systemic and local inflammatory responses, but did not prevent the rise in oxidised glutathione. These findings indicate that LPS induced diaphragm dysfunction is mediated via IL-1 and occurs independently of oxidative stress. Therefore, the IL-1 pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in the management of impaired diaphragm function in preterm infants. PMID:25860718

  16. Effect of a D3 receptor antagonist on context-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking.

    PubMed

    Sabioni, Pamela; Di Ciano, Patricia; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of several treatment options for smoking cessation, the rate of relapse after treatment is very high. We and others have proposed that targeting the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) may be a good strategy for treatment of nicotine dependence. In human participants, reintroduction to an environment previously associated with drug-taking may induce relapse. In animals, such phenomenon can be studied using the context-induced reinstatement paradigm. As the role of DRD3 in context-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking has not yet been explored, we investigated the effects of different doses of the selective DRD3 antagonist SB-277011-A on this reinstatement. Sprague-Dawley adult rats were first trained to self-administer nicotine and subsequently underwent extinction in a second context for 5-7 days. We evaluated the effect of 1, 3 or 10mg/kg of SB-277011-A administered prior to the reintroduction to the training context. We used two different designs: 1) a between-subjects design with a unique reinstatement test; and 2) a counterbalanced within-subjects design, with 4 reinstatement tests. Our findings indicate that, in the within-subjects design, the magnitude of responding induced by the context-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking was robust during the first reinstatement test, but significantly decreased with repeated testing. SB-277011-A (10mg/kg) blocked context-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking at first exposure to the context (between-subjects design), but not after repeated context exposure which produced weaker reinstatement over days. Our results support a role for DRD3 mediating context-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking, but these effects may not be sustained over time. Further studies should explore this in human participants for validation. PMID:26279138

  17. GABAB receptor antagonist CGP46381 inhibits form-deprivation myopia development in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen-Ying; Wang, Xu-Ping; Schmid, Katrina L; Han, Yu-Fei; Han, Xu-Guang; Tang, Hong-Wei; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP46381, on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in guinea pigs. Twenty-four guinea pigs had monocular visual deprivation induced using a diffuser for 11 days (day 14 to 25). The deprived eyes were treated with daily subconjunctival injections (100??l) of either 2% CGP46381, 0.2% CGP46381, or saline or received no injection. The fellow eyes were left untreated. Another six animals received no treatment. At the start and end of the treatment period, ocular refractions were measured using retinoscopy and vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and axial length (AL) using A-scan ultrasound. All of the deprived eyes developed relative myopia (treated versus untreated eyes, P < 0.05). The amount of myopia was significantly affected by the drug treatment (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.0001). The highest dose tested, 2% CGP46381, significantly inhibited myopia development compared to saline (2% CGP46381: -1.08 ± 0.40?D, saline: -4.33 ± 0.67?D, P < 0.01). The majority of these effects were due to less AL (2% CGP46381: 0.03 ± 0.01?mm, saline: 0.13 ± 0.02?mm, P < 0.01) and VCD (2% CGP46381: 0.02 ± 0.01?mm, saline: 0.08 ± 0.01?mm, P < 0.01) elongation. The lower dose tested, 0.2% CGP46381, did not significantly inhibit FDM (P > 0.05). Subconjunctival injections of CGP46381 inhibit FDM development in guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25649745

  18. Bosentan, a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist, inhibits superoxide anion-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Karla G G; Navarro, Suelen A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Cunha, Thiago M; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-11-01

    Bosentan is a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist widely used to treat patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the emerging literature suggests bosentan as a potent anti-inflammatory drug. Superoxide anion is produced in large amounts during inflammation, stimulates cytokine production, and thus contributes to inflammation and pain. However, it remains to be determined whether endothelin contributes to the inflammatory response triggered by the superoxide anion. The present study investigated the effects of bosentan in a mouse model of inflammation and pain induced by potassium superoxide, a superoxide anion donor. Male Swiss mice were treated with bosentan (10-100 mg/kg) by oral gavage, 1 h before potassium superoxide injection, and the inflammatory response was evaluated locally and at spinal cord (L4-L6) levels. Bosentan (100 mg/kg) inhibited superoxide anion-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, overt pain-like behavior (abdominal writhings, paw flinching, and licking), paw edema, myeloperoxidase activity (neutrophil marker) in the paw skin, and leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity. Bosentan also inhibited superoxide anion-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production, while it enhanced IL-10 production in the paw skin and spinal cord. Bosentan inhibited the reduction of antioxidant capacity (reduced glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and ABTS radical scavenging ability) induced by the superoxide anion. Finally, we demonstrated that intraplantar injection of potassium superoxide induces the mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 in the paw skin and spinal cord. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that superoxide anion-induced inflammation, pain, cytokine production, and oxidative stress depend on endothelin; therefore, these responses are amenable to bosentan treatment. PMID:26246053

  19. PET imaging detection of macrophages with a formyl peptide receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kundu, Bijoy; Zhong, Min; Huang, Tao; Li, Jing; Chordia, Mahendra D; Chen, Mei-Hua; Pan, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Shi, Weibin

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages are a major inflammatory cell type involved in the development and progression of many important chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously found that apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice with the C57BL/6 (B6) background develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and accelerated atherosclerosis when fed a Western diet and that there are increased macrophage infiltrations in pancreatic islets and aorta. The formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) is abundantly expressed on the surface of macrophages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of cinnamoyl-F-(D)L-F-(D)L-F (cFLFLF), a natural FPR1 antagonist, to detection of macrophages in the pancreatic islets and aorta. (64)Cu labeled cFLFLF and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were administered to mice with or without T2DM. Diabetic mice showed an increased (18)FDG uptake in the subcutaneous fat compared with control mice, but pancreatic uptake was minimal for either group. In contrast, diabetic mice exhibited visually noticeable more cFLFLF-(64)Cu retention in pancreas and liver than control mice. The heart and pancreas isolated from diabetic mice contained more macrophages and showed stronger PET signals than those of control mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the presence of macrophages but not neutrophils in pancreatic islets. Real-time PCR analysis revealed much higher FPR1 expression in pancreatic islets of diabetic over control mice. Autoradiography and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed abundant FPR1 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, (64)Cu-labeled cFLFLF peptide is a more effective PET agent for detecting macrophages compared to FDG. PMID:25532700

  20. A selective cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 antagonist blocks myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and vascular permeability in mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Nathan C; Yan, Dong; Ballantyne, Laurel L; Barajas-Espinosa, Alma; St Amand, Tim; Pratt, Derek A; Funk, Colin D

    2011-12-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent inflammatory mediators that predominantly exert their effects by binding to cysteinyl leukotriene receptors of the G protein-coupled receptor family. CysLT receptor 2 (CysLT(2)R), expressed in endothelial cells of some vascular beds, has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular functions. Endothelium-specific overexpression of human CysLT(2)R in transgenic mice (hEC-CysLT(2)R) greatly increases myocardial infarction damage. Investigation of this receptor, however, has been hindered by the lack of selective pharmacological antagonists. Here, we describe the characterization of 3-(((3-carboxycyclohexyl)amino)carbonyl)-4-(3-(4-(4-phenoxybutoxy)phenyl)-propoxy)benzoic acid (BayCysLT(2)) and explore the selective effects of this compound in attenuating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage and vascular leakage. Using a recently developed ?-galactosidase-?-arrestin complementation assay for CysLT(2)R activity (Mol Pharmacol 79:270-278, 2011), we determined BayCysLT(2) to be ?20-fold more potent than the nonselective dual CysLT receptor 1 (CysLT(1)R)/CysLT(2)R antagonist 4-(((1R,2E,4E,6Z,9Z)-1-((1S)-4-carboxy-1-hydroxybutyl)-2,4,6,9-pentadecatetraen-1-yl)thio)benzoic acid (Bay-u9773) (IC(50) 274 nM versus 4.6 ?M, respectively). Intracellular calcium mobilization in response to cysteinyl leukotriene administration showed that BayCysLT(2) was >500-fold more selective for CysLT(2)R compared with CysLT(1)R. Intraperitoneal injection of BayCysLT(2) in mice significantly attenuated leukotriene D(4)-induced Evans blue dye leakage in the murine ear vasculature. BayCysLT(2) administration either before or after ischemia/reperfusion attenuated the aforementioned increased myocardial infarction damage in hEC-CysLT(2)R mice. Finally, decreased neutrophil infiltration and leukocyte adhesion molecule mRNA expression were observed in mice treated with antagonist compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, we present the characterization of a potent and selective antagonist for CysLT(2)R that is useful for discerning biological activities of this receptor. PMID:21903747

  1. Non-equivalence of Key Positively Charged Residues of the Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor in the Recognition and Function of Agonist Versus Antagonist Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Pandey, Sunil K; MacKenzie, Amanda E; Hudson, Brian D; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled free fatty acid 2 (FFA2) receptor, and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, a lack of understanding of the molecular determinants dictating how ligands bind to this receptor has hindered development. We have developed a novel radiolabeled FFA2 antagonist to probe ligand binding to FFA2, and in combination with mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies, we define how agonist and antagonist ligands interact with the receptor. Although both agonist and antagonist ligands contain negatively charged carboxylates that interact with two key positively charged arginine residues in transmembrane domains V and VII of FFA2, there are clear differences in how these interactions occur. Specifically, although agonists require interaction with both arginine residues to bind the receptor, antagonists require an interaction with only one of the two. Moreover, different chemical series of antagonist interact preferentially with different arginine residues. A homology model capable of rationalizing these observations was developed and provides a tool that will be invaluable for identifying improved FFA2 agonists and antagonists to further define function and therapeutic opportunities of this receptor. PMID:26518871

  2. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Has a Novel Function in the Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hisashi; Ishihara, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Izawa, Ario; Ozeki, Nobuaki; Okabe, Eijiro; Kamiya, Yosuke; Ozawa, Yusuke; Mizutani, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Genta; Mogi, Makio; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Noguchi, Toshihide; Mitani, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an IL-1 family member, which binds to IL-1 receptors but does not induce any intracellular signaling. We addressed whether IL-1Ra has a novel function in regulation of the extracellular matrix or adhesion molecules. Polymerase chain reaction array analysis demonstrated a ~5-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) mRNA expression of IL-1Ra siRNA-transfected Ca9-22 human oral squamous epithelial carcinoma cells compared with the control. In fact, MMP-13 mRNA and protein expression as well as its activity in IL-1Ra siRNA-transfected Ca9-22 cell lines were significantly higher than those in the control. IL-1Ra siRNA treatment resulted in strong elevation of MMP-13 expression, whereas addition of rhIL-1Ra (40 ng/ml) suppressed MMP-13 expression, suggesting that IL-1Ra had a specific effect on MMP-13 induction. IL-1Ra siRNA could potently suppress IL-1?. No significant difference was found between the MMP-13 mRNA expression of IL-1Ra siRNA-transfected cells and those treated with anti-IL-1? or anti-IL-1? antibodies. These results suggested that continuous supply of IL-1 had no effect on the induction of MMP-13 by IL-1Ra siRNA. Histopathological investigation of MMP-13 in periodontal tissue showed specific localization in the junctional epithelial cells of IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to establish an experimental periodontitis model resulted in predominant localization of MMP-13 along apical junctional epithelial cells. Laminin-5, which is degraded by MMP-13, was found in the internal basal lamina of wild-type mice, whereas the internal basal lamina of IL-1Ra KO mice did not show obvious laminin-5 localization. In particular, laminin-5 localization almost disappeared in the internal basal lamina of IL-1Ra KO mice infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting that the suppression of IL-1Ra resulted in strong induction of MMP-13 that degraded laminin-5. In conclusion, IL-1Ra is associated with MMP-13 expression and has a novel function in such regulation without interference of the IL-1 signaling cascade. PMID:26474296

  3. Modulation of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis by Pegylated Hyaluronidase and Dopamine Receptor Antagonist in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pershina, Olga Victorovna; Reztsova, Alena Mikhaylovna; Ermakova, Natalia Nikolaevna; Khmelevskaya, Ekaterina Sergeevna; Krupin, Vycheslav Andreevich; Stepanova, Inna Ernestovna; Artamonov, Andrew Vladimirovich; Bekarev, Andrew Alexandrovich; Madonov, Pavel Gennadjevich

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronidases are groups of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid (HA). To stop enzymatic hydrolysis we modified testicular hyaluronidase (HYAL) by activated polyethylene oxide with the help of electron-beam synthesis. As a result we received pegylated hyaluronidase (pegHYAL). Spiperone is a selective D2 dopamine receptor antagonist. It was demonstrated on the model of a single bleomycin damage of alveolar epithelium that during the inflammatory phase monotherapy by pegHYAL or spiperone reduced the populations of hematopoietic stem /progenitor cells in the lung parenchyma. PegHYAL also reduced the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the serum and lungs, while spiperone reduced the level of the serum IL-1?. Polytherapy by spiperone and pegHYAL caused the increase of the quantity of hematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells in the lungs. Such an influx of blood cell precursors was observed on the background of considerable fall level of TGF-? and the increase level of TNF-? in the serum and lungs. These results show pegHYAL reduced the bleomycin-induced fibrosis reaction (production and accumulation of collagen) in the lung parenchyma. This effect was observed at a single and repetitive bleomycin damage of alveolar epithelium, the antifibrotic activity of pegHYAL surpassing the activity of testicular HYAL. The antifibrotic effect of pegHYAL is enhanced by an additional instillation of spiperone. Therapy by pegHYAL causes the flow of CD31?CD34?CD45?CD44+CD73+CD90+CD106+-cells into the fibrous lungs. These cells are incapable of differentiating into fibroblast cells. Spiperone instillation separately or together with pegHYAL reduced the MSC-like cells considerably. These data enable us to assume, that pegHYAL is a new and promising instrument both for preventive and therapy of toxic pneumofibrosis. The blockage of D2 dopamine receptors with the following change of hyaluronan matrix can be considered as a new strategy in treatment of pneumofibrosis. PMID:25927611

