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Quinoxalinediones: Potent Competitive Non-NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-subtype of glutamate receptors has been well described as a result of the early appearance of NMDA antagonists, but no potent antagonist for the ``non-NMDA'' glutamate receptors has been available. Quinoxalinediones have now been found to be potent and competitive antagonists at non-NMDA glutamate receptors. These compounds will be useful in the determination of the structure-activity relations of

Tage Honore; Steve N. Davies; Jorgen Drejer; Elizabeth J. Fletcher; Poul Jacobsen; David Lodge; Flemming E. Nielsen



Synergy between Pairs of Competitive Antagonists at Adult Human Muscle Acetylcholine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Background Synergistic neuromuscular blocking effects have been observed clinically with certain pairs of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive antagonists. The mechanism for synergy has not been elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that synergy arises from a differential selectivity of antagonists for the two ligand binding sites on adult human nAChR. Methods We expressed nAChR in BOSC23 cells. We applied ACh with or without antagonists to outside-out patches and measured macroscopic currents at room temperature. We determined the IC90 for (+)-tubocurarine, metocurine, pancuronium, vecuronium, cisatracurium, rocuronium, and atracurium. For 15 combinations of two antagonists, we determined the IC90 for one antagonist in the presence of the IC70 of a second antagonist. We constructed isobolograms for 90% inhibition. For single antagonists, we measured inhibition of receptors containing mutations in the ?- and ?-subunits to determine site selectivity. Results Two pairs of antagonists, metocurine+cisatracurium and cisatracurium+atracurium exhibited additive inhibition. Ten combinations, including (+)-tubocurarine+pancuronium and pancuronium+vecuronium, were highly synergistic such that the combination was 2?3 times more effective than expected for additivity. Three combinations were 1.5?1.6 times more effective than expected for additivity. Inhibition by (+)-tubocurarine and metocurine was sensitive to mutations in the ?-subunit only. Vecuronium was affected by the ?-subunit mutation only. Inhibition by other antagonists was decreased by mutations in either subunit. Conclusions Many combinations of antagonists exhibited synergistic effects on adult human nAChR. Synergy was observed with structurally similar as well as dissimilar antagonists. The degree of synergy did not always correlate well with site specificity assayed with mutants. In some, but not all cases, the synergy at the receptor level correlated with clinical determinations of synergy. We conclude that the synergistic actions of muscle relaxants can be partially explained by direct interactions with adult human nAChR. PMID:18633030

Liu, Man; Dilger, James P.



Competitive molecular docking approach for predicting estrogen receptor subtype ? agonists and antagonists  

PubMed Central

Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that interfere with the endocrine system of vertebrates, often through direct or indirect interactions with nuclear receptor proteins. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are particularly important protein targets and many EDCs are ER binders, capable of altering normal homeostatic transcription and signaling pathways. An estrogenic xenobiotic can bind ER as either an agonist or antagonist to increase or inhibit transcription, respectively. The receptor conformations in the complexes of ER bound with agonists and antagonists are different and dependent on interactions with co-regulator proteins that vary across tissue type. Assessment of chemical endocrine disruption potential depends not only on binding affinity to ERs, but also on changes that may alter the receptor conformation and its ability to subsequently bind DNA response elements and initiate transcription. Using both agonist and antagonist conformations of the ER?, we developed an in silico approach that can be used to differentiate agonist versus antagonist status of potential binders. Methods The approach combined separate molecular docking models for ER agonist and antagonist conformations. The ability of this approach to differentiate agonists and antagonists was first evaluated using true agonists and antagonists extracted from the crystal structures available in the protein data bank (PDB), and then further validated using a larger set of ligands from the literature. The usefulness of the approach was demonstrated with enrichment analysis in data sets with a large number of decoy ligands. Results The performance of individual agonist and antagonist docking models was found comparable to similar models in the literature. When combined in a competitive docking approach, they provided the ability to discriminate agonists from antagonists with good accuracy, as well as the ability to efficiently select true agonists and antagonists from decoys during enrichment analysis. Conclusion This approach enables evaluation of potential ER biological function changes caused by chemicals bound to the receptor which, in turn, allows the assessment of a chemical's endocrine disrupting potential. The approach can be used not only by regulatory authorities to perform risk assessments on potential EDCs but also by the industry in drug discovery projects to screen for potential agonists and antagonists. PMID:25349983



Discovery of potent competitive antagonists and positive modulators of the P2X2 receptor.  


Evaluation and optimization of anthraquinone derivatives related to Reactive Blue 2 at P2X2 receptors yielded the first potent and selective P2X2 receptor antagonists. The compounds were tested for inhibition of ATP (10 ?M) mediated currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing the rat P2X2 receptor. The most potent antagonists were sodium 1-amino-4-[3-(4,6-dichloro[1,3,5]triazine-2-ylamino)phenylamino]-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonate (63, PSB-10211, IC(50) 86 nM) and disodium 1-amino-4-[3-(4,6-dichloro[1,3,5]triazine-2-ylamino)-4-sulfophenylamino]-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonate (57, PSB-1011, IC(50) 79 nM). Compound 57 exhibited a competitive mechanism of action (pA(2) 7.49). It was >100-fold selective versus P2X4, P2X7, and several investigated P2Y receptor subtypes (P2Y(2,4,6,12)); selectivity versus P2X1 and P2X3 receptors was moderate (>5-fold). Compound 57 was >13-fold more potent at the homomeric P2X2 than at the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor. Several anthraquinone derivatives were found to act as positive modulators of ATP effects at P2X2 receptors, for example, sodium 1-amino-4-(3-phenoxyphenylamino)-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonate (51, PSB-10129, EC(50) 489 nM), which led to about a 3-fold increase in the ATP-elicited current. PMID:21207957

Baqi, Younis; Hausmann, Ralf; Rosefort, Christiane; Rettinger, Jürgen; Schmalzing, Günther; Müller, Christa E



Attenuation of Acute Morphine Withdrawal in the Neonatal Rat by the Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonist LY235959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the ability of LY235959, a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, to attenuate behaviors and c-fos mRNA expression associated with acute morphine withdrawal in the infant rat. Rat pups were given a single dose of morphine (10.0 mg\\/kg, s.c.) or saline. Two hours later, pups were removed from the dam and injected with either LY235959 (10.0 mg\\/kg,

Kathy L. Jones; Hongbo Zhu; Shirzad Jenab; Ted Du; Charles E. Inturrisi; Gordon A. Barr



GABA{sub A} receptor open-state conformation determines non-competitive antagonist binding  

SciTech Connect

The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA{sub A}R) is one of the most important targets for insecticide action. The human recombinant {beta}3 homomer is the best available model for this binding site and 4-n-[{sup 3}H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([{sup 3}H]EBOB) is the preferred non-competitive antagonist (NCA) radioligand. The uniquely high sensitivity of the {beta}3 homomer relative to the much-less-active but structurally very-similar {beta}1 homomer provides an ideal comparison to elucidate structural and functional features important for NCA binding. The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared using chimeragenesis and mutagenesis and various combinations with the {alpha}1 subunit and modulators. Chimera {beta}3/{beta}1 with the {beta}3 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}1 subunit transmembrane helices retained the high [{sup 3}H]EBOB binding level of the {beta}3 homomer while chimera {beta}1/{beta}3 with the {beta}1 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}3 subunit transmembrane helices had low binding activity similar to the {beta}1 homomer. GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold by increasing the open probability of the channel. Addition of the {alpha}1 subunit rescued the inactive {beta}1/{beta}3 chimera close to wildtype {alpha}1{beta}1 activity. EBOB binding was significantly altered by mutations {beta}1S15'N and {beta}3N15'S compared with wildtype {beta}1 and {beta}3, respectively. However, the binding activity of {alpha}1{beta}1S15'N was insensitive to GABA and {alpha}1{beta}3N15'S was stimulated much less than wildtype {alpha}1{beta}3 by GABA. The inhibitory effect of etomidate on NCA binding was reduced more than 5-fold by the mutation {beta}3N15'S. Therefore, the NCA binding site is tightly regulated by the open-state conformation that largely determines GABA{sub A} receptor sensitivity. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared by chimeragenesis, mutagenesis and modulators. > Low {beta}1 NCA binding was rescued by replacing its transmembrane helices with those of {beta}3. > GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold. > Mutation at 15' position in TM2 reduced GABA stimulation of NCA binding. > The open-state conformation largely determines GABAA receptor sensitivity to NCAs.

Chen Ligong [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Xue Ling [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giacomini, Kathleen M. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Casida, John E., E-mail: [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)



An arylaminopyridazine derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a selective and competitive antagonist at the GABAA receptor site.  

PubMed Central

In view of finding a new gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ligand we synthesized an arylaminopyridazine derivative of GABA, SR 95103 [2-(carboxy-3'-propyl)-3-amino-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazinium chloride]. SR 95103 displaced [3H]GABA from rat brain membranes with an apparent Ki of 2.2 microM and a Hill number near 1.0. SR 95103 (1-100 microM) antagonized the GABA-mediated enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting [3H]diazepam binding per se. SR 95103 competitively antagonized GABA-induced membrane depolarization in rat spinal ganglia. In all these experiments, the potency of SR 95103 was close to that of bicuculline. SR 95103 (100 microM) did not interact with a variety of central receptors--in particular the GABAB, the strychnine, and the glutamate receptors--did not inhibit Na+-dependent synaptosomal GABA uptake, and did not affect GABA-transaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities. Intraperitoneally administered SR 95103 elicited clonicotonic seizures in mice (ED50 = 180 mg/kg). On the basis of these results it is postulated that St 95103 is a competitive antagonist of GABA at the GABAA receptor site. In addition to being an interesting lead structure for the search of GABA ligands, SR 95103 could also be a useful tool to investigate GABA receptor subtypes because it is freely soluble in water and chemically stable. Images PMID:2984669

Chambon, J P; Feltz, P; Heaulme, M; Restle, S; Schlichter, R; Biziere, K; Wermuth, C G



Discovery and structure-activity relationship of the first non-peptide competitive human glucagon receptor antagonists.  


The first non-peptide competitive human glucagon receptor antagonist, 2-(benzimidazol-2-ylthio)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethan one, NNC 92-1687 (2), is described. This antagonist has a binding affinity of 20 microM (IC50) and a functional Ki = 9.1 microM at the human glucagon receptor. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) was obtained on this compound, and the results show that only the benzimidazole part can be changed without complete loss of affinity. Analogues with tert-butyl or benzyloxy groups in the 5-position of the benzimidazole moiety were found to be equipotent or slightly more potent, all displaying binding affinities around 5-20 microM. Most of the changes to the catechol and the linker gave compounds without any affinity toward the human glucagon receptor. The 3-hydroxy group could, however, in the presence of a 4-hydroxy group be changed to a methoxy or a chloro group while retaining affinity. PMID:9857085

Madsen, P; Knudsen, L B; Wiberg, F C; Carr, R D



Structure-activity analysis of binding kinetics for NMDA receptor competitive antagonists: the influence of conformational restriction.  

PubMed Central

1. The kinetics of action of 17 structurally related NMDA receptor competitive antagonists were measured under voltage clamp in mouse hippocampal neurones. Analysis of the response to rapid changes in antagonist concentration during constant application of agonist was used to estimate microscopic association (kon) and dissociation (koff) rate constants for antagonist binding, assuming a two-equivalent site model for competitive antagonism. Dose-inhibition curves were analysed to estimate antagonist equilibrium dissociation constants. 2. For a series of 11 omega-phosphono, alpha-amino acids kon and koff varied 26 and 107 fold respectively. Rapid association and dissociation rate constants were obtained for flexible antagonist molecules such as D-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-AP7): kon 1.4 x 10(7) M-1 s-1; koff 20.3 s-1. For conformationally restrained molecules such as 3S,4aR,6S,8aR-6-phosphonomethyl-decahydroisoquinoline- 3-carboxylic acid (LY 235959), association and dissociation rate constants were much slower: kon 1.1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1; koff 0.2 s-1. For the D- and L-isomers of 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) estimates for kon were similar, but for the L-isomer koff was 10 fold faster than for the D-isomer. 3. For 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and its piperidine derivative cis-4-(phosphonomethyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid (CGS 19755), an increase in chain length of two methylene groups between the omega-phosphono and alpha-carboxylate moieties caused a 1.6 to 1.8 fold decrease in kon with little change in koff. In contrast, for AP5, CPP and its omega-carboxylate analogue, addition of a double bond close to the phosphonate moiety caused a 1.3 to 1.6 fold increase in kon. 4. For antagonists with an omega-tetrazole moiety, kon and koff were 2.8-4.6 times faster than for the parent omega-phosphono compounds. A similar, but smaller increase in kon and koff was observed for antagonists with an omega-carboxylate moiety. 5. The slow kinetics of action of potent NMDA receptor antagonists were not an artefact of buffered diffusion. In neurones equilibrated with 200 microM D-AP7, 2 microM LY 235959 and 10 microM NMDA, a transient agonist response was recorded following a rapid switch to D-AP7-free solution. This can only be explained by differences in the binding kinetics of AP7 and LY 235959, since at equilibrium, with these concentrations, either antagonist essentially eliminates the agonist response to 10 microM NMDA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1686203

Benveniste, M.; Mayer, M. L.



Quinazolin-4-one derivatives: A novel class of non-competitive NR2C/D subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives is non-competitive and voltage-independent, suggesting that this family of compounds does not exert action on the agonist binding site of the receptor or block the channel pore. The compounds described here resemble CP-465,022 ((S)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(6-diethylaminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-vinyl]-6-fluoro-3H-quinazolin-4-one), a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors. However, modification of ring substituents resulted in analogues with greater than 100-fold selectivity for recombinant NMDA receptors over AMPA and kainate receptors. Furthermore, within this series of compounds, analogues were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of non-competitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:20684595

Mosley, Cara A.; Acker, Timothy M.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Andersen, Karen T.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.



Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, in a range of animal models  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Blockade of AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate. Experimental approach: AMPA antagonist effects of EGIS-8332 were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332 were evaluated in various experimental models, relative to those of GYKI 53405. Key results: EGIS-8332 inhibited AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibited the AMPA- and quisqualate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of telencephalon neurons (IC50=5.1-9.0??M), in vitro. Good anticonvulsant actions were obtained in maximal electroshock-, sound- and chemically-induced seizures (range of ED50=1.4-14.0 mg kg?1 i.p.) in mice. Four days after transient global cerebral ischaemia, EGIS-8332 decreased neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area in gerbils and rats. EGIS-8332 dose-dependently reduced cerebral infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and rats (minimum effective dose=3 mg kg?1 i.p.). Side effects of EGIS-8332 emerged much above its pharmacologically active doses. A tendency for better efficacy of GYKI 53405 than that of EGIS-8332 was observed in anticonvulsant tests that reached statistical significance in few cases, while the contrary was perceived in cerebral ischaemia tests. Conclusions and implications: EGIS-8332 seems suitable for further development for the treatment of epilepsy, ischaemia and stroke based on its efficacy in a variety of experimental disease models, and on its low side effect potential. PMID:17603549

Gigler, G; Móricz, K; ágoston, M; Simó, A; Albert, M; Benedek, A; Kapus, G; Kertész, S; Vegh, M; Barkóczy, J; Markó, B; Szabó, G; Matucz, É; Gacsályi, I; Lévay, G; Hársing, L G; Szénási, G



Vasopressin receptor antagonists.  


Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for. PMID:25604388

Palmer, Biff F



Clozapine and other competitive antagonists reactivate risperidone-inactivated h5-HT7 receptors: radioligand binding and functional evidence for GPCR homodimer protomer interactions  

PubMed Central

Rationale The h5-HT7 receptor is subject to inactivation by risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone, apparently through a pseudo-irreversible complex formed between these drugs and the receptor. Although risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone (“inactivating antagonists”) completely inactivate the receptor, only 50% of the receptors form a pseudo-irreversible complex with these drugs. Objectives This study aims to more fully determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the novel effects of risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone and to determine if the inactivation can be reversed (reactivation). Methods The ability of non-inactivating drugs (competitive antagonists) to dissociate wash-resistant [3H]risperidone binding from h5-HT7 receptors was investigated. Also, the ability of non-inactivating drugs to reactivate inactivated h5-HT7 receptors was investigated, using cAMP accumulation as a functional endpoint. Results The competitive (non-inactivating) antagonists clozapine and mesulergine released the wash-resistant [3H]risperidone binding to the h5-HT7 receptor. The competitive antagonists clozapine, SB269970, mianserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, and ICI169369 reactivated the risperidone-inactivated h5-HT7 receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The potencies for reactivation closely match the affinities of these drugs for the h5-HT7 receptor (r2=0.95), indicating that the reactivating antagonists are binding to and producing their effects through the orthosteric binding site of the h5-HT7 receptor. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analyses indicate that the h5-HT7 receptor forms homodimers. Conclusions The ability of the non-inactivating drugs to bind h5-HT7 orthosteric sites and reverse the wash-resistant effects of risperidone or 9-OH-risperidone, also bound to h5-HT7 orthosteric sites, is evidence for protomer–protomer interactions between h5-HT7 homodimers. This is the first demonstration of a non-mutated G-protein-coupled receptor homodimer engaging in protomer–protomer interactions in an intact cell preparation. PMID:20827463

Toohey, Nicole; Knight, Jessica A.; Klein, Michael T.; Smith, Carol



NSC23766, a widely used inhibitor of Rac1 activation, additionally acts as a competitive antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.  


Small molecules interfering with Rac1 activation are considered as potential drugs and are already studied in animal models. A widely used inhibitor without reported attenuation of RhoA activity is NSC23766 [(N(6)-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl]amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]-2-methyl-4,6-quinolinediamine trihydrochloride]. We found that NSC23766 inhibits the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 mAChR)-induced Rac1 activation in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Surprisingly, NSC27366 concomitantly suppressed the carbachol-induced RhoA activation and a M2 mAChR-induced inotropic response in isolated neonatal rat hearts requiring the activation of Rho-dependent kinases. We therefore aimed to identify the mechanisms by which NSC23766 interferes with the differentially mediated, M2 mAChR-induced responses. Interestingly, NSC23766 caused a rightward shift of the carbachol concentration response curve for the positive inotropic response without modifying carbachol efficacy. To analyze the specificity of NSC23766, we compared the carbachol and the similarly Gi??-mediated, adenosine-induced activation of Gi protein-regulated potassium channel (GIRK) channels in human atrial myocytes. Application of NSC23766 blocked the carbachol-induced K(+) current but had no effect on the adenosine-induced GIRK current. Similarly, an adenosine A1 receptor-induced positive inotropic response in neonatal rat hearts was not attenuated by NSC23766. To investigate its specificity toward the different mAChR types, we studied the carbachol-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells expressing M1, M2, or M3 mAChRs. NSC23766 caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the carbachol concentration response curves at all mAChRs. Thus, NSC23766 is not only an inhibitor of Rac1 activation, but it is within the same concentration range a competitive antagonist at mAChRs. Molecular docking analysis at M2 and M3 mAChR crystal structures confirmed this interpretation. PMID:23887096

Levay, Magdolna; Krobert, Kurt Allen; Wittig, Karola; Voigt, Niels; Bermudez, Marcel; Wolber, Gerhard; Dobrev, Dobromir; Levy, Finn Olav; Wieland, Thomas



Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis  

E-print Network

LETTER Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis Jennie Garbutt,1 infections led to improved suppression of competitors in the bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Antagonism, Bacillus thuringiensis, evolution of virulence, interference competition, mixed infection, social

Obbard, Darren


The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

SciTech Connect

APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 ?M), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 ?M. The compound (0.007–3.40 ?M) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 ?M, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 ?M) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 ?M. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (?1{sub 2}?1??) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 ?M), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (?1{sub 2}?1??) than for the mouse (?1{sub 2}?1??) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ? APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ? APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

Grandi?, Marjana [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbi?eva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbi?eva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Turk, Tom; Sep?i?, Kristina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ve?na pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ve?na pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Benoit, Evelyne [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Frangež, Robert, E-mail: [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbi?eva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbi?eva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)



Antinociceptive pharmacology of N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N'-(4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-methoxybenzyl) thiourea, a high-affinity competitive antagonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor.  


The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) is expressed predominantly in a subset of primary afferent nociceptors. Due to its specific anatomical location and its pivotal role as a molecular integrator for noxious thermal and chemical stimuli, there is considerable interest to develop TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of pain. Recently, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N'-(4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-methoxybenzyl) thiourea (IBTU) was synthesized, and it was found in vitro to be a high-affinity competitive antagonist of cytoplasmic, but not intracellular, TRPV1. In this study, we examined the in vivo antinociceptive activity of IBTU in several acute and inflammatory pain models in mice. Our emphasis was on nociceptive pathways that are likely mediated by TRPV1, including capsaicin-, noxious heat-, and proton (including inflammation)-induced nociception tests. Capsazepine was used as a positive control in these experiments. IBTU dose-dependently blocked the capsaicin-induced nociception, confirming its antagonism at TRPV1 in vivo. By itself, IBTU produced significant antinociception, because it significantly prolonged the tail-flick latency in a dose-dependent manner. IBTU also blocked both early and late phases of the formalin-induced flinching response as well as acetic acid-induced writhing behavior. Moreover, IBTU inhibited the complete Freund's adjuvant-induced persistent hyperalgesia. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IBTU acts as a TRPV1 antagonist in vivo, and they suggest that it may be of therapeutic use for the treatment of pain. PMID:17312187

Tang, Lei; Chen, Yan; Chen, Zili; Blumberg, Peter M; Kozikowski, Alan P; Wang, Zaijie Jim



Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists and sigma ligands on the acquisition of conditioned fear in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that several compounds known to act as competitive or non-competitive antagonists of NMDA receptors can disrupt learning in rodents. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of a range of NMDA antagonists, acting at several sites in the NMDA receptor complex, on the acquisition of learned fear in mice. Dose-related disruptions of learning

D. J. Sanger; D. Joly



Configurationally Restricted Bismacrocyclic CXCR4 Receptor Antagonists  

E-print Network

Configurationally Restricted Bismacrocyclic CXCR4 Receptor Antagonists Gina C. Valks, Graeme Mc configurationally restricted analogue of bismacrocyclic cyclam-type CXCR4 chemokine receptor antagonists has been,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)), Figure 1c, is a drug that interacts with a cell surface protein (CXCR4) via hydrogen bonding

Hubin, Tim


Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

Fujii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Igarashi, Yasuyuki [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Goitsuka, Ryo [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)] [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)



Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists and sigma ligands on the acquisition of conditioned fear in mice.  


Recent studies have shown that several compounds known to act as competitive or non-competitive antagonists of NMDA receptors can disrupt learning in rodents. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of a range of NMDA antagonists, acting at several sites in the NMDA receptor complex, on the acquisition of learned fear in mice. Dose-related disruptions of learning were produced by the non-competitive antagonists phencyclidine, dizocilpine, dextromethorphan and (+) and (-)N-allylnormetazocine. The (+) enantiomer of N-allylnormetazocine was approximately twice as potent as the (-) enantiomer. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, CGS 19755, also blocked the acquisition of learned fear as did the non-specific glutamate antagonist riluzole. In contrast, the anti-ischaemic drugs ifenprodil and SL 82.0715, which probably act as NMDA antagonists through an effect on the polyamine site, had no effect on learning up to doses which substantially reduced locomotion. The sigma receptor ligand DTG was also inactive. These results confirm that both competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists disrupt learning but indicate that the extent to which such an effect is observed may depend on the site at which the compounds act within the receptor complex. Activity at sigma receptors is unrelated to the effect on learning. PMID:1652775

Sanger, D J; Joly, D



Internalization of the chemokine receptor CCR4 can be evoked by orthosteric and allosteric receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The chemokine receptor CCR4 has at least two natural agonist ligands, MDC (CCL22) and TARC (CCL17) which bind to the same orthosteric site with a similar affinity. Both ligands are known to evoke chemotaxis of CCR4-bearing T cells and also elicit CCR4 receptor internalization. A series of small molecule allosteric antagonists have been described which displace the agonist ligand, and inhibit chemotaxis. The aim of this study was to determine which cellular coupling pathways are involved in internalization, and if antagonists binding to the CCR4 receptor could themselves evoke receptor internalization. CCL22 binding coupled CCR4 efficiently to ?-arrestin and stimulated GTP?S binding however CCL17 did not couple to ?-arrestin and only partially stimulated GTP?S binding. CCL22 potently induced internalization of almost all cell surface CCR4, while CCL17 showed only weak effects. We describe four small molecule antagonists that were demonstrated to bind to two distinct allosteric sites on the CCR4 receptor, and while both classes inhibited agonist ligand binding and chemotaxis, one of the allosteric sites also evoked receptor internalization. Furthermore, we also characterize an N-terminally truncated version of CCL22 which acts as a competitive antagonist at the orthosteric site, and surprisingly also evokes receptor internalization without demonstrating any agonist activity. Collectively this study demonstrates that orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of the CCR4 receptor are capable of evoking receptor internalization, providing a novel strategy for drug discovery against this class of target. PMID:24534492

Ajram, Laura; Begg, Malcolm; Slack, Robert; Cryan, Jenni; Hall, David; Hodgson, Simon; Ford, Alison; Barnes, Ashley; Swieboda, Dawid; Mousnier, Aurelie; Solari, Roberto



Anti-platelet therapy: ADP receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The P2Y12 receptor on platelets with which ADP interacts has an important role in promoting platelet function and thereby platelet involvement in both haemostasis and thrombosis. Agents that act as antagonists at this receptor are thus likely to provide effective antithrombotic therapy, provided that there are no adverse effects on haemostasis. Here we describe the ADP receptor antagonists that are available and in development. We also consider their mode of action and ask whether there are additional mechanisms through which they exert their inhibitory effects on platelet function. PMID:21518389

Wijeyeratne, Yanushi Dullewe; Heptinstall, Stan



Peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors. Can they be classified with the available antagonists?  

PubMed Central

Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the so-called 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin, spiperone, trazodone and methysergide were studied in isolated preparations of the rabbit aorta, rat jugular vein, and rat caudal artery. Trazodone and spiperone were apparently simple competitive antagonists since they produced antagonism that was surmountable over the concentration range studied and, in each tissue, their apparent affinity appeared to be independent of the antagonist concentration. Furthermore, concentration-ratios obtained with the two antagonists in combination suggested that antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of 5-HT receptors. Ketanserin was a non-surmountable antagonist of 5-HT in the rat caudal artery and methysergide demonstrated surmountable, competitive antagonism only in the rabbit aorta. Antagonist dissociation constants estimated for apparently competitive interactions showed that ketanserin, spiperone and trazodone expressed affinities which differed according to the tissue used. In the case of trazodone, affinity estimates differed by as much as 12 fold. These discrepancies were independent of the 5-HT receptor agonist used and could not be attributed to an inadequate equilibration of the antagonist. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either the receptors in the different tissues are heterogeneous or the antagonists used here must be considered as unreliable probes for the classification of 5-HT2-like receptors. PMID:2943354

Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.



Bradykinin receptors and their antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bradykinin and related kinins act on two receptor types, named B1 and B2. Initially identified in classical bioassays, these receptors have been cloned and characterized in binding assays performed on plasma membranes of cells expressing the native or the transfected human kinin B1 or B2 receptor types. The two classification criteria recommended by Schild, namely the order of potency of

Domenico Regoli; Suzanne Nsa Allogho; Anna Rizzi; Fernand Junior Gobeil



Androgen receptor antagonists for prostate cancer therapy.  


Androgen deprivation is the mainstay therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Another way of suppressing androgen receptor (AR) signaling is via AR antagonists or antiandrogens. Despite being frequently prescribed in clinical practice, there is conflicting evidence concerning the role of AR antagonists in the management of PCa. In the castration-resistant settings of PCa, docetaxel has been the only treatment option for decades. With recent evidence that castration-resistant PCa is far from AR-independent, there has been an increasing interest in developing new AR antagonists. This review gives a concise overview of the clinically available antiandrogens and the experimental AR antagonists that tackle androgen action with a different approach. PMID:24639562

Helsen, Christine; Van den Broeck, Thomas; Voet, Arnout; Prekovic, Stefan; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Joniau, Steven; Claessens, Frank



Effect of nonselective and selective opioid receptors antagonists on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen [part III].  


The influence of naloxone (NAL), a competitive antagonist of mu, kappa, delta and sigma receptors; D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTOP), selective antagonist of mu-opioid receptors; nor-binaltorphimine (NOR-BNI), a potent and higly selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist; naltrindole (NTI), a delta-opioid receptor antagonist and naltriben (NTB), a highly selective delta(2)-opioid receptor antagonist on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen (ACETA) was studied in rats. NAL administered intraperitoneally (ip) or intracerebroventricularly (icv), and CTOP and NOR-BNI administered icv, markedly decreased the antinociceptive activity of the high dose of ACETA (400 mg/kg). Pretreatment with NTI (sc), as well as with naloxone (it), and NTB (it) slightly but significantly attenuated the ACETA antinociception. The possible involvement of the opioidergic systems in antinociceptive activity of ACETA is discussed. PMID:15591641

Bujalska, M



Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors  

PubMed Central

Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman



Pharmacological Activity of Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha-Selective Antagonists in Vitro and in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Oral administration of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pan-antagonist reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis. Given the importance of RAR? in regulating spermatogenesis, we identified two RAR?-selective antagonists by transactivation and transactivation competition assays and asked whether they effectively inhibit spermatogenesis. Although these two antagonists were potent in vitro, they displayed poor in vivo activity in mice when administered orally. Testicular weights were normal, and morphological analysis revealed normal spermatid alignment and sperm release. In vitro drug property analyses were performed with one of these antagonists and compared with the pan-antagonist. We showed that the discrepancies may be explained by several factors, including high plasma protein binding, faster hepatic metabolism relative to the pan-antagonist, and only moderate permeability. The conclusion of poor oral bioavailability was supported by more pronounced defects in mice when the antagonist was administered intravenously versus intraperitoneally. These results are crucial for designing new RAR?-selective antagonists for pharmaceutical application. PMID:24040487



Implementation of a Fluorescence-Based Screening Assay Identifies Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists Clobenpropit and Iodophenpropit as Subunit-Selective N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca2+-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism. PMID:20197375

Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L.; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M.; Orr, Anna G.; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T. J.; Snyder, James P.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans



Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.



Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States)] [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)



Sensitive and rapid behavioral differentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.  


Behavioral effects of PCP-type noncompetitive antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors overlap with those of a host of other centrally acting compounds. In the present experiment, locomotor activity and performance on an inverted screen test in untrained mice were used to differentiate PCP-type non-competitive NMDA antagonists from other drug classes. These uncompetitive NMDA antagonists [PCP, dizocilpine, (-)-MK-801, TCP, (+)-SKF 10,047, dextrorphan, ketamine] produced dose-related increases in locomotor activity and the percentage of mice falling off an inverted, elevated wire mesh screen. Both effects demonstrated stereoselectivity, occurred at comparable dose levels, and were within the range of doses producing other biological effects (e.g., anticonvulsant). The potencies of these drugs for producing behavioral effects were positively correlated with affinities for PCP ([3H]MK-801) but not sigma([3H]SKF 10,047) receptors. Although muscarinic antagonists (benactyzine, atropine) produced effects in the same direction, locomotor stimulation was small and occurred at lower doses than those inducing screen failures. Competitive NMDA antagonists (LY 274614, LY 233536, CPP, NPC 12626), sigma receptor ligands (DTG, dextromethorphan), postsynaptic dopamine agonists (quinpirole, SKF 38393) and antagonists (haloperidol, SCH 39166), and some depressant compounds (morphine, diazepam) increased failures on the screen test but decreased locomotor activity. Ligands of the polyamine regulatory site of the NMDA receptor (ifenprodil, SL 82.0715-10) and the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX decreased locomotor activity without increasing screen failures. An antagonist of the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor (7-chlorokynurenic acid) did not affect performance on either test. Psychomotor stimulants (cocaine and methamphetamine) stimulated locomotor activity without affecting screen performance. The only false positives occurred with barbiturates (pentobarbital, phenobarbital). Nonetheless, the present procedure demonstrates excellent sensitivity and power for rapid discrimination of uncompetitive NMDA antagonists. PMID:7855218

Ginski, M J; Witkin, J M



Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity  

SciTech Connect

The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.



VRQ397 (CRAVKY): a novel noncompetitive V2 receptor antagonist.  


Vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) exhibits mostly important properties for hydroosmotic equilibrium and, to a lesser extent, on vasomotricity. Drugs currently acting on this receptor are analogs of the natural neuropeptide, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and hence are competitive ligands. Peptides that reproduce specific sequences of a given receptor have lately been reported to interfere with its action, and if such molecules arise from regions remote from the binding site they would be anticipated to exhibit noncompetitive antagonism, but this has yet to be shown for V2R. Six peptides reproducing juxtamembranous regions of V2R were designed and screened; the most effective peptide, cravky (labeled VRQ397), was characterized. VRQ397 was potent (IC(50) = 0.69 +/- 0.25 nM) and fully effective in inhibiting V2R-dependent physiological function, specifically desmopressin-L-desamino-8-arginine-vasopressin (DDAVP)-induced cremasteric vasorelaxation; this physiological functional assay was utilized to avoid overlooking interference of specific signaling events. A dose-response profile revealed a noncompetitive property of VRQ397; correspondingly, VRQ397 bound specifically to V2R-expressing cells could not displace its natural ligand, AVP, but modulated AVP binding kinetics (dissociation rate). Specificity of VRQ397 was further confirmed by its inability to bind to homologous V1 and oxytocin receptors and its inefficacy to alter responses to stimulation of these receptors. VRQ397 exhibited pharmacological permissiveness on V2R-induced signals, as it inhibited DDAVP-induced PGI(2) generation but not that of cAMP or recruitment of beta-arrestin2. Consistent with in vitro and ex vivo effects as a V2R antagonist, VRQ397 displayed anticipated in vivo aquaretic efficacy. We hereby describe the discovery of a first potent noncompetitive antagonist of V2R, which exhibits functional selectivity, in line with properties of a negative allosteric modulator. PMID:19641130

Rihakova, L; Quiniou, C; Hamdan, F F; Kaul, R; Brault, S; Hou, X; Lahaie, I; Sapieha, P; Hamel, D; Shao, Z; Gobeil, F; Hardy, P; Joyal, J-S; Nedev, H; Duhamel, F; Beauregard, K; Heveker, N; Saragovi, H U; Guillon, G; Bouvier, M; Lubell, W D; Chemtob, S



(D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin analogues: a new class of bombesin receptor antagonists  

SciTech Connect

Previous attempts to develop analogues of bombesin that function as specific receptor antagonists have been unsuccessful. Alteration of the histidine in luteinizing hormone releasing factor has resulted in analogues that function as competitive antagonists. In the present study the authors have used a similar strategy and altered the histidine in bombesin. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin, (D-Phe/sup 12/,Leu/sup 14/)bombesin, and (Try/sup 4/, D-)je/sup 12/) bombesin did not stimulate amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini when present alone, but each analog inhibited bombesin-stimulated secretion. For each analog, detectable inhibition occurred at 1 and half-maximal inhibition at 4 Each analog inhibited amylase release by bombesin and other agonists that stimulate secretion by interacting with bombesin receptors. The analogues of bombesin did not alter stimulation by substance P or other agonists that interact with other receptors. The inhibition of the action of bombesin was competitive with Schild plots having slopes of 1.0. Each analog also inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-labeled (Try/sup 4/) bombesin but not /sup 125/I-labeled substance P. These results demonstrate that (D-Phe/sup 12/) analogues of bombesin function as bombesin receptor antagonists and are the only bombesin receptor antagonists that interact only with the bombesin receptor. Because of their specificity, these analogues may prove useful for defining the role of bombesin in various physiological or pathological processes.

Heinz-Erian, P.; Coy, D.H.; Tamura, M.; Jones, S.W.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.



Diphenyl purine derivatives as peripherally selective cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists.  


Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of several diseases. However, clinical development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects including depression and suicidal ideation in some users. Recently, studies have indicated that selective regulation of CB1 receptors in the periphery is a viable strategy for treating several important disorders. Past efforts to develop peripherally selective antagonists of CB1 have largely targeted rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1. Reported here are our efforts toward developing a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist based on the otenabant scaffold. Even though otenabant penetrates the CNS, it is unique among CB1 antagonists that have been clinically tested because it has properties that are normally associated with peripherally selective compounds. Our efforts have resulted in an orally absorbed compound that is a potent and selective CB1 antagonist with limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:23098108

Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Seltzman, Herbert; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan



NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine Impairs Feature Integration in Visual Perception  

PubMed Central

Recurrent interactions between neurons in the visual cortex are crucial for the integration of image elements into coherent objects, such as in figure-ground segregation of textured images. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in monkeys can abolish neural signals related to figure-ground segregation and feature integration. However, it is unknown whether this also affects perceptual integration itself. Therefore, we tested whether ketamine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reduces feature integration in humans. We administered a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to healthy subjects who performed a texture discrimination task in a placebo-controlled double blind within-subject design. We found that ketamine significantly impaired performance on the texture discrimination task compared to the placebo condition, while performance on a control fixation task was much less impaired. This effect is not merely due to task difficulty or a difference in sedation levels. We are the first to show a behavioral effect on feature integration by manipulating the NMDA receptor in humans. PMID:24223927

Meuwese, Julia D. I.; van Loon, Anouk M.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lirk, Philipp B.; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Lamme, Victor A. F.



Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. Methods In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Results Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Discussion Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems. PMID:25337383

Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj



Tranylcypromine substituted cis-hydroxycyclobutylnaphthamides as potent and selective dopamine D? receptor antagonists.  


We report a class of potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists based upon tranylcypromine. Although tranylcypromine has a low affinity for the rat D3 receptor (K(i) = 12.8 ?M), our efforts have yielded (1R,2S)-11 (CJ-1882), which has K(i) values of 2.7 and 2.8 nM at the rat and human dopamine D3 receptors, respectively, and displays respective selectivities of >10000-fold and 223-fold over the rat and human D2 receptors. Evaluation in a ?-arrestin functional assay showed that (1R,2S)-11 is a potent and competitive antagonist at the human D3 receptor. PMID:24848155

Chen, Jianyong; Levant, Beth; Jiang, Cheng; Keck, Thomas M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Wang, Shaomeng



Novel brain penetrant benzofuropiperidine 5-HT? receptor antagonists.  


7-Arylsulfonyl substituted benzofuropiperidine was discovered as a novel scaffold for 5HT(6) receptor antagonists. Optimization by substitution at C-1 position led to identification of selective, orally bioavailable, brain penetrant antagonists with reduced hERG liability. An advanced analog tested in rat social recognition model showed significant activity suggesting potential utility in the enhancement of short-term memory. PMID:22153937

Sundar, Babu G; Bailey, Thomas R; Dunn, Derek D; Bacon, Edward R; Salvino, Joseph M; Morton, George C; Aimone, Lisa D; Zeqi, Huang; Mathiasen, Joanne R; Dicamillo, Amy; Huffman, Mark J; McKenna, Beth A; Kopec, Karla; Lu, Lily D; Brown, Rebecca; Qian, Jie; Angeles, Thelma; Connors, Thomas; Spais, Chrysanthe; Holskin, Beverly; Galinis, Deborah; Duzic, Emir; Schaffhauser, Herve; Rosse, Gerard C



Fosinopril H(2)-receptor antagonists interaction studies by derivative spectroscopy.  


Fosinopril sodium, a phosphinic acid derivative is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which had been employed for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure; long tem use of ACE inhibitor often result in stress ulcers due to which H(2) receptor antagonists are also concurrently prescribed. The later compete with histamine for H(2) receptors and block gastric acid secretion and some cardiovascular effects of histamine. Our studies are focused on the in vitro availability of fosinopril in presence of commonly used H(2) receptor antagonists. Derivative spectroscopy has been employed for the quantitation of fosinopril and H(2) receptor antagonists followed by linear regression analysis. These studies were carried out in buffers of pH 7.4 and 9 at 37, 48 and 60( masculine)C. Stability constant and thermodynamic function had also been calculated in order to evaluate the reaction mechanism. Commonly prescribed H(2) receptor antagonists like cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine were used in these studies. Present study clearly indicated that most of the H(2) receptor antagonists studied decreased the availability of fosinopril which conclude that availability of fosinopril can be affected by the concurrent administration of H(2) receptor antagonists. PMID:17337423

Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M Saeed; Sana, Aisha



Secondary heat, but not mechanical, hyperalgesia induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom in the conscious rat: effect of systemic MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.  


Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of bee venom into the plantar surface of one hind paw in rats has been found to produce an immediate single phase of persistent spontaneous nociceptive responses (continuously flinching, licking or lifting the injected paw) for 1-2 h accompanied by a 72-96 hour period of primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in the injection site and a spread of heat, but not mechanical, hyperalgesia in the non-injected hind paw (Chen et al., 1999b). To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of the bee venom-induced hyperalgesia in particular, we further identified a heat, but not mechanical, hyperalgesia in an area (paw pad) distant from the injection site induced by s.c. injection of bee venom into the posterior leg 0.8-1.2 cm proximal to the heel measured by paw withdrawal reflex to radiant heat or von Frey monofilament stimuli in conscious rats. In the bee venom-treated hind limb, however, significant reduction in both thermal latency and mechanical threshold of withdrawal reflex was identified for a period of more than 96 h in the heel with a similar characteristic to the primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia identified in the injection site previously. The time course of the heat hyperalgesia identified in the paw pad of the bee venom-treated side was shorter and lasted for less than 48 h, which was in parallel with the reduction in thermal latency of the withdrawal reflex identified in the non-injected hind paw. Moreover, pre- or post-treatment with a single dose of MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, completely blocked the occurrence, and reversed the established process of the heat hyperalgesia identified in either the bee venom-treated or non-treated paw pads, while the same treatments with the drug did not produce any influence upon the development and maintaining of the heat and mechanical hyperalgesia identified in the heel of the injected hind limb. Taken together with our previous results following s.c. intraplantar bee venom injection, we conclude that: (1) in addition to the well-identified primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in the injection site and its adjacent area, s.c. bee venom is also able to produce a secondary heat hyperalgesia in a region distant from the injection site which has a similar characteristic to the contralateral heat hyperalgesia; (2) NMDA receptors are involved in either development or maintenance of the secondary and the contralateral heat hyperalgesia, but without any role in those processes of the primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia; (3) the secondary heat hyperalgesia seen in the injected hind limb is likely to share the same neural mechanisms with that identified in the non-injected side via co-activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:11124011

Chen, H S; Chen, J



Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist responsive to anakinra.  


We describe a 3-month-old infant who presented to our institution with interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA), which consists of neutrophilic pustular dermatosis, periostitis, aseptic multifocal osteomyelitis, and persistently high acute-phase reactants. Skin findings promptly improved upon initiation of treatment with anakinra (recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist), and the bony lesions and systemic inflammation resolved with continued therapy. PMID:22471702

Schnellbacher, Charlotte; Ciocca, Giovanna; Menendez, Roxanna; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Duarte, Ana M; Rivas-Chacon, Rafael



A Chemokine Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Experimental Breast Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leukocyte infiltrate of human and murine epithelial cancers is regulated by chemokine production in the tumor microenvironment. In this article, we tested the hypothesis that chemokine receptor antagonists may have anticancer activity by inhibiting this infiltrate. We first char- acterized CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, and the leukocyte infil- trate in the 410.4 murine model of breast cancer. We found

Stephen C. Robinson; Kate A. Scott; Julia L. Wilson; Richard G. Thompson; Amanda E. I. Proudfoot; Frances R. Balkwill



Functional characterisation of the human cloned 5-HT7 receptor (long form); antagonist profile of SB-258719  

PubMed Central

The functional profile of the long form of the human cloned 5-HT7 receptor (designated h5-HT7(a)) was investigated using a number of 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists and compared with its binding profile. Receptor function was measured using adenylyl cyclase activity in washed membranes from HEK293 cells stably expressing the recombinant h5-HT7(a) receptor. The receptor binding profile, determined by competition with [3H]-5-CT, was consistent with that previously reported for the h5-HT7(a) receptor. The selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 ((R)-3,N-Dimethyl-N-[1-methyl-3-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)propyl]benzene sulfonamide) displayed high affinity (pKi?7.5) for the receptor. In the adenylyl cyclase functional assay, 5-CT and 8-OH-DPAT were both full agonists compared to 5-HT and the rank order of potency for agonists (5-CT>5-HT>8-OH-DPAT) was the same in functional and binding studies. Risperidone, methiothepin, mesulergine, clozapine, olanzapine, ketanserin and SB-258719 antagonised surmountably 5-CT-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Schild analysis of the antagonism by SB-258719 gave a pA2 of 7.2±0.2 and slope not significantly different from 1, consistent with competitive antagonism. The same antagonists also inhibited basal adenylyl cyclase activity with a rank order of potency in agreement with those for antagonist potency and binding affinity. Both SB-258719 and mesulergine displayed apparent partial inverse agonist profiles compared to the other antagonists tested. These inhibitory effects of antagonists appear to be 5-HT7 receptor-mediated and to reflect inverse agonism. It is concluded that in this expression system, the h5-HT7(a) receptor shows the expected binding and functional profile and displays constitutive activity, revealing inverse agonist activity for a range of antagonists. PMID:9720804

Thomas, David R; Gittins, Susan A; Collin, Lissa L; Middlemiss, Derek N; Riley, Graham; Hagan, Jim; Gloger, Israel; Ellis, Catherine E; Forbes, Ian T; Brown, Anthony M



Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.



In vitro interactions of captopril with H2-receptor antagonists.  


Captopril is effective in the treatment of hypertension of all grades of severity. H2-receptors antagonists block gastric acid secretion and some cardiovascular effects of histamine. In view of the fact that, simultaneous administration of both drugs may alter the antihypertensive effect of captopril, present paper deals with the in vitro availability studies of captopril in presence of commonly used H2-receptor antagonists like cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine. In order to simulate various pH levels in GI tract and to find out the kinetics and energetics of captopril-H2-receptor antagonist interactions, these studies were carried out in buffers of pH 4, 7.4 and 9 at 37 degrees C and at elevated temperatures. These studies clearly indicate that most of the H2-receptor antagonists bind to captopril, forming charge-transfer complexes. As a result, the availability of captopril was affected by the concurrent administration of H2-receptor antagonists. Accordingly coadministration of both the drugs should be avoided. PMID:17416569

Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M Saeed; Quraish, Reeshanul



Synthesis and characterization of selective dopamine D 2 receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of indole compounds have been prepared and evaluated for affinity at D2-like dopamine receptors using stably transfected HEK cells expressing human D2, D3, or D4 dopamine receptors. These compounds share structural elements with the classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists, haloperidol, N-methylspiperone, and benperidol. The compounds that share structural elements with N-methylspiperone and benperidol bind non-selectively to the D2

Suwanna Vangveravong; Elizabeth McElveen; Michelle Taylor; Jinbin Xu; Zhude Tu; Robert R. Luedtke; Robert H. Mach



Endothelin subtype A receptor antagonist induces osteopenia in growing rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that endothelin (ET) peptides are involved in bone metabolism. We examined the effects of long-term blockade of the ETA receptor, a receptor subtype primarily involved in the anabolic actions of ET, on bone mineral status in growing rats. Eight-week-old rats injected intraperitoneally with FR139317 50 mg\\/kg body weight, a specific ETA receptor antagonist, for 2 or 4

Hirokazu Tsukahara; Chikahide Hori; Masahiro Hiraoka; Kazutaka Yamamoto; Yasushi Ishii; Mitsufumi Mayumi



Distinct Effects of Z-335, a New Thromboxane A2 Receptor Antagonist, on Rabbit Platelets and Aortic Smooth Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a novel thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) antagonist, (±)-sodium[2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonylaminomethyl)- indan-5-yl]acetate monohydrate (Z-335), on the U46619-induced responses was compared between rabbit platelets and aorta. Z-335 inhibited platelet shape change induced by U46619 with higher efficacy than SQ29548, a common TP antagonist. The U46619-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by Z-335 in a noncompetitive manner, while it was competitively inhibited by

Makoto Yoshida; Yukari Sato; Tokuro Shimura; Satoko Ohkubo; Shigeyoshi Honma; Takao Tanaka; Tadashi Kurimoto; Norimichi Nakahata



Discovery of small molecule human C5a receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of small molecule C5a antagonists is reported. In particular, in vitro metabolic studies and solution based combinatorial synthesis are demonstrated as useful tools for the rapid identification of antagonists with low in vitro clearance. Members of this series specifically inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled C5a to human recombinant C5a receptor (C5aR). In functional cell assays these compounds

Hitesh J. Sanganee; Andrew Baxter; Simon Barber; Alastair J. H. Brown; Denise Grice; Fraser Hunt; Sarah King; David Laughton; Garry Pairaudeau; Bob Thong; Richard Weaver; John Unitt



[H2-receptor antagonists and alcohol: clinical significance].  


The aim of the review is to evaluate the putative clinical interactions between alcohol metabolism and the administration of H2-receptor antagonists. Places of the first-pass metabolism of ethanol in the body have been investigated as well. According to the in vitro experimental results the H2-receptor antagonists can inhibit the ethanol metabolism which may have clinical relevance. When low doses of alcohol (below 0.3 g/kg) are given per os, the administration of H2-receptor antagonists results in an increase in the blood ethanol concentrations. Since that challenged increase never exceeds the level of 0.3/1000 blood alcohol concentration, it has hardly any clinical or medico-legal significance. PMID:8757090

Nemesánszky, E; Csepregi, A



Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase modulates NMDA receptor antagonist mediated alterations in the developing brain.  


Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin expression and the extracellular matrix during NMDA receptor antagonist induced injury to the immature rat brain. The aim was to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, as well as expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after co-administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor physostigmine. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine ameliorated the MK801-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA and protein levels, reduced MK801-triggered MMP-2 activity and prevented decreased TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that AChE inhibition may prevent newborn rats from MK801-mediated brain damage by enhancing neurotrophin-associated signaling pathways and by modulating the extracellular matrix. PMID:24595240

Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; von Haefen, Clarissa; Nasser, Fatme; Rohrer, Benjamin; Endesfelder, Stefanie; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Spies, Claudia D; Sifringer, Marco



Antagonists for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55 based on a coumarin scaffold.  


The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55, which is activated by 1-lysophosphatidylinositol and interacts with cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, has been proposed as a new potential drug target for the treatment of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, neuropathic pain, and cancer. We applied ?-arrestin assays to identify 3-substituted coumarins as a novel class of antagonists and performed an extensive structure-activity relationship study for GPR55. Selectivity versus the related receptors CB1, CB2, and GPR18 was assessed. Among the 7-unsubstituted coumarins selective, competitive GPR55 antagonists were identified, such as 3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-5-isopropyl-8-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (12, PSB-SB-489, IC50 = 1.77 ?M, pA2 = 0.547 ?M). Derivatives with long alkyl chains in position 7 were potent, possibly allosteric GPR55 antagonists which showed ancillary CB receptor affinity. 7-(1,1-Dimethyloctyl)-5-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (69, PSB-SB-487, IC50 = 0.113 ?M, KB = 0.561 ?M) and 7-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-5-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (67, PSB-SB-1203, IC50 = 0.261 ?M) were the most potent GPR55 antagonists of the present series. PMID:23679955

Rempel, Viktor; Volz, Nicole; Gläser, Franziska; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan; Müller, Christa E



Antagonist interaction with the human 5-HT7 receptor mediates the rapid and potent inhibition of non-G-protein-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity: a novel GPCR effect  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The human 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (h5-HT7) receptor is Gs-coupled and stimulates the production of the intracellular signalling molecule cAMP. Previously, we reported a novel property of the h5-HT7 receptor: pseudo-irreversible antagonists irreversibly inhibit forskolin-stimulated (non-receptor-mediated) cAMP production. Herein, we sought to determine if competitive antagonists also affect forskolin-stimulated activity and if this effect is common among other Gs-coupled receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Recombinant cell lines expressing h5-HT7 receptors or other receptors of interest were briefly exposed to antagonists; cAMP production was then stimulated by forskolin and quantified by an immunocompetitive assay. KEY RESULTS In human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing h5-HT7 receptors, all competitive antagonists inhibited nearly 100% of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. This effect was insensitive to pertussis toxin, that is, not Gi/o-mediated. Potency to inhibit forskolin-stimulated activity strongly correlated with h5-HT7 binding affinity (r2= 0.91), indicating that the antagonists acted through h5-HT7 receptors to inhibit forskolin. Potency and maximal effects of clozapine, a prototypical competitive h5-HT7 antagonist, were unaffected by varying forskolin concentration. Antagonist interaction with h5-HT6, human ?1, ?2, and ?3 adrenoceptors did not inhibit forskolin's activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The inhibition of adenylate cyclase, as measured by forskolin's activity, is an underlying property of antagonist interaction with h5-HT7 receptors; however, this is not a common property of other Gs-coupled receptors. This phenomenon may be involved in the roles played by h5-HT7 receptors in human physiology. Development of h5-HT7 antagonists that do not elicit this effect would aid in the elucidation of its mechanisms and shed light on its possible physiological relevance. PMID:21198551

Klein, MT; Teitler, M



Calmodulin antagonists stimulate LDL receptor synthesis in human skin fibroblasts.  


The LDL receptor synthesis of human skin fibroblasts in the presence of the specific calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, condensation product of N-methyl-p-methoxyphenethylamine with formaldehyde (compound 48/80) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide) (W-7) was studied. Labelling of cells with [35S]methionine followed by immunoprecipitation of radioactive LDL receptor protein with monospecific antibodies revealed that calmodulin antagonists caused a 3-fold increase in the radioactivity of the LDL receptor protein as compared with values found in control cells. A corresponding increase of high-affinity binding and internalization of 125I-labelled LDL was observed. The drugs did not influence the overall protein synthesis or the half-life of the LDL receptor. A concomitant suppression of cholesterol synthesis from [14C]mevalonolactone was found to be an independent effect. The calmodulin antagonist-produced stimulation of LDL receptor synthesis could not be simulated by preincubation of cells with cyclic nucleotide analogues, cholera toxin or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, known as specific effectors of adenylate cyclase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, respectively. Modulation of calcium concentration in the incubation medium had no reproducible effect on the rate of LDL receptor synthesis. The results implicate calmodulin as an intracellular suppressor of LDL receptor synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. PMID:2418882

Filipovic, I; Buddecke, E



Mixed antagonistic effects of the ginkgolides at recombinant human ?1 GABAC receptors.  


The diterpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba, ginkgolides A, B and C are antagonists at a range of Cys-loop receptors. This study examined the effects of the ginkgolides at recombinant human ?(1) GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. The ginkgolides were moderately potent antagonists with IC(50)s in the ?M range. At 10 ?M, 30 ?M and 100 ?M, the ginkgolides caused rightward shifts of GABA dose-response curves and reduced maximal GABA responses, characteristic of noncompetitive antagonists, while the potencies showed a clear dependence on GABA concentration, indicating apparent competitive antagonism. This suggests that the ginkgolides exert a mixed-type antagonism at the ?(1) GABA(C) receptors. The ginkgolides did not exhibit any obvious use-dependent inhibition. Fitting of the data to a number of kinetic schemes suggests an allosteric inhibition as a possible mechanism of action of the ginkgolides which accounts for their inhibition of the responses without channel block or use-dependent inhibition. Kinetic modelling predicts that the ginkgolides exhibit saturation of antagonism at high concentrations of GABA, but this was only partially observed for ginkgolide B. It also suggests that there may be different binding sites in the closed and open states of the receptor, with a higher affinity for the receptor in the closed state. PMID:22828636

Huang, Shelley H; Lewis, Trevor M; Lummis, Sarah C R; Thompson, Andrew J; Chebib, Mary; Johnston, Graham A R; Duke, Rujee K



Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors  

PubMed Central

Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (?)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.



Core exploration in optimization of chemokine receptor CCR4 antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, synthesis, and SAR studies of ‘core’ variations led to identification of novel, selective, and potent small molecule antagonist (22) of the CC chemokine receptor-4 (CCR4) with improved in vitro activity and liability profile. Compound 22 was efficacious in a murine allergic inflammation model (ED50?10mg\\/kg).

Ashok V. Purandare; Honghe Wan; John E. Somerville; Christine Burke; Wayne Vaccaro; XiaoXia Yang; Kim W. McIntyre; Michael A. Poss



A Functionalized Congener Approach to Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: Amino Acid Conjugates of 1,3-Dipropylxanthine  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY 1,3-Dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine, a synthetic analog of theophylline and a potent antagonist of adenosine at A1 and A2-adenosine receptors, has been attached covalently through a functionalized chain to amino acids and oligopeptides. The xanthine conjugates have been studied as competitive inhibitors of the specific binding of [3H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to A1-receptors of rat cerebral cortical membranes and for inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation elicited by 2-chloroadenosine in guinea pig brain slices through A2-receptors. A free amino group on the extended chain generally resulted in high potency at A1-receptors. The potency (in some cases extending into the subnanomolar range) and selectivity for A1-receptors (up to 200-fold) suggest that this approach can yield a versatile class of “functionalized congeners” of adenosine receptor antagonists in which distal modifications of the attached moiety (“carrier”) can serve also to improve pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The water solubility in many of the more potent analogs has been enhanced by two orders of magnitude over that of simple, uncharged 8-phenyl xanthine derivatives. Analogs in which the carrier contains d-tyrosine have potential for development of iodinated radioligands for adenosine receptors. The functionalized congener approach is potentially applicable to other drugs and for development of prodrugs. PMID:3005825




[Melatoninergic receptor agonists and antagonists: therapeutic perspectives].  


The chronobiotic neurohormone melatonin, synthetized in the pineal gland during darkness periods governs the circadian and seasonal biological rhythms. Physiologically, melatonin regulates the sleep/activity alternance, together with the circadian cycle of body temperature and cortisol secretion, and influences various immune, endocrine and metabolic functions. Dysfunction of the endogenous melatonin secretion is associated with mood and behavioral disorders including body weight. Patients with severe depression exhibit desynchronized and reduced melatonin secretion, in parallel with marked sleep disturbances whereas exogenous melatonin administration and antidepressive drugs restore melatonin secretion. A dysregulated melatonin secretion is also observed in obese subjects. Implication of melatonin in these disorders stimulated the search for melatonin analogues with enhanced antidepressive and body weight control effects. The melatoninergic agonist S 20098, or agomelatin, disclosed a potent antidepressive and anxiolytic activity in preclinical studies, which was confirmed in clinical trials in patients with major depression. The antagonist S 20928 was shown to limit seasonal weight gain in an hibernating rodent model. Thus, development of melatoninergic agonists and antagonists appear as an innovative approach in the treatment of depression and obesity, two major public health problems. PMID:17762830

Guardiola-Lemaitre, Béatrice



Characterization of [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2, a new selective nociceptin receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

Nociceptin (orphanin FQ) is a novel neuropeptide capable of inducing a variety of biological actions via activation of a specific G-protein coupled receptor. However, the lack of a selective nociceptin receptor antagonist has hampered our understanding of nociceptin actions and the role of this peptide in pathophysiological states. As part of a broader programme of research, geared to the identification and characterization of nociceptin receptor ligands, we report that the novel peptide [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2 acts as the first truly selective and competitive nociceptin receptor antagonist and is devoid of any residual agonist activity. [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2 binds selectively to recombinant nociceptin receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (pKi 8.4) and competitively antagonizes the inhibitory effects of nociceptin (i) on cyclic AMP accumulation in CHO cells (pA2 6.0) and (ii) on electrically evoked contractions in isolated tissues of the mouse, rat and guinea-pig with pA2 values ranging from 6.0 to 6.4. [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2 is also active in vivo, where it prevents the pronociceptive and antimorphine actions of intracerebroventricularly applied nociceptin, measured in the mouse tail withdrawal assay. Moreover, [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2 produces per se a dose dependent, naloxone resistant antinociceptive action and, at relatively low doses, potentiates morphine-induced analgesia. Collectively our data indicate that [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2, acting as a nociceptin receptor antagonist, may be the prototype of a new class of analgesics. PMID:10725267

Calo', Girolamo; Guerrini, Remo; Bigoni, Raffaella; Rizzi, Anna; Marzola, Giuliano; Okawa, Hirobumi; Bianchi, Clementina; Lambert, David G; Salvadori, Severo; Regoli, Domenico



Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonists as innovative antidepressant drugs.  


Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor (NOP) were identified in the mid 90s as a novel peptidergic system structurally related to opioids. A growing body of preclinical evidence suggests that blockade of NOP receptors evokes antidepressant-like actions. These have been explored using a range of compounds (peptide and non peptide antagonists), across different species (rat and mouse) and assays (behavioral despair and chronic mild stress) suggesting a robust and consistent antidepressant-like effect. Moreover, rats and mice knockout for the NOP receptor gene display an antidepressant-like phenotype in behavioral despair assays. Electrophysiological, immunohistochemical and neurochemical studies point to an important role played by monoaminergic systems, particularly 5-HTergic, in mediating the antidepressant-like properties of NOP antagonists. However other putative mechanisms of action, including modulation of the CRF system, circadian rhythm and a possible neuroendocrine-immune control might be involved. A close relationship between the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system and stress responses is well described in the literature. Stressful situations also alter endocrine, behavioral and neurochemical parameters in rats and chronic administration of a NOP antagonist restored these alterations. Interestingly, clinical findings showed that plasma N/OFQ levels were significantly altered in major and post-partum depression, and bipolar disease patients. Collectively, data in the literature support the notion that blockade of NOP receptor signaling could be a novel and interesting strategy for the development of innovative antidepressants. PMID:23711793

Gavioli, Elaine Cristina; Calo', Girolamo



A Highly Selective Cc Chemokine Receptor (Ccr)8 Antagonist Encoded by the Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum  

PubMed Central

The MC148 CC chemokine from the human poxvirus molluscum contagiosum (MCV) was probed in parallel with viral macrophage inflammatory protein (vMIP)-II encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in 16 classified human chemokine receptors. In competition binding using radiolabeled endogenous chemokines as well as radiolabeled MC148, MC148 bound with high affinity only to CCR8. In calcium mobilization assays, MC148 had no effect on its own on any of the chemokine receptors, but in a dose-dependent manner blocked the stimulatory effect of the endogenous I-309 chemokine on CCR8 without affecting chemokine-induced signaling of any other receptor. In contrast, vMIP-II acted as an antagonist on 10 of the 16 chemokine receptors, covering all four classes: XCR, CCR, CXCR, and CX3CR. In chemotaxis assays, MC148 specifically blocked the I-309–induced response but, for example, not stromal cell–derived factor 1?, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, or interleukin 8–induced chemotaxis. We thus concluded that the two viruses choose two different ways to block the chemokine system: HHV8 encodes the broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist vMIP-II, whereas MCV encodes a highly selective CCR8 antagonist, MC148, conceivably to interfere with monocyte invasion and dendritic cell function. Because of its pharmacological selectivity, the MC148 protein could be a useful tool in the delineation of the role played by CCR8 and its endogenous ligand, I-309. PMID:10620615

Lüttichau, Hans R.; Stine, Johnny; Boesen, Thomas P.; Johnsen, Anders H.; Chantry, David; Gerstoft, Jan; Schwartz, Thue W.



Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glucagon analog [l-N?-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev



Identification of a Novel “Almost Neutral” Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonist in CHO Cells Expressing the Cloned Human Mu Opioid Receptor  

PubMed Central

The basal (constitutive) activity of G protein-coupled receptors allows for the measurement of inverse agonist activity. Some competitive antagonists turn into inverse agonists under conditions where receptors are constitutively active. In contrast, neutral antagonists have no inverse agonist activity, and they block both agonist and inverse agonist activity. The mu opioid receptor (MOR) demonstrates detectable constitutive activity only after a state of dependence is produced by chronic treatment with a MOR agonist. We therefore sought to identify novel MOR inverse agonists, and novel neutral MOR antagonists in both untreated and agonist-treated MOR cells. CHO cells expressing the cloned human mu receptor (hMOR-CHO cells) were incubated for 20 hr with medium (control) or 10 ?M (2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-9-(benzoyloxy)-2-(3-furanyl)dodecahydro-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-2H-naphtho-[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (herkinorin, HERK). HERK-treatment generates a high degree of basal signaling and enhances the ability to detect inverse agonists. [35S]-GTP-?-S assays were conducted using established methods. We screened 21 MOR “antagonists” using membranes prepared from HERK-treated hMOR-CHO cells. All antagonists, including CTAP and 6?-naltrexol, were inverse agonists. However, LTC-2 7 4 ( (-)-3-cyclopropylmethyl-2,3,4,4a?,5,6,7,7a?-octahydro-1H-benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-9-ol)) showed the lowest efficacy as an inverse agonist, and, at concentrations less than 5 nM, had minimal effects on basal [35S]-GTP-?-S binding. Other efforts in this study identified KC-2-009 ((+)-3-((1R,5S)-2-((Z)-3-Phenylallyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-5-yl)phenol hydrochloride) as an inverse agonist at untreated MOR cells. In HERK-treated cells, KC-2-009 had the highest efficacy as an inverse agonist. In summary, we identified a novel and selective MOR inverse agonist (KC-2-009), and a novel MOR antagonist (LTC-274) that shows the least inverse agonist activity among 21 MOR antagonists. LTC-274 is a promising lead compound for developing a true MOR neutral antagonist. PMID:19953652

Sally, Elliott J.; Xu, Heng; Dersch, Christina M.; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Chang, Li-Te; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Simpson, Denise S.; Giuvelis, Denise; Rice, Kenner C.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Cheng, Kejun; Bilsky, Edward J.; Rothman, Richard B.



Phenytoin differentially modulates the affinity of agonist and antagonist ligands for sigma 1 receptors of guinea pig brain.  


We evaluated the effects of phenytoin (DPH) on the affinity for sigma-1 (sigma(1)) receptors of agonist or antagonist sigma(1) ligands in guinea pig brain. Heterologous competition experiments showed that DPH (250 microM and 1 mM) concentration-dependently increased the affinity of the sigma(1) agonists dextromethorphan, (+)-SKF-10,047, (+)-3-PPP, and PRE-084. However, neither DPH 250 microM nor 1 mM increased (in fact, they slightly decreased) the affinity of the sigma(1) receptor antagonists haloperidol, BD 1063, NE-100, progesterone, and BD 1047. These findings suggest that allosteric modulation by DPH of the affinity of sigma(1) receptor ligands depends on the agonist or antagonist characteristics of the ligand. Therefore, determining in vitro the differential modulation by DPH of sigma(1) ligand affinity appears to constitute a procedure that can predict the pharmacological profile of different sigma(1) ligands. PMID:15635593

Cobos, Enrique J; Baeyens, José M; Del Pozo, Esperanza



Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.  


Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors. PMID:24089004

Bauzá, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel



Nicotinic receptor antagonists as treatments for nicotine abuse.  


Despite the proven efficacy of current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, relapse rates continue to be high, indicating that novel medications are needed. Currently, several smoking cessation agents are available, including varenicline (Chantix®), bupropion (Zyban®), and cytisine (Tabex®). Varenicline and cytisine are partial agonists at the ?4?2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Bupropion is an antidepressant but is also an antagonist at ?3?2* ganglionic nAChRs. The rewarding effects of nicotine are mediated, in part, by nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release leading to sensitization, which is associated with repeated nicotine administration and nicotine addiction. Receptor antagonists that selectivity target central nAChR subtypes mediating nicotine-evoked DA release should have efficacy as tobacco use cessation agents with the therapeutic advantage of a limited side-effect profile. While ?-conotoxin MII (?-CtxMII)-insensitive nAChRs (e.g., ?4?2*) contribute to nicotine-evoked DA release, these nAChRs are widely distributed in the brain, and inhibition of these receptors may lead to nonselective and untoward effects. In contrast, ?-CtxMII-sensitive nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release offer an advantage as targets for smoking cessation, due to their more restricted localization primarily to dopaminergic neurons. Small drug-like molecules that are selective antagonists at ?-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes that contain ?6 and ?2 subunits have now been identified. Early research identified a variety of quaternary ammonium analogs that were potent and selective antagonists at nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release. More recent data have shown that novel, nonquaternary bis-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine analogs potently inhibit (IC50<1nM) nicotine-evoked DA release in vitro by acting as antagonists at ?-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes; these compounds also decrease NIC self-administration in rats. PMID:24484986

Crooks, Peter A; Bardo, Michael T; Dwoskin, Linda P



Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: emerging roles in cardiovascular medicine.  


Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more MR-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone was shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure, as was eplerenone in subsequent heart failure trials. Neither acts as an aldosterone antagonist in the heart as the cardiac MR are occupied by cortisol, which becomes an aldosterone mimic in conditions of tissue damage. The accepted term "MR antagonist", (as opposed to "aldosterone antagonist" or, worse, "aldosterone blocker"), should be retained, despite the demonstration that they act not to deny agonist access but as inverse agonists. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism is now recognized as accounting for about 10% of hypertension, with recent evidence suggesting that this figure may be considerably higher: in over two thirds of cases of primary aldosteronism therapy including MR antagonists is standard of care. MR antagonists are safe and vasoprotective in uncomplicated essential hypertension, even in diabetics, and at low doses they also specifically lower blood pressure in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Nowhere are more than 1% of patients with primary aldosteronism ever diagnosed and specifically treated. Given the higher risk profile in patients with primary aldosteronism than that of age, sex, and blood pressure matched essential hypertension, on public health grounds alone the guidelines for first-line treatment of all hypertension should mandate inclusion of a low-dose MR antagonist. PMID:24133375

Funder, John W



Development of a novel noncompetitive antagonist of IL-1 receptor.  


IL-1 is a major proinflammatory cytokine which interacts with the IL-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) complex, composed of IL-1RI and IL-1R accessory protein subunits. Currently available strategies to counter pathological IL-1 signaling rely on a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, which directly competes with IL-1 for its binding site. Presently, there are no small antagonists of the IL-1RI complex. Given this void, we derived 15 peptides from loops of IL-1R accessory protein, which are putative interactive sites with the IL-1RI subunit. In this study, we substantiate the merits of one of these peptides, rytvela (we termed "101.10"), as an inhibitor of IL-1R and describe its properties consistent with those of an allosteric negative modulator. 101.10 (IC(50) approximately 1 nM) blocked human thymocyte proliferation in vitro, and demonstrated robust in vivo effects in models of hyperthermia and inflammatory bowel disease as well as topically in contact dermatitis, superior to corticosteroids and IL-1ra; 101.10 did not bind to IL-1RI deficient cells and was ineffective in vivo in IL-1RI knockout mice. Importantly, characterization of 101.10, revealed noncompetitive antagonist actions and functional selectivity by blocking certain IL-1R pathways while not affecting others. Findings describe the discovery of a potent and specific small (peptide) antagonist of IL-1RI, with properties in line with an allosteric negative modulator. PMID:18453620

Quiniou, Christiane; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Lahaie, Isabelle; Hou, Xin; Brault, Sonia; Beauchamp, Martin; Leduc, Martin; Rihakova, Lenka; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Nadeau, Sylvain; Heveker, Nikolaus; Lubell, William; Sennlaub, Florian; Gobeil, Fernand; Miller, Greg; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V; Chemtob, Sylvain



Preclinical anxiolytic profiles of 7189 and 8319, novel non-competitive NMDA antagonists  

SciTech Connect

Antagonists at excitatory amino acid receptors, especially the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype, have been shown to possess anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties. Two closely related benzeneethanamines, are potential novel anxiolytic agents which bind with high affinity to the NMDA receptor at the non-competitive site and are relatively non-toxic (LD50's-160 mg/kg, ip). 7189 and 8319 showed anxiolytic effects in schedule controlled conflict assays as well as in the social interaction (SI) and elevated plus maze (EPM) procedures in rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of 7189 at 20 to 60 mg/kg, conflict responding was increased from 2- to 7-fold in the modified Cook and Davidson and Geller conflict paradigms. 8319, at 2.5 to 5 mg/kg, produced a two fold increase in conflict responding. In the non-schedule controlled procedures, 7189 at 20 mg/kg increased SI time by 23% while in the EPM at 10 to 20 mg/kg, open arm exploration time increased by 41 to 77%. Likewise, 8319 at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg increased open arm exploration and SI time by 50 and 37%, respectively. In summary, 7189 and 8319 were efficacious in four behavioral procedures predictive of potential anxiolytic agents. Although these compounds have not been submitted for clinical evaluation, they may represent a new class of beneficial compounds for the treatment of anxiety.

Dunn, R.W.; Corbett, R.; Martin, L.L.; Payack, J.F.; Laws-Ricker, L.; Wilmot, C.A.; Rush, D.K.; Cornfeldt, M.L.; Fielding, S. (Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Somerville, NJ (USA))



The discovery of tropane-derived CCR5 receptor antagonists.  


The development of compound 1, a piperidine-based CCR5 receptor antagonist with Type I CYP2D6 inhibition, into the tropane-derived analogue 5, is described. This compound, which is devoid of CYP2D6 liabilities, is a highly potent ligand for the CCR5 receptor and has broad-spectrum activity against a range of clinically relevant HIV isolates. The identification of human ether a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition within this series is described and the potential for QTc interval prolongation discussed. Furthermore, structure activity relationship (SAR) around the piperidine moiety is also described. PMID:16629828

Armour, Duncan R; de Groot, Marcel J; Price, David A; Stammen, Blanda L C; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos; Burt, Catherine



At last, a truly selective EP2 receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), this lipid mediator has been the focus of intense research. The diverse biological effects of PGE2 are due, at least in part, to the existence of four distinct receptors (EP1–4). This can complicate the analysis of the biological effects produced by PGE2. While there are currently selective pharmacological tools to explore the roles of the EP1,3,4 receptors in cellular and tissue responses, analysis of EP2 receptor-induced responses has been hampered by the lack of a selective EP2 receptor antagonist. The recent publication in this journal by af Forselles et al. suggests that such a tool compound is now available. In their manuscript, the authors describe a series of experiments that show PF-04418948 to be a potent and selective EP2 receptor antagonist. The discovery of this tool compound will interest many scientists and through collaborations with Pfizer they may have access to PF-04418948 to facilitate further investigation of the biology of this fascinating lipid mediator. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on af Forselles et al., pp. 1847–1856 of this issue. To view this paper visit PMID:21595650

Birrell, Mark A; Nials, Anthony T



Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists  

SciTech Connect

The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5 in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Cho-Rong; Park, Chul-Seung [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Sunghoe [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Gyoo; Song, Mi-Ryoung [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Chul, E-mail: [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)



Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors  

PubMed Central

We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 ?M), GABAA receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABAA-current (IGABA) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced IGABA run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated IGABA run-down in ?40% and ?20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ADA-resistant, AR agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) (10 ?M) potentiated IGABA run-down but only in ?20% of tested oocytes. CGS15943 administration again decreased IGABA run-down in patch-clamped neurons from either human or rat neocortex slices. IGABA run-down in pyramidal neurons was equivalent in A1 receptor-deficient and wt neurons but much larger in neurons from A2A receptor-deficient mice, indicating that, in mouse cortex, GABAA-receptor stability is tonically influenced by A2A but not by A1 receptors. IGABA run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings strongly suggest that cortical A2–A3 receptors alter the stability of GABAA receptors, which could offer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:18809912

Roseti, Cristina; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Piccari, Vanessa; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonella; Simonato, Michele; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio



NMDA receptor antagonists extend the sensitive period for imprinting.  


Filial imprinting in the domestic chick occurs during a sensitive period of development. The exact timing of this period can vary according to the methods used to measure imprinting. Using our imprinting paradigm, we have shown that normal, dark-reared chicks lose the ability to imprint after the second day post-hatching. Further, we reported that chicks treated 10 h after hatching with a mixture of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (55 mg/kg) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine (6 mg/kg) were able to imprint on day 8 after hatching, whereas controls treated with saline did not imprint. We now show that the effect of the ketamine-xylazine mixture can be mimicked by treating chicks with ketamine alone or with another noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Treating chicks with a single dose of ketamine (55 mg/kg) or with a single dose of xylazine (6 mg/kg) failed to produce the effect on the sensitive period. However, prolonging the action of ketamine by treating chicks with two doses of ketamine (at 10 and 12 h after hatching) did allow imprinting on day 8. In contrast, prolonging the action of xylazine had no effect on the sensitive period for imprinting. Chicks treated with MK-801 were also able to imprint on day 8. Thus, we have evidence that the NMDA receptor system is involved in the mechanisms that control the sensitive period for imprinting. PMID:10764906

Parsons, C H; Rogers, L J



Comparative antagonist pharmacology at the native mouse bradykinin B2 receptor: radioligand binding and smooth muscle contractility studies  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The aim was to characterize the recently discovered non-peptide antagonist MEN16132 at the mouse B2 receptor, relative to other antagonists. Experimental approach: [3H]-BK binding experiments used mouse lung and ileum tissue membranes and antagonist potency was measured in the isolated ileum contractility assay. Key results: Two BK binding sites resulted from saturation and homologous competition experiments. A role for the B1 receptor was excluded because of the poor affinity of B1 receptor ligands (pIC50 <5). MEN16132, and the other reference antagonists, inhibited only one portion of BK specific binding, and the rank order of potency was (pIC50): Icatibant (lung 10.7; ileum 10.2)=MEN11270 (lung 10.4; ileum 9.9)=MEN16132 (lung 10.5; ileum 9.9). > LF16-0687 (lung 8.9; ileum 8.8) > FR173657 (lung 8.6; ileum 8.2). BK homologous curves performed with lung membranes after treatment with the antagonist MEN16132 or Icatibant (10 nM) displayed only the low affinity site. The functional antagonism by MEN16132 (pA2 9.4) and Icatibant (pA2 9.1), towards BK (control EC50 6.1 nM) induced ileum contractions, was concentration-dependent and surmountable, but the Schild plot slope was less than unity. Conclusions and Implications: In mouse tissue, radiolabelled BK recognizes two binding sites and B2 receptor antagonists can compete only for the higher affinity one. The pharmacological profile of the novel non-peptide antagonist MEN16132 indicates that it exhibits subnanomolar affinity and potency for the mouse B2 receptor and is suitable for further characterization in in vivo pathophysiological models. PMID:17179941

Meini, S; Cucchi, P; Bellucci, F; Catalani, C; Giuliani, S; Santicioli, P; Maggi, C A



Vasopressin receptor antagonists, heart failure, and polycystic kidney disease.  


The synthesis of nonpeptide orally bioavailable vasopressin antagonists devoid of agonistic activity (vaptans) has made possible the selective blockade of vasopressin receptor subtypes for therapeutic purposes. Vaptans acting on the vasopressin V2 receptors (aquaretics) have attracted attention as a possible therapy for heart failure and polycystic kidney disease. Despite a solid rationale and encouraging preclinical testing, aquaretics have not improved clinical outcomes in randomized clinical trials for heart failure. Additional clinical trials with select population targets, more flexible dosing schedules, and possibly a different drug type or combination (balanced V1a/V2 receptor antagonism) may be warranted. Aquaretics are promising for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and have been approved in Japan for this indication. More studies are needed to better define their long-term safety and efficacy and optimize their utilization. PMID:25493947

Torres, Vicente E



Structure-function studies of agonist binding to the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the development of a trifunctional non-competitive antagonist suitable for activity-dependent profiling  

E-print Network

The muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel required for fast synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. It is the archetype of the Cys-Loop superfamily of receptors and ...

Tantama, Mathew C



From NMDA receptor antagonists to discovery of selective ?? receptor ligands.  


Following previous studies focused on the search for new molecules targeting GluN2B-containing NMDA, a small series of 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone derivatives has been synthesized by using Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS). Given that GluN2B ligands frequently exert off-target effects we also tested their affinity towards sigma receptors. Binding assay revealed that only the 1-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone (7a) retained GluN2B affinity. Interestingly, the 5-methoxyindoles 5a and 6a were efficient and selective ligands toward ?? receptor (Ki values of 10nM and 20 nM, respectively). Thus, in this case the discovery of new ?? receptor selective ligands was an unexpected result emerging from the screening of cross-activity against other CNS receptors. PMID:24290063

Gitto, Rosaria; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Scala, Angela; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Parenti, Carmela; Prezzavento, Orazio; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Chimirri, Alba



Characterization of putative GRP and NMB-receptor antagonist's interaction with human receptors  

PubMed Central

The mammalian Bombesin (Bn) peptides neuromedin B (NMB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) actions are mediated by two receptors (NMB-receptor, GRP-receptor) which are widely distributed in the GI tract and CNS. From primarily animal studies NMB/GRP-receptor activation has physiological/pathophysiological effects in the CNS and GI tract including stimulating of growth of cancers and normal tissues. Whereas these Bn receptor's effects have been extensively studied in nonhuman cells and animals, little is known of the physiological/pathological role(s) in humans, largely due of lack of potent antagonists. To address this issue we compared NMB-receptor/GRP-receptor affinity/potency of 10 chemical classes of putative antagonists (35 compounds) for human Bn-receptors by performing binding studies or assessing abilities to activate hGRP/hNMB-receptor[assessing phospholipase C activation] in 4 different cells containing native Bn receptors or transfected receptors. From binding studies 23 were GRP-receptor-preferring, 4 were NMB-receptor, and 8-nonselective. For the hGRP-receptor-preferring analogues none showed hGRP-receptor agonist activity, but 13 were full or-partial hNMB-receptor agonists at hNMB-receptors. For hNMB-receptor-preferring analogues none were agonists. Analogue #24([(3-Ph-Pr6),His7,D-Ala11,D-Pro13,?(13-14), Phe14]Bn(6-14)NH2) and analogue #7[D-Phe6,Leu13,?(CH2NH),Cpa14]Bn(6-14) were the most potent (0.2-1.4 nM) and selective ((>10, 000-fold) for the hGRP-receptor with analogue #7.5[D-Tpi6,Leu13, ?(CH2NH),Leu14]Bn(6-14) [RC-3095] (0.2-1.4 nM) slightly less selective. Analogue #34(PD168368) had the highest affinity for hNMB-receptor (1.32-1.58 nM) and the greatest selectivity (2298-6952-fold) for the hNMB-receptor. These results demonstrate numerous putative hGRP/hNMB-receptor antagonists identified in nonhuman cells and/or animals have agonist activity at the hNMB-receptor, limiting their potential usefulness. However, a number were identified which were potent/selective for human Bn receptors and should be useful for investigating their roles in human physiological/pathophysiological conditions. PMID:19463875

González, Nieves; Mantey, Samuel A.; Pradhan, Tapas K.; Sancho, Veronica; Moody, Terry W.; Coy, David H.; Jensen, Robert T.



Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia\\/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies.

Jesper van der Pals; Sasha Koul; Patrik Andersson; Matthias Götberg; Joey FA Ubachs; Mikael Kanski; Håkan Arheden; Göran K Olivecrona; Bengt Larsson; David Erlinge




PubMed Central

The effects of four antagonists on the depolarization of isolated superior cervical ganglia and the contraction of isolated ileal segments of the rat were compared. pA2 values estimated from Schild plots indicated significantly higher affinities of stercuronium (× 100) and pirenzepine (× 23) and a significantly lower affinity of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (× 0.39) for the ganglion than for the ileum. The affinities of N-methylscopolamine for the two tissues were not significantly different. It is concluded that the two types of muscarinic receptor are not identical. PMID:9142423

Brown, DA; Forward, A; Marsh, S



Selectivity profiling of the novel EP2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, in functional bioassay systems: atypical affinity at the guinea pig EP2 receptor  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Understanding the role of the EP2 receptor has been hampered by the lack of a selective antagonist. Recently, a selective EP2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, has been discovered. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the selectivity profile of PF-04418948 for the EP2 receptor over other EP receptors using a range of isolated tissue systems. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PF-04418948 was profiled on a range of isolated tissues to assess its EP receptor potency and selectivity: ONO-DI-004-induced contraction of guinea pig trachea (EP1); ONO-AE1-259 and PGE2- induced relaxation of mouse and guinea pig trachea (EP2); PGE2-induced depolarization of guinea pig isolated vagus (EP3); PGE2-induced relaxation of human and rat trachea (EP4). PF-04418948 was also profiled in functional murine TP, IP, DP and FP receptor assays. KEY RESULTS In bioassay systems, where assessment of potency/selectivity is made against the ‘native’ receptor, PF-04418948 only acted as an antagonist of EP2 receptor-mediated events. PF-04418948 competitively inhibited relaxations of murine and guinea pig trachea induced by ONO-AE1-259 and PGE2 respectively. However, the affinity of PF-04418948 was not equal in the two preparations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Using a wide range of bioassay systems, we have demonstrated that PF-04418948 is a selective EP2-receptor antagonist. Interestingly, an atypically low affinity was found on the guinea pig trachea, questioning its utility as an EP2 receptor assay system. Nevertheless, this compound should be an invaluable tool for investigating the biological activity of PGE2 and the role of EP2 receptors in health and disease. PMID:22747912

Birrell, Mark A; Maher, Sarah A; Buckley, James; Dale, Nicole; Bonvini, Sara; Raemdonck, Kristof; Pullen, Nick; Giembycz, Mark A; Belvisi, Maria G



Nonpeptidic urotensin-II receptor antagonists I: in vitro pharmacological characterization of SB-706375  

PubMed Central

SB-706375 potently inhibited [125I]hU-II binding to both mammalian recombinant and ‘native' UT receptors (Ki 4.7±1.5 to 20.7±3.6?nM at rodent, feline and primate recombinant UT receptors and Ki 5.4±0.4?nM at the endogenous UT receptor in SJRH30 cells). Prior exposure to SB-706375 (1??M, 30?min) did not alter [125I]hU-II binding affinity or density in recombinant cells (KD 3.1±0.4 vs 5.8±0.9?nM and Bmax 3.1±1.0 vs 2.8±0.8?pmol?mg?1) consistent with a reversible mode of action. The novel, nonpeptidic radioligand [3H]SB-657510, a close analogue of SB-706375, bound to the monkey UT receptor (KD 2.6±0.4?nM, Bmax 0.86±0.12?pmol?mg?1) in a manner that was inhibited by both U-II isopeptides and SB-706375 (Ki 4.6±1.4 to 17.6±5.4?nM) consistent with the sulphonamides and native U-II ligands sharing a common UT receptor binding domain. SB-706375 was a potent, competitive hU-II antagonist across species with pKb 7.29–8.00 in HEK293-UT receptor cells (inhibition of [Ca2+]i-mobilization) and pKb 7.47 in rat isolated aorta (inhibition of contraction). SB-706375 also reversed tone established in the rat aorta by prior exposure to hU-II (Kapp?20?nM). SB-706375 was a selective U-II antagonist with ?100-fold selectivity for the human UT receptor compared to 86 distinct receptors, ion channels, enzymes, transporters and nuclear hormones (Ki/IC50>1??M). Accordingly, the contractile responses induced in isolated aortae by KCl, phenylephrine, angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were unaltered by SB-706375 (1??M). In summary, SB-706375 is a high-affinity, surmountable, reversible and selective nonpeptide UT receptor antagonist with cross-species activity that will assist in delineating the pathophysiological actions of U-II in mammals. PMID:15852036

Douglas, Stephen A; Behm, David J; Aiyar, Nambi V; Naselsky, Diane; Disa, Jyoti; Brooks, David P; Ohlstein, Eliot H; Gleason, John G; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Buckley, Peter T; Schmidt, Dulcie B; Wixted, William E; Widdowson, Katherine; Riley, Graham; Jin, Jian; Gallagher, Timothy F; Schmidt, Stanley J; Ridgers, Lance; Christmann, Lisa T; Keenan, Richard M; Knight, Steven D; Dhanak, Dashyant



SKF-83566, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist, inhibits the dopamine transporter  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA) is an important transmitter in both motor and limbic pathways. We sought to investigate the role of D1-receptor activation in axonal DA release regulation in dorsal striatum using a D1-receptor antagonist, SKF-83566. Evoked DA release was monitored in rat striatal slices using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. SKF-83566 caused a concentration-dependent increase in peak single-pulse evoked extracellular DA concentration ([DA]o), with a maximum increase of ~65% in 5 ?M SKF-83566. This was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in [DA]o clearance time. Both effects were occluded by nomifensine (1 ?M), a dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, suggesting that SKF-83566 acted via the DAT. We tested this by examining [3H]DA uptake into LLc-PK cells expressing rat DAT, and confirmed that SKF-83566 is a competitive DAT inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.7 ?M. Binding studies with [3H]CFT, a cocaine analog, showed even more potent action at the DAT cocaine binding site (IC50 = 0.51 ?M SKF-83566). Thus, data obtained using SKF-83566 as a D1 DA-receptor antagonist may be confounded by concurrent DAT inhibition. More positively, however, SKF-83566 might be a candidate to attenuate cocaine effects in vivo because of the greater potency of SKF-83566 at the cocaine versus DA binding site of the DAT. PMID:21689106

Stouffer, Melissa A.; Ali, Solav; Reith, Maarten E.A.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Sarti, Federica; Carr, Kenneth D.; Rice, Margaret E.



New Agonists / Antagonists for Toll-like Receptors (TLR7 and TLR9)  

E-print Network

New Agonists / Antagonists for Toll-like Receptors (TLR7 and TLR9) Technologieangebot B 67104 activity is observed. Industrial Sector Pharmaceutigs & Medicine Key Words TLR9, TLR7, Toll-like receptors


2-Aminoethyl Methylphosphonate, a Potent and Rapidly Acting Antagonist of GABAA-?1 Receptors  

PubMed Central

2-Aminoethyl methylphosphonate (2-AEMP), an analog of GABA, has been found to exhibit antagonist activity at GABAA-?1 (also known as ?1 GABAC) receptors. The present study was undertaken to elucidate 2-AEMP's action and to test the activities of 2-AEMP analogs. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record membrane currents in neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with human GABAA-?1 receptors. The action of 2-AEMP was compared with that of 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA), a commonly used GABAA-?1 antagonist. With 10 ?M GABA, 2-AEMP's IC50 (18 ?M) differed by less than 2.5-fold from that of TPMPA (7 ?M), and results obtained were consistent with a primarily competitive mode of inhibition by 2-AEMP. Terminating the presentation of 2-AEMP or TPMPA in the presence of GABA produced a release from inhibition. However, the rate of inhibition release upon the termination of 2-AEMP considerably exceeded that determined with termination of TPMPA. Moreover, when presented at concentrations near their respective IC50 values, the preincubation period associated with 2-AEMP's onset of inhibition was much shorter than that for TPMPA. Analogs of 2-AEMP possessing a benzyl or n-butyl rather than a methyl substituent at the phosphorus atom, as well as analogs bearing a C-methyl substituent on the aminoethyl side chain, exhibited reduced potency relative to 2-AEMP. Of these analogs, only (R)-2-aminopropyl methylphosphonate significantly diminished the response to 10 ?M GABA. Structure-activity relationships are discussed in the context of molecular modeling of ligand binding to the antagonist binding site of the GABAA-?1 receptor. PMID:21810922

Xie, An; Yan, Jun; Yue, Lan; Feng, Feng; Mir, Fozia; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Chebib, Mary; Le Breton, Guy C.; Standaert, Robert F.; Qian, Haohua



[ 3H]Alvimopan binding to the ? opioid receptor: Comparative binding kinetics of opioid antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alvimopan is a novel peripheral ? opioid antagonist in clinical development for the management of post-operative ileus and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. We hypothesized that the long duration of action of alvimopan might be related to a slower dissociation rate from the ? opioid receptor compared to other shorter acting antagonists. The dissociation rate of alvimopan from the ? opioid receptor

Joel A. Cassel; Jeffrey D. Daubert; Robert N. DeHaven



Straub tail reaction in mice treated with ?1 receptor antagonist in combination with methamphetamine  

PubMed Central

Straub tail reaction (STR) was observed in male ddY mice after simultaneous administration with BMY 14802 (a non-specific ? receptor antagonist) and methamphetamine (METH). The intensity and duration of STR depended on the dose of BMY 14802. The tail reaction was inhibited completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 (a putative ?1 receptor agonist) and partially by PB 28 (a putative ?2 receptor agonist). The STR was mimicked in mice treated with BD 1047 (a putative ?1 receptor antagonist), but not SM-21, a putative ?2 receptor antagonist, in combination with METH. STR evoked with BD 1047 plus METH was inhibited by (+)-SKF 10,047. STR induced by BMY 14802 and METH was abolished by naloxone (a relatively non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or U-50,488H (a selective ?-agonist), suggesting that the STR may be mediated by activation of opioid receptor system. PMID:22981417

Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Takemuraa, Motohiko



Two Cases of H2-Receptor Antagonist Hypersensitivity and Cross-Reactivity  

PubMed Central

H2-receptor antagonists, such as cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications for gastric acid-related disorders. These compounds are generally well-tolerated and anaphylactic reactions to them are rare. Here, we report two cases of H2-receptor antagonist-induced anaphylactic reactions: the first presented with sudden dyspnea, sneezing, urticaria, and swelling of the eyelids after ranitidine intake. The second presented with sudden severe urticaria, facial swelling, chest discomfort, dizziness, and hypotension. Possible cross-reactivity with other H2-receptor antagonists was assessed by oral challenge and skin tests. To date, only a few reports addressing cross-reactivity among H2-receptor antagonists have been published. We review the literature and summarize the data available on drug cross-reactivity in H2-receptor antagonist hypersensitivity. PMID:21461253

Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young



Diverse and often opposite behavioural effects of NMDA receptor antagonists in rats: implications for “NMDA antagonist modelling” of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Little attention has been paid to the relative equivalence of behavioural effects of NMDA receptor antagonists in rodents,\\u000a with different compounds often used interchangeably to “model” aspects of schizophrenia in preclinical studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To further resolve such conjecture, the present study systematically compared eight different NMDA receptor antagonists: MK-801,\\u000a PCP, ketamine, memantine, SDZ 220,581, Ro 25-6981, CP 101-606 and NVP-AAM077, in

Gary Gilmour; Elsa Y. Pioli; Sophie L. Dix; Janice W. Smith; Michael W. Conway; Wendy T. Jones; Sally Loomis; Rebecca Mason; Shahram Shahabi; Mark D. Tricklebank



GLP-1 receptor antagonist as a potential probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

We examined exendin(9-39), an antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), as a potential probe for imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cells. To evaluate in vitro receptor specificity, binding assay was performed using dispersed mouse islet cells. Binding assay showed competitive inhibition of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) binding by non-radioactive exendin(9-39). To assess in vivo selectivity, the biodistribution was evaluated by intravenous administration of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) to mice. Radioactivity of harvested pancreas reached highest levels at 60 and 120 min among organs examined except lung. Pre-administration of excess non-radioactive exendin(9-39) remarkably and specifically blocked the radioactivity of pancreas. After [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) injection into transgenic mice with pancreatic {beta}-cells expressing GFP, fluorescent and radioactive signals of sections of pancreas were evaluated with an image analyzer. Imaging analysis showed that the fluorescent GFP signals and the radioactive signals were correspondingly located. Thus, the GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) may serve as a useful probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging.

Mukai, Eri [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, Kentaro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Hiroyuki [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Temma, Takashi [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirao, Konomu; Nagakawa, Kenji [Research and Development Division, Arkray, Inc., Kyoto (Japan)] [Research and Development Division, Arkray, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Saji, Hideo [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)



Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors  

SciTech Connect

In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.



Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia.  


Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:24416019

Equihua, Ana C; De La Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Drucker-Colin, Rene



Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia  

PubMed Central

Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:24416019

Equihua, Ana C.; De La Herrán-Arita, Alberto K.; Drucker-Colin, Rene



Potential Clinical Implications of the Urotensin II Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Urotensin II (UII) binds to its receptor, UT, playing an important role in the heart, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal gland, and central nervous system. In the vasculature, it acts as a potent endothelium-independent vasoconstrictor and endothelium-dependent vasodilator. In disease states, however, this constriction–dilation equilibrium is disrupted. There is an upregulation of the UII system in heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and kidney failure. The increase in UII release and UT expression suggest that UII system may be implicated in the pathology and pathogenesis of these diseases by causing an increase in acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) activity leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and foam cell infiltration, insulin resistance (DMII), as well as inflammation, high blood pressure, and plaque formation. Recently, UT antagonists such as SB-611812, palosuran, and most recently a piperazino-isoindolinone based antagonist have been developed in the hope of better understanding the UII system and treating its associated diseases. PMID:21811463

Tsoukas, Philip; Kane, Émilie; Giaid, Adel



Intraseptal infusion of selective and competitive glutamate receptor agonist NMDA and antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid spectral implications for the physostigmine-induced hippocampal theta rhythm in urethane-anesthetized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theta (?) rhythm may be mediated, at least in part, by a glutamate neurotransmitter. Thus, in the present study, it was hypothesized that the septum glutamatergic NMDA receptor subtype may be involved in the modulation of physostigmine-induced ? rhythm. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed, in the urethane-anesthetized rat, the effects of septum application of NMDA and d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5),

C. Puma; V. Monmaur; A. Sharif; P. Monmaur



Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions  

SciTech Connect

The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.



Discovery of novel, potent, and orally active spiro-urea human glucagon receptor antagonists.  


A novel class of spiro-ureas has been discovered as potent human glucagon receptor antagonists in both binding and functional assays. Preliminary studies have revealed that compound 15 is an orally active human glucagon receptor antagonist in a transgenic murine pharmacodynamic model at 10 and 30 mpk. Compound 15 is orally bioavailable in several preclinical species and shows selectivity toward cardiac ion channels and other family B receptors, such as hGIP1 and hGLP. PMID:16102966

Shen, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Fengqi; Brady, Edward J; Candelore, Mari Rios; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Ding, Victor D-H; Dragovic, Jasminka; Feeney, William P; Jiang, Guoquiang; McCann, Peggy E; Mock, Steve; Qureshi, Sajjad A; Saperstein, Richard; Shen, Xiaolan; Tamvakopoulos, Constantin; Tong, Xinchun; Tota, Laurie M; Wright, Michael J; Yang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Song; Chapman, Kevin T; Zhang, Bei B; Tata, James R; Parmee, Emma R



Low affinity use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists show promise for clinical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The success of the low affinity use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists to reach clinical trials can be readily attributed\\u000a to their wider margins of safety and lack of neurotoxicity at higher doses. Several mechanistic differences distinguish the\\u000a low affinity from the high affinity use-dependent antagonists: 1) Differential regional affinities for the various NMDA receptor\\u000a subtypes; 2) The static receptor blockade

G. C. Palmer; D. Widzowski



Discovery of furan-2-carbohydrazides as orally active glucagon receptor antagonists.  


Furan-2-carbohydrazides were found as orally active glucagon receptor antagonists. Starting from the hit compound 5, we successfully determined the structure activity relationships of a series of derivatives obtained by modifying the acidity of the phenol. We identified the ortho-nitrophenol as a good scaffold for glucagon receptor inhibitory activity. Our efforts have led to the discovery of compound 7l as a potent glucagon receptor antagonist with good bioavailability and satisfactory long half-life. PMID:25127101

Hasegawa, Futoshi; Niidome, Kazumi; Migihashi, Chiaki; Murata, Makoto; Negoro, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takafumi; Kato, Kaori; Fujii, Akihito



CGRP Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Migraine  

PubMed Central

Based on preclinical and clinical studies, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is proposed to play a central role in the underlying pathology of migraine. CGRP and its receptor are widely expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system by multiple cell types involved in the regulation of inflammatory and nociceptive responses. Peripheral release of CGRP from trigeminal nerve fibers within the dura and from the cell body of trigeminal ganglion neurons is likely to contribute to peripheral sensitization of trigeminal nociceptors. Similarly, the release of CGRP within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis can facilitate activation of nociceptive second order neurons and glial cells. Thus, CGRP is involved in the development and maintenance of persistent pain, central sensitization, and allodynia, events characteristic of migraine pathology. In contrast, CGRP release within the brain is likely to function in an anti-nociceptive capacity. This review will focus on the development and clinical data on CGRP receptor antagonists as well as discussing their potential roles in migraine therapy via modulation of multiple cell types within the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:20433208

Durham, Paul L.; Vause, Carrie V.