  4. LSN2424100: a novel, potent orexin-2 receptor antagonist with selectivity over orexin-1 receptors and activity in an animal model predictive of antidepressant-like efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Thomas E.; Benvenga, Mark J.; Jesudason, Cynthia D.; Zink, Charity; Vandergriff, Amy B.; Menezes, Michelle M.; Schober, Douglas A.; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel, potent and selective orexin-2 (OX2)/hypocretin-2 receptor antagonist with in vivo activity in an animal model predictive of antidepressant-like efficacy. N-biphenyl-2-yl-4-fluoro-N-(1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl) benzenesulfonamide HCl (LSN2424100) binds with high affinity to recombinant human OX2 receptors (Ki = 4.5 nM), and selectivity over OX1 receptors (Ki = 393 nM). LSN2424100 inhibited OXA-stimulated intracellular calcium release in HEK293 cells expressing human and rat OX2 receptors (Kb = 0.44 and 0.83 nM, respectively) preferentially over cells expressing human and rat OX1 (Kb = 90 and 175 nM, respectively). LSN2424100 exhibits good exposure in Sprague–Dawley rats after IP, but not PO, administration of a 30 mg/kg dose (AUC0–6 h = 1300 and 269 ng*h/mL, respectively). After IP administration in rats and mice, LSN2424100 produces dose-dependent antidepressant-like activity in the delayed-reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) assay, a model predictive of antidepressant-like efficacy. Efficacy in the DRL model was lost in mice lacking OX2, but not OX1 receptors, confirming OX2-specific activity. Importantly, antidepressant-like efficacy of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, was maintained in both OX1 and OX2 receptor knock-out mice. In conclusion, the novel OX2 receptor antagonist, LSN2424100, is a valuable tool compound that can be used to explore the role of OX2 receptor-mediated signaling in mood disorders. PMID:24478625

  5. AHR-16303B, a novel antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.J.; Appell, K.C.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Proakis, A.G.; Nolan, J.C.; Walsh, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro methods were used to characterize AHR-16303B, a novel compound with antagonistic action at 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The 5-HT2 receptor-antagonistic properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)ketanserin binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 165 nM); (b) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced foot edema in rats (minimum effective dose, (MED) = 0.32 mg/kg orally, p.o.); (c) 5-HT-induced vasopressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (ID50 = 0.18 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 1.8 mg/kg p.o.), (d) 5-HT-induced antidiuresis in rats (MED = 1 mg/kg p.o.), and (e) platelet aggregation induced by 5-HT + ADP (IC50 = 1.5 mM). The calcium antagonist properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)nimodipine binding to voltage-sensitive calcium channels on rabbit skeletal muscle membranes (IC50 = 15 nM), (b) KCl-stimulated calcium flux into cultured PC12 cells (IC50 = 81 nM), and (c) CaCl2-induced contractions of rabbit thoracic aortic strips (pA2 = 8.84). AHR-16303B had little or no effect on binding of radioligands to dopamine2 (DA2) alpha 1, alpha 2, H1, 5-HT1 alpha, beta 2, muscarinic M1, or sigma opioid receptors; had no effect on 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vagal bradycardia; and had only minor negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria. In conscious SHR, 30 mg/kg p.o. AHR-16303B completely prevented the vasopressor responses to i.v. 5-HT, and decreased blood pressure (BP) by 24% 3 h after dosing.

  6. Effects of an AT1 receptor antagonist, an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel antagonist on cardiac gene expressions in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S.; Ohta, K.; Hamaguchi, A.; Yukimura, T.; Miura, K.; Iwao, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. This study was undertaken to determine whether the AT1 receptor directly contributes to hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and gene expressions. 2. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were given orally an AT1, receptor antagonist (losartan, 30 mg kg-1 day-1), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril 10 mg kg-1 day-1), a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist (amlodipine, 5 mg kg-1 day-1), or vehicle (control), for 8 weeks (from 16 to 24 weeks of age). The effects of each drug were compared on ventricular weight and mRNA levels for myocardial phenotype- and fibrosis-related genes. 3. Left ventricular hypertrophy of SHRSP was accompanied by the increase in mRNA levels for two foetal phenotypes of contractile proteins (skeletal alpha-actin and beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC)), atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP), transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) and collagen, and a decrease in mRNA levels for an adult phenotype of contractile protein (alpha-MHC). Thus, the left ventricle of SHRSP was characterized by myocardial transition from an adult to a foetal phenotype and interstitial fibrosis at the molecular level. 4. Although losartan, enalapril and amlodipine lowered blood pressure of SHRSP to a comparable degree throughout the treatment, losartan caused regression of left ventricular hypertrophy of SHRSP to a greater extent than amlodipine (P < 0.01). 5. Losartan significantly decreased mRNA levels for skeletal alpha-actin, ANP, TGF-beta 1 and collagen types I, III and IV and increased alpha-MHC mRNA in the left ventricle of SHRSP. Amlodipine did not alter left ventricular ANP, alpha-MHC and collagen types I and IV mRNA levels of SHRSP. 6. The effects of enalapril on left ventricular hypertrophy and gene expressions of SHRSP were similar to those of losartan, except for the lack of inhibition of collagen type I expression by enalapril. 7. Unlike the hypertrophied left ventricle, there was no significant difference between losartan and amlodipine in the effects on non-hypertrophied right ventricular gene expressions of SHRSP. 8. Our results show that hypertension causes not only left ventricular hypertrophy but also molecular transition of myocardium to a foetal phenotype and interstitial fibrosis-related molecular changes. These hypertension-induced left ventricular molecular changes may be at least in part mediated by the direct action of local angiotensin II via the AT1, receptor. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8762077

  7. Catalepsy-associated behavior induced by dopamine D1 receptor antagonists and partial dopamine D1 receptor agonists in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig-Lipson, S; Bergman, J

    1994-08-01

    Observational procedures were used to compare the behavioral effects of dopamine D1 receptor antagonists and partial dopamine D1 receptor agonists in squirrel monkeys. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonists SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6-7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N- methyl-5H-benzo(d)naphtho-(2,1-b)azepine) and BW 737C89 ([S]-6-chloro-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylbenzyl]-7- hydroxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) produced dose-related increases in the duration of static and unusual postures, indicative of catalepsy. R-SKF 38393 (R(+)-7,8- dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-[1H]-3-benzazepine) and SKF 75670 (7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-[1H]-3- benzazepine), which are considered partial dopamine D1 receptor agonists, also consistently produced dose-related increases in catalepsy-associated behavior and had effects comparable in magnitude to those of dopamine D1 receptor antagonists. In contrast, the higher efficacy D1 agonists SKF 81297 (6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-[1H]-3- benzazepine) and SKF 82958 (6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-allyl-[1H]-3- benzazepine) did not produce catalepsy-associated behavior at any dose tested. The results indicate that dopamine D1 agonists differ with respect to cataleptogenic activity, possibly reflecting differences in intrinsic activity. PMID:7988649

  8. Discovery and Characterization of ML398, a Potent and Selective Antagonist of the D4 Receptor with in Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the structure–activity relationship of a chiral morpholine-based scaffold, which led to the identification of a potent and selective dopamine 4 (D4) receptor antagonist. The 4-chlorobenzyl moiety was identified, and the compound was designated an MLPCN probe molecule, ML398. ML398 is potent against the D4 receptor with IC50 = 130 nM and Ki = 36 nM and shows no activity against the other dopamine receptors tested (>20 ?M against D1, D2S, D2L, D3, and D5). Further in vivo studies showed that ML398 reversed cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion at 10 mg/kg. PMID:25221667

  9. Nicotine Ameliorates NMDA Receptor Antagonist-Induced Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning through High Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    André, Jessica M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are both involved in learning and synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence suggests processes mediated by these receptors may interact to modulate learning; however, little is known about the neural substrates involved in these interactive processes. The present studies investigated the effects of nicotine on MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801) and DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) induced disruption of contextual fear conditioning in male C57BL/6J mice, using direct drug infusion and selective nAChR antagonists to define the brain regions and the nAChR subtypes involved. Mice treated with MK-801 showed a deficit in contextual fear conditioning that was ameliorated by nicotine. Direct drug infusion demonstrated that the NMDAR antagonists disrupted hippocampal function and that nicotine acted in the dorsal hippocampus to ameliorate the deficit in learning. The high-affinity nAChR antagonist Dihydro-?-erythroidine hydrobromide (Dh?E) blocked the effects of nicotine on MK-801-induced deficits while the ?7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate salt hydrate (MLA) did not. These results suggest that NMDARs and nAChRs may mediate similar hippocampal processes involved in contextual fear conditioning. Furthermore, these results may have implications for developing effective therapeutics for the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia because a large subset of patients with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive deficits that may be related to NMDAR dysfunction and smoke at much higher rates than the healthy population, which may be an attempt to ameliorate cognitive deficits. PMID:21167848

  10. TLR4 antagonist attenuates atherogenesis in LDL receptor-deficient mice with diet-induced type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongyang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Yanchun; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Huang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Although a large number of studies have well documented a key role of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 in atherosclerosis, it remains undetermined if TLR4 antagonist attenuates atherogenesis in mouse model for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we induced type 2 diabetes in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice by high-fat diet (HFD). At 8 weeks old, 20 mice were fed HFD and 20 mice fed regular chow (RC) for 24 weeks. In the last 10 weeks, half HFD-fed mice and half RC-fed mice were treated with Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipopolysaccharide (Rs-LPS), an established TLR4 antagonist. After the treatment, atherosclerotic lesions in aortas were analyzed. Results showed that the HFD significantly increased bodyweight, glucose, lipids including total cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids, and insulin resistance, indicating that the HFD induced type 2 diabetes in LDLR(-/-) mice. Results also showed that Rs-LPS had no effect on HFD-increased metabolic parameters in both nondiabetic and diabetic mice. Lipid staining of aortas and histological analysis of cross-sections of aortic roots showed that diabetes increased atherosclerotic lesions, but Rs-LPS attenuated atherogenesis in diabetic mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies showed that Rs-LPS reduced infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in atherosclerotic lesions of diabetic mice. Finally, the antagonistic effect of Rs-LPS on TLR4 was demonstrated by our in vitro studies showing that Rs-LPS inhibited IL-6 secretion from macrophages and endothelial cells stimulated by LPS or LPS plus saturated fatty acid palmitate. Taken together, our study demonstrated that TLR4 antagonist was capable of attenuating vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in mice with HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:26162692

  11. Phagocytosis of apoptotic and necrotic thymocytes is inhibited by PAF-receptor antagonists and affects LPS-induced COX-2 expression in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Soraya Imon; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Amarante Mendes, João Gustavo P; Jancar, Sonia

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence that apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles have common ligands on their surface consisting of oxidized phospholipids which bind to scavenger receptors in macrophages leading to phagocytosis. Some effects of oxLDL binding to its receptor(s) were shown to be inhibited by Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)-receptor antagonists. Thus, we investigated the effect of PAF-receptor antagonists on the phagocytosis of apoptotic, necrotic and viable thymocytes by murine peritoneal macrophages. It was found that phagocytosis of altered cells is significantly increased compared to viable cells, a phenomenon reversed by pre-treatment of macrophages with PAF-receptor antagonists (WEB2170 and CV3988), PAF or oxLDL. Phagocytosis of altered cells induced negligible expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) but strongly potentiated the LPS-induced expression of this enzyme. This phenomenon was restricted to altered cells and was reversed by pre-treatment of macrophages with PAF-receptor antagonists. These findings indicate that apoptotic and necrotic cells share common ligands with PAF and oxLDL and suggest the involvement of PAF-like receptors in the enhanced clearance of these cells. PMID:16846787

  12. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Andres D; Gotter, Anthony L; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Yao, Lihang; Tye, Spencer J; McDonald, Terrence; Brunner, Joseph; Garson, Susan L; Reiss, Duane R; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J; Uslaner, Jason M; Hodgson, Robert; Browne, Susan E; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacological properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone, and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam [0.3-30 mg/kg administered orally (PO)] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25-1.5 g/kg) induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10-100 mg/kg, PO) nor almorexant (30-300 mg/kg, PO) impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone, and diazepam) and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development. PMID:24399926

  13. An insight into antagonist binding and induced conformational dynamics of class B GPCR corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junli; Wang, Zhonghua; Liu, Pi; Li, Dongmei; Lin, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    The human corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) is a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which mediates the response to stress and has been considered as a drug target for depression and anxiety. Based on the CRF1R-antagonist crystal structure, we study the binding mechanism of two distinct antagonists, CP-376395 and MTIP, and the dynamics behaviors of CRF1R induced by an antagonist binding. Key residues interacting with both antagonists and residues specifically binding to one of them are identified. Both antagonists interact with Asn283, Phe203, Met206, Leu280, Tyr316, Leu323, Leu287, Phe284, Val279, Leu319, Phe207, Gly210 and Phe362. CP-376395 specifically binds to Glu209 and Phe160, while MTIP specifically binds to Leu320, Leu213, Ile290, Phe162 and Val313. The total binding free energy of MTIP is lower than that of CP-376395; this is consistent with the experimental observation that MTIP shows higher binding affinity than CP-376395. The conformational dynamic behaviors of antagonist bound holo-CRF1R were found to be different from those of apo-CRF1R in three aspects: (i) the "ionic lock" between side chains of Arg151 in TM2 and Glu209 in TM3 was broken in apo-CRF1R, but was formed in holo-CRF1Rs; (ii) Phe203 in TM3 and Tyr327 in TM6 were in close proximity to each other in apo-CRF1R, while they were far apart resulting from the shift of TM6 in holo-CRF1Rs; and (iii) the "rotamer toggle switch", Tyr327/Leu323/Phe284, adopted different rotameric conformations in apo-CRF1R and holo-CRF1Rs. We hope that our results could be helpful in further development of the drug design of CRF1R. PMID:25980590

  14. The CB1 Receptor Antagonist AM251 Impairs Reconsolidation of Pavlovian Fear Memory in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Ratano, Patrizia; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the requirement for signaling at CB1 receptors in the reconsolidation of a previously consolidated auditory fear memory, by infusing the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, or the FAAH inhibitor URB597, directly into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in conjunction with memory reactivation. AM251 disrupted memory restabilization, but only when administered after reactivation. URB597 produced a small, transient enhancement of memory restabilization when administered after reactivation. The amnestic effect of AM251 was rescued by coadministration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at reactivation, indicating that the disruption of reconsolidation was mediated by altered GABAergic transmission in the BLA. These data show that the endocannabinoid system in the BLA is an important modulator of fear memory reconsolidation and that its effects on memory are mediated by an interaction with the GABAergic system. Thus, targeting the endocannabinoid system may have therapeutic potential to reduce the impact of maladaptive memories in neuropsychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:24801769

  15. Identification of an endogenous alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist: studies on its possible role in endocrine and cardiovascular function

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, J.C.; Wider, M.; House, F.; Campbell, R.

    1986-03-01

    The concept of ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. adrenergic receptors that are regulated by epinephrine or norepinephrine (NE) is well established. The reported receptor antagonists have been synthetic. A peptide extracted from the duodenal mucosa with ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist properties has been identified. It specifically inhibits /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding (..cap alpha..-2) but not /sup 3/H dihydroalprenolol (..beta..) binding in whole brain membranes. Partially purified preparations of the alpha receptor binding inhibitor (ABI) were tested for endocrine pancreatic and cardiovascular effects. When isolated islets were incubated in the presence of ABI with and without NE, ABI along did not alter insulin secretion but completely reversed the NE suppression of glucose stimulated insulin release. Glucagon secretion by these same islets was enhanced by ABI and augmented the stimulatory effect of NE. Intravenous (I.V.) infusion of ABI increased serum insulin in the presence of NE and decreased the serum glucose response to a glucose load. Infusion of ABI into the 4th ventricle, or I.V. resulted in a decrease (50-60%) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as a decrease (10-20%) in heart rate. From these studies the authors conclude that a duodenal peptide with the capacity to inhibit ..cap alpha..-2 agonist binding may play a role in endocrine and cardiovascular functions.

  16. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A.; Caceres, Ana I.; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-01-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca2+ influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.—Bessac, B. F., Sivula, M., von Hehn, C. A., Caceres, A. I., Escalera, J., Jordt, S.-E. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases. PMID:19036859

  17. [Platelet Adhesion Assay (PADA), a new quantitative test for assessment of platelet function and therapeutic drug monitoring of GPIIb/IIIa and ADP receptor antagonists].

    PubMed

    Schumann, A; Wiesenburg, A; Bucha, E; Nowak, G

    2004-08-01

    Platelet ADhesion Assay (PADA) is a POCT capable method for quantitative determination of platelet adhesiveness. Using special polymer particles and test conditions adjusted to the physiologic conditions, the current functional state of blood platelets is determined directly from a whole blood sample. Within a short time, using little technical equipment and small sample volume, a therapeutic drug monitoring of GP IIb/IIIa and ADP receptor antagonists is possible, too. Whereas in healthy volunteers dose/effect curves of GP IIb/IIIa antagonists vary only slightly, in thrombopilic patients there are big variations. Differences in efficacy up to drug resistance may occur also in use of the ADP receptor antagonist clopidogrel. A therapeutic drug monitoring of GP IIb/IIIa- and ADP receptor antagonist therapy is essential and becomes feasible using PADA, also as long-term drug monitoring of ADP receptor antagonists and detection of drug resistance. Additionally, an individual ex vivo dose estimation for GP IIb/IIIa antagonists is possible. PADA allows diagnostics of pathological platelet function in thrombophilic patients as well as long-term therapeutic drug monitoring due to its simple handling. PMID:15314708

  18. The corticotropin releasing hormone-1 (CRH1) receptor antagonist pexacerfont in alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled experimental medicine study.

    PubMed

    Kwako, Laura E; Spagnolo, Primavera A; Schwandt, Melanie L; Thorsell, Annika; George, David T; Momenan, Reza; Rio, Daniel E; Huestis, Marilyn; Anizan, Sebastien; Concheiro, Marta; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Extensive preclinical data implicate corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), acting through its CRH1 receptor, in stress- and dependence-induced alcohol seeking. We evaluated pexacerfont, an orally available, brain penetrant CRH1 antagonist for its ability to suppress stress-induced alcohol craving and brain responses in treatment seeking alcohol-dependent patients in early abstinence. Fifty-four anxious alcohol-dependent participants were admitted to an inpatient unit at the NIH Clinical Center, completed withdrawal treatment, and were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with pexacerfont (300?mg/day for 7 days, followed by 100?mg/day for 23 days). After reaching steady state, participants were assessed for alcohol craving in response to stressful or alcohol-related cues, neuroendocrine responses to these stimuli, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to alcohol-related stimuli or stimuli with positive or negative emotional valence. A separate group of 10 patients received open-label pexacerfont following the same dosing regimen and had cerebrospinal fluid sampled to estimate central nervous system exposure. Pexacerfont treatment had no effect on alcohol craving, emotional responses, or anxiety. There was no effect of pexacerfont on neural responses to alcohol-related or affective stimuli. These results were obtained despite drug levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that predict close to 90% central CRH1 receptor occupancy. CRH1 antagonists have been grouped based on their receptor dissociation kinetics, with pexacerfont falling in a category characterized by fast dissociation. Our results may indicate that antagonists with slow offset are required for therapeutic efficacy. Alternatively, the extensive preclinical data on CRH1 antagonism as a mechanism to suppress alcohol seeking may not translate to humans. PMID:25409596

  19. Distinct cardiac and renal effects of ETA receptor antagonist and ACE inhibitor in experimental type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zoja, Carla; Cattaneo, Sara; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Zambelli, Vanessa; Salio, Monica; Corna, Daniela; Pagani, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Bisighini, Cinzia; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors provide imperfect renoprotection in advanced type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk remains elevated. Endothelin (ET)-1 has a role in renal and cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we assessed whether combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor and ET(A) receptor antagonist provided reno- and cardioprotection in rats with overt type 2 diabetes. Four groups of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were treated orally from 4 (when proteinuric) to 8 mo with vehicle, ramipril (1 mg/kg), sitaxsentan (60 mg/kg), and ramipril plus sitaxsentan. Lean rats served as controls. Combined therapy ameliorated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis mostly as a result of the action of ramipril. Simultaneous blockade of ANG II and ET-1 pathways normalized renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interstitial inflammation. Cardiomyocyte loss, volume enlargement, and capillary rarefaction were prominent abnormalities of ZDF myocardium. Myocyte volume was reduced by ramipril and sitaxsentan, which also ameliorated heart capillary density. Drug combination restored myocardial structure and reestablished an adequate capillary network in the presence of increased cardiac expression of VEGF/VEGFR-1, and significant reduction of oxidative stress. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetes concomitant blockade of ANG II synthesis and ET-1 biological activity through an ET(A) receptor antagonist led to substantial albeit not complete renoprotection, almost due to the ACE inhibitor. The drug combination also showed cardioprotective properties, which however, were mainly dependent on the contribution of the ET(A) receptor antagonist through the action of VEGF. PMID:21816757

  20. Inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding by NMDA receptor open channel blockers and GluN2B antagonists in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alda; Wojcik, Trevor; Baireddy, Praveena; Pieschl, Rick; Newton, Amy; Tian, Yuan; Hong, Yang; Bristow, Linda; Li, Yu-Wen

    2015-11-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, including open channel blockers and GluN2B receptor subtype selective antagonists, have been developed for the treatment of depression. The current study investigated effects of systemically administered NMDA channel blockers and GluN2B receptor antagonists on NMDA receptor activity in rodents using in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding. The receptor occupancy of GluN2B antagonists was measured using ex vivo [(3)H]Ro 25-6981 binding. Ketamine, a NMDA receptor channel blocker, produced a dose/exposure- and time-dependent inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding that was maximal at ~100%. The complete inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding was also observed with NMDA receptor channel blockers, AZD6765 (Lanicemine) and MK-801 (Dizocilpine). CP-101,606 (Traxoprodil), a GluN2B antagonist, produced a dose/exposure- and time-dependent inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding that was maximal at ~60%. Partial inhibition was also observed with other GluN2B antagonists including MK-0657 (CERC-301), EVT-101, Ro 25-6981 and radiprodil. For all GluN2B antagonists tested, partial [(3)H]MK-801 binding inhibition was achieved at doses saturating GluN2B receptor occupancy. Combined treatment with ketamine (10mg/kg, i.p.) and Ro 25-6981(10mg/kg, i.p.) produced a level of inhibition of in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding that was similar to treatment with either agent alone. In conclusion, this in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding study shows that NMDA receptor activity in the rodent forebrain can be inhibited completely by channel blockers, but only partially (~60%) by GluN2B receptor antagonists. At doses effective in preclinical models of depression, ketamine may preferentially inhibit the same population of NMDA receptors as Ro 25-6981, namely those containing the GluN2B subunit. PMID:26325093

  1. Conserved Binding Mode of Human [beta subscript 2] Adrenergic Receptor Inverse Agonists and Antagonist Revealed by X-ray Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, Daniel; Fenalti, Gustavo; Brown, Monica A.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Abagyan, Ruben; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-11-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a large fraction of current pharmaceutical targets, and of the GPCRs, the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor ({beta}{sub 2}AR) is one of the most extensively studied. Previously, the X-ray crystal structure of {beta}{sub 2}AR has been determined in complex with two partial inverse agonists, but the global impact of additional ligands on the structure or local impacts on the binding site are not well-understood. To assess the extent of such ligand-induced conformational differences, we determined the crystal structures of a previously described engineered {beta}{sub 2}AR construct in complex with two inverse agonists: ICI 118,551 (2.8 {angstrom}), a recently described compound (2.8 {angstrom}) (Kolb et al, 2009), and the antagonist alprenolol (3.1 {angstrom}). The structures show the same overall fold observed for the previous {beta}{sub 2}AR structures and demonstrate that the ligand binding site can accommodate compounds of different chemical and pharmacological properties with only minor local structural rearrangements. All three compounds contain a hydroxy-amine motif that establishes a conserved hydrogen bond network with the receptor and chemically diverse aromatic moieties that form distinct interactions with {beta}{sub 2}AR. Furthermore, receptor ligand cross-docking experiments revealed that a single {beta}{sub 2}AR complex can be suitable for docking of a range of antagonists and inverse agonists but also indicate that additional ligand-receptor structures may be useful to further improve performance for in-silico docking or lead-optimization in drug design.

  2. Placental Secretion of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Preeclampsia: Effect of Magnesium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Amash, Alaa; Sapir, Olga; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and systemic endothelial dysfunction. Interleukin (IL)-1? is a possible mediator of maternal endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. Serum IL-1? as well as its natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were reported to be increased in women with preeclampsia. In the current study, we addressed the role of the placenta in controlling the circulatory levels of IL-1? and its natural inhibitor IL-1Ra in preeclampsia, and the possible effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on these levels. Using an ex vivo placental perfusion system, placentas from preeclamptic (n=9) and normotensive (n=6) pregnancies were perfused in presence or absence of MgSO4. Perfusate samples were collected from the maternal and the fetal circulations of the perfusion system, and IL-1? and IL-1Ra were examined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Preeclamptic placentas secreted higher levels of IL-1? (P<0.001), and a tendentious higher levels of IL-1Ra, mainly into the maternal circulation, as compared with normotensive placentas, although no differences in IL-1?:IL-1Ra ratio were detected. However, there was only tendentious increase in the secretion levels of IL-1? or IL-1Ra into the fetal circulation of preeclamptic placentas, when compared with normotensive placentas. Administration of MgSO4 to preeclamptic placentas resulted in an attenuation of the increased secretion of IL-1? into the maternal circulation (P<0.001), and in a tendentious reduction in IL-1Ra. However, IL-1?:IL-1Ra ratio in preeclamptic placentas was not affected by MgSO4. Interestingly, exposure of normotensive placenta to MgSO4 resulted only in increased levels of IL-1Ra in the maternal circulation, without affecting IL-1? levels or IL-1?:IL-1Ra ratio. These findings suggest that the placenta may contribute to the elevation in serum IL-1? and IL-1Ra in preeclampsia by increased secretion of these cytokines into the maternal circulation, and that MgSO4 is able to attenuate this increased secretion of IL-1?, and possibly IL-1Ra, in preeclampsia. PMID:22909148

  3. Protection of DFP-induced oxidative damage and neurodegeneration by antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2009-10-15

    Prophylactic agents acutely administered in response to anticholinesterases intoxication can prevent toxic symptoms, including fasciculations, seizures, convulsions and death. However, anticholinesterases also have long-term unknown pathophysiological effects, making rational prophylaxis/treatment problematic. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to excessive cholinergic stimulation, organophosphate compounds such as diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) induce activation of glutamatergic neurons, generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), leading to neurodegeneration. The present study investigated multiple affectors of DFP exposure critical to cerebral oxidative damage and whether antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provide neuroprotection by preventing DFP-induced biochemical and morphometric changes in rat brain. Rats treated acutely with DFP (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) developed onset of toxicity signs within 7-15 min that progressed to maximal severity of seizures and fasciculations within 60 min. At this time point, DFP caused significant (p < 0.01) increases in biomarkers of ROS (F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, F{sub 2}-IsoPs; and F{sub 4}-neuroprostanes, F{sub 4}-NeuroPs), RNS (citrulline), and declines in high-energy phosphates (HEP) in rat cerebrum. At the same time, quantitative morphometric analysis of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region revealed significant (p < 0.01) reductions in dendritic lengths and spine density. When rats were pretreated with the antioxidants N-tert-butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN, 200 mg/kg, i.p.), or vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p./day for 3 days), or memantine (18 mg/kg, i.p.), significant attenuations in DFP-induced increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs, F{sub 4}-NeuroPs, citrulline, and depletion of HEP were noted. Furthermore, attenuation in oxidative damage following antioxidants or memantine pretreatment was accompanied by rescue from dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area. These findings closely associated DFP-induced lipid peroxidation with dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area and point to possible interventions to limit oxidative injury and dendritic degeneration induced by anticholinesterase neurotoxicity.