Inhaled muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists for treatment of COPD.  


Bronchodilators, generally administered via metered dose or dry powder inhalers, are the mainstays of pharmacological treatment of stable COPD. Inhaled long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and anticholinergics are the bronchodilators primarily used in the chronic treatment of COPD. Anticholinergics act as muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists and are frequently preferred over beta-agonists for their minimal cardiac stimulatory effects and greater efficacy in most studies. Their therapeutic efficacy is based on the fact that vagally mediated bronchoconstriction is the major reversible component of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD. However, bronchodilators are effective only on the reversible component of airflow obstruction, which by definition is limited, as COPD is characterized by a fixed or poorly reversible airflow obstruction. Inhaled anticholinergic antimuscarinic drugs approved for the treatment of COPD include ipratropium bromide, oxitropium bromide and tiotropium bromide. Ipratropium bromide, the prototype of anticholinergic bronchodilators, is a short-acting agent. Oxitropium bromide is administered twice a day. Tiotropium bromide, the only long-acting antimuscarinic agent (LAMA) currently approved, is administered once a day. Newer LAMAs including aclidinium bromide and glycopyrrolate bromide are currently in phase III development for treatment of COPD. Some new LAMAs, including glycocpyrrolate, are suitable for once daily administration and, unlike tiotropium, have a rapid onset of action. New LAMAs and their combination with ultra-LABA and, possibly, inhaled corticosteroids, seem to open new perspectives in the management of COPD. Dual-pharmacology muscarinic antagonist-beta2 agonist (MABA) molecules present a novel approach to the treatment of COPD by combining muscarinic antagonism and beta2 agonism in a single molecule. PMID:22963553

Montuschi, P; Macagno, F; Valente, S; Fuso, L



Anticonvulsive effect of nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.  


To determine the potential of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands as new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), aromatic ether, and diether derivatives (1-12) belonging to the nonimidazole class of ligands, with high in-vitro binding affinity at human H3R, were tested for their in-vivo anticonvulsive activity in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled seizure models in rats. The anticonvulsive effects of a systemic injection of 1-12 on MES-induced and PTZ-kindled seizures were evaluated against the reference AED phenytoin (PHT) and the structurally related H3R antagonist/inverse agonist pitolisant (PIT). Among the most promising ligands 2, 4, 5, and 11, there was a significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) in MES-induced seizure subsequent to administration of 4 and 5 [(5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. The protective effects observed for the 1-(3-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy)propyl)-3-methylpiperidine derivative 11 at 10 mg/kg, i.p. were significantly greater than those of PIT, and were reversed by pretreatment with the central nervous system penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the protective action of the reference AED PHT, at a dose of 5 mg/kg (without considerable protection in the MES model), was significantly augmented when coadministered with derivative 11 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Surprisingly, pretreatment with derivative 7 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), an ethylphenoxyhexyl-piperidine derivative without considerable protection in the MES model, potently altered PTZ-kindled seizure, significantly prolonged myoclonic latency time, and clearly shortened the total seizure time when compared with control, PHT, and PIT. These interesting results highlight the potential of H3R ligands as new AEDs or as adjuvants to available AED therapeutics. PMID:24776492

Sadek, Bassem; Kuder, Kamil; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Stark, Holger; La?ewska, Dorota; Adem, Abdu; Kie?-Kononowicz, Katarzyna



Phe369(7.38) at human 5-HT7 receptors confers interspecies selectivity to antagonists and partial agonists  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Human and rat 5-HT7 receptors were studied with a particular emphasis on the molecular interactions involved in ligand binding, searching for an explanation to the interspecies selectivity observed for a set of compounds. We performed affinity studies, molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis, with special focus on residue Phe(7.38) of the human 5-HT7 receptor [Cys(7.38) in rat]. Experimental approach: Competition binding studies were performed for seven 5-HT7 receptor ligands at three different 5-HT7 receptors. The functional behaviour was evaluated by measuring 5-carboxytryptamine-stimulated cAMP production. Computational simulations were carried out to explore the structural bases in ligand binding observed for these compounds. Key results: Competition experiments showed a remarkable selectivity for the human receptor when compared with the rat receptor. These results indicate that mutating Cys to Phe at position 7.38 profoundly affects the binding affinities at the 5-HT7 receptor. Computational simulations provide a structural interpretation for this key finding. Pharmacological characterization of compounds mr25020, mr25040 and mr25053 revealed a competitive antagonistic behaviour. Compounds mr22423, mr22433, mr23284 and mr25052 behaved as partial agonists. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the interspecies difference in binding affinities observed for the compounds at human and rat 5-HT7 receptors is due to the nature of the residue at position 7.38. Our molecular modelling simulations suggest that Phe(7.38) in the human receptor is integrated in the hydrophobic pocket in the central part of the binding site [Phe(6.51)-Phe(6.52)] and allows a tighter binding of the ligands when compared with the rat receptor. PMID:19922537

Varin, Thibault; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Castro, Marián; Brea, José; Fabis, Frederic; Dauphin, François; Åqvist, Johan; Lepailleur, Alban; Perez, Pilar; Burgueño, Javier; Vela, José Miguel; Loza, Maria Isabel; Rodrigo, Jordi



Anti-inflammatory properties of a novel peptide interleukin 1 receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is implicated in neuroinflammation, an essential component of neurodegeneration. We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide antagonist of IL-1 signaling, Ilantide. Methods We investigated the binding of Ilantide to IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) using surface plasmon resonance, the inhibition of Il-1?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in HEK-Blue cells that contained an IL-1?-sensitive reporter, the secretion of TNF-? in macrophages, protection against IL-1-induced apoptosis in neonatal pancreatic islets, and the penetration of Ilantide through the blood–brain barrier using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We studied the effects of the peptide on social behavior and memory in rat models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and amyloid-induced neuroinflammation, respectively, and its effect in a rat model of experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis. Results Ilantide bound IL-1RI, inhibited the IL-1?-induced activation of NF-?B, and inhibited the secretion of TNF-? in vitro. Ilantide protected pancreatic islets from apoptosis in vitro and reduced inflammation in an animal model of arthritis. The peptide penetrated the blood–brain barrier. It reduced the deficits in social activity and memory in LPS- and amyloid-treated animals and delayed the development of experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis. Conclusions These findings indicate that Ilantide is a novel and potent IL-1RI antagonist that is able to reduce inflammatory damage in the central nervous system and pancreatic islets. PMID:24490798



Effects of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801 on Short-Interval Timing in Rats  

E-print Network

Effects of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801 on Short-Interval Timing in Rats Jonathan P. Miller with several receptor sub- types (Cotman, Monaghan, Ottersen, & Storm-Mathisen, 1987; Watkins, Krogsgaard-Larsen, & Honore, 1990). The N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtype has received much interest because

Liu, Taosheng


Effect of kinin receptor antagonists on renal hemodynamic and natriuretic responses to volume expansion.  


The role of kinins in the natriuretic and papillary blood flow (PBF) responses to intravenous administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution equal to 5% of body weight over 30 min was evaluated using a B1-kinin receptor antagonist (des-Arg9, [Leu8]bradykinin, 2.5 micrograms/min i.v.) and a B2-kinin receptor antagonist (D-Arg, [Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]bradykinin, 2.5 micrograms/min i.v.). In control rats, PBF increased 43 +/- 5% after the volume expansion with saline. Administration of the B1-kinin receptor antagonist had no significant effect on basal PBF or the rise in PBF produced by volume expansion. In contrast, administration of the B2-kinin receptor antagonist decreased basal PBF by 18 +/- 3% and prevented the rise in PBF during volume expansion. Urine osmolality was lower in the rats treated with the B1-antagonist and higher in rats infused with the B2-kinin antagonist than in control animals after volume expansion (587 +/- 47 and 1,082 +/- 83 vs. 907 +/- 124 mosmol/kgH2O, respectively). The initial natriuretic response during the first 30 min after volume expansion was similar in rats given vehicle or the kinin antagonists. However, cumulative sodium excretion over the 2-h course of the experiment was significantly lower in the rats given the B2-receptor antagonist than in control rats (92 +/- 7 vs. 101 +/- 9% of the administered load). The B1-kinin receptor antagonist had no effect on cumulative sodium excretion; however, glomerular filtration rate was 30% lower in rats receiving the B1-antagonist than in control rats after volume expansion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1332518

Fenoy, F J; Roman, R J



Agonistic and antagonistic activities of RU486 on the functions of the human progesterone receptor.  

PubMed Central

RU486 induced the binding to a palindromic progestin responsive element (PRE) in vitro of homo- and heterodimers of the human progesterone receptor (hPR) isoforms A and B, present in T47D breast cancer cells or in HeLa cells transiently expressing the recombinant proteins. The resulting complexes were indistinguishable from those induced with the agonist R5020 with respect to specificity, affinity and stability. Ligand exposure was a necessary prerequisite to observe PR/PRE complexes. Antagonist-induced complexes migrated more rapidly during electrophoresis than agonist-induced ones, and no 'mixed' PR/RU486-PR/R5020 complexes were observed, suggesting that the dimerization interfaces of agonist- and antagonist-bound molecules are non-compatible. The analysis of a series of deletion mutants and chimeric receptors revealed the presence of two transcription activation functions (TAFs), located in the N-terminal region A/B (TAF-1) and the hormone binding domain (TAF-2). In the presence of agonists, both TAFs were active in HeLa cells. In the presence of RU486 TAF-2 was inactive, while TAF-1 within the hPR form B/RU486 complex activated transcription from a reporter gene containing a single palindromic PRE. We consider this to be the most convincing evidence that the receptor/RU486-complex does in fact bind to PREs in vivo. No transcriptional activation was observed in the presence of RU486 from a reporter gene containing the complex MMTV-LTR PRE. In contrast to hPR form B, form A was not able to activate transcription from PRE/GRE-tk-CAT in the presence of RU486. In vivo competition between hPR/RU486 and either cPR/R5020 or the human glucocorticoid receptor/dexamethasone (hGR/Dex) complex further supported that hPR/RU486 bound in vivo to its cognate responsive element. Indeed, the observed inhibition of transcription was shown to be due to competition for the MMTV PRE, since no transcriptional interference by the hPR/RU486 was observed, and since no heterodimers were formed between hPR/RU486 and cPR/R5020 or hGR/Dex. That the ligand-free hPR, however, was unable to compete, demonstrated that ligand binding is the prerequisite for DNA binding of hPR in vivo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2249658

Meyer, M E; Pornon, A; Ji, J W; Bocquel, M T; Chambon, P; Gronemeyer, H




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both dopamine (DA) and oxytocin (OT) have been shown to be involved in maternal behavior in rats. Both D1 and D2 DA receptor antagonists attenuated this behavior. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of an OT antagonist delayed the onset of maternal behavior. Mesotocin (MT) is an oxytocin-lik...


Iptakalim as a human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.  


Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play many critical roles in nervous system function and have been implicated in a variety of diseases. Drugs acting at nAChRs, perhaps in nAChR subtype-selective manners, can be used to dissect receptor function and perhaps as medications. In the present study, we used patch-clamp whole-cell recording and pharmacological manipulations to evaluate effects of iptakalim hydrochloride (Ipt), which is a drug reported to act as an ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel opener, on selected human nAChRs heterologously expressed in the native nAChR-null SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line. Ipt reduced both peak and steady-state whole-cell current amplitudes mediated by human alpha4beta2-nAChRs in response to nicotinic agonists. It also accelerated current decay, caused a decline in apparent efficacy of agonists, and acted in voltage- and use-dependent manners at alpha4beta2-nAChRs. These findings and the inability of Ipt to block radiolabeled epibatidine binding to alpha4beta2-nAChRs suggest a noncompetitive mechanism of antagonism. Other studies discount effects of Ipt on nAChR internalization or involvement of K(ATP) channels in Ipt-induced inhibition of alpha4beta2-nAChR function. By comparison, alpha7-nAChRs were less sensitive than alpha4beta2-nAChRs to Ipt acting as an antagonist. Thus, alpha4beta2-nAChRs are among the molecular targets of Ipt, which has utility as a tool in functional characterization and pharmacological profiling of nAChRs. PMID:16223869

Hu, Jun; Lindenberger, Kari; Hu, Gang; Wang, Hai; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie



Leukotriene receptor antagonists for chronic urticaria: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

A significant proportion of patients with chronic urticaria respond inadequately to first line treatment with antihistamines. Leukotreine receptor antagonists (LTRA) are also used for chronic urticaria, although firm recommendations on their use are lacking. We performed a systematic review of randomised trials to determine the role of LTRA in treatment of chronic urticaria. A search of PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Web of Science for relevant randomized control trials or cross over studies yielded 10 eligible studies. The heterogeneity of trials were high, preventing valid meta-analysis of data. Most trials indicated that LTRA are not superior to placebo or antihistamine therapy, while combination therapy of LTRA and antihistamines appear to be more efficacious compared to antihistamine alone. The side effect profile and tolerability of this group of drugs is acceptable. The use of LTRA as monotherapy cannot be recommended. LTRA are effective add-on therapy to anti-histamines, and their use in patients responding poorly to antihistamines is justifiable. Further well designed randomized controlled trials with clear and standardized outcome measures are needed to determine the role of LTRA in chronic urticaria. PMID:24817895



Inhibition of cholinesterases by histamine 2 receptor antagonist drugs.  


Many studies have demonstrated that histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) have in vitro anticholinesterase effects, but discrepancies about type and potency of this inhibitory effect exist among published results. Moreover, cholinesterase inhibition has not been shown in patients receiving H2RA. These discrepancies led us to study the in vitro antibutyryl- and in vitro antiacetylcholinesterase activities of ranitidine, cimetidine, nizatidine comparatively to pyridostigmines. Plasma cholinesterase activity (PCEA), erythrocyte cholinesterase activity (ECEA) and plasma ranitidine levels were measured in six patients before and during continuous IV infusion (150 or 200 mg/d) of ranitidine. Our in vitro results confirm the weak anticholinesterase activity of H2RA. Ranitidine is the most potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (Ki = 61 microM). Ranitidine and nizatidine are the most potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (Ki' = 2.1 microM, Ki' = 5.1 microM, respectively) but one thousand times less effective than pyridostigmine (Ki = 0.003 microM). The results in patients show no statistically significant difference between PCEA and ECEA measured before and during ranitidine infusion (plasma ranitidine levels between 0.31 and 1.25 microM). PMID:8095733

Laine-Cessac, P; Turcant, A; Premel-Cabic, A; Boyer, J; Allain, P



Neuroprotective effects of a novel AMPA receptor antagonist, YM872.  


Quinoxalinediones such as NBQX are neuroprotective in most models of cerebral ischemia but their poor solubility results in nephrotoxicity limiting their clinical utility. We have investigated the neuroprotective effects of a water soluble AMPA receptor antagonist, YM872, using two in vitro models. The viability of cortical cultures exposed to 400 microM AMPA for 15 min (16.4 +/- 2.6%; n = 10) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased (84.7 +/- 4.6%; n = 6) with YM872 (10 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner. Evoked post-synaptic response amplitudes in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal slices treated with 10 microM YM872 (3.5 +/- 0.3 mV; n = 27) were significantly different from untreated deprived slices (0.3 +/- 0.1 mV; n = 31, p < 0.05) and the CA1 neurons appeared viable using a confocal live/dead fluorescence assay with confocal microscopy. The neuroprotection seen with YM872 in vitro warrants further investigation in vivo. PMID:9631414

Small, D L; Murray, C L; Monette, R; Kawasaki-Yatsugi, S; Morley, P



Food intake and rumen motility in dwarf goats. Effects of some serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonergic regulation of feeding behaviour has not so far been studied in ruminants. Therefore, the effects of some serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on food intake and forestomach motility were studied in dwarf goats.

F. Kaya; C. T. M. van Duin; G. H. Veenendaal; A. S. J. P. A. M. van Miert



Structural and Pharmacological Characterization of Novel Potent and Selective Monoclonal Antibody Antagonists of Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor  

PubMed Central

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an endogenous hormonal factor (incretin) that, upon binding to its receptor (GIPr; a class B G-protein-coupled receptor), stimulates insulin secretion by beta cells in the pancreas. There has been a lack of potent inhibitors of the GIPr with prolonged in vivo exposure to support studies on GIP biology. Here we describe the generation of an antagonizing antibody to the GIPr, using phage and ribosome display libraries. Gipg013 is a specific competitive antagonist with equally high potencies to mouse, rat, dog, and human GIP receptors with a Ki of 7 nm for the human GIPr. Gipg013 antagonizes the GIP receptor and inhibits GIP-induced insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. A crystal structure of Gipg013 Fab in complex with the human GIPr extracellular domain (ECD) shows that the antibody binds through a series of hydrogen bonds from the complementarity-determining regions of Gipg013 Fab to the N-terminal ?-helix of GIPr ECD as well as to residues around its highly conserved glucagon receptor subfamily recognition fold. The antibody epitope overlaps with the GIP binding site on the GIPr ECD, ensuring competitive antagonism of the receptor. This well characterized antagonizing antibody to the GIPr will be useful as a tool to further understand the biological roles of GIP. PMID:23689510

Ravn, Peter; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Kunze, Susan; Matthews, Evelyn; Priest, Claire; O'Brien, Siobhan; Collinson, Andie; Papworth, Monika; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Jermutus, Lutz; Benthem, Lambertus; Gruetter, Markus; Jackson, Ronald H.



Identification of a novel "almost neutral" micro-opioid receptor antagonist in CHO cells expressing the cloned human mu-opioid receptor.  


The basal (constitutive) activity of G protein-coupled receptors allows for the measurement of inverse agonist activity. Some competitive antagonists turn into inverse agonists under conditions where receptors are constitutively active. In contrast, neutral antagonists have no inverse agonist activity, and they block both agonist and inverse agonist activity. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) demonstrates detectable constitutive activity only after a state of dependence is produced by chronic treatment with a MOR agonist. We therefore sought to identify novel MOR inverse agonists and novel neutral MOR antagonists in both untreated and agonist-treated MOR cells. CHO cells expressing the cloned human mu receptor (hMOR-CHO cells) were incubated for 20 h with medium (control) or 10 microM (2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-9-(benzoyloxy)-2-(3-furanyl)dodecahydro-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-2H-naphtho-[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (herkinorin, HERK). HERK treatment generates a high degree of basal signaling and enhances the ability to detect inverse agonists. [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S assays were conducted using established methods. We screened 21 MOR "antagonists" using membranes prepared from HERK-treated hMOR-CHO cells. All antagonists, including CTAP and 6beta-naltrexol, were inverse agonists. However, LTC-274 ((-)-3-cyclopropylmethyl-2,3,4,4alpha,5,6,7,7alpha-octahydro-1H-benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-9-ol)) showed the lowest efficacy as an inverse agonist, and, at concentrations less than 5 nM, had minimal effects on basal [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding. Other efforts in this study identified KC-2-009 ((+)-3-((1R,5S)-2-((Z)-3-phenylallyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-5-yl)phenol hydrochloride) as an inverse agonist at untreated MOR cells. In HERK-treated cells, KC-2-009 had the highest efficacy as an inverse agonist. In summary, we identified a novel and selective MOR inverse agonist (KC-2-009) and a novel MOR antagonist (LTC-274) that shows the least inverse agonist activity among 21 MOR antagonists. LTC-274 is a promising lead compound for developing a true MOR neutral antagonist. PMID:19953652

Sally, Elliott J; Xu, Heng; Dersch, Christina M; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Chang, Li-Te; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Simpson, Denise S; Giuvelis, Denise; Rice, Kenner C; Jacobson, Arthur E; Cheng, Kejun; Bilsky, Edward J; Rothman, Richard B



Persistent anxiolytic affects after chronic administration of the CRF 1 receptor antagonist R121919 in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) functions as one of the major mediators of the mammalian stress response and appears to play a key role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Small molecule CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel form of pharmacotherapy for these disorders. The therapeutic success of CRF1 receptor antagonists will depend, in part, upon whether tolerance develops to

David A. Gutman; Michael J. Owens; K. V. Thrivikraman; Charles B. Nemeroff



The effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on acute morphine antinociception in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Antagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex inhibit the development of tolerance to antinociceptive effects of morphine and upon acute\\u000a administration, influence morphine antinociceptive activity. The analysis of numerous studies investigating acute interaction\\u000a between NMDA receptor antagonists and morphine in mice indicate a variety of procedural differences and reveal that these\\u000a compounds may potentiate, attenuate and produce no effect on

E. Kozela; P. Popik



The discovery of the benzazepine class of histamine H3 receptor antagonists.  


This Letter describes the discovery of a novel series of H3 receptor antagonists. The initial medicinal chemistry strategy focused on deconstructing and simplifying an early screening hit which rapidly led to the discovery of a novel series of H3 receptor antagonists based on the benzazepine core. Employing an H3 driven pharmacodynamic model, the series was then further optimised through to a lead compound that showed robust in vivo functional activity and possessed overall excellent developability properties. PMID:24161834

Wilson, David M; Apps, James; Bailey, Nicholas; Bamford, Mark J; Beresford, Isabel J; Briggs, Michael A; Calver, Andrew R; Crook, Barry; Davis, Robert P; Davis, Susannah; Dean, David K; Harris, Leanne; Heightman, Tom D; Panchal, Terry; Parr, Christopher A; Quashie, Nigel; Steadman, Jon G A; Schogger, Joanne; Sehmi, Sanjeet S; Stean, Tania O; Takle, Andrew K; Trail, Brenda K; White, Trevor; Witherington, Jason; Worby, Angela; Medhurst, Andrew D



A Novel Selective Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 1 Antagonist Reduces Seizures without Impairing Hippocampus-Dependent LearningS?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that selective antagonists of specific subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) may provide a novel approach for the treatment of certain central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including epileptic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Unfortunately, previously reported antagonists are not highly selective for specific mAChR subtypes, making it difficult to definitively establish the functional roles and therapeutic potential for individual subtypes of this receptor subfamily. The M1 mAChR is of particular interest as a potential target for treatment of CNS disorders. We now report the discovery of a novel selective antagonist of M1 mAChRs, termed VU0255035 [N-(3-oxo-3-(4-(pyridine-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-4 sulfonamide]. Equilibrium radioligand binding and functional studies demonstrate a greater than 75-fold selectivity of VU0255035 for M1 mAChRs relative to M2-M5. Molecular pharmacology and mutagenesis studies indicate that VU0255035 is a competitive orthosteric antagonist of M1 mAChRs, a surprising finding given the high level of M1 mAChR selectivity relative to other orthosteric antagonists. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that VU0255035 inhibits potentiation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor currents by the muscarinic agonist carbachol in hippocampal pyramidal cells. VU0255035 has excellent brain penetration in vivo and is efficacious in reducing pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. We were surprised to find that doses of VU0255035 that reduce pilocarpine-induced seizures do not induce deficits in contextual freezing, a measure of hippocampus-dependent learning that is disrupted by nonselective mAChR antagonists. Taken together, these data suggest that selective antagonists of M1 mAChRs do not induce the severe cognitive deficits seen with nonselective mAChR antagonists and could provide a novel approach for the treatment certain of CNS disorders. PMID:19407080

Sheffler, Douglas J.; Williams, Richard; Bridges, Thomas M.; Xiang, Zixiu; Kane, Alexander S.; Byun, Nellie E.; Jadhav, Satyawan; Mock, Mathew M.; Zheng, Fang; Lewis, L. Michelle; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Weaver, Charles D.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey



The non-peptide NK-1 receptor antagonist LY303870 inhibits neurogenic dural inflammation in guinea pigs.  


LY303870 is a competitive, high affinity NK-1 receptor antagonist. It was tested in the trigeminal stimulation-induced neurogenic dural inflammation model of migraine. The neurogenic inflammation theory of migraine pain proposes that substance P, acting through NK-1 receptors, causes dural inflammation which enhances migraine pain. LY303870 administration potently inhibited neurogenic dural inflammation as measured by plasma protein extravasation caused by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion in guinea pigs. It was active in this model when administered via intravenous, oral or inhalation routes. LY306155, the enantiomer of LY303870 with lower affinity for the NK-1 receptor, was much less potent than LY303870 in this model. LY303870, at oral doses of 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg, produced a long, dose-dependent inhibition of dural inflammation, demonstrating a suitable duration of action for a potential use in acute migraine and migraine prophylaxis. PMID:9126877

Phebus, L A; Johnson, K W; Stengel, P W; Lobb, K L; Nixon, J A; Hipskind, P A



From virtual to clinical: The discovery of PGN-1531, a novel antagonist of the prostanoid EP4 receptor.  


In this Letter, we present the results of a hit-finding and lead optimization programme against the EP4 receptor (EP4R). In a short time period, we were able to discover five structurally diverse series of hit compounds using a combination of virtual screening methods. The most favoured hit, compound 6, was demonstrated to be a competitive antagonist of the EP4R. Compound 73 was identified following several rounds of optimization, which centred on improving both the primary EP4R affinity and selectivity against the related EP2R as well as the aqueous solubility. This work culminated in the preparation of PGN-1531, the sodium salt of 73, which showed a marked improvement in solubility (>10 mg/mL). PGN-1531 is a potent and selective antagonist at EP4Rs in vitro and in vivo, with the potential to alleviate the symptoms of migraine that result from cerebral vasodilatation. PMID:24703233

Sutton, Jon; Clark, David E; Higgs, Christopher; de Groot, Marcel J; Harris, Neil V; Taylor, Andrea; Lockey, Peter M; Maubach, Karen; Woodrooffe, Amanda; Davis, Richard J; Coleman, Robert A; Clark, Kenneth L



From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.  


5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to A?-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-? level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-?B, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications. PMID:25377794

Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza



Binding characteristics of [3H]-JSM10292: a new cell membrane-permeant non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A 3H-labelled derivative of the novel small-molecule bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonist JSM10292 was used to directly study its binding properties to human and animal B2 receptors in intact cells and to closely define its binding site. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Equilibrium binding, dissociation and competition studies with various B2 receptor ligands and [3H]-JSM10292 were performed at 4°C and 37°C. The experiments were carried out using HEK293 cells stably (over)expressing wild-type and mutant B2 receptors of human and animal origin. KEY RESULTS [3H]-JSM10292 bound to B2 receptors at 4°C and at 37°C with the same high affinity. Its dissociation strongly depended on the temperature and increased when unlabelled B2 receptor agonists or antagonists were added. [3H]-JSM10292 is cell membrane-permeant and thus also bound to intracellular, active B2 receptors, as indicated by the different ‘nonspecific’ binding in the presence of unlabelled JSM10292 or of membrane-impermeant BK. Equilibrium binding curves with [3H]-JSM10292 and competition experiments with unlabelled JSM10292 and [3H]-BK showed a different affinity profile for the wild-type B2 receptor in different species (man, cynomolgus, rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, pig, guinea pig). Characterization of B2 receptor mutants and species orthologues combined with homology modelling, using the CXCR4 as template, suggests that the binding site of JSM10292 is different from that of BK but overlaps with that of MEN16132, another small non-peptide B2 receptor ligand. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS [3H]-JSM10292 is a novel, cell membrane-permeant, high-affinity B2 receptor antagonist that allows direct in detail studies of active, surface and intracellularly located wild-type and mutant B2 receptors. PMID:22646218

Faussner, A; Schüssler, S; Feierler, J; Bermudez, M; Pfeifer, J; Schnatbaum, K; Tradler, T; Jochum, M; Wolber, G; Gibson, C



Structure-based discovery of antagonists for GluN3-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors  

PubMed Central

NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that assemble into tetrameric receptor complexes composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits (GluN3A-B) and glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits (GluN2A-D). NMDA receptors can assemble as GluN1/N2 receptors and as GluN3-containing NMDA receptors, which are either glutamate/glycine-activated triheteromeric GluN1/N2/N3 receptors or glycine-activated diheteromeric GluN1/N3 receptors. The glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits display strikingly different pharmacological selectivity profiles. However, the pharmacological characterization of GluN3-containing receptors has been hampered by the lack of methods and pharmacological tools to study GluN3 subunit pharmacology in isolation. Here, we have developed a method to study the pharmacology of GluN3 subunits in recombinant diheteromeric GluN1/N3 receptors by mutating the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket in GluN1. This method is suitable for performing compound screening and characterization of structure-activity relationship studies on GluN3 ligands. We have performed a virtual screen of the orthosteric binding site of GluN3A in the search for antagonists with selectivity for GluN3 subunits. In the subsequent pharmacological evaluation of 99 selected compounds, we identified 6-hydroxy-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5(4H)-one (TK80) a novel competitive antagonist with preference for the GluN3B subunit. Serendipitously, we also identified [2-hydroxy-5-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)thiazol-2-yl)amino]benzoic acid (TK13) and 4-(2,4-dichlorobenzoyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (TK30), two novel non-competitive GluN3 antagonists. These findings demonstrate that structural differences between the orthosteric binding site of GluN3 and GluN1 can be exploited to generate selective ligands. PMID:23973313

Kvist, Trine; Greenwood, Jeremy R.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans



Characterization of a novel and selective CB1 antagonist as a radioligand for receptor occupancy studies.  


Obesity remains a significant public health issue leading to Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. CB1 antagonists have been shown to suppress appetite and reduce body weight in animal models as well as in humans. Evaluation of pre-clinical CB1 antagonists to establish relationships between in vitro affinity and in vivo efficacy parameters are enhanced by ex vivo receptor occupancy data. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel and highly selective radiolabeled CB1 antagonist is described. The radioligand was used to conduct ex vivo receptor occupancy studies. PMID:21962575

Yang, Yifan; Miller, Keith J; Zhu, Yeheng; Hong, Yang; Tian, Yuan; Murugesan, Natesan; Gu, Zhengxiang; O'Tanyi, Eva; Keim, William J; Rohrbach, Kenneth W; Johnghar, Susan; Behnia, Kamelia; Pelleymounter, Mary Ann; Carlson, Kenneth E; Ewing, William R



Sisters' curse: sexually antagonistic effects constrain the spread of a mitochondrial haplogroup superior in sperm competition.  


Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve with implications for male longevity, disease susceptibility and infertility. Because males are an evolutionary dead end for mitochondria, mitochondrial mutations that are harmful or beneficial to males but not females cannot respond directly to selection. Although the importance of this male/female asymmetry in evolutionary response depends on the extent to which mitochondrial mutations exert antagonistic effects on male and female fitness, few studies have documented sex-specific selection acting on mitochondria. Here, we exploited the discovery of two highly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A and B2) in central Panamanian populations of the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest that selection on the ND4 and ND4L mitochondrial genes may partially explain sexually antagonistic mitochondrial effects on reproduction. Males carrying the rare B2 mitochondrial haplogroup enjoy a marked advantage in sperm competition, but B2 females are significantly less sexually receptive at second mating than A females. This reduced propensity for polyandry is likely to significantly reduce female lifetime reproductive success, thereby limiting the spread of the male beneficial B2 haplogroup. Our findings suggest that maternal inheritance of mitochondria and sexually antagonistic selection can constrain male adaptation and sexual selection in nature. PMID:25377452

Padua, Michael V; Zeh, David W; Bonilla, Melvin M; Zeh, Jeanne A



Effect of ghrelin receptor antagonist on meal patterns in cholecystokinin type 1 receptor null mice  

PubMed Central

Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express the cholecystokinin (CCK) type 1 receptor (CCK1R) and, as predicted by the role of CCK in inducing satiation, CCK1R?/? mice ingest larger and longer meals. However, after a short fast, CCK1R?/? mice ingesting high fat (HF) diets initiate feeding earlier than wild-type mice. We hypothesized that the increased drive to eat in CCK1R?/? mice eating HF diet is mediated by ghrelin, a gut peptide that stimulates food intake. The decrease in time to first meal, and the increase in meal size and duration in CCK1R?/? compared to wild-type mice ingesting high fat (HF) diet was reversed by administration of GHSR1a antagonist D-(Lys3)-GHRP-6 (p<0.05). Administration of the GHSR1a antagonist significantly increased expression of the neuropeptide cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in VAN of HF-fed CCK1R?/? but not wild-type mice. Administration of the GHSR1a antagonist decreased neuronal activity measured by immunoreactivity for fos protein in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the arcuate nucleus of both HF-fed wild-type and CCK1R?/? mice. The data show that hyperphagia in CCK1R?/? mice ingesting HF diet is reversed by blockade of the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that in the absence of the CCK1R, there is an increased ghrelin-dependent drive to feed. The site of action of ghrelin receptors is unclear, but may involve an increase in expression of CART peptide in VAN in HF-fed CCK1R?/? mice. PMID:21277881

Lee, Jennifer; Martin, Elizabeth; Paulino, Gabriel; de Lartigue, Guillaume; Raybould, Helen E



Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders  

PubMed Central

Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs) are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy. PMID:22734451



Anxiolytic-like effect of group III mGlu receptor antagonist is serotonin-dependent.  


Literature data have provided evidence that antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and agonists of group II/III mGluRs show anxiolytic-like properties in preclinical studies. However data reporting anxiolytic-like action of group III mGlu receptor antagonists were also published. In the present paper we investigated the anxiolytic-like activity of the group III mGlu receptor antagonist (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG). To examine its anxiolytic-like effects, the basolateral amygdala was chosen as an injection site, as this brain region is involved in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior. To detect anxiolytic-like activity, the Vogel conflict-drinking test in rats was used. Intra-amygdalar injections of CPPG exhibited dose-dependent, potent anxiolytic-like action at a dose of 75 nmol, which was blocked by a concomitant administration of the group III mGlu receptor agonist CI (S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclo-pentane-1,3,4-tricarboxylic acid (ACPT-I) at a dose of 7.5 nmol. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (given intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg) did not change the anxiolytic-like effect of CPPG, but that effect was abolished by the non-selective antagonist of 5-HT receptors metergoline and the antagonist of 5-HT2A/C receptors ritanserin (both given intraperitoneally at doses of 2 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively). These findings suggest that the blockade of group III mGlu receptors in the amygdala is responsible for anxiolysis and that serotonergic, but not the benzodiazepine recognition site of the GABA-ergic system are involved in the anxiolytic-like response induced by group III mGlu antagonist. PMID:17020774

Stachowicz, K; Chojnacka-Wójcik, E; K?ak, K; Pilc, A



Palliation of Bone Cancer Pain by Antagonists of Platelet-Activating Factor Receptors  

PubMed Central

Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC) model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients. PMID:24637403

Kitayama, Tomoya; Kanematsu, Takashi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Dohi, Toshihiro



NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ~90 minutes after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.



NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids.  


Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ?90min after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J-113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

Gear, R W; Bogen, O; Ferrari, L F; Green, P G; Levine, J D



The selective ? opioid receptor antagonist ?-funaltrexamine attenuates methamphetamine-induced stereotypical biting in mice.  


We investigated whether pretreatment with opioid receptor antagonists affected methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy in mice. Pretreatment of male ICR mice with naloxone, a relatively non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the total incidence of METH-induced stereotypical behavior compared with saline vehicle-pretreated subjects. Furthermore, the distribution of METH-induced stereotypical behavior was affected by naloxone administration. Thus, METH-induced stereotypical sniffing and persistent locomotion were significantly increased by naloxone treatment while stereotypical biting was reduced. One way to interpret this pattern of effects is that pretreatment with naloxone appeared to produce a shift in the dose-response curve for METH. Thus, while the more intense forms of oral-facial stereotypies were reduced, increased persistent locomotion was observed in mice given naloxone followed by METH. The selective ? opioid receptor antagonist ?-funaltrexamine, but not nor-binaltorphimine (a ?-selective antagonist) nor naltrindole (a ?-selective antagonist), mimicked the effect of naloxone. These observations suggest that opioid receptor antagonists may attenuate METH-induced stereotypical biting in mice via ? opioid receptors, and suggest that antagonism of this system may be a potential therapeutic approach to reducing some deleterious effects of METH use and perhaps in the treatment of some forms of self-injurious behavior. PMID:23727404

Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Fukushima, Yuko; Sawai, Tatsuo; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Koh-Ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko



The oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system and its antagonists as tocolytic agents.  


Oxytocin, a hormone involved in numerous physiologic processes, plays a central role in the mechanisms of parturition and lactation. It acts through its receptor, which belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, while Gq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) is the main pathway via which it exerts its action in the myometrium. Changes in receptor levels, receptor desensitization, and locally produced oxytocin are factors that influence the effect of oxytocin on uterine contractility in labor. Activation of oxytocin receptor causes myometrial contractions by increasing intracellular Ca(+2) and production of prostaglandins. Since oxytocin induces contractions, the inhibition of its action has been a target in the management of preterm labor. Atosiban is today the only oxytocin receptor antagonist that is available as a tocolytic. However, the quest for oxytocin receptor antagonists with a better pharmacological profile has led to the synthesis of peptide and nonpeptide molecules such as barusiban, retosiban, L-368,899, and SSR-126768A. Many of these oxytocin receptor antagonists are used only as pharmacological tools, while others have tocolytic action. In this paper, we summarize the action of oxytocin and its receptor and we present an overview of the clinical and experimental data of oxytocin antagonists and their tocolytic action. PMID:22190926

Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M; Sifakis, Stavros; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Iliodromiti, Zoe



The Oxytocin-Oxytocin Receptor System and Its Antagonists as Tocolytic Agents  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin, a hormone involved in numerous physiologic processes, plays a central role in the mechanisms of parturition and lactation. It acts through its receptor, which belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, while Gq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) is the main pathway via which it exerts its action in the myometrium. Changes in receptor levels, receptor desensitization, and locally produced oxytocin are factors that influence the effect of oxytocin on uterine contractility in labor. Activation of oxytocin receptor causes myometrial contractions by increasing intracellular Ca+2 and production of prostaglandins. Since oxytocin induces contractions, the inhibition of its action has been a target in the management of preterm labor. Atosiban is today the only oxytocin receptor antagonist that is available as a tocolytic. However, the quest for oxytocin receptor antagonists with a better pharmacological profile has led to the synthesis of peptide and nonpeptide molecules such as barusiban, retosiban, L-368,899, and SSR-126768A. Many of these oxytocin receptor antagonists are used only as pharmacological tools, while others have tocolytic action. In this paper, we summarize the action of oxytocin and its receptor and we present an overview of the clinical and experimental data of oxytocin antagonists and their tocolytic action. PMID:22190926

Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M.; Sifakis, Stavros; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Iliodromiti, Zoe



Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bn] and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bn], which combines the N-terminus of the established Dmt1-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, i.e. Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH2 36, also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced ?- and ? opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity. PMID:21413804

Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N.; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Tourwé, Dirk



Agonists and antagonists bind to different domains of the cloned kappa opioid receptor.  

PubMed Central

Opium and its derivatives are potent analgesics that can also induce severe side effects, including respiratory depression and addiction. Opioids exert their diverse physiological effects through specific membrane-bound receptors. Three major types of opioid receptors have been described, termed delta, kappa, and mu. The recent molecular cloning of these receptor types opens up the possibility to identify the ligand-binding domains of these receptors. To identify the ligand-binding domains of the kappa and delta receptors, we have expressed in COS-7 cells the cloned mouse delta and kappa receptors and chimeric delta/kappa and kappa/delta receptors in which the NH2 termini have been exchanged. The opioid antagonist naloxone binds potently to wild-type kappa receptor but not to wild-type delta receptor. The kappa/delta chimera bound [3H]naloxone with high affinity. In contrast, the kappa-specific agonist [3H]U-69,593 did not bind to the kappa/delta chimera. These findings indicate that selective agonists and antagonists interact with different recognition sites in the kappa receptor and localize the antagonist-binding domain to the NH2 terminus. Consistent with the results of radioligand-binding studies, the kappa/delta chimera did not mediate kappa-agonist inhibition of cAMP formation. In contrast, the delta/kappa chimera did mediate kappa-agonist inhibition of cAMP formation, but this effect was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, a truncated kappa receptor lacking its NH2 terminus was able to mediate agonist inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a naloxone-insensitive manner. This result further indicates that the NH2 terminus of the kappa receptor contains the selective antagonist-binding domain. The ability to dissociate agonist- and antagonist-binding sites will facilitate the development of more specific kappa agonists, which could have analgesic properties devoid of side effects. PMID:8058754

Kong, H; Raynor, K; Yano, H; Takeda, J; Bell, G I; Reisine, T



Medicinal Chemistry of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: Agonists, Antagonists, and Receptor Engineering  

PubMed Central

A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) ligands have been modified to optimize their interaction with the A3AR. Most of these modifications have been made to the N6 and C2 positions of adenine as well as the ribose moiety, and using a combination of these substitutions leads to the most efficacious, selective, and potent ligands. A3AR agonists such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA are now advancing into Phase II clinical trials for treatments targeting diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Also, a wide number of compounds exerting high potency and selectivity in antagonizing the human (h)A3AR have been discovered. These molecules are generally characterized by a notable structural diversity, taking into account that aromatic nitrogen-containing monocyclic (thiazoles and thiadiazoles), bicyclic (isoquinoline, quinozalines, (aza)adenines), tricyclic systems (pyrazoloquinolines, triazoloquinoxalines, pyrazolotriazolopyrimidines, triazolopurines, tricyclic xanthines) and nucleoside derivatives have been identified as potent and selective A3AR antagonists. Probably due to the “enigmatic” physiological role of A3AR, whose activation may produce opposite effects (for example, concerning tissue protection in inflammatory and cancer cells) and may produce effects that are species dependent, only a few molecules have reached preclinical investigation. Indeed, the most advanced A3AR antagonists remain in preclinical testing. Among the antagonists described above, compound OT-7999 is expected to enter clinical trials for the treatment of glaucoma, while several thiazole derivatives are in development as antiallergic, antiasthmatic and/or antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:19639281

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Klutz, Athena M.; Tosh, Dilip K.; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Preti, Delia; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni



Novel selective agonists and antagonists confirm neurokinin NK1 receptors in guinea-pig vas deferens.  

PubMed Central

1. This study investigated the recognition characteristics of neurokinin receptors mediating potentiation of the contractile response to field stimulation in the guinea-pig vas deferens. 2. A predominant NK1 receptor population is strongly suggested by the relative activities of the common naturally-occurring tachykinin agonists, which fall within less than one order of magnitude. This conclusion is supported by the relative activities of the synthetic NK1 selective agonists substance P methyl ester, [Glp6,L-Pro9]-SP(6-11) and delta-aminovaleryl-[L-Pro9,N-MeLeu10]- SP(7-11) (GR73632) which were 0.78, 9.3 and 120 as active as substance P, respectively. Furthermore, the NK2 selective agonist [Lys3, Gly8,-R-gamma-lactam-Leu9]-NKA(3-10) (GR64349) was active only at the highest concentrations tested (greater than 10 microM), and the NK3 selective agonist, succ-[Asp6,N-MePhe8]-SP(6-11) (senktide) was essentially inactive (10 nM-32 microM). 3. [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-SP(1-11) antagonized responses to neurokinin A, neurokinin B, physalaemin, eledoisin, [Glp6,D-Pro9]-SP(6-11), GR73632 and GR64349 (apparent pKB s 5.6-6.2), but was less potent in antagonizing responses to substance P, substance P methyl ester and [Glp6,L-Pro9]-SP(6-11) (apparent pKB s less than or equal to 5.0-5.0). 4. In contrast, the recently developed NK1-selective receptor antagonist [D-Pro9[Spiro-gamma-lactam]Leu10,Trp11]-SP(1-11) (GR71251) did not produce agonist-dependent pKB estimates. Schild plot analysis indicated a competitive interaction with a single receptor population where the antagonist had an estimated overall pKB of 7.58 +/- 0.13 for the four agonists of differing subtype selectivity tested (GR73632, GR64349, substance P methyl ester and neurokinin B).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1707714

Hall, J. M.; Morton, I. K.



Antagonist but not agonist labeling of serotonin-1A receptors is decreased in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Serotonin-1A receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. In postmortem brain tissue, agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors is reportedly increased or unchanged in depression or suicide, while neuroimaging studies report a decrease in antagonist binding to these receptors in subjects with depression. In this study, both agonist and antagonist radioligand binding to serotonin-1A receptors were examined in postmortem orbitofrontal cortex from subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Brain tissue was collected at autopsy from 11 subjects with MDD and 11 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects. Two depressed subjects had a recent psychoactive substance use disorder. Six subjects with MDD had a prescription for an antidepressant drug in the last month of life, and, of these six, postmortem bloods from only two subjects tested positive for an antidepressant drug. There was no significant difference between cohorts for age, postmortem interval or tissue pH. The receptor agonist [3H]8-OH-DPAT or the antagonist [3H]MPPF were used to autoradiographically label serotonin-1A receptors in frozen sections from cytoarchitectonically-defined left rostral orbitofrontal cortex (area 47). There was no significant difference between depressed and control subjects in agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors. However, antagonist binding was significantly decreased in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. This observation in postmortem tissue confirms reports using an antagonist radioligand in living subjects with depression. Decreased antagonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex suggests diminished receptor signaling and may be linked to corresponding neuronal changes detected previously in these depressed subjects. PMID:19215942

Stockmeier, Craig A.; Howley, Eimear; Shi, Xiaochun; Sobanska, Anna; Clarke, Gerard; Friedman, Lee; Rajkowska, Grazyna



Structural insights into competitive antagonism in NMDA receptors  

PubMed Central

Summary There has been a great level of enthusiasm to down-regulate overactive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors to protect neurons from excitotoxicity. NMDA receptors play pivotal roles in basic brain development and functions as well as in neurological disorders and diseases. However, mechanistic understanding of antagonism in NMDA receptors is limited due to complete lack of antagonist-bound structures for the l-glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits. Here we report the crystal structures of GluN1/GluN2A NMDA receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD) heterodimers in complex with GluN1- and GluN2-targeting antagonists. The crystal structures reveal that the antagonists, D-(?)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5) and 1-(Phenanthrene-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PPDA), have discrete binding modes and mechanisms for opening of the bilobed architecture of GluN2A LBD compared to the agonist-bound form. The current study shows distinct ways by which the conformations of NMDA receptor LBDs may be controlled and coupled to receptor inhibition and provides possible strategies to develop therapeutic compounds with higher subtype-specificity. PMID:24462099

Jespersen, Annie; Tajima, Nami; Fernandez-Cuervo, Gabriela; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel C.; Furukawa, Hiro



Substance P and glutamate receptor antagonists improve the anti-arthritic actions of dexamethasone in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Current single drug treatments for rheumatoid arthritis have problems of limited efficacy and/or high toxicity. This study investigates the benefits of individual and combined treatments with dexamethasone and substance P and glutamate receptor antagonists in a rat model of arthritis. Experimental approach: Arthritis was induced in rats by unilateral intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Separate groups of rats were subjected to the following treatments 15 min before induction of arthritis: (i) control with no drug treatment; (ii) single intra-articular injection of a NK1 receptor antagonist RP67580; (iii) single intra-articular injection of a NMDA receptor antagonist AP7 plus a non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX; (iv) daily oral dexamethasone; and (v) combined treatment with dexamethasone and all of the above receptor antagonists. Knee joint allodynia, swelling, hyperaemia and histological changes were examined over a period of 7 days. Key results: Treatment with dexamethasone suppressed joint swelling, hyperaemia and histological changes that include polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, synovial tissue proliferation and cartilage erosion in the arthritic rat knees. Treatment with RP67580 or AP7 plus CNQX did not attenuate hyperaemia or histological changes, but reduced joint allodynia and swelling. Co-administration of dexamethasone with these receptor antagonists produced greater inhibition on joint allodynia and swelling than their individual effects. Conclusions and implications: The data suggest substance P and glutamate contribute to arthritic pain and joint swelling. The efficacy of dexamethasone in reducing arthritic pain and joint swelling can be improved by co-administration of substance P and glutamate receptor antagonists. PMID:20128799

Lam, Francis FY; Ng, Ethel SK



Effects of AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, on rat hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM To investigate effect o f losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, on hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4; and to determine whether or not AT1 receptors are expressed on hepatic stellate cells. METHODS AND RESULTS Fifty male Sprague- Dawley rats, weighing (180 ± 20) g, were randomized into five groups (control group, model group, and three los artan treated groups), in

Hong Shan Wei; Ding Guo Li; Han Ming Lu; Yu Tao Zhan; Zhi Rong Wang; Xin Huang; Jing Zhang; Lin Cheng; Qin Fang Xu



Sigma Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Human Lens Cell Growth and Induce Pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The expression of the Sigma 1 receptor and the ability of receptor antagonists to inhibit growth and induce pigment formation were investigated in human lens epithelial cells. METHODS. Capsular bags were formed for experimental pur- poses by performing sham cataract operations on donor lenses. The resultant bags were cultured in Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM) alone or supplemented with

Lixin Wang; Alan R. Prescott; Barbara A. Spruce; Julie Sanderson; George Duncan



Control of gastric acid with high dose H2-receptor antagonists after omeprazole failure: report of two cases.  


Successful omeprazole therapy in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) refractory to treatment with H2-receptor antagonists has often been reported. In contrast, successful treatment of GER by H2-receptor antagonists in patients resistant to the acid-suppressing effects of omeprazole is rarely reported. We describe two patients who demonstrated therapeutic responses to high dose H2-receptor antagonists after high dose omeprazole failed to suppress gastric acidity and GER. PMID:7572913

Leite, L P; Just, R J; Castell, D O; Lagerström, P O



The pharmacological properties of a novel MCH1 receptor antagonist isolated from combinatorial libraries  

PubMed Central

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide that exhibits potent orexigenic activity. In rodents, it exerts its actions by interacting with one receptor, MCH1 receptor which is expressed in many parts of the central nervous system (CNS). To study the physiological implications of the MCH system, we need to be able to block it locally and acutely. This necessitates the use of MCH1 receptor antagonists. While MCH1 receptor antagonists have been previously reported, they are mainly not accessible to academic research. We apply here a strategy that leads to the isolation of a high affinity and selective MCH1 receptor antagonist amenable to in vivo analyses without further chemical modifications. This antagonist, TPI 1361-17, was identified through the screening of multiple non-peptide positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL) totaling more than eight hundred thousand compounds in conditions that allow for the identification of only high-affinity compounds. TPI 1361-17 exhibited an IC50 value of 6.1 nM for inhibition of 1 nM MCH-induced Ca2+ mobilization and completely displaced the binding of [125I] MCH to rat MCH1 receptor. TPI 1361-17 was found specific, having no affinity for a variety of other G-protein coupled receptors and channels. TPI 1361-17 was found active in vivo since it blocked MCH-induced food intake by 75 %. Our results indicate that TPI 1361-17 is a novel and selective MCH1 receptor antagonist and is an effective tool to study the physiological functions of the MCH system. These results also illustrate the successful application of combinatorial library screening to identify specific surrogate antagonists in an academic setting. PMID:19041642

Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Chung, Shinjae; Dooley, Colette T.; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Chunying; Saito, Yumiko; Clark, Stewart D; Houghten, Richard A.; Civelli, Olivier



Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin



Tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Tachykinin NK2 receptors are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of both laboratory animals and humans. Experimental data indicate a role for these receptors in the regulation of intestinal motor functions (both excitatory and inhibitory), secretions, inflammation and visceral sensitivity. In particular, NK2 receptor stimulation inhibits intestinal motility by activating sympathetic extrinsic pathways or NANC intramural inhibitory components, whereas a modulatory effect on cholinergic nerves or a direct effect on smooth muscle account for the NK2 receptor-mediated increase in intestinal motility. Accordingly, selective NK2 receptor antagonists can reactivate inhibited motility or decrease inflammation- or stress-associated hypermotility. Intraluminal secretion of water is increased by NK2 receptor agonists via a direct effect on epithelial cells, and this mechanism is active in models of diarrhoea since selective antagonists reverse the increase in faecal water content in these models. Hyperalgesia in response to intraluminal volume signals is possibly mediated through the stimulation of NK2 receptors located on peripheral branches of primary afferent neurones. NK2 receptor antagonists reduce the hyper-responsiveness that occurs following intestinal inflammation or application of stressful stimuli to animals. Likewise, NK2 receptor antagonists reduce intestinal tissue damage induced by chemical irritation of the intestinal wall or lumen. In healthy volunteers, the selective NK2 antagonist nepadutant reduced the motility-stimulating effects and irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms triggered by intravenous infusion of neurokinin A, and displayed other characteristics that could support its use in patients. It is concluded that blockade of peripheral tachykinin NK2 receptors should be considered as a viable mechanism for decreasing the painful symptoms and altered bowel habits of irritable bowel syndrome patients. PMID:15037522

Lecci, Alessandro; Capriati, Angela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto



Muscarinic receptor antagonists, from folklore to pharmacology; finding drugs that actually work in asthma and COPD  

PubMed Central

In the lungs, parasympathetic nerves provide the dominant control of airway smooth muscle with release of acetylcholine onto M3 muscarinic receptors. Treatment of airway disease with anticholinergic drugs that block muscarinic receptors began over 2000 years ago. Pharmacologic data all indicated that antimuscarinic drugs should be highly effective in asthma but clinical results were mixed. Thus, with the discovery of effective ?-adrenergic receptor agonists the use of muscarinic antagonists declined. Lack of effectiveness of muscarinic antagonists is due to a variety of factors including unwanted side effects (ranging from dry mouth to coma) and the discovery of additional muscarinic receptor subtypes in the lungs with sometimes competing effects. Perhaps the most important problem is ineffective dosing due to poorly understood differences between routes of administration and no effective way of testing whether antagonists block receptors stimulated physiologically by acetylcholine. Newer muscarinic receptor antagonists are being developed that address the problems of side effects and receptor selectivity that appear to be quite promising in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit PMID:21198547

Moulton, Bart C; Fryer, Allison D



CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonists: recent advances and potential uses in gastric secretory disorders.  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) and the structurally related peptide, gastrin, have numerous effects on tissues in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies show these effect are mediated by a CCKA and CCKB receptor. Knowledge of the physiological role and role of CCKB receptors in pathologic processes has been particularly limited by the availability of selective, potent receptor antagonists. Recently, new members of five different classes of non-peptide CCKB receptor antagonists are reported and are reviewed briefly. these include compounds isolated from Streptomyces (tetronothiodin, virginiamycin analogues), ureido-acetamide analogues (RP 69758, RP 72540, RP 73870), newer benzodiazepine analogues (L-368,935, L-740,093, YM022), pyrazolidimine analogues (LY 262,691) and glutamic acid analogues (CR2194). Many of these compounds have greater than 1000-fold selectivity for the CCKB over the CCKA receptor and some have greater than 10,000-fold selectivity. The pharmacology and effects of CCKB receptor antagonists on gastric acid secretion is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, the possible clinical usefulness of CCKB receptor antagonists in treating disorders of gastric acid secretion, in inhibiting the trophic effects of gastrin and in other clinical conditions is briefly discussed. PMID:9165693

Jensen, R. T.



Neuropeptide Y1 and Y5 Receptor Antagonists as Potential Anti-Obesity Drugs. Current Status.  


Among the pharmacological strategies to treat obesity, two subtypes of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor family have drawn the attention of several research groups in the effort to develop efficacious and safe anti-obesity drugs. In the last two decades, different classes of non-peptide compounds exhibiting significant anti-orexigenic responses in NPY knockout and NPY receptor deficient mice have been reported as NPY Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists. At the beginning of this century, NPY receptor antagonists were considered promising anti-obesity compounds that modulate food intake and body weight in obese patients; however, only a few antagonists are currently being evaluated in clinical trials because there are other neuronal pathways that maintain homeostasis of food intake and body weight in animals, making the design of molecules with more affinity and selectivity for the NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors necessary. The present review is a compendium of the reports that account for the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of non-peptide compounds that selectively bind to NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors. This review presents a historic retrospective of those antagonists that have shown a high affinity and selectivity for these two NPY receptors in preclinical and clinical trials, highlighting key structural features that display more affinity, selectivity, and better pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:25355591

Moreno-Herrera, Antonio; García, Abraham; Palos, Isidro; Rivera, Gildardo



Fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 are muscarinic receptor antagonists: intravital visualization of receptor occupancy.  


The fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 have been used to visualize the endocytic and exocytic processes involved in neurotransmission in a variety of central and peripheral nerve preparations. Their utility is limited to some extent by a poorly understood vesicular-independent labelling of cells and tissues. We show here that one likely cause of this troublesome background labelling is that FM1-43 and FM2-10 are selective and competitive antagonists at both cloned and endogenously expressed muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In radioligand binding studies, FM1-43 and FM2-10 bound with moderate affinity (23-220 nM) to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing cloned human muscarinic receptors (M1-M5). In functional studies in vitro, FM1-43 and FM2-10 inhibited electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine-induced cholinergic contractions of guinea-pig tracheal strips (IC50: FM1-43, 0.4 +/- 0.1; FM2-10, 1.6 +/- 0.1 microM; concentration of antagonist producing a 2-fold leftward shift in the acetylcholine concentration-response curve (Kb): FM1-43, 0.3 +/- 0.1; FM2-10, 15.8 +/- 10.1 microM). Neither compound inhibited EFS-evoked, non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve-mediated relaxations or contractions of the airways, or contractions mediated by histamine H1 receptor or tachykinin NK2 receptor activation. Incubating freshly excised tracheal whole-mount preparations with 5 microM FM1-43 resulted in intense fluorescence labelling of the smooth muscle that was reduced by up to 90% in the presence of selective M2 and M3 receptor antagonists. The potency of the FM dyes as muscarinic receptor antagonists is within the concentration range used to study vesicular cycling at nerve terminals. Given that muscarinic receptors play a key role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release from a variety of neurones, the anticholinergic properties of FM dyes may have important implications when studying vesicular events in the nervous system. In addition, these dyes may provide a novel tool for visualizing muscarinic receptor occupancy in living tissue or cell preparations. PMID:16728454

Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Burman, Miriam; Palovich, Michael; Belmonte, Kristen E; Canning, Brendan J



A peripherally selective diphenyl purine antagonist of the CB1 receptor  

PubMed Central

Antagonists of the CB1 receptor can be useful in the treatment of several diseases including obesity, diabetes, and liver disease. However, to date, the only clinically approved CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was withdrawn due to adverse CNS related side effects such as depression and suicidal ideation. Since rimonabant’s withdrawal, several groups have begun pursuing peripherally selective CB1 antagonists. These compounds are expected to be devoid of undesirable CNS related effects but maintain efficacy through antagonism of peripherally expressed CB1 receptors within target tissues. Reported here are our latest results toward development of a peripherally selective analog of the diphenyl purine CB1 antagonist otenabant 1. Compound 9 (N-{1-[8-(2-Chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}pentanamide) is a potent, orally absorbed antagonist of the CB1 receptor that is >50-fold selective for CB1 over CB2, highly selective for the periphery in a rodent model, and without efficacy in a series of in vivo assays designed to evaluate its ability to mitigate the central effects of ?9-THC through the CB1 receptor. PMID:24041123

Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Marusich, Julie A.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Seltzman, Herbert; Maitra, Rangan



5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2?mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5?mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF.

Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Luitel, Himal; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo



Proconvulsant action of two GABA(B) receptor antagonists is age-dependent.  


Antagonists of GABA(B) receptors are expected to have proconvulsant action also in developing brain. Two antagonists (CGP55845 and CGP46381) were tested in a model of cortical epileptic afterdischarges (ADs) in 12-, 18- and 25-day-old rat pups with implanted electrodes. CGP55845 was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and the results demonstrated marked proconvulsant action of this solvent which masked possible action of the antagonist. Water soluble antagonist CGP46381 led to marked potentiation of ADs in 12-day-old animals, its action decreased with age, it was negligible in 25-day-old rats. Our results demonstrated important inhibitory role of GABA(B) receptors at very early stages of maturation. PMID:24329690

Mareš, P



Site-directed mutagenesis of CC chemokine receptor 1 reveals the mechanism of action of UCB 35625, a small molecule chemokine receptor antagonist.  


The chemokine receptor CCR1 and its principal ligand, CCL3/MIP-1alpha, have been implicated in the pathology of several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and asthma. As such, these molecules are the focus of much research with the ultimate aim of developing novel therapies. We have described previously a non-competitive small molecule antagonist of CCR1 (UCB 35625), which we hypothesized interacted with amino acids located within the receptor transmembrane (TM) helices (Sabroe, I., Peck, M. J., Jan Van Keulen, B., Jorritsma, A., Simmons, G., Clapham, P. R., Williams, T. J., and Pease, J. E. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 25985-25992). Here we describe an approach to identifying the mechanism by which the molecule antagonizes CCR1. Thirty-three point mutants of CCR1 were expressed transiently in L1.2 cells, and the cells were assessed for their capacity to migrate in response to CCL3 in the presence or absence of UCB 35625. Cells expressing the mutant constructs Y41A (TM helix 1, or TM1), Y113A (TM3), and E287A (TM7) were responsive to CCL3 but resistant to the antagonist, consistent with a role for the TM helices in CCR1 interactions with UCB 35625. Subsequent molecular modeling successfully docked the compound with CCR1 and suggests that the antagonist ligates TM1, 2, and 7 of CCR1 and severely impedes access to TM2 and TM3, a region thought to be perturbed by the chemokine amino terminus during the process of receptor activation. Insights into the mechanism of action of these compounds may facilitate the development of more potent antagonists that show promise as future therapeutic agents in the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:15548526

de Mendonça, Filipa Lopes; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Phillips, Rhian M; Saldanha, José W; Williams, Timothy J; Pease, James E



Mechanism of the AntiEmetic Activity of 5HT3 Receptor Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ondansetron, a potent and highly selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, prevents emesis following chemotherapy by antagonising the action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferent neurones that innervate the gastrointestinal tract and 5-HT3 receptors in the central vomiting system. Evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces the release of 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine. This stimulates vagal afferent

M. B. Tyers; A. J. Freeman



Context-Specific Reversal of Cocaine Sensitization by the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonist Rimonabant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is implicated in the rewarding properties of many drugs of abuse, including cocaine. While CB1 receptor involvement in the acute rewarding properties of cocaine is controversial, CB1 antagonists such as SR141716 (rimonabant) have clearly been found to prevent cue- and cocaine-elicited reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in rodents. Here we demonstrate the novel involvement of CB1 receptors

Gregory L Gerdeman; Jason B Schechter; Edward D French



An Antagonistic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Variant Inhibits VEGF-Stimulated Receptor Autophosphorylation and Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen with a unique specificity for endothelial cells and a key mediator of aberrant endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in a variety of human pathological situations, such as tumor angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. VEGF is a symmetric homodimeric molecule with two receptor binding interfaces lying on each pole of the molecule. Herein we report on the construction and recombinant expression of an asymmetric heterodimeric VEGF variant with an intact receptor binding interface at one pole and a mutant receptor binding interface at the second pole of the dimer. This VEGF variant binds to VEGF receptors but fails to induce receptor activation. In competition experiments, the heterodimeric VEGF variant antagonizes VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of endothelial cells. A 15-fold excess of the heterodimer was sufficient to inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 50%, and a 100-fold excess resulted in an almost complete inhibition. By using a rational approach that is based on the structure of VEGF, we have shown the feasibility to construct a VEGF variant that acts as an VEGF antagonist.

Siemeister, Gerhard; Schirner, Michael; Reusch, Petra; Barleon, Bernhard; Marme, Dieter; Martiny-Baron, Georg



Novel trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidines as mu opioid receptor antagonists with improved opioid receptor selectivity profiles.  


A series of N-substituted trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidines, mu opioid receptor antagonists, analogs of alvimopan, were prepared using solid phase methodology. This study led to the identification of a highly selective mu opioid receptor antagonist, which interacts selectively with mu peripheral receptors. PMID:18313920

Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Barker, William M; Belanger, Serge; Wiant, Daniel D; Conway-James, Nathalie C; Cassel, Joel A; O'Neill, Timothy J; Little, Patrick J; DeHaven, Robert N; DeHaven-Hudkins, Diane L; Dolle, Roland E



Preclinical anticonvulsant and neuroprotective profile of 8319, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist  

SciTech Connect

8319, ((+-)-2-Amino-N-ethyl-alpha- (3-methyl-2-thienyl) benzeneethanamine 2HCl), is a novel compound with the profile of a non-competitive NMDA antagonist. The compound displaced (3H) TCP with high affinity (IC50 = 43 nM), but was inactive at the NMDA, benzodiazepine and GABA sites; in vivo, 8319 showed good efficacy as an anticonvulsant and potential neuroprotective agent. It blocked seizures induced by NMDLA, supramaximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin, and thiosemicarbazide with ED50's of 1-20 mg/kg ip. As a neuroprotective agent, 8319 (30-100 mg/kg sc) prevented the death of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells induced by direct injection of 20 nmol NMDA. At 15 mg/kg ip, the compound was also effective against hippocampal neuronal necrosis induced via bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries in gerbils. In summary, 8319 is a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with good anticonvulsant activity and may possess neuroprotective properties useful in the treatment of brain ischemia.

Fielding, S.; Wilker, J.C.; Chernack, J.; Ramirez, V.; Wilmot, C.A.; Martin, L.L.; Payack, J.F.; Cornfeldt, M.L.; Rudolphi, K.A.; Rush, D.K. (Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))



A novel class of 5HT 2a receptor antagonists: Aryl aminoguanidines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local delivery of serotonin (5-HT) produces a rapid edematous response in soft tissues via increased fluid extravasation which is prevented by 5-HT2 antagonists such as ketanserin or mianserin. Here we report the effects of a new class of aminoguanidine 5-HT2 antagonists, with relative selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors which are potent inhibitors of 5-HT-induced paw edema in the rat. Radioligand binding

Henry U. Bryant; David L. Nelson; Donald Button; Harlan W. Cole; Melvyn B. Baez; Virginia L. Lucaites; David B. Wainscott; Cecilia Whitesitt; Jon Reel; Richard Simon; Gary A. Koppel



Biochemical and pharmacological activities of SR 144190, a new potent non-peptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist.  