  4. Selective serotonin 3 receptor antagonist treatment for schizophrenia: meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Mukai, Tomohiko; Matsuda, Yuki; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-03-01

    Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-control trials of selective serotonin 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3R-ANTs) for schizophrenia have differed in outcome. This meta-analysis tests the hypothesis that 5-HT3R-ANTs are effective for the treatment for schizophrenia. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and PsycINFO up to June 15, 2013. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing 5-HT3R-ANTs add-on therapy with placebo. The risk ratio (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. A random-effects model was used. Six studies (total n = 311) were identified. These included one granisetron plus risperidone study, one ondansetron plus risperidone study, one ondansetron plus haloperidol, and three tropisetron plus risperidone studies. The statistically significant effects of 5-HT3R-ANTs add-on therapy on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores were SMD = -1.03, CI = -1.70 to -0.36, p = 0.003 (I (2) = 82 %, 5 studies, n = 261); on negative scores were SMD = -1.10, CI = -1.82 to -0.39, p = 0.002 (I (2) = 84 %, 5 studies, n = 261); and on PANSS general scores were SMD = -0.70, CI = -1.23 to -0.17, p = 0.01 (I (2) = 73 %, 5 studies, n = 261). However, 5-HT3R-ANTs add-on therapy was not superior to placebo in PANSS positive scores (SMD = -0.12, p = 0.33). Dropout due to all cause (RR = 0.80, p = 0.50), inefficacy (RR = 0.76, p = 0.65), or adverse events (RR = 0.84, p = 0.75) was similar in both groups. Constipation occurred significantly more often with 5-HT3R-ANTs than placebo (RR = 2.05, CI = 1.07-3.91, p = 0.03, NNH = 11, p = 0.02). 5-HT3R-ANTs add-on therapy is more beneficial on the psychopathology (especially negative symptoms) than controls in patients with schizophrenia, and 5-HT3R-ANTs seem to be well-tolerated treatments. PMID:23896722

  5. Protection of DFP-Induced Oxidative Damage and Neurodegeneration by Antioxidants and NMDA Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Prophylactic agents acutely administered in response to anticholinesterases intoxication can prevent toxic symptoms, including fasciculations, seizures, convulsions and death. However, anticholinesterases also have long-term unknown pathophysiological effects, making rational prophylaxis/treatment problematic. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to excessive cholinergic stimulation, organophosphate compounds such as diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) induce activation of glutamatergic neurons, generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), leading to neurodegeneration. The present study investigated multiple affectors of DFP exposure critical to cerebral oxidative damage and whether antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provide neuroprotection by preventing DFP-induced biochemical and morphometric changes in rat brain. Rats treated acutely with DFP (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) developed onset of toxicity signs within 7-15 min that progressed to maximal severity of seizures and fasciculations within 60 min. At this time point, DFP caused significant (p<0.01) increases in biomarkers of ROS (F2-isoprostanes, F2-IsoPs; and F4-neuroprostanes, F4-NeuroPs), RNS (citrulline), and declines in high-energy phosphates (HEP) in rat cerebrum. At the same time, quantitative morphometric analysis of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region revealed significant (p<0.01) reductions in dendritic lengths and spine density. When rats were pretreated with the antioxidants N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone (PBN, 200 mg/kg, i.p.), or vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p./day for 3 days), or memantine (18 mg/kg, i.p.), significant attenuations in DFP-induced increases in F2-IsoPs, F4-NeuroPs, citrulline, and depletion of HEP were noted. Furthermore, attenuation in oxidative damage following antioxidants or memantine pretreatment was accompanied by rescue from dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area. These findings closely associated DFP-induced lipid peroxidation with dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area and point to possible interventions to limit oxidative injury and dendritic degeneration induced by anticholinesterase neurotoxicity. PMID:19615394

  6. Investigation of the 4-O-alkylamine substituent of non-peptide quinolone GnRH receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    DeVita, R J; Goulet, M T; Wyvratt, M J; Fisher, M H; Lo, J L; Yang, Y T; Cheng, K; Smith, R G

    1999-09-01

    Synthesis and in vitro activity of the enantiomers of quinolone GnRH antagonist (+/-)-1 are reported. Chiral amino alcohols were prepared from the appropriate cyclic D- or L-amino acids by the Amdt-Eistert homologation followed by reduction of the resulting esters. Incorporation of these pharmacophores was achieved via a novel Mitsunobu alkylation of 4-hydroxyquinolones. The key amine pharmacophore for binding to the rat GnRH receptor was most active in the S-configuration. Ring size was not important for potency with 4, 5, 6, and 7-membered ring amines exhibiting similar potency. PMID:10498221

  7. Structural and Dynamical Insight into PPAR? Antagonism: In Silico Study of the Ligand-Receptor Interactions of Non-Covalent Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fratev, Filip; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Al Sharif, Merilin; Mihaylova, Elina; Pajeva, Ilza

    2015-01-01

    The structural and dynamical properties of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) nuclear receptor have been broadly studied in its agonist state but little is known about the key features required for the receptor antagonistic activity. Here we report a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in combination with free energy estimation of the recently discovered class of non-covalent PPAR? antagonists. Their binding modes and dynamical behavior are described in details. Two key interactions have been detected within the cavity between helices H3, H11 and the activation helix H12, as well as with H12. The strength of the ligand-amino acid residues interactions has been analyzed in relation to the specificity of the ligand dynamical and antagonistic features. According to our results, the PPAR? activation helix does not undergo dramatic conformational changes, as seen in other nuclear receptors, but rather perturbations that occur through a significant ligand-induced reshaping of the ligand-receptor and the receptor-coactivator binding pockets. The H12 residue Tyr473 and the charge clamp residue Glu471 play a central role for the receptor transformations. Our results also demonstrate that MD can be a helpful tool for the compound phenotype characterization (full agonists, partial agonists or antagonists) when insufficient experimental data are available. PMID:26184155

  8. Regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor expression in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells by SR 46349B, a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi-Carmona, M; Prabonnaud, V; Bouaboula, M; Poinot-Chazel, C; Casellas, P; Le Fur, G; Herbert, J M

    1994-01-01

    Regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2) receptor expression by SR 46349B, a potent and selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, was investigated in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Binding of [3H]SR 46349B to rat vascular smooth muscle cells was time-dependent, reversible, and saturable. [3H]SR 46349B bound to one class of specific binding sites with high affinity (KD = 1.3 +/- 0.3 nM; Bmax = 176 +/- 42 fmol/10(5) cells). Exposure of cells to a 1 microM concentration of the 5-HT2 agonist (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ((+/-)-DOI) or the antagonist ketanserin led to a significant decrease in 5-HT2 receptor density as measured by [3H]SR 46349B binding. In contrast, exposure of cells to 1 microM SR 46349B caused a marked increase in the maximal binding capacity of [3H]SR 46349B, with a maximal effect at 24 h (73% increase). The affinity constant was not affected by prior exposure to (+/-)-DOI, ketanserin, or SR 46349B. Furthermore, exposure of cells to 1 microM (+/-)-DOI or ketanserin produced, 48 h later, a decrease in the ability of (+/-)-DOI to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in the cells, whereas treatment with SR 46349B induced a significant stimulation of the 5-HT2 receptor-linked signal transduction. This effect occurred with no changes in the amount of 5-HT2 receptor mRNAs as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. These results indicate that SR 46349B increases 5-HT2 receptor binding and functions without altering steady-state 5-HT2 mRNA levels in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. PMID:8276825

  9. Activation of striatal group II metabotropic glutamate receptors has a differential effect on dopamine-D1 and -D2 receptor antagonist-induced hypokinesia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kronthaler, U O; Schmidt, W J

    2000-03-01

    Motor function of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors was investigated by quantifying motor effects of bilateral infusions of the preferential group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-carboxycyclopropyl-glycine (15, 30, 60 nmol/0.5 microl) into the striatum of conscious rats. (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-carboxycyclopropyl-glycine reduced spontaneous sniffing activity in an experimental chamber, but did not affect spontaneous locomotor (line crossings) or exploratory behaviour (rearings, hole visits) in an open field equipped with a hole-board. Intrastriatal infusion of the selective group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphobutyric acid (15, 30, 60, 120 nmol/0.5 microl) did not influence spontaneous motor behaviour. Intrastriatal infusion of (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-carboxycyclopropyl-glycine (15 nmol/0.5 microl and 30 nmol/0.5 microl) further depressed spontaneous motor behaviour in rats pretreated with the dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist (-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H- benzo[d]naphtho-(2,1-b)azepine, but not if rats were pretreated with the preferential dopamine-D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. It appears likely that the depression of spontaneous motor behaviour evoked by the preferential group II agonist (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-carboxycyclopropyl-glycine is mediated by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, since activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors has been shown to stimulate motor behaviour, and activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors had no effect, as shown in this study. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that the striatum may contribute to the motor-depressant effects of systemically applied group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, as reported by us recently. The present findings further suggest that a functional dopamine-D1 antagonism contributes to the motor effects of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists. PMID:10731042

  10. Synthesis and preliminary investigations into novel 1,2,3-triazole-derived androgen receptor antagonists inspired by bicalutamide.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-11-01

    A versatile and high yielding synthesis of novel androgen receptor (AR) antagonists is presented. Using this methodology, six 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole derived bicalutamide mimics were synthesised in five steps and in isolated overall yields from 41% to 85%. Evaluation of these compounds for their anti-proliferative properties against androgen dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC-3) cells showed promising IC50 values of 34-45 ?M and 29-151 ?M, respectively. The data suggest that the latter compounds may be an excellent starting point for the development of prostate cancer therapeutics for both androgen dependent and independent forms of this disease. Docking of these compounds (each enantiomer) in silico into the T877A mutated androgen receptor, as possessed by LNCaP cells, was also undertaken. PMID:25301770

  11. Treatment of the Ppt1?/? Mouse Model of Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis with the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Memantine

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Rozzy; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, a family of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders, represent the most common cause of pediatric-onset neurodegeneration. The infantile form has a devastatingly early onset and one of the fastest progressing disease courses. Despite decades of research, the molecular mechanisms driving neuronal loss in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis remain unknown. We have previously shown that NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the Ppt1?/? mouse model of this disease exhibit a hyperfunctional phenotype and postulate that aberrant glutamatergic activity may contribute to neural pathology in both the mouse model and human patients. To test this hypothesis, we treated Ppt1?/? mice with the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine and assessed their response to the drug using an accelerating rotarod. At 20 mg/kg, memantine treatment induced a delayed but notable improvement in Ppt1?/? mice. Much remains to be assessed before moving to patient trials, but these results suggest memantine has potential as a treatment. PMID:24014511

  12. Synthesis, SAR, and Pharmacological Characterization of Brain Penetrant P2X7 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Savall, Brad M; Wu, Duncan; De Angelis, Meri; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Ao, Hong; Wang, Qi; Lord, Brian; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Letavic, Michael A

    2015-06-11

    We describe the synthesis and SAR of 1,2,3-triazolopiperidines as a novel series of potent, brain penetrant P2X7 antagonists. Initial efforts yielded a series of potent human P2X7R antagonists with moderate to weak rodent potency, some CYP inhibition, poor metabolic stability, and low solubility. Further work in this series, which focused on the SAR of the N-linked heterocycle, not only increased the potency at the human P2X7R but also provided compounds with good potency at the rat P2X7R. These efforts eventually delivered a potent rat and human P2X7R antagonist with good physicochemical properties, an excellent pharmacokinetic profile, good partitioning into the CNS, and demonstrated in vivo target engagement after oral dosing. PMID:26101572

  13. Discovery of a Potent and Selective ?3?4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonist from an ?-Conotoxin Synthetic Combinatorial Library

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ?-Conotoxins are disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins that selectively inhibit neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The ?3?4 nAChR subtype has been identified as a novel target for managing nicotine addiction. Using a mixture-based positional-scanning synthetic combinatorial library (PS-SCL) with the ?4/4-conotoxin BuIA framework, we discovered a highly potent and selective ?3?4 nAChR antagonist. The initial PS-SCL consisted of a total of 113?379?904 sequences that were screened for ?3?4 nAChR inhibition, which facilitated the design and synthesis of a second generation library of 64 individual ?-conotoxin derivatives. Eleven analogues were identified as ?3?4 nAChR antagonists, with TP-2212-59 exhibiting the most potent antagonistic activity and selectivity over the ?3?2 and ?4?2 nAChR subtypes. Final electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that TP-2212-59 inhibited acetylcholine evoked currents in ?3?4 nAChRs heterogeneously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with a calculated IC50 of 2.3 nM and exhibited more than 1000-fold selectivity over the ?3?2 and ?7 nAChR subtypes. As such, TP-2212-59 is among the most potent ?3?4 nAChRs antagonists identified to date and further demonstrates the utility of mixture-based combinatorial libraries in the discovery of novel ?-conotoxin derivatives with refined pharmacological activity. PMID:24649848

  14. Establishment of a novel cell-based assay for screening small molecule antagonists of human interleukin-6 receptor

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-yang; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Chang; Li, Peng-yuan; Wu, Ping; Du, Peng; Zeng, Da-di; Fang, Jian-song; Wang, Shuang; Du, Guan-hua

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Blockade of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or its receptor (IL-6R) is effective in preventing the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we established a novel cell-based assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists. Methods: HEK293A cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids pTaglite-SNAP-IL6R and pABhFc-IL6 to obtain membrane-bound IL-6R and recombinant human IL-6 coupled with human Fc fragment (rhIL-6), respectively. A novel screening assay based on the interaction between IL-6R and rhIL-6 was established, optimized and validated. The stability of the assay was also assessed by calculating the Z?-factor. Results: RhIL-6 dose-dependently bound to IL-6R expressed at HEK293A cell surface. The IC50 value of the known antagonist ab47215 was 0.38±0.08 ?g/mL, which was consistent with that obtained using the traditional method (0.36±0.14 ?g/mL). The value of Z?-factor was 0.68, suggesting that the novel assay was stable for high throughput screening. A total of 474 compounds were screened using the novel screening assay, and 3 compounds exhibited antagonistic activities (IC50=8.73±0.28, 32.32±9.08, 57.83±4.24 ?g/mL). Furthermore, the active compounds dose-dependently inhibited IL-6-induced proliferation of 7TD1 cells, and reduced IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in U937 cells. Conclusion: A novel cell-based screening assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists was established, which simplifies the procedures in traditional cellular ELISA screening and profiling and reduces the costs. PMID:25345743

  15. Identification of a nonbasic melanin hormone receptor 1 antagonist as an antiobesity clinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Washburn, William N; Manfredi, Mark; Devasthale, Pratik; Zhao, Guohua; Ahmad, Saleem; Hernandez, Andres; Robl, Jeffrey A; Wang, Wei; Mignone, James; Wang, Zhenghua; Ngu, Khehyong; Pelleymounter, Mary Ann; Longhi, Daniel; Zhao, Rulin; Wang, Bei; Huang, Ning; Flynn, Neil; Azzara, Anthony V; Barrish, Joel C; Rohrbach, Kenneth; Devenny, James J; Rooney, Suzanne; Thomas, Michael; Glick, Susan; Godonis, Helen E; Harvey, Susan J; Cullen, Mary Jane; Zhang, Hongwei; Caporuscio, Christian; Stetsko, Paul; Grubb, Mary; Maxwell, Brad D; Yang, Hong; Apedo, Atsu; Gemzik, Brian; Janovitz, Evan B; Huang, Christine; Zhang, Lisa; Freeden, Chris; Murphy, Brian J

    2014-09-25

    Identification of MCHR1 antagonists with a preclinical safety profile to support clinical evaluation as antiobesity agents has been a challenge. Our finding that a basic moiety is not required for MCHR1 antagonists to achieve high affinity allowed us to explore structures less prone to off-target activities such as hERG inhibition. We report the SAR evolution of hydroxylated thienopyrimidinone ethers culminating in the identification of 27 (BMS-819881), which entered obesity clinical trials as the phosphate ester prodrug 35 (BMS-830216). PMID:25165888

  16. An endothelin receptor B antagonist inhibits growth and induces cell death in human melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lahav, Ronit; Heffner, Garrett; Patterson, Paul H.

    1999-01-01

    Activation of the endothelin receptor B (ETRB) in cultured melanocyte precursors promotes cell proliferation while inhibiting differentiation, two hallmarks of malignant transformation. We therefore tested whether ETRB has a similar role in malignant transformation of melanoma. When tested in culture, we find that the selective ETRB antagonist BQ788 can inhibit the growth of seven human melanoma cell lines, but not a human kidney cell line. This inhibition often is associated with increases in pigmentation and in the dendritic shape that is characteristic of mature melanocytes. In three cell lines we also observe a major increase in cell death. In contrast, the endothelin receptor A (ETRA) antagonist BQ123 does not have these effects, although all the cell lines express both ETRA and ETRB mRNA. Extending these studies in vivo, we find that administration of BQ788 significantly slows human melanoma tumor growth in nude mice, including a complete growth arrest in half of the mice treated systemically. Histological examination of tumor sections suggests that BQ788 also enhances melanoma cell death in vivo. Thus, ETRB inhibitors may be beneficial for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:10500205

  17. Orexin receptor antagonists differ from standard sleep drugs by promoting sleep at doses that do not disrupt cognition.

    PubMed

    Uslaner, Jason M; Tye, Spencer J; Eddins, Donnie M; Wang, Xiaohai; Fox, Steven V; Savitz, Alan T; Binns, Jacquelyn; Cannon, Christopher E; Garson, Susan L; Yao, Lihang; Hodgson, Robert; Stevens, Joanne; Bowlby, Mark R; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Brunner, Joseph; Mcdonald, Terrence P; Gotter, Anthony L; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs), which promote sleep in preclinical animal models and humans. We compare the effects of orally administered eszopiclone, zolpidem, and diazepam to the dual orexin receptor antagonist DORA-22 on sleep and the novel object recognition test in rat, and on sleep and two cognition tests (delayed match to sample and serial choice reaction time) in the rhesus monkey. Each compound's minimal dose that promoted sleep versus the minimal dose that exerted deficits in these cognitive tests was determined, and a therapeutic margin was established. We found that DORA-22 has a wider therapeutic margin for sleep versus cognitive impairment in rat and rhesus monkey compared to the other compounds tested. These data were further supported with the demonstration of a wider therapeutic margin for DORA-22 compared to the other compounds on sleep versus the expression of hippocampal activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc), an immediate-early gene product involved in synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that DORAs might provide an effective treatment for insomnia with a greater therapeutic margin for sleep versus cognitive disturbances compared to the GABAA-positive allosteric modulators currently in use. PMID:23552372

  18. Ameliorative Effect of a Selective Endothelin ETA Receptor Antagonist in Rat Model of L-Methionine-induced Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mangat, Gautamjeet S; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of selective ETA receptor antagonist, ambrisentan on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular dementia. L-methionine was administered for 8 weeks to induce hyperhomocysteinemia and associated vascular dementia in male rats. Ambrisentan was administered to L-methionine-treated effect rats for 4 weeks (starting from 5th to 8th week of L-methionine treatment). On 52nd day onward, the animals were exposed to the Morris water maze (MWM) for testing their learning and memory abilities. Vascular endothelial function, serum nitrite/nitrate levels, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also measured. L-methionine-treated animals showed significant learning and memory impairment, endothelial dysfunction, decrease in/serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with an increase in brain TBARS levels and AChE activity. Ambrisentan significantly improved hyperhomocysteinemia-induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial dysfunction, and changes in various biochemical parameters. These effects were comparable to that of donepezil serving as positive control. It is concluded that ambrisentan, a selective ETA receptor antagonist may be considered as a potential pharmacological agent for the management of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced vascular dementia. PMID:24976759

  19. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long- but not short-access rats

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, Thomas N.; Funk, Cindy K.; Cottone, Pietro; Richardson, Heather N.; Chen, Scott A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of the stress-related corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has been implicated in the development of drug dependence. The present study examined the effects of administering CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists on heroin self-administration in animals allowed short (1 hour) or long (8–12 hours) access to intravenous heroin self-administration sessions. The nonpeptide CRF1 antagonists MJL-1-109-2 (1 hour versus 8 hours access) or R121919 (1 hour versus 12 hours access) were systemically injected in both short- and long-access rats. MJL-1-109-2 (10 mg/kg) and R121919 (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced heroin self-administration in long-access animals without altering heroin intake in short-access animals. Both MJL-1-109-2 and R121919 decreased first-hour intravenous heroin self-administration selectively in long-access rats, with R121919 decreasing cumulative heroin intake across the 12-hour session. The results demonstrate that blockade of the CRF–CRF1 receptor system attenuates the increased heroin intake of rats with extended access to the drug. PMID:19291009

  20. Profiling of the Tox21 10K compound library for agonists and antagonists of the estrogen receptor alpha signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Martin, Matt T.; Reif, David M.; Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Casey, Warren; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Shockley, Keith R.; Ceger, Patricia; Fostel, Jennifer; Witt, Kristine L.; Tong, Weida; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Zhao, Tongan; Shinn, Paul; Simeonov, Anton; Dix, David J.; Austin, Christopher P.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Tice, Raymond R.; Xia, Menghang

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Tox21 program has screened a library of approximately 10,000 (10K) environmental chemicals and drugs in three independent runs for estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) agonist and antagonist activity using two types of ER reporter gene cell lines, one with an endogenous full length ER? (ER-luc; BG1 cell line) and the other with a transfected partial receptor consisting of the ligand binding domain (ER-bla; ER? ?-lactamase cell line), in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. The ability of the two assays to correctly identify ER? agonists and antagonists was evaluated using a set of 39 reference compounds with known ER? activity. Although both assays demonstrated adequate (i.e. >80%) predictivity, the ER-luc assay was more sensitive and the ER-bla assay more specific. The qHTS assay results were compared with results from previously published ER? binding assay data and showed >80% consistency. Actives identified from both the ER-bla and ER-luc assays were analyzed for structure-activity relationships (SARs) revealing known and potentially novel ER? active structure classes. The results demonstrate the feasibility of qHTS to identify environmental chemicals with the potential to interact with the ER? signaling pathway and the two different assay formats improve the confidence in correctly identifying these chemicals. PMID:25012808

  1. Ketamine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in the treatment of depression: a perspective review

    PubMed Central

    Iadarola, Nicolas D.; Niciu, Mark J.; Richards, Erica M.; Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Lundin, Nancy B.; Nugent, Allison C.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapies for major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDep) have a distinct lag of onset that can generate great distress and impairment in patients. Furthermore, as demonstrated by several real-world effectiveness trials, their efficacy is limited. All approved antidepressant medications for MDD primarily act through monoaminergic mechanisms, agonists or antagonists with varying affinities for serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. The glutamate system has received much attention in recent years as an avenue for developing novel therapeutics. A single subanesthetic dose infusion of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has been shown to have rapid and potent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant MDD and BDep. In a reverse translational framework, ketamine’s clinical efficacy has inspired many preclinical studies to explore glutamatergic mechanisms of antidepressant action. These studies have revealed enhanced synaptic plasticity/synaptogenesis via numerous molecular and cellular mechanisms: release of local translational inhibition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and secretion from dendritic spines, mammalian target of rapamycin activation and glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition. Current efforts are focused on extending ketamine’s antidepressant efficacy, uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for ketamine’s antidepressant activity in biologically enriched subgroups, and identifying treatment response biomarkers to personalize antidepressant selection. Other NMDA receptor antagonists have been studied both preclinically and clinically, which have revealed relatively modest antidepressant effects compared with ketamine but potentially other favorable characteristics, for example, decreased dissociative or psychotomimetic effects; therefore, there is great interest in developing novel glutamatergic antidepressants with greater target specificity and/or decreased adverse effects. PMID:25954495

  2. Effects of glutamate and {alpha}2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists on the development of neurotoxicity produced by chronic rotenone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Mesbah Danysz, Wojciech; Schmidt, Werner Juergen; Dekundy, Andrzej

    2009-10-15

    Systemic inhibition of complex I by rotenone in rats represents a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether neramexane (NMDA, nicotinic {alpha}9/{alpha}10 and 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonist), idazoxan ({alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonist) or 2-methyl-6-(phenyl-ethyl)-pyrimidine (MPEP, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist) prevents rotenone-induced parkinsonian-like behaviours and neurochemical changes in rats. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg i.p. daily) was administered over 60 days together with saline, neramexane (5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.), idazoxan (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.) or MPEP (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.). The same doses of neramexane, idazoxan and MPEP were administered to rats treated with vehicle instead of rotenone. Treatment-related effects on parkinsonian-like behaviours, such as hypokinesia/rigidity and locomotor activity, were evaluated. Moreover, concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in rats from each experimental group. Over the 60-day treatment period, the rotenone + saline treated animals developed hypokinesia, expressed as an increase in the bar and grid descent latencies in the catalepsy test, and a decrease in locomotor activity. Neramexane and idazoxan partially prevented the development of catalepsy in rotenone-treated rats. Co-administration of MPEP with rotenone resulted only in a decrease in descent latency in the grid test on day 60. Chronic rotenone treatment reduced concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the anterior striatum, which was blocked by co-treatment with neramexane or idazoxan but not with MPEP. Only neramexane treatment blocked the rotenone-induced decrease in dopamine levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In conclusion, neramexane and idazoxan counteracted to some extent the development of parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemical alterations in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Copper-64 Labeled Macrobicyclic Sarcophagine Coupled to a GRP Receptor Antagonist Shows Great Promise for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gourni, Eleni; Del Pozzo, Luigi; Kheirallah, Emilie; Smerling, Christiane; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean-Claude; Paterson, Brett M; Donnelly, Paul S; Meyer, Philipp T; Maecke, Helmut R

    2015-08-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is an important molecular target for the visualization and therapy of tumors and can be targeted with radiolabeled bombesin derivatives. The present study aims to develop statine-based bombesin receptor antagonists suitable for labeling with 64Cu for imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The potent GRPr antagonist D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 was conjugated to the sarcophagine (3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6] icosane=Sar) derivative 5-(8-methyl-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaaza-bicyclo[6.6.6]icosan-1-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (MeCOSar) via PEG4 (LE1) and PEG2 (LE2) spacers and radiolabeled with 64Cu2+ with >95% yield and specific activities of about 100 MBq/nmol. Both Cu(II) conjugates have high affinity for GRPr (IC50: natCu-LE1, 1.4±0.1 nM; natCu-LE2, 3.8±0.6 nM). The antagonistic properties of both conjugates were confirmed by Ca2+-flux measurements. Biodistribution studies of Cu-64-LE1 exhibited specific targeting of the tumor (19.6±4.7% IA/g at 1 h p.i.) and GRPr-positive organs. Biodistribution and PET images at 4 and 24 h postinjection showed increasing tumor-to-background ratios with time. This was illustrated by the acquisition of PET images showing high tumor-to-normal tissue contrast. This study demonstrates the high affinity of the MeCOSar-PEGx-bombesin conjugates to GRPr. The stability of 64Cu complexes of MeCOSar, the long half-life of 64Cu, and the suitable biodistribution profile of the 64Cu-labeled peptides lead to PET images of high contrast suitable for potential translation into the clinic. PMID:26132879

  4. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  5. Cardiometabolic effects of genetic upregulation of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist: a Mendelian randomisation analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To investigate potential cardiovascular and other effects of long-term pharmacological interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibition, we studied genetic variants that produce inhibition of IL-1, a master regulator of inflammation. Methods We created a genetic score combining the effects of alleles of two common variants (rs6743376 and rs1542176) that are located upstream of IL1RN, the gene encoding the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; an endogenous inhibitor of both IL-1? and IL-1?); both alleles increase soluble IL-1Ra protein concentration. We compared effects on inflammation biomarkers of this genetic score with those of anakinra, the recombinant form of IL-1Ra, which has previously been studied in randomised trials of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. In primary analyses, we investigated the score in relation to rheumatoid arthritis and four cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and abdominal aortic aneurysm; 453?411 total participants). In exploratory analyses, we studied the relation of the score to many disease traits and to 24 other disorders of proposed relevance to IL-1 signalling (746?171 total participants). Findings For each IL1RN minor allele inherited, serum concentrations of IL-1Ra increased by 0·22 SD (95% CI 0·18–0·25; 12·5%; p=9·3?×?10?33), concentrations of interleukin 6 decreased by 0·02 SD (?0·04 to ?0·01; ?1·7%; p=3·5?×?10?3), and concentrations of C-reactive protein decreased by 0·03 SD (?0·04 to ?0·02; ?3·4%; p=7·7?×?10?14). We noted the effects of the genetic score on these inflammation biomarkers to be directionally concordant with those of anakinra. The allele count of the genetic score had roughly log-linear, dose-dependent associations with both IL-1Ra concentration and risk of coronary heart disease. For people who carried four IL-1Ra-raising alleles, the odds ratio for coronary heart disease was 1·15 (1·08–1·22; p=1·8?×?10?6) compared with people who carried no IL-1Ra-raising alleles; the per-allele odds ratio for coronary heart disease was 1·03 (1·02–1·04; p=3·9?×?10?10). Per-allele odds ratios were 0·97 (0·95–0·99; p=9·9?×?10?4) for rheumatoid arthritis, 0·99 (0·97–1·01; p=0·47) for type 2 diabetes, 1·00 (0·98–1·02; p=0·92) for ischaemic stroke, and 1·08 (1·04–1·12; p=1·8?×?10?5) for abdominal aortic aneurysm. In exploratory analyses, we observed per-allele increases in concentrations of proatherogenic lipids, including LDL-cholesterol, but no clear evidence of association for blood pressure, glycaemic traits, or any of the 24 other disorders studied. Modelling suggested that the observed increase in LDL-cholesterol could account for about a third of the association observed between the genetic score and increased coronary risk. Interpretation Human genetic data suggest that long-term dual IL-1?/? inhibition could increase cardiovascular risk and, conversely, reduce the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis. The cardiovascular risk might, in part, be mediated through an increase in proatherogenic lipid concentrations. Funding UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, UK National Institute for Health Research, National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, European Research Council, and European Commission Framework Programme 7. PMID:25726324