(R)-3-(1-[2-(4-benzoyl-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-morpholin-2-yl)- ethyl]-4-phenylpiperidin-4-yl)-1-dimethylurea (SR 144190) is a new non-peptide antagonist of tachykinin NK2 receptors. SR 144190 potently and selectively inhibited neurokinin A binding to NK2 receptors from various species, including humans. In in vitro functional assays, it was a potent, selective and competitive antagonist of NK2 receptors with apparent affinities (pA2 values) between 9.08 and 10.10. In vivo, SR 144190 blocked [Nle10]neurokinin A-(4-10)-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs (ID50 = 21 micrograms kg-1 i.v. and 250 micrograms kg-1 i.d.) and [beta Ala8]neurokinin A-(4-10)-induced urinary bladder contraction in rats (ID50 = 11 micrograms kg-1 i.v. and 190 micrograms kg-1 i.d.). It prevented citric acid-induced cough and airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine in guinea pigs (1 mg kg-1 i.p.) as well as castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats (0.01-10 micrograms kg-1 s.c. or p.o). Finally, it blocked the turning behaviour induced by intrastriatal injections of [Nle10]neurokinin A-(4-10) in mice (ID50 = 3 micrograms kg-1 i.v. and 16 micrograms kg-1 p.o.). PMID:9413022

Emonds-Alt, X; Advenier, C; Cognon, C; Croci, T; Daoui, S; Ducoux, J P; Landi, M; Naline, E; Neliat, G; Poncelet, M; Proietto, V; Van Broeck, D; Vilain, P; Soubrié, P; Le Fur, G; Maffrand, J P; Brelière, J C



LF 16.0335, a novel potent and selective nonpeptide antagonist of the human bradykinin B2 receptor  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, we describe the in vitro pharmacological properties of LF 16.0335 (1-[[3-[(2,4-dimethylquinolin-8-yl)oxymethyl]-2,4-dichloro-phenyl]sulphonyl]?-2(S)?-?[[4?-[4-(aminoiminomethyl)phenylcarbonyl]piperazin-1-yl]carbonyl]pyrrolidine), a novel and potent nonpeptide antagonist of the human bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor.LF 16.0335 displaced [3H]-BK binding to membrane preparations from CHO cells expressing the cloned human B2 receptor, INT 407 cells and human umbilical vein with Ki values of 0.84±0.39?nM, 1.26±0.68?nM and 2.34±0.36?nM, respectively.In saturation binding studies performed in INT 407 cell membranes in the presence or absence of LF 16.0335, Bmax values of [3H]-BK were not significantly changed suggesting that LF 16.0335 behaves as a competitive antagonist.LF 16.0335 had no affinity for the cloned human kinin B1 receptor stably expressed in 293 cells. In addition, this compound at 1??M did not significantly bind to a range of 40 different membrane receptors and eight ion channels except muscarinic M2 and M1 receptors for which an IC50 value of 0.9 and 1??M was obtained.BK stimulates in a concentration-dependent manner phosphoinositosides (IPs) production in cultured INT 407 cells. Concentration-response-curves to BK were shifted to the right in the presence of LF 16.0335 (0.1??M) without reduction of the maximum. LF 16.0335 inhibited the concentration-contraction curve to BK in the human umbilical vein giving a pA2 value of 8.30±0.30 with a Schild plot slope that was not different from unity.These results demonstrate that LF 16.0335 is a potent, selective and competitive antagonist of the human bradykinin B2 receptor. PMID:9786510

Pruneau, Didier; Luccarini, Jean-Michel; Fouchet, Chantal; Defrêne, Evelyne; Franck, Rose-Marie; Loillier, Bruno; Duclos, Hervé; Robert, Claude; Cremers, Béatrice; Bélichard, Pierre; Paquet, Jean-Luc



Further studies at neuropeptide S position 5: discovery of novel neuropeptide S receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptide S (NPS) regulates various biological functions by activating the NPS receptor (NPSR). Previous studies demonstrated that the substitution of Gly5 with D-amino acids generates NPSR antagonists. Eleven [D-Xaa5]NPS derivatives were synthesized and pharmacologically tested measuring [Ca2+]i in HEK293mNPSR cells. The present results confirmed that the [D-Xaa5] substitution promotes antagonist activity with potency inversely related to the side chain size and allowed to identify the novel potent NPSR peptide antagonist [tBu-D-Gly5]NPS. PMID:19473027

Guerrini, Remo; Camarda, Valeria; Trapella, Claudio; Calo’, Girolamo; Rizzi, Anna; Ruzza, Chiara; Fiorini, Stella; Marzola, Erika; Reinscheid, Rainer K.; Regoli, Domenico; Salvadori, Severo



GABAA Receptor Partial Agonists and Antagonists: Structure, Binding Mode, and Pharmacology.  


A high degree of structural heterogeneity of the GABAA receptors (GABAARs) has been revealed and is reflected in multiple receptor subtypes. The subunit composition of GABAAR subtypes is believed to determine their localization relative to the synapses and adapt their functional properties to the local temporal pattern of GABA impact, enabling phasic or tonic inhibition. Specific GABAAR antagonists are essential tools for physiological and pharmacological elucidation of the different type of GABAAR inhibition. However, distinct selectivity among the receptor subtypes (populations) has been shown for only a few orthosteric ligands. Still, these examples show that it is indeed possible to obtain orthosteric subtype selectivity and they serve as models for further development in the orthosteric GABAAR ligand area. This review presents the very few existing structural classes of orthosteric GABAAR antagonists and describes the development of potent antagonists from partial agonists originally derived from the potent GABAAR agonist muscimol. In this process, several heterocyclic aromatic systems have been used in combination with structural models in order to map the orthosteric binding site and to reveal structural details to be used for obtaining potency and subtype selectivity. The challenges connected to functional characterization of orthosteric GABAAR partial agonists and antagonists, especially with regard to GABAAR stoichiometry and alternative binding sites are discussed. GABAAR antagonists have been essential in defining the tonic current but both remaining issues concerning the GABAARs involved and the therapeutic possibilities of modulating tonic inhibition underline the need for GABAAR antagonists with improved selectivity. PMID:25600372

Krall, Jacob; Balle, Thomas; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Sørensen, Troels E; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Kristiansen, Uffe; Frølund, Bente



MEN16132, a novel potent and selective nonpeptide antagonist for the human bradykinin B2 receptor. In vitro pharmacology and molecular characterization.  


The pharmacological characterization of the novel nonpeptide antagonist for the B2 receptor, namely MEN16132 (4-(S)-Amino-5-(4-{4-[2,4-dichloro-3-(2,4-dimethyl-8-quinolyloxymethyl)phenylsulfonamido]-tetrahydro-2H-4-pyranylcarbonyl}piperazino)-5-oxopentyl](trimethyl)ammonium chloride hydrochloride) is presented. The affinity of MEN16132 for the bradykinin B2 receptor has been investigated by means of competition studies at [3H]bradykinin binding to membranes prepared from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human bradykinin B2 receptor (pKi 10.5), human lung fibroblasts (pKi 10.5), guinea pig airways (pKi 10.0), guinea pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle (pKi 10.2), or guinea pig cultured colonic myocytes (pKi 10.3). In all assays MEN16132 was as potent as the peptide antagonist Icatibant, and from 3- to 100-fold more potent than the reference nonpeptide antagonists FR173657 or LF16-0687. The selectivity for the bradykinin B2 receptor was checked at the human bradykinin B1 receptor (pKi<5), and at a panel of 26 different receptors and channels. The antagonist potency was measured in functional assays, i.e., in blocking the bradykinin induced inositolphosphates (IP) accumulation at the human (CHO: pKB 10.3) and guinea pig (colonic myocytes: pKB 10.3) B2 receptor, or in antagonizing the bradykinin induced contractile responses in human (detrusor smooth muscle: pKB 9.9) and guinea pig (ileum longitudinal smooth muscle: pKB 10.1) tissues. In both functional assay types MEN16132 exerted a different antagonist pattern, i.e., surmountable at the human and insurmountable at the guinea pig bradykinin B2 receptors. Moreover, the receptor determinants important for the high affinity interaction of MEN16132 with the human bradykinin B2 receptor were investigated by means of radioligand binding studies performed at 24 point-mutated receptors. The results obtained revealed that residues in transmembrane segment 2 (W86A), 3 (I110A), 6 (W256A), and 7 (Y295A, Y295F but not much Y295W), were crucial for the high affinity of MEN16132. In conclusion, MEN16132 is a new, potent, and selective nonpeptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. PMID:16324696

Cucchi, Paola; Meini, Stefania; Bressan, Alessandro; Catalani, Claudio; Bellucci, Francesca; Santicioli, Paolo; Lecci, Alessandro; Faiella, Angela; Rotondaro, Luigi; Giuliani, Sandro; Giolitti, Alessandro; Quartara, Laura; Maggi, Carlo Alberto



Orexin 1 receptor antagonists in compulsive behavior and anxiety: possible therapeutic use  

PubMed Central

Fifteen years after the discovery of hypocretin/orexin a large body of evidence has been collected supporting its critical role in the modulation of several regulatory physiological functions. While reduced levels of hypocretin/orexin were initially associated with narcolepsy, increased levels have been linked in recent years to pathological states of hypervigilance and, in particular, to insomnia. The filing to FDA of the dual-activity orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) suvorexant for the indication of insomnia further corroborates the robustness of such evidences. However, as excessive vigilance is also typical of anxiety and panic episodes, as well as of abstinence and craving in substance misuse disorders. In this review we briefly discuss the evidence supporting the development of hypocretin/orexin receptor 1 (OX1) antagonists for these indications. Experiments using the OX1 antagonist SB-334867 and mutant mice have involved the OX1 receptor in mediating the compulsive reinstatement of drug seeking for ethanol, nicotine, cocaine, cannabinoids and morphine. More recently, data have been generated with the novel selective OX1 antagonists GSK1059865 and ACT-335827 on behavioral and cardiovascular response to stressors and panic-inducing agents in animals. Concluding, while waiting for pharmacologic data to become available in humans, risks and benefits for the development of an OX1 receptor antagonist for Binge Eating and Anxiety Disorders are discussed. PMID:24592206

Merlo Pich, Emilio; Melotto, Sergio



Pharmacological profiles of a novel opioid receptor-like1 (ORL1) receptor antagonist, JTC-801  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological effects of a novel opioid receptor-like1 (ORL1) receptor antagonist, [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxymethyl) benzamide monohydrochloride] (JTC-801), were examined in in vitro and in vivo. JTC-801 inhibited the binding of [3H]-nociceptin to human ORL1 receptors expressed in HeLa cells with a Ki value of 44.5?nM. JTC-801 completely antagonized the suppression of nociceptin on forskolin-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP (IC50?:?2.58??M) using ORL1 receptor expressing HeLa cells in vitro. In in vivo, when given intravenously at dosages of 0.01?mg?kg?1 and above, or orally at dosages 1?mg?kg?1 and above, JTC-801 antagonized the nociceptin-induced allodynia in mice. Effects of JTC-801 on various nociceptive models were examined. In mouse hot-plate test, JTC-801 prolonged escape response latency (ERL) to exposed heat stimulus with minimum effective doses (MED) of 0.01?mg?kg?1 by i.v. or 1?mg?kg?1 by p.o. In the rat formalin test, JTC-801 reduced both the first and second phases of the nociceptive response with MED of 0.01?mg?kg?1 by i.v. administration or 1?mg?kg?1 by p.o. administration. This anti-nociceptive action of JTC-801 was not inhibited by naloxone (10?mg?kg?1, s.c.). We have demonstrated that JTC-801 antagonizes the ORL1 receptor response, and that JTC-801 has efficacious and potent anti-nociceptive effects in acute pain animal models not only by intravenous injection but also oral administration. These results suggest that JTC-801 may represent a new class of analgesics. PMID:11815367

Yamada, Hideki; Nakamoto, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Yasunori; Ito, Takao; Aisaka, Kazuo



BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Orexin / hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist reduces heroin  

E-print Network

of addiction-related behaviors. In a cocaine self-administration paradigm in rats, the OX1R antagonist SB University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Keywords: addiction, opiates, rats, reinstatement, relapse Abstract The orexin / hypocretin system is involved in several addiction-related behaviors. In the present

Aston-Jones, Gary


Virtual screening to identify novel antagonists for the G protein-coupled NK3 receptor.  


The NK(3) subtype of tachykinin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that is a potential therapeutic target for several neurological diseases, including schizophrenia. In this study, we have screened compound databases for novel NK(3) receptor antagonists using a virtual screening protocol of similarity analysis. The lead compound for this study was the potent NK(3) antagonist talnetant. Compounds of the quinoline type found in the virtual screen were additionally evaluated in a comparative molecular field analysis model to predict activity a priori to testing in vitro. Selected members of this latter set were tested for their ability to inhibit ligand binding to the NK(3) receptor as well as to inhibit senktide-induced calcium responses in cells expressing the human NK(3) receptor. Two novel compounds were identified that inhibited NK(3) receptor agonist binding, with potencies in the nM range and antagonized NK(3) receptor-mediated increases in intracellular calcium. These results demonstrate the utility of similarity analysis in identifying novel antagonist ligands for neuropeptide receptors. PMID:21047106

Geldenhuys, Werner J; Kuzenko, Stephanie R; Simmons, Mark A



Three-dimensional models for beta-adrenergic receptor complexes with agonists and antagonists.  


Molecular modeling methods have been used to construct three-dimensional models for agonist and antagonist complexes with beta-adrenergic receptors. The recent rhodopsin crystal structure was used as a template in standard homology modeling methods. The rhodopsin-based homology models were assessed for agreement with experimental results for beta-adrenergic receptors, and compared with receptor models developed using de novo modeling techniques. While the de novo and homology-derived receptor models are generally quite similar, there are some localized structural differences that impact the putative ligand-binding site significantly. The de novo receptor models appear to provide much better agreement with experimental data, particularly for receptor complexes with agonist ligands. The de novo receptor models also yield some interesting and testable hypotheses for the structural basis of beta-adrenergic receptor subtype ligand selectivity. PMID:14521408

Furse, Kristina E; Lybrand, Terry P



Actions of ?2 adrenoceptor ligands at ?2A and 5HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for ?2A adrenoceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the activity of chemically diverse ?2 adrenoceptor ligands at recombinant human (h) and native rat (r) ?2A adrenoceptors as compared with 5-HT1A receptors. First, in competition binding experiments at h?2A and h5-HT1A receptors expressed in CHO cells, several compounds, including the antagonists 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), (?)-idazoxan,\\u000a benalfocin (SKF 86466), yohimbine and RX 821,002, displayed preference for h?2A versus

Adrian Newman-Tancredi; Jean-Paul Nicolas; Valérie Audinot; Samantha Gavaudan; Laurence Verrièle; Manuelle Touzard; Christine Chaput; Nelly Richard; Mark J. Millan



Activity of Androgen Receptor Antagonist Bicalutamide in Prostate Cancer Cells Is Independent of NCoR and SMRT Corepressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which androgen receptor (AR) antago- nists inhibit AR activity, and how their antagonist activity may be abrogated in prostate cancer that progresses after androgen deprivation therapy, are not clear. Recent studies show that AR antagonists (including the clinically used drug bicalutamide) can enhance AR recruitment of corepressor proteins (nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoid

Myles C. Hodgson; Inna Astapova; Anthony N. Hollenberg



Behavioral and Pharmacological Validation of the Gerbil Forced-Swim Test: Effects of Neurokinin1 Receptor Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have suggested that neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential as novel antidepressant drugs. To test these compounds preclinically, gerbils have become one of the preferred species in that they demonstrate close NK1 receptor homology with humans and bind NK1 antagonists with higher affinity than rats and mice. The intent of the present study was to determine

Tanya L Wallace-Boone; Amy E Newton; Robert N Wright; Nicholas J Lodge; John F McElroy



Effects of tachykinin receptor agonists and antagonists on the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus.  


1. Vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus produced a triphasic tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive contractile response. The third phase, which was resistant to ganglion blocking drugs, was selectively abolished by capsaicin, suggesting the involvement of one or more neuropeptides released from afferent neurons. Receptors on cholinergic neurons were subsequently activated because the response was atropine sensitive. Contractile responses resulting from exogenous substance P were abolished by atropine and TTX and enhanced by physostigmine. These findings suggest that the third phase may be mediated by the action of a substance P-like neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings that subsequently activated cholinergic neurons. 2. The tachykinin receptors in the body of the guinea-pig oesophagus were characterized by determining the relative agonist potencies of natural tachykinins as well as tachykinin receptor-selective analogues. Antagonist affinities were also determined. The results indicated the presence of both NK2 and NK3 receptors. In addition, the effects of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors (captopril, thiorphan and amastatin) on responses to various tachykinins and synthetic analogues were determined. The results indicate that one or more peptidases are present in this preparation. 3. Experiments using various tachykinin receptor antagonists were performed to determine whether the activation of tachykinin receptors played a role in the mediation of the third phase of the response to vagal nerve stimulation. While this response was unaffected by NK1 and NK2 receptor-selective antagonists, it was only partially inhibited (23%) by the NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801. Thus, in the guinea-pig oesophagus, it appears that NK3 receptors play only a minor role in mediating a contractile response when afferent neurons are excited by vagal nerve stimulation. PMID:11071313

Kerr, K P



Discovery and development of orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutics for insomnia.  


Insomnia persistently affects the quality and quantity of sleep. Currently approved treatments for insomnia primarily target ?-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptor signalling and include benzodiazepines and GABA-A receptor modulators. These drugs are used to address this sleep disorder, but have the potential for side effects such as tolerance and dependence, making them less attractive as maintenance therapy. Forward and reverse genetic approaches in animals have implicated orexin signalling (also referred to as hypocretin signalling) in the control of vigilance and sleep/wake states. Screening for orexin receptor antagonists using in vitro and in vivo methods in animals has identified compounds that block one or other of the orexin receptors (single or dual orexin receptor antagonists [SORAs and DORAs], respectively) in animals and humans. SORAs have primarily been used as probes to further elucidate the roles of the individual orexin receptors, while a number of DORAs have progressed to clinical development as pharmaceutical candidates for insomnia. The DORA almorexant demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant sleep parameters in animal models and in patients with insomnia but its development was halted. SB-649868 and suvorexant have demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in Phase II and III trials respectively. Furthermore, suvorexant is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the publication of recent non-clinical and clinical data, orexin receptor antagonists potentially represent a targeted, effective and well-tolerated new class of medications for insomnia. PMID:23731216

Winrow, C J; Renger, J J



Aldosterone receptor antagonists: Biology and novel therapeutic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dysregulation of the aldosterone system has been involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial\\u000a failure and, partially, essential hypertension. In humans and in rat models, aldosterone action induces heart remodeling and\\u000a interstitial and perivascular myocardial fibrosis. Therefore, a rationale for using aldosterone antagonists (ARAs) of the\\u000a spironolactone family, which have been available for decades for the treatment

Paolo Magni; Marcella Motta



beta-Adrenoceptor blockade enhances the anticonvulsant effect of glutamate receptor antagonists against maximal electroshock.  


In this study, we evaluated whether beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may modify the protective efficacy of dizocilpine (MK-801), a NMDA receptor antagonist, and 1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 52466), a non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) receptor antagonist, against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Propranolol, acebutolol, metoprolol and atenolol were used in doses that did not alter the electroconvulsive threshold. Propranolol potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of MK-801 and GYKI 52466, significantly lowering their ED(50) values from 0.38 and 15.0 to 0.15 (P<0.001) and 8.4 mg/kg (P<0.001), respectively. Similarly, metoprolol lowered the ED(50) of MK-801 and GYKI 52466 from 0.38 and 15.0 to 0.17 (P<0.05) and 11.2 mg/kg (P<0.05). Acebutolol enhanced the protective action of GYKI 52466, lowering its ED(50) value from 15.0 to 12.2 mg/kg (P<0.05), but not that of MK-801. Atenolol, not penetrating the blood-brain barrier, did not affect the anticonvulsive efficacy of MK-801 and GYKI 52466. In conclusion, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may act synergistically with excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists to inhibit generalised tonic-clonic seizures. PMID:11728427

Luchowska, E; Luchowski, P; Wielosz, M; Kleinrok, Z; Urbanska, E M



Sigma1 receptor antagonists determine the behavioral pattern of the methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective The effects of sigma receptor antagonists on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy have not been examined. We examined the effects of sigma antagonists on METH-induced stereotypy in mice. Results The administration of METH (10 mg/kg) to male ddY mice induced stereotyped behavior consisting of biting (90.1%), sniffing (4.2%), head bobbing (4.1%), and circling (1.7%) during an observation period of 1 h. Pretreatment of the mice with BMY 14802 (?-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(5-fluoro-2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinebutanol; 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), a non-specific sigma receptor antagonist, significantly increased METH-induced sniffing (19.2, 30.5, and 43.8% of total stereotypical behavior) but decreased biting (76.6, 66.9, and 49.3% of total stereotypical behavior) in a dose-dependent manner. This response was completely abolished by (+)-SKF 10,047 ([2S-(2?,6?,11R)]-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-6,11-dimethyl-3-(2-propenyl)-2,6-methano-3-benzazocin-8-ol; 4 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma1 receptor agonist, and partially by PB 28 (1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methoxy-1-naphthalen-1-yl)-n-propyl]piperazine; 1 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma2 receptor agonist. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was mimicked by BD 1047 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine; 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma1 receptor antagonist, but not by SM-21 ((±)-tropanyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)butanoate; 1 mg/kg), a putative sigma2 receptor antagonist. The BD 1047 effect on METH-induced stereotypy was also abolished completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 and partially by PB 28. The overall frequency of METH-induced stereotypical behavior was unchanged with these sigma receptor ligands, despite the alteration in particular behavioral patterns. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was unaffected by pretreatment with centrally acting histamine H1 receptor antagonists (pyrilamine or ketotifen, 10 mg/kg), suggesting that these effects are independent of histamine H1 receptor signaling systems. Conclusion In summary, modulation of central sigma1 receptors alters the pattern of METH-induced stereotypy, producing a shift from stereotypical biting to stereotypical sniffing, without affecting the overall frequency of stereotypical behavior. PMID:19052726

Kitanaka, J.; Kitanaka, N.; Tatsuta, T.; Hall, F.S.; Uhl, G.R.; Tanaka, K.; Nishiyama, N.; Morita, Y.; Takemura, M.



Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1-blockers, ARBs, sartans): similarities and differences  

PubMed Central

A survey is presented of the registered non-peptidergic angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1 blockers, ARBs, sartans) and their general properties and similarities. Accordingly, their receptor profile, pharmacokinetic and therapeutic applications are discussed. In addition, attention is paid to the individual characteristics of the AT1 blockers now available. A few components of this category offer additional potentially beneficial properties, owing to their pharmacological or metabolic characteristics. Such additional properties are critically discussed for eprosartan, losartan, telmisartan and valsartan.

van Zwieten, P.A.



SR 144528, the First Potent and Selective Antagonist of the CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on both binding and functional data, this study intro- duces SR 144528 as the first, highly potent, selective and orally active antagonist for the CB2 receptor. This compound which displays subnanomolar affinity (Ki 5 0.6 nM) for both the rat spleen and cloned human CB2 receptors has a 700-fold lower affinity (Ki 5 400 nM) for both the rat



Synthesis and pharmacology of modified amidine isoxazoline glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists.  


Selective antagonism of the platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor represents an attractive mechanism for the prevention and treatment of a number of thrombotic disease states. The antiplatelet activity of the oral GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonists DMP 754 and DMP 802 have been disclosed. In this paper, the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of potent N-substituted benzamidine isoxazolines are explored. The effect of benzamidine substitution on the duration of antiplatelet efficacy in dog is presented. PMID:11514170

Sielecki, T M; Liu, J; Mousa, S A; Racanelli, A L; Hausner, E A; Wexler, R R; Olson, R E



Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to vertebrates the involvement of glutamate and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in brain functions in insects is both poorly understood and somewhat controversial. Here, we have examined the behavioural effects of two noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine (low affinity) and MK-801 (high affinity), on learning and memory in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension

Aung Si; Paul Helliwell; Ryszard Maleszka



Inhibition of Guinea Pig Skin Allergic Reactions by Nonpeptide Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonist FR173657  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Kinins, which cause vascular permeability enhancement (VPE) through bradykinin (BK) B2 receptors, are released at allergic reaction sites; however, the role kinins play in the lesions is still unknown. To determine whether kinins contribute to allergic reactions, the effect of a potent, nonpeptide BK B2–receptor–specific antagonist, FR173657, on VPE induced in the reaction sites was investigated. Methods: Type I

Takeshi Mori; Takahisa Imamura



Adenoviral overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein increases ?-cell replication in rat pancreatic islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naturally occurring inhibitor of interleukin-1 (IL-1) action, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IRAP), binds to the type 1 IL-1 receptor but does not initiate IL-1 signal transduction. In this study, we have determined the effects of IL-1? and IRAP overexpression on adult ?-cell replication and viability. IL-1? reduced dramatically ?-cell replication in adult rat islets both at 5.5 mM (control:

N Téllez; M Montolio; M Biarnés; E Castaño; J Soler; E Montanya



Adenovirus expressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist alleviates allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is a natural inhibitor that binds to IL-1 receptor type I without inducing signal transduction. It is suggested that IL-1 is required for allergen-specific T helper type 2 cell activation and the development of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), but the immunologic effect of exogenous IL-1ra in allergic asthma remains unclear.

C-C Wang; C-L Fu; Y-H Yang; Y-C Lo; L-C Wang; Y-H Chuang; D-M Chang; B-L Chiang



Ryanodine receptor antagonists adapt NPC1 proteostasis to ameliorate lipid storage  

E-print Network

, 2012; Accepted April 9, 2012 Niemann­Pick type C disease is a lysosomal storage disorder most often in the setting of disease-causing missense alleles. INTRODUCTION Niemann­Pick type C disease is an autosomalRyanodine receptor antagonists adapt NPC1 proteostasis to ameliorate lipid storage in Niemann­Pick

Xu, Haoxing


Termination of mid-gestation pregnancy in bitches with aglepristone, a progesterone receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pregnancies were terminated in mid-gestation with aglépristone, a progesterone receptor antagonist, in 5 beagle bitches in order to determine the effects of aglépristone on plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone, the duration of the luteal phase, and the interestrous interval. In addition, the effects of aglépristone on the condition of the uterus and fetuses were examined by ultrasonography. After

S. Galac; H. S. Kooistra; J. Butinar; M. M. Bevers; S. J. Dieleman; G. Voorhout; A. C. Okkens



Improvement of memory in rodents by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 141716  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social short-term memory in rodents is based on the recognition of a juvenile by an adult conspecific when the juvenile is presented on two successive occasions. Cannabimimetics are claimed to induce memory deficits in both humans and animals. In the brain, they mainly bind to CB1 receptors for which anandamide is a purported endogenous ligand. SR 141716, a specific antagonist

J.-P. Terranova; J.-J. Storme; N. Lafon; A Pério; M. Rinaldi-Carmona; G. Le Fur; P. Soubrié



Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist in Vitro,  

E-print Network

Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Contaminant that Acts as a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist of environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function or, perhaps of greater concern, with TH action cognitive deficits (7). An important implication of these studies is that environmental chemicals

Zoeller, R. Thomas


Intrinsic actions of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imidazodiazepine Ro 15-1788 is a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that was initially reported to be lacking in intrinsic activity in a variety of test situations in which benzodiazepine-like effects can be identified. However, many recent studies have shown that this compound does indeed have intrinsic activity in a variety of behavioural, neurological, electrophysiological and biochemical preparations in both animals and

Sandra E. File; Sharon Pellow



A novel series of glucagon receptor antagonists with reduced molecular weight and lipophilicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of glucagon receptor antagonists has been discovered. These pyrazole ethers and aminopyrazoles have lower molecular weight and increased polarity such that the molecules fall into better drug-like property space. This work has culminated in compounds 44 and 50 that were shown to have good pharmacokinetic attributes in dog, in contrast to rats, in which clearance was high;

Kevin J. Filipski; Jianwei Bian; David C. Ebner; Esther C. Y. Lee; Jian-Cheng Li; Matthew F. Sammons; Stephen W. Wright; Benjamin D. Stevens; Mary T. Didiuk; Meihua Tu; Christian Perreault; Janice Brown; Karen Atkinson; Beijing Tan; Christopher T. Salatto; John Litchfield; Jeffrey A. Pfefferkorn; Angel Guzman-Perez


Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 4-phenylpyrrole derivatives as novel androgen receptor antagonists.  


A series of 4-phenylpyrrole derivatives D were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their potential as novel orally available androgen receptor antagonists therapeutically effective against castration-resistant prostate cancers. 4-Phenylpyrrole compound 1 exhibited androgen receptor (AR) antagonistic activity against T877A and W741C mutant-type ARs as well as wild-type AR. An arylmethyl group incorporated into compound 1 contributed to enhancement of antagonistic activity. Compound 4n, 1-{[6-chloro-5-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-3-yl]methyl}-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile exhibited inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth against the bicalutamide-resistant LNCaP-cxD2 cell line as well as the androgen receptor-dependent JDCaP cell line in a mouse xenograft model. These results demonstrate that this series of pyrrole compounds are novel androgen receptor antagonists with efficacy against prostate cancer cells, including castration-resistant prostate cancers such as bicalutamide-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:22094279

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Nobuyuki; Hitaka, Takenori; Yamada, Masami; Hara, Takahito; Miyazaki, Junichi; Santou, Takashi; Kusaka, Masami; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Furuya, Shuichi; Tasaka, Akihiro; Hamamura, Kazumasa; Ito, Mitsuhiro



Endothelin1 Receptor Antagonist (LU135252) Improves the Microcirculation and Course of TNBS Colitis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of microcirculation in the pathogenesis and course of chronic inflammatory bowel disease is still unclear. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of microcirculation in colitis activity in the rat TNBS (trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid) colitis model using endothelin-1 and a selective endothelin-1 receptor antagonist (LU-135252). Target parameters were capillary blood flow, functional capillary density, vascular

Martin Kruschewski; Tanja Anderson; Christoph Loddenkemper; Heinz J. Buhr



Arterial Inflammation in Mice Lacking the Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branch points and flexures in the high pressure arterial system have long been recognized as sites of unusually high turbulence and consequent stress in humans are foci for atherosclerotic lesions. We show that mice that are homozygous for a null mutation in the gene encoding an endogenous antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), develop lethal arterial inflammation involving branch

Martin J. H. Nicklin; David E. Hughes; Jenny L. Barton; Jan M. Ure; Gordon W. Duff


Selection for Androgen Receptor Mutations in Prostate Cancers Treated with Androgen Antagonist1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-indepen- dent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases. Mutations were found in 5 of 16 patients who received combined androgen blockade with the AR antagonist flutamide, and these mutant ARs were strongly stim- ulated by flutamide. In contrast, the

Mary-Ellen Taplin; Glenn J. Bubley; Yoo-Joung Ko; Eric J. Small; Melissa Upton; Barur Rajeshkumar; Steven P. Balk


Attenuation of antagonist-induced impairment of dopamine receptors by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether chronic,long-term postnatal challenge of rat pups per se, with specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, would modify the ontogeny of the respective receptor types. Since the neuropeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) attenuates the effect of haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptors in adult rats it was of interest to determine whether PLG would modulate antagonists-induced alterations in the ontogeny of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Half of the rats were treated daily for 32 days from birth with SCH-23390, a selective dopamine D1 antagonist; or spiroperidol, a selective dopamine D2 antagonists; or both SCH-23390 and spiroperidol; or saline. The other half of the litters were treated with PLG, in combination with the other treatments. Animals were decapitated at 5, 8, and 12 weeks from birth for neurochemical analysis of the striatum. Chronic SCH-23390 treatment produced a 70-80% decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 to striatal homogenates. The alteration at 5 weeks was associated with a 78% decrease in the Bmax for ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 binding, and no change in the K{sub D}. Similarly, at 5, 8, and 12 weeks, chronic spiroperidol treatment reduced the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol to striatal homogenates by 70-80%.

Saleh, M.I.M.



A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...


Stereoselective synthesis of (-)-hydroxyclemastine as a versatile intermediate for the H1 receptor antagonist clemastine.  


Hydroxyclemastine was targeted as a versatile analogue of clemastine with H1 receptor antagonist activity. Stereoselective synthesis of (-)-hydroxyclemastine was performed in which the key step was chelation-controlled diastereoselective 1,2-addition of Grignard reagent to alpha-alkoxyketone. PMID:18254238

Jung, Jung Wha; Kim, Hee-Doo



[(3)H]Alvimopan binding to the micro opioid receptor: comparative binding kinetics of opioid antagonists.  


Alvimopan is a novel peripheral micro opioid antagonist in clinical development for the management of post-operative ileus and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. We hypothesized that the long duration of action of alvimopan might be related to a slower dissociation rate from the micro opioid receptor compared to other shorter acting antagonists. The dissociation rate of alvimopan from the micro opioid receptor (t(1/2)=30--44 min) was comparable to that of the long acting partial agonist buprenorphine (t(1/2)=44 min), but was slower than those of the antagonists naloxone (t(1/2)=0.82 min) and N-methylnaltrexone (t(1/2)=0.46 min). Also, increases in the apparent affinities and potencies of buprenorphine and alvimopan, but not of naloxone and methylnaltrexone, were observed upon preincubation with the micro opioid receptor. Consistent with its long duration of action, alvimopan has a slow dissociation rate from the micro opioid receptor compared to other shorter acting antagonists and may be more potent if administered prior to dosing with exogenous opioids. PMID:16165125

Cassel, Joel A; Daubert, Jeffrey D; DeHaven, Robert N



Potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan in monoarthritic mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endothelins are involved in tissue inflammation, pain, edema and cell migration. Our genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-2 (ET-2) showed a marked up-regulation in dorsal root ganglia during the acute phase of arthritis. We therefore examined the effects of endothelin receptor antagonists on the development of arthritis and inflammatory pain in monoarthritic mice. Methods Gene expression was examined in lumbar dorsal root ganglia two days after induction of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) using mRNA microarray analysis. Effects of drug treatment were determined by repeated assessment of joint swelling, pain-related behavior, and histopathological manifestations during AIA. Results Daily oral administration of the mixed ETA and ETB endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan significantly attenuated knee joint swelling and inflammation to an extent that was comparable to dexamethasone. In addition, bosentan reduced inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia. Chronic bosentan administration also inhibited joint swelling and protected against inflammation and joint destruction during AIA flare-up reactions. In contrast, the ETA-selective antagonist ambrisentan failed to promote any detectable antiinflammatory or antinociceptive activity. Conclusions Thus, the present study reveals a pivotal role for the endothelin system in the development of arthritis and arthritic pain. We show that endothelin receptor antagonists can effectively control inflammation, pain and joint destruction during the course of arthritis. Our findings suggest that the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of bosentan are predominantly mediated via the ETB receptor. PMID:21689431



Inhibition of Morphine Withdrawal by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801 in Rat  

E-print Network

the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on the development of morphine dependence in 7-, 14 be established in fetuses or infant rat pups if the dams are exposed to opiates during pregnancy or the pups- cilpine; EPSCs, excitatory postsynaptic currents. Contract grant sponsor: the National Institute on Drug

Barr, Gordon A.