  6. Novel 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ameliorate scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and reference memory impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Mayako; Okabe, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Yarimizu, Junko; Harada, Katsuya

    2015-03-01

    Despite the human 5-HT5A receptor being cloned in 1994, the biological function of this receptor has not been extensively characterized due to a lack of specific ligands. We recently reported that the selective 5-HT5A receptor antagonist ASP5736 ameliorated cognitive impairment in several animal models of schizophrenia. Given that areas of the brain with high levels of 5-HT5A receptor expression, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, have important functions in cognition and memory, we evaluated the chemically diverse, potent and brain-penetrating 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ASP5736, AS2030680, and AS2674723 in rodent models of cognitive dysfunction associated with dementia. Each of these compounds exhibited a high affinity for recombinant 5-HT5A receptors that was comparable to that of the non-selective ligand of this receptor, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although each compound had a low affinity for other receptors, 5-HT5A was the only receptor for which all three compounds had a high affinity. Each of the three compounds ameliorated scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and improved reference memory impairment in aged rats at similar doses. Further, ASP5736 decreased the binding of LSD to 5-HT5A receptors in the olfactory bulb of rats in a dose-dependent manner and occupied 15%-50% of brain 5-HT5A receptors at behaviorally effective doses. These results indicate that the 5-HT5A receptor is involved in learning and memory and that treatment with 5-HT5A receptor antagonists might be broadly effective for cognitive impairment associated with not only schizophrenia but also dementia. PMID:25837935

  7. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus. PMID:26002078

  8. ?2-chimaerin is required for Eph receptor-class-specific spinal motor axon guidance and coordinate activation of antagonistic muscles.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tzu-Jen; Nicholl, Georgina C B; Johansen, Jamie A; Kania, Artur; Beg, Asim A

    2015-02-11

    Axonal guidance involves extrinsic molecular cues that bind growth cone receptors and signal to the cytoskeleton through divergent pathways. Some signaling intermediates are deployed downstream of molecularly distinct axon guidance receptor families, but the scope of this overlap is unclear, as is the impact of embryonic axon guidance fidelity on adult nervous system function. Here, we demonstrate that the Rho-GTPase-activating protein ?2-chimaerin is specifically required for EphA and not EphB receptor signaling in mouse and chick spinal motor axons. Reflecting this specificity, the loss of ?2-chimaerin function disrupts the limb trajectory of extensor-muscle-innervating motor axons the guidance of which depends on EphA signaling. These embryonic defects affect coordinated contraction of antagonistic flexor-extensor muscles in the adult, indicating that accurate embryonic motor axon guidance is critical for optimal neuromuscular function. Together, our observations provide the first functional evidence of an Eph receptor-class-specific intracellular signaling protein that is required for appropriate neuromuscular connectivity. PMID:25673830

  9. The pharmacology of GR203040, a novel, potent and selective non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, D. T.; Beresford, I. J.; Connor, H. E.; Marshall, F. H.; Hawcock, A. B.; Hagan, R. M.; Bowers, J.; Birch, P. J.; Ward, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of GR203040 ((2S, 3S)-2-methoxy-5-tetrazol-1-yl-benzyl-(2-phenyl-piperidin-3-y l)-amine), a novel, highly potent and selective non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, was investigated in the present study. 2. GR203040 potently inhibited [3H]-substance P binding to human NK1 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and U373 MG astrocytoma cells, and NK1 receptors in ferret and gerbil cortex (pKi values of 10.3, 10.5, 10.1 and 10.1 respectively). GR203040 had lower affinity at rat NK1 receptors (pKi = 8.6) and little affinity for human NK2 receptors (pKi < 5.0) in CHO cells and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig cortex (pKi < 6.0). With the exception of the histamine H1 receptor (pIC50 = 7.5). GR203040 had little affinity (pIC50 < 6.0) at all non-NK1 receptors and ion channels examined. Furthermore, GR203040 produced only weak inhibition of Na+ currents in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and superior cervical ganglion cells (pIC50 values < 4.0). GR203040 produced only weak antagonism of Ca(2+)-evoked contractions of rat isolated portal vein (pKn = 4.1). The enantiomer of GR203040, GR205608 (2R, 3R)-2-methoxy-5-tetrazol-1-yl-benzyl-(2-phenyl-piperidin-3-y l)-amine), had 10,000 fold lower affinity at the human NK1 receptor expressed in CHO cells (pKi = 6.3). 3. In gerbil ex vivo binding experiments, GR203040 produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the binding of [3H]-substance P to cerebral cortical membranes (ED50 = 15 micrograms kg-1 s.c. and 0.42 mg kg-1 p.o.). At 10 micrograms kg-1 s.c., the inhibition of [3H]-substance P binding was maintained for > 6 h. In the rat, GR203040 was less potent (ED50 = 15.4 mg kg-1 s.c.) probably reflecting, at least in part, its lower affinity at the rat NK1 receptor. 4. In guinea-pig isolated ileum and dog isolated middle cerebral and basilar arteries, GR203040 produced a rightward displacement of the concentration-effect curves to substance P methyl ester (SPOMe) with suppression of the maximum agonist response (apparent pKB values of 11.9, 11.2 and 11.1 respectively). 5. In anaesthetized rabbits, GR203040 antagonized reductions in carotid arterial vascular resistance evoked by SPOMe, injected via the lingual artery (DR10 (i.e. the dose producing a dose-ratio of 10) = 1.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). At a dose 20 fold greater than its DR10 value (i.e. 22 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), significant antagonism was evident more than 2 h after GR203040 administration. 6. In anaesthetized rats, GR203040 (3 and 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of plasma protein extravasation in dura mater, conjunctiva, eyelid and lip in response to electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. 7. It is concluded that GR203040 is one of the most potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonists yet described, and as such, has considerable potential as a pharmacological tool to characterize the physiological and pathological roles of substance P and NK1 receptors. GR203040 may also have potential as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of conditions such as migraine, emesis and pain. PMID:8719789

  10. Using an experimental medicine model to understand the antidepressant potential of the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, E; Cowen, LG; McTavish, SF; Cowen, PJ; Harmer, CJ

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the role of the glutamatergic system both in depression and as a novel target for treatments. Preclinical studies suggested that the non-competitive N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine might have antidepressant properties, but a randomised controlled trial failed to support this. A healthy volunteer model of emotional processing was used to assess the neuropsychological profile of action of memantine. Healthy volunteers (n=32) were randomised to receive a single dose of memantine (10 mg) or placebo, and subsequently completed a battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including facial expression recognition, emotional memory, dot-probe and emotion-potentiated startle tasks, as well as working and verbal memory. Memantine treated volunteers showed an increased emotion-potentiated startle, and a reduced bias for negative items in emotional recognition memory. There were no effects of the drug on any other aspect of emotional or non-emotional information processing. These results suggest that a single dose of memantine produces an early anxiogenic response in the emotion-potentiated startle similar to that seen following a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. However, the overall profile of effects is more limited than that which might be expected in response to a conventional antidepressant. PMID:22596208

  11. Development of a Bioavailable ? Opioid Receptor (MOPr) Agonist, ? Opioid Receptor (DOPr) Antagonist Peptide That Evokes Antinociception without Development of Acute Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a cyclic tetrapeptide, 1, that displays ? opioid receptor (MOPr) agonist and ? opioid receptor (DOPr) antagonist activity, a profile associated with a reduced incidence of opioid tolerance and dependence. Like many peptides, 1 has poor bioavailability. We describe here an analogue of 1 with an added C-terminal ?-glucosylserine residue, Ser(?-Glc)NH2, a modification that has previously been shown to improve bioavailability of opioid peptides. The resulting peptide, 4, exhibits full antinociceptive efficacy in the mouse warm water tail withdrawal assay after intraperitoneal administration with potency similar to that of morphine. Further, 4 does not give rise to acute tolerance and thus represents a promising lead for the development of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects. PMID:24641190

  12. Antagonist binding at 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the rabbit: high correlation with the profile for the human receptors.

    PubMed

    Aloyo, V J; Harvey, J A

    2000-10-13

    This study examined the binding of serotonin receptor antagonists at the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors of the rabbit's cerebral cortex. The 5-HT(2A) receptor was characterized by the binding of [3H]MDL 100,907 (R(+)-alpha-(2, 3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methan ol) to cortical membranes and the 5-HT(2C) receptor by the binding of [3H]mesulergine in the presence of the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor ligand spiperone. Both [3H]MDL 100,907 and [3H]mesulergine demonstrated high affinity binding to single sites in rabbit membranes. Based on Scatchard plots of [3H]MDL 100,907 binding, the mean B(max) was 8.5+/-0.7 fmol/mg tissue and the mean K(d) was 33. 1+/-3.5 pM. For [3H]mesulergine binding the mean B(max) was 3.70+/-0. 58 fmol/mg tissue and the mean K(d) was 0.35+/-0.05 nM. Binding of [3H]MDL 100,907 to the 5-HT(2A) receptor and of [3H]mesulergine to the 5-HT(2C) receptor was confirmed by displacement studies with highly selective 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor ligands. The pharmacological profile of these ligands in rabbits correlated highly with published values for 5-HT(2A) (r=0.91, P<0.001) and 5-HT(2C) (r=0.94, P<0.001) receptors in humans. There was also a high correlation between the profiles for human and rat 5-HT(2C) receptor (r=0.92, P<0.001), but not for 5-HT(2A) receptors (r=0.53, P>0.10). It was concluded that the rabbit provides an appropriate animal model for studies attempting to predict the pharmacology of human 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. PMID:11020478

  13. In vitro and in vivo effects of kinin B1 and B2 receptor agonists and antagonists in inbred control and cardiomyopathic hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hallé, S; Gobeil, F; Ouellette, J; Lambert, C; Regoli, D

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the possible alterations occurring in the effects of kinins on isolated aortae of inbred control (CHF 148) and cardiomyopathic (CHF 146) hamsters of 150–175 and 350–375 days of age.Bradykinin (BK) and desArg9BK contracted isolated aortae (with or without endothelium) of hamsters of both strains and ages. After tissue equilibration (90?min), responses elicited by both kinin agonists were stable over the time of experiments. The patterns of isometric contractions of BK and desArg9BK were however found to be different; desArg9BK had a slower onset and a longer duration of action than BK.Potencies (pEC50 values) of BK in all groups of hamsters were significantly increased by preincubating the tissues with captopril (10?5?M).No differences in the pEC50 values and the Emax values for BK or desArg9BK were seen between isolated vessels from inbred control and cardiomyopathic hamsters.The myotropic effect of BK was inhibited by the selective non peptide antagonist, FR 173657 (pIC50 7.25±0.12 at the bradykinin B2 receptor subtype (B2 receptor)). Those of desArg9BK, at the bradykinin B1 receptor subtype (B1 receptor) were abolished by either R 715 (pIC50 of 7.55±0.05; ?E=0), Lys[Leu8]desArg9BK (pIC50 of 7.21±0.01; ?E=0.22) or [Leu8]desArg9BK (pIC50 of 7.25±0.02; ?E=0.18).FR 173657 had no agonistic activity, exerted a non competitive type of antagonism and was poorly reversible (lasting more than 5?h) from B2 receptor. In vivo, FR 173657 (given per os at 1 and 5?mg?kg?1, 1?h before the experiment) antagonized the acute hypotensive effect of BK in anaesthetized hamsters.It is concluded that aging and/or the presence of a congenital cardiovascular disorder in hamsters are not associated with changes in the in vitro aortic responses to either BK or desArg9BK. PMID:10780969

  14. ?-Spinasterol, a TRPV1 receptor antagonist, elevates the seizure threshold in three acute seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Soca?a, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Wla?, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    ?-Spinasterol is a plant-derived compound which was reported to act as a selective antagonist for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor. Several studies revealed that the TRPV1 receptors might modulate seizure activity in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ?-spinasterol on the seizure threshold in three acute models of seizures, i.e., in the intravenous (i.v.) pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test and in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6 Hz stimulation in mice. Our results revealed significant anticonvulsant effect of ?-spinasterol in all the used seizure tests. In the i.v. PTZ test, statistically significant elevation was noted in case of the threshold for myoclonic twitches (doses of 0.1-1 mg/kg) and generalized clonus seizures (doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) but not for tonic seizures. The studied TRPV1 antagonist also increased the threshold for tonic hindlimb extension in the MEST (doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and 6 Hz psychomotor seizure (doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) tests in mice. Furthermore, ?-spinasterol did not produce any significant impairment of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test) and muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and it did not provoke significant changes in body temperature in mice. Based on the results of our study and the fact that ?-spinasterol is characterized by good blood-brain permeability, we postulate further investigation of this compound to precisely evaluate mechanism of its anticonvulsant action and opportunity of its usage in clinical practice. PMID:25764210

  15. Exploring details about structure requirements based on novel CGRP receptor antagonists urethanamide, aspartate, succinate and pyridine derivatives by in silico methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; He, Haoran; Wang, Jinghui; Han, Chunxiao; Feng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    The migraine never fails to afflict individuals in the world that knows no lack of such cases. CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) is found closely related to migraine and olcegepant (BIBN4096) is effective in alleviating the pain. In our work, the combination of ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies along with molecular docking was applied to provide us insights about how urethanamide, pyridine and aspartate and succinate derivatives (novel CGRP receptor antagonists) play a part in inhibiting the activity of CGRP receptor. The optimal CoMSIA model shows the Q2 of 0.505, R2ncv of 0.992 and its accurate predictive ability was confirmed by checking out an independent test set which gave R2pred value of 0.885. Besides, the 3D contour maps help us identify how different groups affect the antagonist activity while connecting to some key positions. In addition, the docking analysis shows the binding site emerging as the distorted “V” shape and including two binding pockets: one of them is hydrophobic, fixing the structural part 3 of compound 80, the other anchors the part 1 of compound 80. The docking analysis also shows the interaction mechanism between compound 80 and CGRP receptor, similar to the interaction between olcegepant and CGRP receptor. The findings derived from this work reveal the mechanism of related antagonists and facilitate the future rational design of novel antagonists with higher potency.

  16. A comparison of the effects of the D1 receptor antagonists SCH 23390 and SCH 39166 on suppression of feeding behavior by the D1 agonist SKF38393.

    PubMed

    Terry, P; Katz, J L

    1994-01-01

    The hypophagic effect of the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 is not dose-dependently antagonized by the D1 antagonist SCH 23390. Moreover, the receptor specificity of this interaction remains in question, since SCH 23390 has significant activity at both 5-HT2 and 5-HT1C receptors, and SKF 38393 also interacts with 5-HT1C receptors. To determine the relative significance of these actions, a comparison was made between the anorectic effects in rats of SCH 23390 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) and the benzonaphthazepine SCH 39166 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), a D1 antagonist with negligible affinity for 5-HT sites. Both compounds inhibited food-intake dose-dependently, with SCH 23390 being approximately twice as potent as SCH 39166. Behaviorally inactive and active doses of both antagonists were tested in combination with the D1 agonist SKF 38393 (10-56 mg/kg). Neither antagonist was able to produce more than a marginal attenuation of the agonist-induced hypophagia. This demonstrates that previous failures to reverse the behavioral actions of SKF 38393 by SCH 23390 were not due to specific actions of this particular antagonist. Finally, like SCH 23390, SCH 39166 (0.3 mg/kg) was able to attenuate fully the anorectic effects of the D1 agonist SKF 82958 (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), demonstrating that neither compound is intrinsically unable to block D1 receptor-mediated hypophagia. The results demonstrate the generality of the D1 antagonist-mediated effect on feeding and call into question the use of SKF 38393 as a D1 agonist in studies of feeding, and perhaps in other contexts as well. PMID:7862841

  17. Cloning, synthesis, and characterization of ?O-conotoxin GeXIVA, a potent ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sulan; Zhangsun, Dongting; Harvey, Peta J; Kaas, Quentin; Wu, Yong; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Hu, Yuanyan; Li, Xiaodan; Tsetlin, Victor I; Christensen, Sean; Romero, Haylie K; McIntyre, Melissa; Dowell, Cheryl; Baxter, James C; Elmslie, Keith S; Craik, David J; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-07-28

    We identified a previously unidentified conotoxin gene from Conus generalis whose precursor signal sequence has high similarity to the O1-gene conotoxin superfamily. The predicted mature peptide, ?O-conotoxin GeXIVA (GeXIVA), has four Cys residues, and its three disulfide isomers were synthesized. Previously pharmacologically characterized O1-superfamily peptides, exemplified by the US Food and Drug Administration-approved pain medication, ziconotide, contain six Cys residues and are calcium, sodium, or potassium channel antagonists. However, GeXIVA did not inhibit calcium channels but antagonized nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs), most potently on the ?9?10 nAChR subtype (IC50 = 4.6 nM). Toxin blockade was voltage-dependent, and kinetic analysis of toxin dissociation indicated that the binding site of GeXIVA does not overlap with the binding site of the competitive antagonist ?-conotoxin RgIA. Surprisingly, the most active disulfide isomer of GeXIVA is the bead isomer, comprising, according to NMR analysis, two well-resolved but uncoupled disulfide-restrained loops. The ribbon isomer is almost as potent but has a more rigid structure built around a short 310-helix. In contrast to most ?-conotoxins, the globular isomer is the least potent and has a flexible, multiconformational nature. GeXIVA reduced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain but had no effect on motor performance, warranting its further investigation as a possible therapeutic agent. PMID:26170295

  18. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 can exert D1 agonist-like effects on rat nucleus accumbens neurons.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, S R; White, F J

    1995-10-13

    Interactions between the selective dopamine D1-class receptor antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2-class receptor agonist quinpirole on nucleus accumbens neurons were investigated with extracellular single cell recording and microiontophoresis. Because dopamine D1 receptor stimulation enables many dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects, SCH 23390 was expected to antagonize quinpirole-induced inhibition of activity. Although concurrent iontophoretic administration of SCH 23390 attenuated the inhibitory effects of quinpirole on most neurons, the antagonist further suppressed the firing of most neurons during attempts to reverse quinpirole-induced inhibition. SCH 23390 also reinstated (enabled) quinpirole-induced inhibition in rats acutely depleted of dopamine. These findings suggest that under certain conditions, SCH 23390 may exert dopamine D1 agonist-like effects. PMID:8584215

  19. Effects of ONO-6950, a novel dual cysteinyl leukotriene 1 and 2 receptors antagonist, in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Yonetomi, Yasuo; Sekioka, Tomohiko; Kadode, Michiaki; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Akihiro; Inoue, Atsuto; Nakao, Takafumi; Nomura, Hiroaki; Murata, Masayuki; Nakao, Shintaro; Nambu, Fumio; Fujita, Manabu; Nakade, Shinji; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2015-10-15

    We assessed in this study the anti-asthmatic effects of ONO-6950, a novel cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) and 2 (CysLT2) receptors dual antagonist, in normal and S-hexyl glutathione (S-hexyl GSH)-treated guinea pigs, and compared these effects to those of montelukast, a CysLT1 selective receptor antagonist. Treatment with S-hexyl GSH reduced animals LTC4 metabolism, allowing practical evaluation of CysLT2 receptor-mediated airway response. ONO-6950 antagonized intracellular calcium signaling via human and guinea pig CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors with IC50 values of 1.7 and 25nM, respectively (human receptors) and 6.3 and 8.2nM, respectively (guinea pig receptors). In normal guinea pigs, both ONO-6950 (1 or 0.3mg/kg, p.o.) and the CysLT1 receptor antagonist montelukast (0.3 or 0.1mg/kg, p.o.) fully attenuated CysLT1-mediated bronchoconstriction and airway vascular hyperpermeability induced by LTD4. On the other hand, in S-hexyl GSH-treated guinea pigs ONO-6950 at 3mg/kg, p.o. or more almost completely inhibited bronchoconstriction and airway vascular hyperpermeability elicited by LTC4, while montelukast showed only partial or negligible inhibition of these airway responses. In ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs, treatment with S-hexyl GSH on top of pyrilamine and indomethacin rendered antigen-induced bronchoconstriction sensitive to both CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptor antagonists. ONO-6950 strongly inhibited this asthmatic response to the level attained by combination therapy with montelukast and BayCysLT2RA, a selective CysLT2 receptor antagonist. These results clearly demonstrate that ONO-6950 is an orally active dual CysLT1/LT2 receptor antagonist that may provide a novel therapeutic option for patients with asthma. PMID:26318198

  20. Functional characterization of five different PRXamide receptors of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with peptidomimetics and identification of agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Park, Yoonseong

    2015-06-01

    The neuropeptidergic system in insects is an excellent target for pest control strategies. One promising biorational approach is the use of peptidomimetics modified from endogenous ligands to enhance biostability and bioavailability. In this study, we functionally characterized five different G protein-coupled receptors in a phylogenetic cluster, containing receptors for PRXamide in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, by evaluating a series of 70 different peptides and peptidomimetics. Three pyrokinin receptors (TcPKr-A, -B, and -C), cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (TcCAPAr) and ecdysis triggering hormone receptor (TcETHr) were included in the study. Strong agonistic or antagonistic peptidomimetics were identified, and included beta-proline (?(3)P) modification of the core amino acid residue proline and also a cyclo-peptide. It is common for a ligand to act on multiple receptors. In a number of cases, a ligand acting as an agonist on one receptor was an efficient antagonist on another receptor, suggesting complex outcomes of a peptidomimetic in a biological system. Interestingly, TcPK-A was highly promiscuous with a high number of agonists, while TcPK-C and TcCAPAr had a lower number of agonists, but a higher number of compounds acting as an antagonist. This observation suggests that a target GPCR with more promiscuity will provide better success for peptidomimetic approaches. This study is the first description of peptidomimetics on a CAPA receptor and resulted in the identification of peptidomimetic analogs that demonstrate antagonism of CAPA ligands. The PRXamide receptor assays with peptidomimetics provide useful insights into the biochemical properties of receptors. PMID:25447413

  1. Ibotenic acid analogues. Synthesis, molecular flexibility, and in vitro activity of agonists and antagonists at central glutamic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, J; Honoré, T; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1985-05-01

    The syntheses of (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (9, ATPA), (alpha-RS, beta-RS)-alpha-amino-beta-methyl-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolepropionic acid (8), (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolebutyric acid (15a), and (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolevaleric acid (15b) are described. The compounds were tested in vitro together with (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-(bromomethyl)-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (ABPA) as inhibitors of the binding of radioactive-labeled (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) to rat brain synaptic membranes. These data were compared with the earlier reported effects of the compounds on single neurons in the feline spinal cord obtained by microelectrophoretic techniques. The three compounds AMPA, ATPA, and ABPA are agonists at the class of receptors assumed to represent a subtype of physiological (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. Inhibition of [3H]AMPA binding by ATPA was 1 order of magnitude weaker than that of AMPA, in agreement with the relative potency of these compounds in vivo. ABPA proved to be equipotent with AMPA both as an inhibitor of AMPA binding and as a neuronal excitant. The compounds 8, 15a, and 15b have no effect as inhibitors of AMPA binding, in agreement with in vivo studies that have shown that 8 does not affect the firing of central neurons whereas 15a and 15b are antagonists at NMDA receptors, a subpopulation of excitatory receptors not affected by AMPA. Molecular mechanical calculations on AMPA, ATPA, and ABPA using the program MM2 showed that conformations of AMPA, ABPA, and especially ATPA by rotation of the amino acid side chain have energy barriers. A possible receptor-active conformation is suggested. PMID:2859375

  2. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gianlorenço, A.C.L.; Serafim, K.R.; Canto-de-Souza, A.; Mattioli, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino) was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2). Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1), animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL) or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2) under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE) and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT) in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM. PMID:24519129

  3. Food flavonoid aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated agonistic/antagonistic/synergic activities in human and rat reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Bechoux, Nathalie; Muller, Marc; Sergent, Thérèse; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2009-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the adverse effects of dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we investigated the genetic-, time-, dose-, species- and tissue-dependent AhR-mediated agonistic/antagonistic activities of three food flavonoids: quercetin, chrysin and genistein. To that end, four stably transfected cell lines were used in cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays: three lines were transformed with the ptKLuc vector harbouring four dioxin-responsive elements (DREs) upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter and the luciferase gene (HepG2-Luc, T-47D-Luc and H4IIE-ULg). The fourth is a patented cell line transformed with a different construct: H4IIE DR-CALUX((R)). Both H4IIE cells were compared for their genetic construction. Human hepatoma (HepG2-Luc) and human breast tumour (T-47D-Luc) cells were compared for tissue-dependent effects. Rat hepatoma (H4IIE-ULg) and human hepatoma (HepG2-Luc) cells were compared for species-dependent activities. We concluded that quercetin, chrysin and genistein act in a time-, dose-, species- and tissue-specific way. For example, genistein displayed agonistic activities when exposed to rat hepatoma cells during 6h but not after 24h. Flavonoids displayed agonistic/antagonistic activities in human breast tumour cells, depending on the exposure time, while in human hepatoma cells, only antagonistic activities of flavonoids were measured. In addition, we report, in all the cells, a synergy between an isoflavone and two food contaminants; the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3-methylcholanthrene, a PAH. In rat cells, this synergy occurred when cells were exposed to flavonoids and contaminant for 6h, while it was observed in human cells only after 24h. PMID:19286049

  4. The orally active melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist BL-6020/979: a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, R; Weyermann, P; Anklin, C; Boroff, M; Bray-French, K; Cardel, B; Courdier-Fruh, I; Deppe, H; Dubach-Powell, J; Erb, M; Haefeli, R H; Henneböhle, M; Herzner, H; Hufschmid, M; Marks, D L; Nordhoff, S; Papp, M; Rummey, C; Santos, G; Schärer, F; Siendt, H; Soeberdt, M; Sumanovski, L T; Terinek, M; Mondadori, C; Güven, N; Feurer, A

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Under physiological conditions, the melanocortin system is a crucial part of the complex network regulating food intake and energy expenditure. In pathological states, like cachexia, these two parameters are deregulated, i.e., food intake is decreased and energy expenditure is increased-a vicious combination leading to catabolism. Agouti-related protein (AgRP), the endogenous antagonist at the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC-4R), was found to increase food intake and to reduce energy expenditure. This qualifies MC-4R blockade as an attractive mode of action for the treatment of cachexia. Based on this rationale, a novel series of small-molecule MC-4R antagonists was designed, from which the orally active compound BL-6020/979 (formerly known as SNT207979) emerged as the first promising development candidate showing encouraging pre-clinical efficacy and safety properties which are presented here. METHODS AND RESULTS: BL-6020/979 is an orally available, selective and potent MC-4R antagonist with a drug-like profile. It increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure in healthy wild-type but not in MC-4R deficient mice. More importantly, it ameliorated cachexia-like symptoms in the murine C26 adenocarcinoma model; with an effect on body mass and body composition and on the expression of catabolic genes. Moreover, BL-6020/979 showed antidepressant-like properties in the chronic mild stress model in rats and exhibits a favorable safety profile. CONCLUSION: The properties of BL-6020/979 demonstrated in animal models and presented here make it a promising candidate suitable for further development towards a first-in-class treatment option for cachexia that potentially opens up the opportunity to treat two hallmarks of the disease, i.e., decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, with one drug. PMID:21966642

  5. Hippocampal-Dependent Antidepressant Action of the H3 Receptor Antagonist Clobenpropit in a Rat Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Femenía, Teresa; Magara, Salvatore; DuPont, Caitlin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Histamine is a modulatory neurotransmitter regulating neuronal activity. Antidepressant drugs target modulatory neurotransmitters, thus ultimately regulating glutamatergic transmission and plasticity. Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists have both pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects; however, the mechanism by which they modulate glutamate transmission is not clear. We measured the effects of the H3R antagonist clobenpropit in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a rat model of depression with impaired memory and altered glutamatergic transmission. Methods: Behavioral tests included the forced swim test, memory tasks (passive avoidance, novel object recognition tests), and anxiety-related paradigms (novelty suppressed feeding, social interaction, light/dark box tests). Hippocampal protein levels were detected by Western blot. Hippocampal plasticity was studied by in slice field recording of CA3-CA1 long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP), and glutamatergic transmission by whole-cell patch clamp recording of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Results: Clobenpropit, administered systemically or directly into the hippocampus, decreased immobility during the forced swim test; systemic injections reversed memory deficits and increased hippocampal GluN2A protein levels. FSL rats displayed anxiety-related behaviors not affected by clobenpropit treatment. Clobenpropit enhanced hippocampal plasticity, but did not affect EPSCs. H1R and H2R antagonists prevented the clobenpropit-induced increase in LTP and, injected locally into the hippocampus, blocked clobenpropit’s effect in the forced swim test. Conclusions: Clobenpropit’s antidepressant effects and the enhanced synaptic plasticity require hippocampal H1R and H2R activation, suggesting that clobenpropit acts through disinhibition of histamine release. Clobenpropit reverses memory deficits and increases hippocampal GluN2A expression without modifying anxiety-related phenotypes or EPSCs in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:25762718

  6. Orexin (hypocretin) receptor agonists and antagonists for treatment of sleep disorders. Rationale for development and current status.

    PubMed

    Mieda, Michihiro; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). They play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness. Loss of orexin neurons in humans is associated with narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, further suggesting the particular importance of orexin in the maintenance of the wakefulness state. These findings have encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs targeting orexin receptors as novel medications of sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and insomnia. Indeed, phase III clinical trials were completed last year of suvorexant, a non-selective (dual) antagonist for orexin receptors, for the treatment of primary insomnia, and demonstrate promising results. The New Drug Application (NDA) for suvorexant has been submitted to the US FDA. Thus, the discovery of a critical role played by the orexin system in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness has opened the door of a new era for sleep medicine. PMID:23359095

  7. Quantitative electroencephalography within sleep/wake states differentiates GABAA modulators eszopiclone and zolpidem from dual orexin receptor antagonists in rats.

    PubMed

    Fox, Steven V; Gotter, Anthony L; Tye, Spencer J; Garson, Susan L; Savitz, Alan T; Uslaner, Jason M; Brunner, Joseph I; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; McDonald, Terrence P; Hodgson, Robert; Yao, Lihang; Bowlby, Mark R; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J; Hargreaves, Richard; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J

    2013-11-01

    Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) induce sleep by blocking orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor-mediated activities responsible for regulating wakefulness. DORAs represent a potential alternative mechanism to the current standard of care that includes the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-positive allosteric modulators, eszopiclone and zolpidem. This work uses an innovative method to analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral frequencies within sleep/wake states to differentiate the effects of GABAA modulators from DORA-22, an analog of the DORA MK-6096, in Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of low, intermediate, and high doses of eszopiclone, zolpidem, and DORA-22 were examined after first defining each compound's ability to promote sleep during active-phase dosing. The EEG spectral frequency power within specific sleep stages was calculated in 1-Hz intervals from 1 to 100?Hz within each sleep/wake state for the first 4?h after the dose. Eszopiclone and zolpidem produced marked, dose-responsive disruptions in sleep stage-specific EEG spectral profiles compared with vehicle treatment. In marked contrast, DORA-22 exhibited marginal changes in the spectral profile, observed only during rapid eye movement sleep, and only at the highest dose tested. Moreover, while eszopiclone- and zolpidem-induced changes were evident in the inactive period, the EEG spectral responses to DORA-22 were absent during this phase. These results suggest that DORA-22 differs from eszopiclone and zolpidem whereby DORA-22 promotes somnolence without altering the neuronal network EEG activity observed during normal sleep. PMID:23722242

  8. The disruptive effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on extinction learning in mice are task-specific

    PubMed Central

    Niyuhire, Floride; Varvel, Stephen A.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Stokes, Rene J.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Disruption of CB1 receptor signaling through the use of CB1 (-/-) mice or the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) has been demonstrated to impair extinction of learned responses in conditioned fear and Morris water maze tasks. In contrast, CB1 (-/-) mice exhibited normal extinction rates in an appetitively motivated operant conditioning task. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test whether rimonabant would differentially disrupt extinction learning between fear-motivated and food-motivated tasks. Materials and methods Separate groups of C57BL/6J mice were trained in two aversively motivated tasks, conditioned freezing and passive avoidance, and an appetitively motivated operant conditioning task at a fixed ratio (FR-5) schedule of food reinforcement. After acquisition, the respective reinforcers in each task were withheld, and an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or rimonabant was given 30 min before each extinction session. Results Rimonabant (3 mg/kg) treatment significantly disrupted extinction in both the conditioned freezing and passive avoidance tasks but failed to affect extinction rates in the operant conditioning task, whether using daily or weekly extinction sessions. Interestingly, rimonabant (3 mg/kg) prevented the significant increases in lever pressing (i.e., extinction burst) that occurred during the first extinction session of the operant conditioning task. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the CB1 receptor plays a vital role in the extinction of aversive memories but is not essential for extinction of learned responses in appetitively motivated tasks. PMID:17211653

  9. Effects of the selective angiotensin II receptor antagonists losartan and PD123177 in animal models of anxiety and memory.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Bill, D J; Dourish, C T; Grewal, S S; McLenachan, A; Stanhope, K J

    1996-08-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential functional role of the octapeptide angiotensin II (AII) in psychiatric and cognitive disorders. The novel angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123177, selective for the AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes respectively, constitute important pharmacological tools for the assessment of the behavioural consequences of modulation of AII function. The present series of studies investigated the effects of each compound in two animal models of anxiety, the rat elevated zero-maze and mouse light/dark box, and two models of working memory in the rat, the operant delayed matching to position (DMTP) task and the spatial reinforced alternation test in the T-maze. Our data indicate that both compounds (0.01-10 mg/kg s.c.) were without significant effect in any of the behavioural assays. Using the present methods and strains of laboratory rodents, these findings provide no support for the involvement of AII receptor function in the mediation of anxiety of working memory. PMID:8876020

  10. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists prevent cisplatin-induced emesis in Cryptotis parva: a new experimental model of emesis.

    PubMed

    Darmani, N A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to introduce Cryptotis parva (the least shrew) as a new experimental emesis model. The chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin, caused a dose-dependent increase in the number of animals exhibiting vomiting and retching behaviours with ED50 values of 6.43+/-1 and 7.9+/-1.2 mg/kg, respectively. The frequencies of these parameters were also dose-dependent. Intraperitoneal administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (tropisetron or MDL 72222) prevented cisplatin-induced emesis and retching behaviours in the least shrew by a dose-dependent mechanism with respective ID50 values of 4.28+/-2.8 and 2.05+/-2 for emesis, and 2.71+/-4.5 and 2.52+/-2.59 for retching. Intraperitoneal injection of selective and nonselective 5-HT3 receptor agonists potently, and in a dose-dependent fashion, induced emesis in the least shrew with the following ED50 potency order: 2-methyl 5-HT approximately 5-HT (p > 0.05) <5-HTQ (p < 0.01) receptors indirectly via release of 5-HT. PMID:9928884

  11. Dissociation of cocaine-antagonist properties and motoric effects of the D1 receptor partial agonists SKF 83959 and SKF 77434.

    PubMed

    Platt, D M; Rowlett, J K; Spealman, R D

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that D1 receptor partial agonists may be viable candidates for development as pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction. This study investigated the ability of the D1 receptor partial agonists SKF 83959 and SKF 77434 to modulate the behavioral effects of cocaine and compared these effects with those of the reference D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 and D1 receptor agonists SKF 81297 and 6-Br-APB. Squirrel monkeys were trained either to respond under a fixed-interval schedule of stimulus-shock termination or to discriminate cocaine from vehicle (procedures useful for evaluating the behavioral stimulant and subjective effects of cocaine, respectively). Additional monkeys were studied with quantitative observational techniques to evaluate the effects of the drugs on various forms of motor behavior. Like SCH 39166, but unlike SKF 81297 and 6-Br-APB, the D1 receptor partial agonists attenuated the behavioral stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in a dose-dependent manner, although maximum antagonism produced by SKF 77434 was not always as great as that produced by SKF 83959 or SCH 39166. In observational studies, SKF 83959 and SKF 77434 produced less severe disruptions in motor behavior than did SCH 39166 and, for SKF 83959, showed a greater separation between the dose required to antagonize the behavioral effects of cocaine and the dose that induced catalepsy (>/=33-fold). These results suggest that D1 receptor partial agonists can act as functional cocaine antagonists with less severe behavioral effects than D1 receptor antagonists. The prominent cocaine-antagonist properties and the low incidence of motoric side effects of SKF 83959 may reflect its unique binding profile at D1 as well as nondopaminergic receptors. PMID:10869406

  12. BIMT 17, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and 5-HT1A receptor full agonist in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Borsini, F; Giraldo, E; Monferini, E; Antonini, G; Parenti, M; Bietti, G; Donetti, A

    1995-09-01

    In the search for antidepressant agents with a rapid onset of action, we have found that compound BIMT 17 (1-[2-[4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1- yl]ethyl]benzimidazol-[1H]-2-one) shows a good affinity for cerebral cortical 5-HT1A (pKi = 7.72) and 5-HT2A (pKi = 6.90) receptors, with no appreciable affinity for the other 5-HT receptor subtypes, including 5-HT2C. BIMT 17 reduced forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the cerebral cortex (pEC50 = 6.09) and in the hippocampus (pEC50 = 6.50), and antagonized 5-HT-induced phosphatidylinositol turnover (pKi = 6.96) in the cerebral cortex. The effect on cAMP accumulation was blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist tertatolol. Buspirone, 8-OH-DPAT and S 14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]- 4[1-(7-methoxynaphtyl)]-piperazine), claimed to be 5-HT1A receptor agonists, did not reduce forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in the cerebral cortex. On the basis of these data, it was concluded that BIMT 17 was the only compound that behaved as a full agonist with respect to the cAMP response in the cortex, while exerting concurrent agonism at 5-HT1A receptors and antagonism at 5-HT2A receptors. These characteristics might explain the peculiar behavior of BIMT 17 in mimicking the inhibitory action of 5-HT on the basal firing rate of the cortical neurons (see accompanying paper). PMID:8584042

  13. Tetrafibricin, a novel non-peptide fibrinogen receptor antagonist, induces conformational changes in glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, T; Kouns, W C; Yamashita, Y; Kamiyama, T; Steiner, B

    1994-01-01

    Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is an amino acid sequence in fibrinogen recognized by platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa. Recently, it was found that RGD peptide binding to GPIIb/IIIa leads to conformational changes in the complex that are associated with the acquisition of high-affinity fibrinogen-binding function. In this study, we found that tetrafibricin, a novel non-peptidic GPIIb/IIIa antagonist, induced similar conformational changes in GPIIb/IIIa as did RGD peptides. Tetrafibricin increased the binding of purified inactive GPIIb/IIIa to immobilized pl-80, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially recognizes ligand-occupied GPIIb/IIIa. Exposure of the pl-80 epitope by tetrafibricin was also observed on resting human platelets by flow cytometry. On intact platelets, the conformational changes transformed GPIIb/IIIa into a high-affinity receptor for fibrinogen and triggered subsequent platelet aggregation. Tetrafibricin is the first non-peptidic GPIIb/IIIa antagonist reported that has the capacity to induce conformational changes in GPIIb/IIIa. PMID:7519850

  14. Effect of adenosine and adenosine receptor antagonist on Müller cell potassium channel in Rat chronic ocular hypertension models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zijian; Huang, Ping; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shouyue; Deng, Lianfu; Jin, Zhe; Xu, Shuo; Shen, Xi; Luo, Xunda; Zhong, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    Müller cells are principal glial cells in rat retina and have attracted much attention in glaucoma studies. However, it is not clear whether adenosine and adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists play any roles in the regulation of potassium channels in Müller cells and subsequently in the promotion of glutamine synthetase (GS) and L-Glutamate/L-Aspartate Transporter (GLAST) functions. We found that chronic ocular hypertension (COH) in rat down-regulated Müller cells Kir2.1, Kir4.1, TASK-1, GS and GLAST expressions and attenuated the peak of inward potassium current. Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) count was lower in the COH rats than that in the sham operation animals. Intravitreal injection of selective A2A AR antagonist SCH442416 up-regulated Müller cell Kir4.1, TASK-1, GS and GLAST expressions and enhanced inward potassium currents compared with those in the COH rats with vehicle control. Meanwhile, the RGC count was higher following intravitreal injection of SCH442416 in the COH rats than that after vehicle injection. The fact that PKA inhibitor H-89 blocked these SCH442416 effects suggested that the PKA signaling pathway was involved in the observed ocular responses following the intravitreal SCH442416 injection. PMID:26063641

  15. TAK-242, a Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist, Protects against Aldosterone-Induced Cardiac and Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Xiang; Dai, Houyong; Yuan, Li; Huang, Xinzhong; Zhou, Qiaoling

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular and renal inflammation induced by Aldosterone (Aldo) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal fibrosis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling contributes to inflammatory cardiovascular and renal diseases, but its role in Aldo-induced hypertension and renal damage is not clear. In the current study, rats were treated with Aldo-salt combined with TAK-242 (a TLR4 signaling antagonist) for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic, cardiac and renal parameters were assayed at the indicated time. We found that Aldo-salt–treated rats present cardiac and renal hypertrophy and dysfunction. Cardiac and renal expression levels of TLR4 as well as levels of molecular markers attesting inflammation and fibrosis are increased by Aldo infusion, whereas the treatment of TAK-242 reverses these alterations. TAK-242 suppresses cardiac and renal inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-a, IL-1? and MCP-1). Furthermore, TAK-242 inhibits hypertension, cardiac and renal fibrosis, and also attenuates the Aldo-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). In experimental hyperaldosteronism, upregulation of TLR4 is correlated with cardiac and renal fibrosis and dysfunction, and a TLR4 signaling antagonist, TAK-242, can reverse these alterations. TAK-242 may be a therapeutic option for salt-sensitive hypertension and renal fibrosis. PMID:26556241

  16. Development of Novel Bioluminescent Sensor to Detect and Discriminate between Vitamin D Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Miyu; Yasuda, Kaori; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Saito, Nozomi; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-21

    Active forms of vitamin D regulate the expression of multiple genes that play essential roles in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, cell differentiation, and the immune system via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Many vitamin D analogs have been synthesized for clinical use in the treatment of type I rickets, osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, psoriasis, leukemia, and breast cancer. We have constructed two fusion proteins containing split-luciferase and the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the VDR designated as LucN-LBD-LucC and LucC-LBD-LucN. Remarkably, the LucC-LBD-LucN, which has the C-terminal domain of luciferase at the N-terminus of the fusion protein, was a significantly better biosensor than LucN-LBD-LucC. Addition of the VDR agonists to COS-7 cells expressing LucC-LBD-LucN dramatically reduced luciferase activity. In contrast, the VDR antagonist significantly increased the chimeric luciferas