Isolated systolic hypertension in the very old, treatment with valsartan, antagonist of angiotensin II receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcomes of epidemiologic (Fram.) and clinical studies (SHEP) suggest the usefulness of therapeutic treatment in very old subjects with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Valsartan, antagonist of the AT1 receptor of Angiotensin II, not only in reducing blood pressure (SBP, DBP, PP) but also guaranteeing a good uniformity of

P. Cicconetti; C. F. DiGioacchino; C. Deserra; F. Thau; D. Fidente; M. Cacciafesta; V. Marigliano



3 -Hydroxypregnane Steroids Are Pregnenolone Sulfate-Like GABAA Receptor Antagonists  

E-print Network

3 -Hydroxypregnane Steroids Are Pregnenolone Sulfate-Like GABAA Receptor Antagonists Mingde Wang,1 -hydroxypregnane steroids may com- petitively antagonize potentiation induced by their 3 diaste- reomers. Because -hydroxysteroids, 3 - hydroxysteroids acted noncompetitively with respect to potenti- ating steroids and inhibited

Steinbach, Joe Henry


Halysin, an antiplatelet Arg-Gly-Asp-containing snake venom peptide, as fibrinogen receptor antagonist.  


By means of Sephadex G-75 and CM-Sephadex C-50 column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC, a low molecular weight (Mr = 7500), cysteine-rich peptide, halysin, was purified from Agkistrodon halys (mamushi) snake venom. Halysin is a potent platelet aggregation inhibitor that concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation stimulated by ADP, thrombin and collagen (IC50 = 0.16 to 0.36 microM) without affecting platelet secretion. It was active in inhibiting platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and whole blood. Halysin had no effect on thromboxane B2 formation of platelets or intracellular Ca2+ mobilization of Quin 2-AM loaded platelets stimulated by thrombin. It inhibited the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. Halysin concentration-dependently inhibited the 125I-fibrinogen binding to ADP-stimulated platelets in a competitive manner (IC50 = 0.16 microM). 125I-Halysin bound to resting platelets (Kd = 1.6 x 10(-7) M) and to ADP-stimulated platelets (Kd = 3.4 x 10(-8) M) in a saturable manner. EDTA, the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing snake venom peptides trigamin and rhodostomin, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS), and Gly-Gln-Gln-His-His-Leu-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Gln-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val blocked both 125I-fibrinogen binding and 125I-halysin binding to ADP-stimulated platelets. The monoclonal antibody, 7E3, raised against glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex blocked both 125I-fibrinogen and 125I-halysin binding, whereas 10E5 had no significant effect on halysin binding to ADP-stimulated platelets, indicating that 7E3 and halysin bind to an epitope which is different from that of 10E5. RGDS concentration-dependently inhibited 125I-halysin binding in a competitive manner. We determined the primary structure of halysin which is a single peptide chain of 71 amino acid residues. An RGD sequence appeared in the carboxy-terminal domain of halysin. Halysin showed about an 85% identical sequence with trigamin which is a specific antagonist of fibrinogen receptor associated with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. In conclusion, halysin inhibited platelet aggregation by interfering with fibrinogen binding to the fibrinogen receptor of the activated platelets. The RGD sequence of halysin plays an important role in the expression of its biological activity. PMID:1888330

Huang, T F; Liu, C Z; Ouyang, C H; Teng, C M



Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist  

PubMed Central

The parasympathetic limb of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves.1–5 Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiologic control of cardiovascular function through activation of G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of antagonist-bound M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally. The antagonist QNB binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all 5 muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The M2 receptor structure provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation. PMID:22278061

Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya



Evaluation of adenine as scaffold for the development of novel P2X3 receptor antagonists.  


Ligands that selectively block P2X3 receptors localized on nociceptive sensory fibres may be useful for the treatment of chronic pain conditions including neuropathic pain, migraine, and inflammatory pain. With the aim at exploring the suitability of adenine moiety as a scaffold for the development of antagonists of this receptor, a series of 9-benzyl-2-aminoadenine derivatives were designed and synthesized. These new compounds were functionally evaluated at rat or human P2X3 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and on native P2X3 receptors from mouse trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons using patch clamp recording under voltage clamp configuration. The new molecules behaved as P2X3 antagonists, as they rapidly and reversibly inhibited (IC50 in the low micromolar range) the membrane currents induced via P2X3 receptor activation by the full agonist ?,?-methyleneATP. Introduction of a small lipophilic methyl substituent at the 6-amino group enhanced the activity, in comparison to the corresponding unsubstituted derivative, resulting in the 9-(5-iodo-2-isopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)-N(6)-methyl-9H-purine-2,6-diamine (24), which appears to be a good antagonist on recombinant and native P2X3 receptors with IC50 = 1.74 ± 0.21 ?M. PMID:23688699

Lambertucci, Catia; Sundukova, Mayya; Kachare, Dhuldeo D; Panmand, Deepak S; Dal Ben, Diego; Buccioni, Michela; Marucci, Gabriella; Marchenkova, Anna; Thomas, Ajiroghene; Nistri, Andrea; Cristalli, Gloria; Volpini, Rosaria



Comparison of the molecular interactions of two antagonists, MEN16132 or icatibant, at the human kinin B2 receptor  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Icatibant is a well-known kinin B2 receptor antagonist currently used for angiooedema attacks. MEN16132 is a non-peptide B2 receptor antagonist, more potent and long lasting than icatibant in different models. Here we studied the reasons for these differences between the two antagonists. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rate of reversibility (over about 3 h) of the functional receptor blockade exerted by the antagonists was compared (inositol phosphates accumulation assay) in CHO cells expressing the human B2 receptor and in human synovial cells. Antagonist pretreated cells were washed with medium and the time taken to restore bradykinin (BK) response measured. Antagonist affinity was measured by radioligand binding to wild type and mutated B2 receptors. KEY RESULTS Recovery of BK-induced responses was slower in cells pretreated with MEN16132 than in those treated with icatibant. The affinity of icatibant (for the [3H]-BK or the B2 receptor antagonist [3H]-MEN11270 binding site) was compared to that of MEN16132 using a panel of point-mutated receptors with mutations located at the transmembrane regions of the B2 receptor, previously shown to decrease MEN16132 high affinity interaction. No consistent decrease of icatibant affinity was observed. From the different affinity of MEN16132 derivatives at wild type and W86A (transmembrane 2 region) receptors, and by evaluating its antagonist profile at the D266A/D284A double mutant receptor, a model of the MEN16132-B2 receptor complex is proposed. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS MEN16132 dissociated from the B2 receptor compartment more slowly than icatibant and interacted at a deeper level in transmembrane regions of the receptor. PMID:21108627

Meini, S; Bellucci, F; Catalani, C; Cucchi, P; Giolitti, A; Giuliani, S; Quartara, L; Rotondaro, L; Zappitelli, S; Maggi, CA



Inverse antagonist activities of parabens on human oestrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?): In vitro and in silico studies  

SciTech Connect

Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters that have been used extensively as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, drugs and toiletries. These intact esters are commonly detected in human breast cancer tissues and other human samples, thus arousing concern about the involvement of parabens in human breast cancer. In this study, an in vitro nuclear receptor coactivator recruiting assay was developed and used to evaluate the binding activities of parabens, salicylates and benzoates via antagonist competitive binding on the human oestrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?), which is known as both a diagnostic biomarker and a treatment target of breast cancer. The results showed that all of the test parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben) possessed clear inverse antagonist activities on ERR?, with a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 10{sup ?7} M and the 50% relative effective concentrations (REC50) varying from 3.09 × 10{sup ?7} to 5.88 × 10{sup ?7} M, whereas the salicylates possessed much lower activities and the benzoates showed no obvious activity. In silico molecular docking analyses showed that parabens fitted well into the active site of ERR?, with hydrogen bonds forming between the p-hydroxyl group of parabens and the Glu275/Arg316 of ERR?. As the paraben levels reported in breast cancer tissues are commonly higher than the LOELs observed in this study, parabens may play some role via ERR? in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer. In addition, parabens may have significant effects on breast cancer patients who are taking tamoxifen, as ERR? is regarded as a treatment target for tamoxifen. - Highlights: • An oestrogen-related receptor ? coactivator recruiting assay was developed. • Strong binding activities of parabens with oestrogen-related receptor ? were found. • The paraben levels reported in breast cancer tissues were higher than their LOELs. • Parabens may play some role via ERR? in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer. • Parabens may have significant effects in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen.

Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Hu, Ying; Jiao, Jian; Hu, Jianying, E-mail:



Bazedoxifene-scaffold-based mimetics of solomonsterols A and B as novel pregnane X receptor antagonists.  


Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the NR1I nuclear receptor family, acts as a xenobiotic sensor and a paramount transcriptional regulator of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The overexpression of PXR in various cancer cells indicates the importance of PXR as a drug target for countering multidrug resistance in anticancer treatments. We describe the discovery of novel bazedoxifene-scaffold-based PXR antagonists inspired by the marine sulfated steroids solomonsterol A and B as natural leads. A luciferase reporter assay on a PXR-transfected HepG2 cell line identified compounds 19-24 as promising PXR antagonists. Further structure-activity relationship studies of the most active PXR antagonist from the series (compound 20, IC50 = 11 ?M) revealed the importance of hydroxyl groups as hydrogen-bond donors for PXR antagonistic activity. PXR antagonists 20 and 24 (IC50 = 14 ?M), in addition to the downregulation of PXR expression, exhibited inhibition of PXR-induced CYP3A4 expression, which illustrates their potential to suppress PXR-regulated phase-I drug metabolism. PMID:24828006

Hodnik, Žiga; Peterlin Maši?, Lucija; Tomaši?, Tihomir; Smodiš, Domen; D'Amore, Claudio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Kikelj, Danijel



The effects of continuous 5HT 3 receptor antagonist administration on the subsequent behavioral response to cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional down-regulation of central serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptors represents a partial mechanism of the tolerance to cocaine induced by the continuous administration of cocaine. Blocking this down-regulation by co-administering continuous cocaine and daily injections of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists blocks the development of tolerance. The present experiment evaluated the ability of continuously administered 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, to induce sensitization (reverse tolerance)

George R King; Gail Pinto; Jennifer Konen; Gene Castro; Sophie Tran; Craig Hilburn



GR 38032F (Ondansetron), a selective 5HT 3 receptor antagonist, slows colonic transit in healthy man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly recognized class of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5HT3) may be involved in the induction of nausea, since their pharmacological antagonists are effective against emesis induced by chemotherapy. 5HT3 receptors are present on enteric neurons, and 5HT3 blockers may produce mild constipation; we thus hypothesized that 5HT3 receptors would modulate colonic motility. To determine if GR 38032F, a selective 5HT3 antagonist

N. J. Talley; S. F. Phillips; A. Haddad; L. J. Miller; C. Twomey; A. R. Zinsmeister; R. L. MacCarty; A. Ciociola



Binding site and ligand flexibility revealed by high resolution crystal structures of GluK1 competitive antagonists  

PubMed Central

The availability of crystal structures for the ligand binding domains of ionotropic glutamate receptors, combined with their key role in synaptic function in the normal and diseased brain, offers a unique selection of targets for pharmaceutical research compared to other drug targets for which the atomic structure of the ligand binding sites is not known. Currently only a few antagonist structures have been solved, and these reveal ligand specific conformational changes that hinder rational drug design. Here we report high resolution crystal structures for three kainate receptor GluK1 antagonist complexes which reveal new and unexpected modes of binding, highlighting the continued need for experimentally determined receptor-ligand complexes. PMID:20558186

Alushin, Gregory M.; Jane, David; Mayer, Mark L.



Functionalized Congeners of 1,4-Dihydropyridines as Antagonist Molecular Probes for A3 Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5?-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure–activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 ?M. PMID:10411465

Li, An-Hu; Chang, Louis; Ji, Xiao-duo; Melman, Neli; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Synthesis and Evaluation of [11C]LY2795050 as a Novel Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist Radiotracer for PET Imaging  

PubMed Central

Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety disorders, drug abuse and alcoholism. To date, only one tracer, the kappa opioid receptor agonist [11C]GR103545, has been reported to be able to image KOR in primates. The goal of the present study was to synthesize the selective KOR antagonist [11C]LY2795050 and evaluate its potential as a PET tracer to image KOR in vivo. METHODS In vitro binding affinity of LY2795050 was measured in radioligand competition binding assays. Ex vivo experiments were conducted using microdosing of the unlabelled ligand in Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as wild-type and KOR knock-out mice, to assess the ligand’s potential as a tracer candidate. Imaging experiments with [11C]LY2795050 in monkeys were carried out on the Focus-220 PET scanner with arterial blood input function measurement. Binding parameters were determined with kinetic modeling analysis. RESULTS LY2795050 displays full antagonist activity and high binding affinity and selectivity for KOR. Microdosing studies in rodents and ex vivo analysis of tissue concentrations with LC/MS/MS identified LY2795050 as an appropriate tracer candidate able to provide specific binding signals in vivo. [11C]LY2795050 was prepared in an average yield of 12% and >99% radiochemical purity. In rhesus monkeys, [11C]LY2795050 displayed a moderate rate of peripheral metabolism, with ?40% of parent compound remaining at 30 min postinjection. In the brain, [11C]LY2795050 displayed fast uptake kinetics (regional activity peak times < 20 min) and an uptake pattern consistent with the distribution of KOR in primates. Pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, iv) resulted in a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Further, specific binding of [11C]LY2795050 was reduced by the selective KOR antagonist LY2456302 in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION [11C]LY2795050 displayed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and binding profiles in vivo, and therefore is a suitable ligand for imaging the KOR in primates. This newly developed KOR antagonist tracer has since been advanced to PET imaging of KOR in humans and constitutes the first successful KOR antagonist radiotracer. PMID:23353688

Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Kim, Su Jin; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lin, Shu-fei; Mitch, Charles; Quimby, Steven; Barth, Vanessa; Rash, Karen; Masters, John; Navarro, Antonio; Seest, Eric; Morris, Evan E.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun



Assembly of high-affinity insulin receptor agonists and antagonists from peptide building blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insulin is thought to elicit its effects by crosslinking the two extracellular -subunits of its receptor, thereby inducing a conformational change in the receptor, which activates the intracellular tyrosine kinase signaling cascade. Previously we identified a series of peptides binding to two discrete hotspots on the insulin receptor. Here we show that covalent linkage of such peptides into homodimers or heterodimers results in insulin agonists or antagonists, depending on how the peptides are linked. An optimized agonist has been shown, both in vitro and in vivo, to have a potency close to that of insulin itself. The ability to construct such peptide derivatives may offer a path for developing agonists or antagonists for treatment of a wide variety of diseases.

Schäffer, Lauge; Brissette, Renee E.; Spetzler, Jane C.; Pillutla, Renuka C.; Østergaard, Søren; Lennick, Michael; Brandt, Jakob; Fletcher, Paul W.; Danielsen, Gillian M.; Hsiao, Ku-Chuan; Andersen, Asser S.; Dedova, Olga; Ribel, Ulla; Hoeg-Jensen, Thomas; Hertz Hansen, Per; Blume, Arthur J.; Markussen, Jan; Goldstein, Neil I.



Discovery of novel, potent, selective, and orally active human glucagon receptor antagonists containing a pyrazole core.  


A novel class of 1,3,5-pyrazoles has been discovered as potent human glucagon receptor antagonists. Notably, compound 26 is orally bioavailable in several preclinical species and shows selectivity towards cardiac ion channels, other family B receptors such hGIP and hGLP1, and a large panel of enzymes and additional receptors. When dosed orally, compound 26 is efficacious in suppressing glucagon induced plasma glucose excursion in rhesus monkey and transgenic murine pharmacodynamic models at 1 and 10 mpk, respectively. PMID:21147532

Shen, Dong-Ming; Brady, Edward J; Candelore, Mari R; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Ding, Victor D-H; Feeney, William P; Jiang, Guoquiang; McCann, Margaret E; Mock, Steve; Qureshi, Sajjad A; Saperstein, Richard; Shen, Xiaolan; Tong, Xinchun; Tota, Laurie M; Wright, Michael J; Yang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Song; Chapman, Kevin T; Zhang, Bei B; Tata, James R; Parmee, Emma R



Homology modeling and antagonist binding site study of the human histamine H2 receptor.  


On the basis of the high resolution crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, human beta2-adrenergic receptor and human A(2a) adenosine receptor, three-dimensional structure of the human histamine H2 receptor (HHR2) was developed by homology modeling. Results of the evaluations suggest that a high quality homology model for HHR2 has been obtained. Three antagonists, cimetidine, ranitidine and nizatidine, were applied to binding site study with this model through molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations. One aspartic acid, Asp98 in transmembrane domain 7 (TM3), has been identified as major contributors to ligand binding by H-bond interactions. Asn159 in TM4 and Asp186 in TM5 are of great importance in stabilizing HHR2- antagonist complexes. Two hydrophobic sites especially two residues, Val99 in TM3 and Phe254 in TM6, were identified to be essential for their strong hydrophobic interactions with antagonists. The findings reported here are in agreement with available experimental mutagenesis data. This study should be very helpful for a better understanding of the action mode of the antagonist and for guiding further drug design and mutagenesis studies. PMID:22779803

Zhang, Jing; Qi, Tao; Wei, Jing



Synthesis and evaluation of 11?-(4-Substituted phenyl) estradiol analogs: Transition from estrogen receptor agonists to antagonists  

PubMed Central

Introduction As part of our program to develop estrogen receptor (ER) targeted imaging and therapeutic agents we chose to evaluate 11?-substituted estradiol analogs as a representative scaffold. Previous synthetic studies provided an entry into this class of compounds and other work indicated that 11?-(substituted aryl) estradiol analogs were potent antagonists of the ER. Little information existed about the specific structural features involved in the transition from agonism to antagonism for the 11?-aryl estradiol analogs or their potential as scaffolds for drug conjugation. Methods We prepared and characterized a series of 11?-(4-Substituted phenyl) estradiol analogs using modifications of existing synthetic methods. The new compounds, as well as standard steroidal agonists and antagonists, were evaluated as competitive ligands for the ER?-LBD. Functional assays used the induction of alkaline phosphatase in Ishikawa cells to determine potency of the compounds as ER agonists or antagonists. Results The synthetic strategy successfully generated a series of compounds in which the 4-substituent was sequentially modified from hydroxyl to methoxy to azidoethoxy/N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy and eventually to a prototypical 1,4-naphthoquinone-containing moiety. The new compounds all retained high relative binding affinity (RBA) for the ER?-LBD, ranging from 13–83% that of estradiol. No subtype selectivity was observed. More importantly, the transition from agonist to antagonist activity occurs at the 4-methoxy stage where the compound is a mixed antagonist. More notably, antagonism appeared to be more dependent upon the size of the 11?-substituent than upon the nature of the terminal group Conclusions We have developed a synthetic strategy that provides facile access to potent 11?-(4-substituted phenyl) estradiol analogs. The resultant compounds retain high affinity for the ER?-LBD and, more importantly, demonstrate potent antagonist activity in cells. Large functionalities distal to the 11?-phenyl ring had little additional effect on either affinity or efficacy, suggesting the incorporation of diverse imaging or biologically active groups can be attached without significantly compromising the ER-binding capacity. Future studies are in progress to exploit the 11?-aryl estradiol analogs as potential drug delivery systems and imaging agents. PMID:22608920

Hanson, Robert N.; Hua, Edward; Hendricks, J. Adam; Labaree, David; Hochberg, Richard B.



Structure-based Discovery of Antagonists of Nuclear Receptor LRH-1*  

PubMed Central

Liver receptor homolog 1 (nuclear receptor LRH-1, NR5A2) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, critical for maintenance of cell pluripotency in early development and imperative for the proper functions of the liver, pancreas, and intestines during the adult life. Although physiological hormones of LRH-1 have not yet been identified, crystallographic and biochemical studies demonstrated that LRH-1 could bind regulatory ligands and suggested phosphatidylinositols as potential hormone candidates for this receptor. No synthetic antagonists of LRH-1 are known to date. Here, we identify the first small molecule antagonists of LRH-1 activity. Our search for LRH-1 modulators was empowered by screening of 5.2 million commercially available compounds via molecular docking followed by verification of the top-ranked molecules using in vitro direct binding and transcriptional assays. Experimental evaluation of the predicted ligands identified two compounds that inhibit the transcriptional activity of LRH-1 and diminish the expression of the receptor's target genes. Among the affected transcriptional targets are co-repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) as well as cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and G0S2 genes that are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation. Treatments of human pancreatic (AsPC-1), colon (HT29), and breast adenocarcinoma cells T47D and MDA-MB-468 with the LRH-1 antagonists resulted in the receptor-mediated inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our data suggest that specific antagonists of LRH-1 could be used as specific molecular probes for elucidating the roles of the receptor in different types of malignancies. PMID:23667258

Benod, Cindy; Carlsson, Jens; Uthayaruban, Rubatharshini; Hwang, Peter; Irwin, John J.; Doak, Allison K.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sablin, Elena P.; Fletterick, Robert J.



Sigma 1 receptor antagonists determine the behavioral pattern of the methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The effects of sigma receptor antagonists on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy have not been examined. We examined\\u000a the effects of sigma antagonists on METH-induced stereotypy in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The administration of METH (10 mg\\/kg) to male ddY mice induced stereotyped behavior consisting of biting (90.1%), sniffing\\u000a (4.2%), head bobbing (4.1%), and circling (1.7%) during an observation period of 1 h. Pretreatment of the mice

J. Kitanaka; N. Kitanaka; T. Tatsuta; F. S. Hall; G. R. Uhl; K. Tanaka; N. Nishiyama; Y. Morita; M. Takemura



Identification of clinical candidates from the benzazepine class of histamine H3 receptor antagonists.  


This Letter describes the discovery of GSK189254 and GSK239512 that were progressed as clinical candidates to explore the potential of H3 receptor antagonists as novel therapies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By carefully controlling the physicochemical properties of the benzazepine series and through the implementation of an aggressive and innovative screening strategy that employed high throughput in vivo assays to efficiently triage compounds, the medicinal chemistry effort was able to rapidly progress the benzazepine class of H3 antagonists through to the identification of clinical candidates with robust in vivo efficacy and excellent developability properties. PMID:24269482

Wilson, David M; Apps, James; Bailey, Nicholas; Bamford, Mark J; Beresford, Isabel J; Brackenborough, Kim; Briggs, Michael A; Brough, Stephen; Calver, Andrew R; Crook, Barry; Davis, Rebecca K; Davis, Robert P; Davis, Susannah; Dean, David K; Harris, Leanne; Heslop, Teresa; Holland, Vicky; Jeffrey, Phillip; Panchal, Terrance A; Parr, Christopher A; Quashie, Nigel; Schogger, Joanne; Sehmi, Sanjeet S; Stean, Tania O; Steadman, Jon G A; Trail, Brenda; Wald, Jeffrey; Worby, Angela; Takle, Andrew K; Witherington, Jason; Medhurst, Andrew D



Cannabinoid receptor antagonist-induced striated muscle toxicity and ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria in beagle dogs.  


Ibipinabant (IBI), a potent cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist, previously in development for the treatment of obesity, causes skeletal and cardiac myopathy in beagle dogs. This toxicity was characterized by increases in muscle-derived enzyme activity in serum and microscopic striated muscle degeneration and accumulation of lipid droplets in myofibers. Additional changes in serum chemistry included decreases in glucose and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol, and metabolic acidosis, consistent with disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. No evidence of CB1R expression was detected in dog striated muscle as assessed by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and competitive radioligand binding. Investigative studies utilized metabonomic technology and demonstrated changes in several intermediates and metabolites of fatty acid metabolism including plasma acylcarnitines and urinary ethylmalonate, methylsuccinate, adipate, suberate, hexanoylglycine, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and 2-hydroxyglutarate. These results indicated that the toxic effect of IBI on striated muscle in beagle dogs is consistent with an inhibition of the mitochondrial flavin-containing enzymes including dimethyl glycine, sarcosine, isovaleryl-CoA, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and multiple acyl-CoA (short, medium, long, and very long chain) dehydrogenases. All of these enzymes converge at the level of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and ETF oxidoreductase. Urinary ethylmalonate was shown to be a biomarker of IBI-induced striated muscle toxicity in dogs and could provide the ability to monitor potential IBI-induced toxic myopathy in humans. We propose that IBI-induced toxic myopathy in beagle dogs is not caused by direct antagonism of CB1R and could represent a model of ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria in humans. PMID:22821849

Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tirmenstein, Mark A; Janovitz, Evan B; Aranibar, Nelly; Ott, Karl-Heinz; Kozlosky, John C; Patrone, Laura M; Achanzar, William E; Augustine, Karen A; Brannen, Kimberly C; Carlson, Kenneth E; Charlap, Jeffrey H; Dubrow, Katherine M; Kang, Liya; Rosini, Laura T; Panzica-Kelly, Julieta M; Flint, Oliver P; Moulin, Frederic J; Megill, John R; Zhang, Haiying; Bennett, Michael J; Horvath, Joseph J



Antagonists of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are potent growth inhibitors of prostate carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Novel synthetic antagonists of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) have been developed. To avoid interference by serum retinoids when testing these compounds, we established serum-free grown sub-lines (>3 years) of the prostate carcinoma lines LNCaP, PC3 and DU145. A high affinity pan-RAR antagonist (AGN194310, Kd for binding to RARs = 2–5?nM) inhibited colony formation (by 50%) by all three lines at 16–34?nM, and led to a transient accumulation of flask-cultured cells in G1 followed by apoptosis. AGN194310 is 12–22 fold more potent than all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) against cell lines and also more potent in inhibiting the growth of primary prostate carcinoma cells. PC3 and DU145 cells do not express RAR?, and an antagonist with predominant activity at RAR? and RAR? (AGN194431) inhibited colony formation at concentrations (?100?nM) commensurate with a Kd value of 70?nM at RAR?. An RAR? antagonist (AGN194301) was less potent (IC50 ?200?nM), but was more active than specific agonists of RAR? and of ??. A component(s) of serum and of LNCaP-conditioned medium diminishes the activity of antagonists: this factor is not the most likely candidates IGF-1 and EGF. In vitro studies of RAR antagonists together with data from RAR-null mice lead to the hypothesis that RAR?-regulated gene transcription is necessary for the survival and maintenance of prostate epithelium. The increased potencies of RAR antagonists, as compared with agonists, suggest that antagonists may be useful in the treatment of prostate carcinoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11487280

Hammond, L A; Krinks, C H Van; Durham, J; Tomkins, S E; Burnett, R D; Jones, E L; Chandraratna, R A S; Brown, G



Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.  


Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling. PMID:24166413

Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M



Tricyclic alkylamides as melatonin receptor ligands with antagonist or inverse agonist activity.  


This work reports the design and synthesis of novel alkylamides, characterized by a dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene nucleus, as melatonin (MLT) receptor ligands. The tricyclic scaffold was chosen on the basis of previous quantitative structure-activity studies on MT1 and MT2 antagonists, relating selective MT2 antagonism to the presence of an aromatic substituent out of the plane of the MLT indole ring. Some dibenzo seven-membered structures were thus selected because of the noncoplanar arrangement of their benzene rings, and an alkylamide chain was introduced to fit the requirements for MLT receptor binding, namely, dibenzocycloheptenes with an acylaminoalkyl side chain at position 10 and dibenzoazepines with this side chain originating from the nitrogen atom bridging the two phenyl rings. Binding affinity at human cloned MT1 and MT2 receptors was measured by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin displacement assay and intrinsic activity by the GTPgammaS test. The majority of the compounds were characterized by higher affinity at the MT2 than at the MT1 receptor and by very low intrinsic activity values, thus confirming the importance of the noncoplanar arrangement of the two aromatic rings for selective MT2 antagonism. Dibenzocycloheptenes generally displayed higher MT1 and MT 2affinity than dibenzoazepines. N-(8-Methoxy-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-10-ylmethyl)propionamide (4c) and -butyramide (4d) were the most selective MT2 receptor antagonists of the series, with MT2 receptor affinity comparable to that of melatonin and as such among the highest reported in the literature for MLT receptor antagonists. The acetamide derivative 4b produced a noticeable reduction of GTPgammaS binding at MT2 receptor, thus being among the few inverse agonists described. PMID:15293992

Lucini, Valeria; Pannacci, Marilou; Scaglione, Francesco; Fraschini, Franco; Rivara, Sivia; Mor, Marco; Bordi, Fabrizio; Plazzi, Pier Vincenzo; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Piersanti, Giovanni; Diamantini, Giuseppe; Tarzia, Giorgio



RS-127445: a selective, high affinity, orally bioavailable 5-HT2B receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

Efforts to define precisely the role of 5-HT2B receptors in normal and disease processes have been hindered by the absence of selective antagonists. To address this deficiency, we developed a series of naphthylpyrimidines as potentially useful 5-HT2B receptor antagonists. RS-127445 (2-amino-4-(4-fluoronaphth-1-yl)-6-isopropylpyrimidine) was found to have nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor (pKi=9.5±0.1) and 1,000 fold selectivity for this receptor as compared to numerous other receptor and ion channel binding sites. In cells expressing human recombinant 5-HT2B receptors, RS-127445 potently antagonized 5-HT-evoked formation of inositol phosphates (pKB=9.5±0.1) and 5-HT-evoked increases in intracellular calcium (pIC50=10.4±0.1). RS-127445 also blocked 5-HT-evoked contraction of rat isolated stomach fundus (pA2=9.5±1.1) and (±)?-methyl-5-HT-mediated relaxation of the rat jugular vein (pA2=9.9±0.3). RS-127445 had no detectable intrinsic activity in these assays. In rats, the fraction of RS-127445 that was bioavailable via the oral or intraperitoneal routes was 14 and 60% respectively. Intraperitoneal administration of RS-127445 (5?mg?kg?1) produced plasma concentrations predicted to fully saturate accessible 5-HT2B receptors for at least 4?h. In conclusion, RS-127445 is a selective, high affinity 5-HT2B receptor antagonist suitable for use in vivo. The therapeutic potential of this molecule is being further evaluated. PMID:10455251

Bonhaus, Douglas W; Flippin, Lee A; Greenhouse, Robert J; Jaime, Saul; Rocha, Cindy; Dawson, Mark; Van Natta, Kristine; Chang, L K; Pulido-Rios, Tess; Webber, Andrea; Leung, Edward; Eglen, Richard M; Martin, Graeme R



Discovery and development of orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutics for insomnia  

PubMed Central

Insomnia persistently affects the quality and quantity of sleep. Currently approved treatments for insomnia primarily target ?-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptor signalling and include benzodiazepines and GABA-A receptor modulators. These drugs are used to address this sleep disorder, but have the potential for side effects such as tolerance and dependence, making them less attractive as maintenance therapy. Forward and reverse genetic approaches in animals have implicated orexin signalling (also referred to as hypocretin signalling) in the control of vigilance and sleep/wake states. Screening for orexin receptor antagonists using in vitro and in vivo methods in animals has identified compounds that block one or other of the orexin receptors (single or dual orexin receptor antagonists [SORAs and DORAs], respectively) in animals and humans. SORAs have primarily been used as probes to further elucidate the roles of the individual orexin receptors, while a number of DORAs have progressed to clinical development as pharmaceutical candidates for insomnia. The DORA almorexant demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant sleep parameters in animal models and in patients with insomnia but its development was halted. SB-649868 and suvorexant have demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in Phase II and III trials respectively. Furthermore, suvorexant is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the publication of recent non-clinical and clinical data, orexin receptor antagonists potentially represent a targeted, effective and well-tolerated new class of medications for insomnia. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit PMID:23731216

Winrow, CJ; Renger, JJ



Activity of new NOP receptor ligands in a rat peripheral mononeuropathy model: Potentiation of Morphine anti-allodynic activity by NOP receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The effect of new NOP receptor agonists and antagonists in the rat chronic constriction injury model was investigated. Intraperitoneally administered NOP receptor agonist SR14150 and antagonists SR16430 and SR14148, had no effect on mechanical allodynia when given alone. The nonselective NOP/mu-opioid receptor agonist SR16435, however, produced an anti-allodynic response, similar to morphine and reversible by naloxone. Notably, co-administration of the NOP receptor antagonists potentiated the anti-allodynic activity of both morphine and SR16435. Increased levels of the NOP receptor are implicated in the reduced efficacy of morphine in neuropathic pain. Our results suggest the utility of NOP receptor antagonists for potentiating opioid efficacy in chronic pain. PMID:19285491

Khroyan, Taline V.; Polgar, Willma E.; Orduna, Juan; Jiang, Faming; Olsen, Cris; Toll, Lawrence; Zaveri, Nurulain T.



Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors and H2 Receptor Antagonists on the Ileum Motility  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 receptor antagonists on ileum motility in rats with peritonitis and compare changes with control group rats. Methods. Peritonitis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture in 8 rats. Another of 8 rats underwent a sham operation and were accepted as controls. Twenty-four hours later after the operation, the rats were killed, and their ileum smooth muscle was excised and placed in circular muscle direction in a 10?mL organ bath. Changes in amplitude and frequency of contractions were analyzed before and after PPIs and H2 receptor blockers. Results. PPI agents decreased the motility in a dose-dependent manner in ileum in both control and intraabdominal sepsis groups. While famotidine had no significant effect on ileum motility, ranitidine and nizatidine enhanced motility in ileum in both control and intraabdominal sepsis groups. This excitatory effect of H2 receptor antagonists and inhibitor effects of PPIs were significantly high in control group when compared to the peritonitis group. The inhibitor effect of pantoprazole on ileum motility was significantly higher than the other two PPI agents. Conclusions. It was concluded that H2 receptor antagonists may be more effective than PPIs for recovering the bowel motility in the intraabdominal sepsis situation. PMID:22216022

Kurt, Atilla; Altun, Ahmet; Ba?civan, ?hsan; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Topcu, Omer; Ayd?n, Cengiz; Kaya, Tijen



Effects of proton pump inhibitors and h(2) receptor antagonists on the ileum motility.  


Objectives. To investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H(2) receptor antagonists on ileum motility in rats with peritonitis and compare changes with control group rats. Methods. Peritonitis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture in 8 rats. Another of 8 rats underwent a sham operation and were accepted as controls. Twenty-four hours later after the operation, the rats were killed, and their ileum smooth muscle was excised and placed in circular muscle direction in a 10?mL organ bath. Changes in amplitude and frequency of contractions were analyzed before and after PPIs and H(2) receptor blockers. Results. PPI agents decreased the motility in a dose-dependent manner in ileum in both control and intraabdominal sepsis groups. While famotidine had no significant effect on ileum motility, ranitidine and nizatidine enhanced motility in ileum in both control and intraabdominal sepsis groups. This excitatory effect of H(2) receptor antagonists and inhibitor effects of PPIs were significantly high in control group when compared to the peritonitis group. The inhibitor effect of pantoprazole on ileum motility was significantly higher than the other two PPI agents. Conclusions. It was concluded that H(2) receptor antagonists may be more effective than PPIs for recovering the bowel motility in the intraabdominal sepsis situation. PMID:22216022

Kurt, Atilla; Altun, Ahmet; Ba?civan, Ihsan; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Topcu, Omer; Ayd?n, Cengiz; Kaya, Tijen



Structure based virtual screening of ligands to identify cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonist  

PubMed Central

Montelukast and Zafirlukast are known leukotriene receptor antagonists prescribed in asthma treatment. However, these fall short as mono therapy and are frequently used in combination with inhaled glucocorticosteroids with or without long acting beta 2 agonists. Therefore, it is of interest to apply ligand and structure based virtual screening strategies to identify compounds akin to lead compounds Montelukast and Zafirlukast. Hence, compounds with structures having 95% similarity to these compounds were retrieved from NCBI?s PubChem database. Compounds similar to lead were grouped and docked at the antagonist binding site of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. This exercise identified compounds UNII 70RV86E50Q (Pub Cid 71587778) and Sure CN 9587085 (Pub Cid 19793614) with higher predicted binding compared to Montelukast and Zafirlukast. It is shown that the compound Sure CN 9587085 showed appreciable ligand receptor interaction compared to UNII 70RV86E50Q. Thus, the compound Sure CN 9587085 is selected as a potent antagonist to cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 for further consideration in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:25489175

Bandaru, Srinivas; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Kasera, Priyadarshani; Kovuri, Purnima; Girdhar, Amandeep; Mittal, Deepti Raj; Ikram, Sabeen; GV, Ravi; Nayarisseri, Anuraj



Differential modulation of murine lung inflammation by bradykinin B1 and B2 selective receptor antagonists.  


The effect of bradykinin receptor antagonists was studied in a mouse (C57Bl/6) model of allergic lung inflammation. Bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist HOE-140 (D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Thi(5),Dtic(7)-Oic(8)]bradykinin) or bradykinin B(1) receptor antagonist R-954 (Ac-Orn[Oic(2),alphaMePhe(5),betaD-Nal(7)Ile(8)]des-Arg(9)-bradykinin) were given i.p. to ovalbumin sensitized mice 30 min before antigen challenge. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for cell analysis and the lungs were removed for evaluation of airway hyperreactivity and histopathology. Treatment with HOE-140 caused a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage cell number: eosinophils (182%), neutrophils (98%), lymphocytes CD(4)(+) (192%), CD(8)(+) (236%), B220 (840%), Tgammadelta(+) (194%) and NK1.1(+) (246%). Hyperreactivity and mucus secretion were not significantly affected in this group. Treatment with R-954 significantly reduced eosinophil (79%) and neutrophil (83%) but has no effect on lymphocytes number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Airway hyperreactivity and mucus secretion were reduced by this treatment (84% and 35%, respectively). These results show important modulatory effect of bradykinin B(1) and B(2) receptors on allergic lung inflammation. PMID:12535863

Gama Landgraf, Richardt; Sirois, Pierre; Jancar, Sonia



Design and synthesis of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists for peripheral selectivity.  


Antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) have potential for the treatment of several diseases such as obesity, liver disease, and diabetes. Recently, development of several CB1 antagonists was halted because of adverse central nervous system (CNS) related side effects observed with rimonabant, the first clinically approved CB1 inverse agonist. However, recent studies indicate that regulation of peripherally expressed CB1 with CNS-sparing compounds is a viable strategy to treat several important disorders. Our efforts aimed at rationally designing peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists have resulted in compounds that have limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS exposure in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. Typically, compounds with high topological polar surface areas (TPSAs) do not cross the BBB passively. Compounds with TPSAs higher than that for rimonabant (rimonabant TPSA = 50) and excellent functional activity with limited CNS penetration were identified. These compounds will serve as templates for further optimization. PMID:22372835

Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Seltzman, Herbert; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan



Effects of dopamine receptor antagonists (D1 and D2) on the demand for smoked cocaine base in rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Previous studies suggest that dopamine antagonists may reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine. However, the effects of\\u000a these antagonists on the demand for smoked cocaine base have not been quantified. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of selective D1 (SCH 23390) and D2 (raclopride) dopamine receptor antagonists on the demand for smoked cocaine base in rhesus monkeys using a behavioral

U. C. Campbell; Joshua S. Rodefer; Marilyn E. Carroll



Structurally related nucleotides as selective agonists and antagonists at P2Y1 receptors  

PubMed Central

The P2Y1 receptor responds to adenine nucleotides and is present in platelets, heart, smooth muscles prostate, ovary, and brain. A selective antagonist may be useful as an antithrombotic agent. We have analyzed the binding site of this G protein-coupled receptor using ligand design, site-directed mutagenesis, and homology modeling based on rhodopsin. We have designed and synthesized a series of deoxyadenosine 3?,5?-bisphosphate derivatives that act as antagonists, or, in some cases with small structural changes, as agonists or partial agonists. The 2-position accommodates Cl or thioethers, whereas the N6-position is limited to Me or Et. 2?-Substitution with OH or OMe increases agonist efficacy over 2?-H. Using molecular modeling of the binding site, the oxygen atoms of the ribose moiety were predicted to be non-essential, i.e. no specific H-bonds with the receptor protein appear in the model. We have, therefore, substituted this moiety with carbocylics, smaller and larger rings, conformationally constrained rings, and acyclics, with retention of affinity for the receptor. With simplified pharmacophores we are exploring the steric and electronic requirements of the receptor binding site, and the structural basis of receptor activation. PMID:11347970

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Moro, Stefano; Hoffmann, Carsten; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Hak Sung; Ravi, R. Gnana; Harden, T. Kendall; Boyer, José L.



Interaction of new, very potent non-nucleotide antagonists with Arg256 of the human platelet P2Y12 receptor.  


The P2Y(12) receptor plays a crucial role in platelet aggregation. In the present study, we analyzed the properties of non-nucleotide antagonists at the recombinant human P2Y(12) receptor and searched for amino acids involved in the molecular interaction. Receptor function was assessed by measuring the cAMP response element (CRE)-directed luciferase expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The cellular cAMP production was accelerated by forskolin; 2-methylthio-ADP was used to activate the wild-type P2Y(12) receptor or mutant constructs. 2-Methylthio-ADP inhibited the CRE-dependent luciferase expression with an IC(50) value of approximately 1 nM. The anthraquinone derivative reactive blue 2 used at increasing concentrations shifted the concentration-response curve of 2-methylthio-ADP to the right in a manner compatible with competitive antagonism (pA(2) value, 7.4). Its analog, 1-amino-4-[4-phenylamino-3-sulfophenylamino]-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonate (PSB-0739), showed a markedly higher antagonistic potency with a pA(2) value of 9.8. In cells expressing the R256A-mutant receptor, the potencies of both reactive blue 2 (apparent pK(B), 5.9) and PSB-0739 (apparent pK(B), 9.1) were decreased. The same was true for the pure reactive blue 2 meta- and para-isomers and for the ortho-isomer cibacron blue 3GA. In contrast, the analog, 1-amino-4-[4-anilino-phenylamino]-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonate, lacking a sulfonic acid residue at ring D (PSB-0826), showed similar pK(B) values at wild-type (8.4) and R256A-mutant receptors (8.3). In summary, the results demonstrate that PSB-0739 is the most potent competitive non-nucleotide antagonist at the human P2Y(12) receptor described so far. The results also indicate that the sulfonic acid residue at ring D is involved in the interaction of antagonists derived from reactive blue 2 with the residue Arg256 of the human P2Y(12) receptor. PMID:19690189

Hoffmann, Kristina; Baqi, Younis; Morena, María Sol; Glänzel, Markus; Müller, Christa E; von Kügelgen, Ivar



Therapeutic-interchange program for oral histamine H2-receptor antagonists.  


A therapeutic-interchange (TI) program for oral histamine H2-receptor antagonists at a hospital is described. In 1992 the pharmacy and therapeutics committee at a large teaching hospital accepted cimetidine as the preferred oral H2 antagonist. However, the program to promote cimetidine met with little success. The manufacturer of nizatidine then offered the hospital that drug at a reduced cost relative to all other members of the drug class. The committee recommended including nizatidine on the formulary; implementing a TI program so that when an order for an oral H2 antagonist was written nizatidine would be dispensed; deleting cimetidine and ranitidine tablets from the formulary; and retaining cimetidine and ranitidine oral liquid and i.v. formulations. The program was approved by the medical executive committee and was implemented in August 1994. Extensive efforts to inform the pharmacy, medical, and nursing staffs about the program were undertaken, and the pharmacy established mechanisms for monitoring compliance. Two months into the program, 97% of eligible patients were receiving nizatidine. Actual cost savings in the first four months exceeded $40,000. In July 1997 the same program was applied to famotidine, which had replaced nizatidine as the most cost-effective H2 antagonist. A successful TI program for oral H2 antagonists was achieved by gaining physician support for the program, educating providers, monitoring compliance, and responding to changes in drug costs. PMID:9659966

Chase, S L; Peterson, A M; Wordell, C J



Antidepressant-like effects of CCK B receptor antagonists: involvement of the opioid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

RB 101 (N-[(R,S)-2-benzyl-3-[(S)-2-amino-4-methylthiobutyldithio]-1-oxopropyl]-l-phenylalaninebenzyl ester), a systemically active inhibitor of enkephalin catabolism, has been shown to elicit antidepressant-like effects in mice, both in the forced-swimming and in the conditioned suppression of the mobility tests. The same type of response has been also observed following administration of the cholecystokinin CCKB receptor antagonist L-365,260 ((3R)-(+)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-3-methylphenylurea). Interestingly, the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (17-cyclopropylmethyl-6,7-dehydro-4,5?-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxy-6,7,2?-3?-indolomorphinan) blocks

Fernando Hernando; José A. Fuentes; Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski; Bernard P. Roques; Mariano Ruiz-Gayo



Antidepressant-like activity of corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 receptor antagonists in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of selective corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists represents a potential novel treatment for depression. These studies evaluated CRF1 receptor antagonists for antidepressant-like activity in mice. Subchronic dosing of both R 121919 (3-[6-(dimethylamino)-4-methyl-pyrid-3-yl]-2,5-dimethyl-N,N-dipropyl-pyrazolo[2,3-a]pyrimidin-7-amine) and DMP 696 (4-(1,3-dimethoxyprop-2-ylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-8-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine) significantly decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test (at 30 and at 3 and 10 mg\\/kg, i.p., respectively). These antidepressant-like

Darci M. Nielsen; Galen J. Carey; Lisa H. Gold



The combination of glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 with tamoxifen and its active metabolites potentiates their antiproliferative activity in mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cells  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade by MK-801 decreases tumor growth. Thus, we investigated whether other ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists were also able to modulate the proliferation of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) decreases the proliferation of melanoma cells, and is included in combined therapies for melanoma. As the efficacy of TAM is limited by its metabolism, we investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 in combination with TAM and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and endoxifen (EDX). The NMDAR blockers MK-801 and memantine decreased mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cell proliferation. In contrast, the NMDAR competitive antagonist APV and the AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist NBQX did not affect cell proliferation, suggesting that among the iGluR antagonists only the NMDAR channel blockers inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. The combination of antiestrogens with MK-801 potentiated their individual effects on cell biomass due to diminished cell proliferation, since it decreased the cell number and DNA synthesis without increasing cell death. Importantly, TAM metabolites combined with MK-801 promoted cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, the data obtained suggest that the activity of MK-801 and antiestrogens in K1735-M2 cells is greatly enhanced when used in combination. - Highlights: • MK-801 and memantine decrease melanoma cell proliferation. • The combination of MK-801 with antiestrogens inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. • These combinations greatly enhance the effects of the compounds individually. • MK-801 combined with tamoxifen active metabolites induces cell cycle arrest in G1. • The combination of MK-801 and antiestrogens is an innovative strategy for melanoma.

Ribeiro, Mariana P.C. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Nunes-Correia, Isabel [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Flow Cytometry Unit, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Armanda E., E-mail: [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Custódio, José B.A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)



Influence of monovalent cations on the binding of a charged and an uncharged ('carbo'-)muscarinic antagonist to muscarinic receptors.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of the buffer concentration on binding of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic receptors M2 was tested in rat heart. Tracer binding was of low affinity in a 20 mM imidazole buffer (pKD 8.3), inhibited by an increase from 10 to 100 mM of the sodium phosphate buffer concentration (pKD 9.92 to 9.22), slightly inhibited by an increase of the Tris/HC1 buffer concentration from 20 to 100 mM (pKD 9.70 to 9.47) and unaffected by an increase of the histidine/HC1 buffer concentration from 20 to 100 mM (pKD 9.90 to 9.82). We chose the last buffer to analyse the effect of ions on antagonists binding to cardiac M2 receptors and to transiently expressed wild-type and (Y533-->F) mutant m3 muscarinic receptors in COS-7 cells. 2. Equilibrium [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to cardiac M2 receptors was inhibited, apparently competitively, by monovalent salts (LiCl > or = NaCl > or = KCl). In contrast, binding of the uncharged 3,3-dimethylbutan-1-ol ester of diphenylglycolic acid (BS-6181) was facilitated by addition of monovalent salts (LiCl > or = NaCl > or = KCl) to the binding buffer. This cation binding pattern is consistent with interaction with a large, negative field strength binding site, such as, for instance, a carboxylic acid. 3. In the presence of 100 mM NaCl, [3H]-N-methylscopolamine had a similar affinity for the wild-type m3 receptor (pKD 9.85) and for a (Y533-->F) mutant m3 receptor (pKD 9.68). However, in the absence of added salts, the tracer had a significantly lower affinity for the mutated (pKD 10.19) as compared to the wild-type (pKD 10.70) m3 receptor. BS-6181 had a significantly lower affinity for the (Y533-->F) mutant m3 muscarinic receptor, as compared to the wild-type m3 receptor, both in the absence (pKD 6.19-6.72) in the presence (pKD 6.48-7.40) of 100 mM NaCl. The effects of NaCl on binding of the uncharged ester and of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine to the m3 receptor were decreased by the mutation. 4. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that monovalent cations from the buffer may interact with the cation binding site of the receptors (an aspartate residue in the third transmembrane helix of muscarinic receptors). Buffer cations may inhibit competitively the binding of (charged) muscarinic ligands having a tertiary amine or ammonium group, while facilitating the receptor recognition by uncharged, isosteric 'carbo-analogues'. Mutation of the (Y533-->F) of the m3 receptor decreased the affinity of the receptor for positive charges, including the sodium ion. PMID:8851517

Hou, X.; Wehrle, J.; Menge, W.; Ciccarelli, E.; Wess, J.; Mutschler, E.; Lambrecht, G.; Timmerman, H.; Waelbroeck, M.



Small molecule receptor agonists and antagonists of CCR3 provide insight into mechanisms of chemokine receptor activation.  


Chemokine receptor CCR3 is highly expressed by eosinophils and signals in response to binding of the eotaxin family of chemokines, which are up-regulated in allergic disorders. Consequently, CCR3 blockade is of interest as a possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic disease. We have described previously a bispecific antagonist of CCR1 and CCR3 named UCB35625 that was proposed to interact with the transmembrane residues Tyr-41, Tyr-113, and Glu-287 of CCR1, all of which are conserved in CCR3. Here, we show that cells expressing the CCR3 constructs Y113A and E287Q are insensitive to antagonism by UCB35625 and also exhibit impaired chemotaxis in response to CCL11/eotaxin, suggesting that these residues are important for antagonist binding and also receptor activation. Furthermore, mutation of the residue Tyr-113 to alanine was found to turn the antagonist UCB35625 into a CCR3 agonist. Screens of small molecule libraries identified a novel specific agonist of CCR3 named CH0076989. This was able to activate eosinophils and transfectants expressing both wild-type CCR3 and a CCR1-CCR3 chimeric receptor lacking the CCR3 amino terminus, indicating that this region of CCR3 is not required for CH0076989 binding. A direct interaction with the transmembrane helices of CCR3 was supported by mutation of the residues Tyr-41, Tyr-113, and Glu-287 that resulted in complete loss of CH0076989 activity, suggesting that the compound mimics activation by CCL11. We conclude that both agonists and antagonists of CCR3 appear to occupy overlapping sites within the transmembrane helical bundle, suggesting a fine line between agonism and antagonism of chemokine receptors. PMID:17635911

Wise, Emma L; Duchesnes, Cécile; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Allen, Rodger A; Williams, Timothy J; Pease, James E




PubMed Central

Chemokine receptor CCR3 is highly expressed by eosinophils and signals in response to binding of the eotaxin family of chemokines, which are upregulated in allergic disorders. Consequently, CCR3 blockade is of interest as a possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic disease. We have described previously a bi-specific antagonist of CCR1 and CCR3 named UCB35625, which was proposed to interact with the transmembrane residues Y41, Y113 and E287 of CCR1, all of which are conserved in CCR3. Here, we show that cells expressing the CCR3 constructs Y113A and E287Q are insensitive to antagonism by UCB35625 and also exhibit impaired chemotaxis in response to CCL11/Eotaxin suggesting that these residues are important for antagonist binding and also receptor activation. Furthermore, mutation of the residue Y113 to alanine was found to turn the antagonist UCB35625 into a CCR3 agonist. Screens of small molecule libraries identified a novel specific agonist of CCR3 named CH0076989. This was able to activate eosinophils and transfectants expressing both wild-type CCR3 and a CCR1:CCR3 chimaeric receptor lacking the CCR3 amino-terminus, indicating that this region of CCR3 is not required for CH0076989 binding. A direct interaction with the transmembrane helices of CCR3 was supported by mutation of the residues Y41, Y113 and E287 which resulted in complete loss of CH0076989 activity, suggesting that the compound mimics activation by CCL11. We conclude that both agonists and antagonists of CCR3 appear to occupy overlapping sites within the transmembrane helical bundle, suggesting a fine line between agonism and antagonism of chemokine receptors. PMID:17635911

Wise, Emma L.; Duchesnes, Cécile; da Fonseca, Paula C.A.; Allen, Rodger A.; Williams, Timothy J.; Pease, James E.



Histamine H1 and H2 Receptor Antagonists Accelerate Skin Barrier Repair and Prevent Epidermal Hyperplasia Induced by Barrier Disruption in a Dry Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocytes have histamine H1 and H2 receptors, but their functions are poorly understood. To clarify the role of histamine receptors in the epidermis, we examined the effects of histamine receptor antagonists and agonists applied epicutaneously on the recovery of skin barrier function disrupted by tape stripping in hairless mice. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and cimetidine accelerated the recovery of

Yutaka Ashida; Mitsuhiro Denda; Tetsuji Hirao



Impairment of hepatic transport processes in perfused rat liver by the specific CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide.  


The specific cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist loxiglumide has been used in several human and animal studies to investigate the role of CCK in gastrointestinal physiology. In the present study, the interference of this CCK receptor antagonist with hepatic transport processes was characterized in the perfused rat liver. Indocyanine green, an organic dye which is secreted into bile without being metabolized, was taken up in control experiments at a rate of 68.1 +/- 7.7%. The CCK receptor antagonist lowered the extraction to 0.5 +/- 2.6% (P < 0.001). The compound diminished the hepatic extraction of CCK-8 from 90.95 +/- 2.60% to 4.90 +/- 1.95% (P < 0.001) and of gastrin from 22.2 +/- 1.1% to 8.2 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001). The hepatic extraction of lidocaine, which is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, was only slightly altered. For leukotrienes and taurocholate, the rate-limiting step for transport into bile is secretion across the canalicular membrane; the hepatic extraction of leukotriene D4 was markedly diminished by loxiglumide whereas the transport of taurocholate was only slightly inhibited. The present study demonstrates that the specific CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide diminished the hepatic extraction of various substances, including peptides and organic anions. It did not interfere with the cytochrome P450 system. The pronounced reduction of hepatic uptake of indocyanine green and leukotriene may be due to an interference with the transport system of these substances in the liver. PMID:9406280

Beckh, K; Dirks, A; Koop, I; Koop, H; Adler, G



Pharmacological characterization of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist MEN16132 in rat in vitro bioassays.  


The pharmacological profile of the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist MEN16132 at the rat B(2) receptor has been investigated and compared with that of icatibant (formerly Hoe 140). Antagonist affinity has been measured through radioligand binding experiments with membranes prepared from uterine and airway tissue. MEN16132 inhibited [(3)H]bradykinin binding with subnanomolar affinity (pK(i) values 10.4 and 10.1 in the uterus and airways, respectively), and was about 3-fold less potent than icatibant (pK(i) values 10.9 and 10.5). Antagonist potency has been estimated towards bradykinin-induced contractility of uterine and urinary bladder smooth muscle preparations. In these assays MEN16132 (pK(B): 9.7 both in uterus and bladder) was about 10-fold more potent than icatibant [pK(B): 8.8 in uterus, and pK(B) 8.0 in urinary bladder, as from Meini, S., Patacchini, R., Giuliani, S., Lazzeri, M., Turini, D., Maggi, C.A., Lecci, A., 2000a. Characterization of bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonists in human and rat urinary bladder. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 388, 177-182]. Washout experiments conducted in the uterine preparation indicated for MEN16132 (100 nM) a slower reversibility than icatibant (300 nM).Altogether present results indicate that MEN16132 displays high affinity and potency also for the rat bradykinin B(2) receptor, and thus is suitable for further investigations in pathophysiological models in this species. PMID:19445925

Meini, Stefania; Cucchi, Paola; Catalani, Claudio; Bellucci, Francesca; Giuliani, Sandro; Santicioli, Paolo; Maggi, Carlo Alberto



Novel non-peptide lead structures forBradykinin B2-receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new non-peptide Bradykinin (BK)B2-receptor antagonists is reported. These newleads belong to a larger set including bothcommercially or otherwise available potentialcandidates found by proprietary database searchesusing 3D-pharmacophore models as query, and severalbis-benzamidino compounds selected from ourtryptase-like protease inhibitor library on thebasis of topological considerations, derived fromthe same models.Some of these compounds show functional competitiveantagonistic activity, inhibiting {in vitro}

L. Felipe Pineda; Claus Liebmann; Sabine Hensellek; Inge Paegelow; Torsten Steinmetzer; Andrea Schweinitz; Jörg Stürzebecher; Siegmund Reissmann



Suppression of Niacin-induced Vasodilation with an Antagonist to Prostaglandin D2 Receptor Subtype 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niacin (nicotinic acid) reduces cardiovascular events in patients with dyslipidemia. However, symptoms associated with niacin-induced vasodilation (e.g., flushing) have limited its use. Laropiprant is a selective antagonist of the prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1 (DP1), which may mediate niacin-induced vasodilation. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the effects of laropiprant (vs placebo) on niacin-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Coadministration

E Lai; I De Lepeleire; T M Crumley; F Liu; L A Wenning; N Michiels; E Vets; G O'Neill; J A Wagner; K Gottesdiener



A novel series of glucagon receptor antagonists with reduced molecular weight and lipophilicity.  


A novel series of glucagon receptor antagonists has been discovered. These pyrazole ethers and aminopyrazoles have lower molecular weight and increased polarity such that the molecules fall into better drug-like property space. This work has culminated in compounds 44 and 50 that were shown to have good pharmacokinetic attributes in dog, in contrast to rats, in which clearance was high; and compound 49, which demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in glucose excursion in a rat glucagon challenge experiment. PMID:22119466

Filipski, Kevin J; Bian, Jianwei; Ebner, David C; Lee, Esther C Y; Li, Jian-Cheng; Sammons, Matthew F; Wright, Stephen W; Stevens, Benjamin D; Didiuk, Mary T; Tu, Meihua; Perreault, Christian; Brown, Janice; Atkinson, Karen; Tan, Beijing; Salatto, Christopher T; Litchfield, John; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel



N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist APV blocks acquisition but not expression of fear conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of N-methyl-o-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in Pavlovian fear conditioning was ex- amined using the NMDA antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). Either APV (5 #g\\/rat) or saline was administered before the training phase, the testing phase, or both. APV completely blocked acquisition but not expression of fear conditioning. The L enantiomer of APV did not affect the acquisition of conditional fear.

Jeansok J. Kim; Joseph P. DeCola; Jesus Landeira-Fernandez; Michael S. Fanselow



In vitro availability studies of enoxacin in presence of H2 receptor antagonists.  


Enoxacin is a second-generation quinolone with increased antibacterial activity both in potency as well as in terms of broad spectrum against a wide range of clinically important pathogens over the first generation quinolones and produces its effect by inhibiting bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase. There are a number of drug interactions reported for enoxacin. On the other hand H2-receptor antagonists block gastric acid secretion and some cardiovascular effects of histamine. As the later drugs are used for a long-term therapy, they may be coadministered with other drugs. In present study in vitro release of enoxacin in presence of cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine has been studied on a B.P. 2003 dissolution test apparatus and compared with the availability of enoxacin and H2-receptor antagonists alone. The interacting drugs were analyzed spectrophotometrically. These studies were carried out in simulated gastric juice, simulating empty stomach, simulated intestinal juice (pH 9) and buffers of pH 7.4 simulating blood pH at 37 degrees C. In order to support these interaction studies, the effect of H2-receptor antagonists on the antibacterial efficacy (MIC) of enoxacin was also studied by turbidity method and compared with parent drug against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that enoxacin should be coadministered with care along with H2-receptor antagonists especially in case of ranitidine, although chances of adverse reactions are rare but decrease in MIC of enoxacin may result in delayed effect or require prolonged use of the drug. PMID:17545110

Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Haroon, Urooj; Hamza, Erum



Ritanserin, a serotonin-2 receptor antagonist, improves ultradian sleep rhythmicity in young poor sleepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the effect on sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of ritanserin, a serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptor antagonist in young poor sleepers.Methods: Eight male subjects underwent two randomized night studies after receiving either a placebo or 5mg ritanserin administered in the morning. The overnight variations in the delta (0.5–4.0Hz) and sigma (12.25–15.0Hz) frequency bands were characterized using a peak analysis which

Antoine U. Viola; Gabrielle Brandenberger; Michel Toussaint; Philippe Bouhours; Jean Paul Macher; Remy Luthringer



Mechanisms by which the putative serotonin receptor antagonist metitepin alters nociception in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The putative serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonist metitepin (0.5 mg\\/ kg, intraperitoneally) produced hypoalgesia in the increasing temperature hot-plate test and hyperalgesia in the tail-flick test in mice. The effects of metitepin were not altered after depletion of 5-HT by the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT, 80 ?g free base, intracerebroventricularly) or the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 400 mg\\/kg for

P. K. Eide; K. Hole; O.-G. Berge



Pathophysiology of a severe case of Puumala hantavirus infection successfully treated with bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant.  


We recently described a patient with very severe Puumala hantavirus infection manifested by capillary leakage syndrome and shock. He was successfully treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist, icatibant (Antonen et al., 2013). Here we report analysis of the pathophysiology which indicated pronounced complement activation, prolonged leukocytosis, extensive fibrinolysis, circulating histones, and defects in liver function. The patient had an uncommon HLA-phenotype, which may have contributed to the severe course of the disease. PMID:25194993

Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Vapalahti, Olli; Jarva, Hanna; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Antonen, Jaakko; Leppänen, Ilona; Mäkelä, Satu; Meri, Seppo; Mustonen, Jukka



ETA Receptor Antagonist Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Vascular Remodeling in Aldosterone-Infused Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased endothelin-1 may be associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and promotion of vascular hypertrophy, especially in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mineralocorticoid hypertension has been associated with activation of the endothelin system. We evaluated whether in aldosterone-infused rats the selective endothelin type A receptor-antagonist BMS 182874 prevents BP elevation and vascular hypertrophy. Rats were infused with aldosterone (0.75 mg\\/h) subcutaneously via

Jeong Bae Park; Ernesto L. Schiffrin


An Autoinflammatory Disease with Deficiency of the Interleukin-1–Receptor Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Background Autoinflammatory diseases manifest inflammation without evidence of infection, high-titer autoantibodies, or autoreactive T cells. We report a disorder caused by mutations of IL1RN, which encodes the interleukin-1–receptor antagonist, with prominent involvement of skin and bone. Methods We studied nine children from six families who had neonatal onset of sterile multifocal osteomyelitis, periostitis, and pustulosis. Response to empirical treatment with the recombinant interleukin-1–receptor antagonist anakinra in the first patient prompted us to test for the presence of mutations and changes in proteins and their function in interleukin-1–pathway genes including IL1RN. Results We identified homozygous mutations of IL1RN in nine affected children, from one family from Newfoundland, Canada, three families from the Netherlands, and one consanguineous family from Lebanon. A nonconsanguineous patient from Puerto Rico was homozygous for a genomic deletion that includes IL1RN and five other interleukin-1–family members. At least three of the mutations are founder mutations; heterozygous carriers were asymptomatic, with no cytokine abnormalities in vitro. The IL1RN mutations resulted in a truncated protein that is not secreted, thereby rendering cells hyperresponsive to interleukin-1? stimulation. Patients treated with anakinra responded rapidly. Conclusions We propose the term deficiency of the interleukin-1–receptor antagonist, or DIRA, to denote this autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations affecting IL1RN. The absence of interleukin-1–receptor antagonist allows unopposed action of interleukin-1, resulting in life-threatening systemic inflammation with skin and bone involvement. ( number, NCT00059748.) PMID:19494218

Aksentijevich, Ivona; Masters, Seth L.; Ferguson, Polly J.; Dancey, Paul; Frenkel, Joost; van Royen-Kerkhoff, Annet; Laxer, Ron; Tedgård, Ulf; Cowen, Edward W.; Pham, Tuyet-Hang; Booty, Matthew; Estes, Jacob D.; Sandler, Netanya G.; Plass, Nicole; Stone, Deborah L.; Turner, Maria L.; Hill, Suvimol; Butman, John A.; Schneider, Rayfel; Babyn, Paul; El-Shanti, Hatem I.; Pope, Elena; Barron, Karyl; Bing, Xinyu; Laurence, Arian; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Chapelle, Dawn; Clarke, Gillian I.; Ohson, Kamal; Nicholson, Marc; Gadina, Massimo; Yang, Barbara; Korman, Benjamin D.; Gregersen, Peter K.; van Hagen, P. Martin; Hak, A. Elisabeth; Huizing, Marjan; Rahman, Proton; Douek, Daniel C.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela



Antidepressants are functional antagonists at the serotonin type 3 (5HT3) receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antidepressants are commonly supposed to enhance serotonergic and\\/or noradrenergic neurotransmission by inhibition of neurotransmitter reuptake through binding to the respective neurotransmitter transporters or through inhibition of the monoamine oxidase. Using the concentration-clamp technique and measurements of intracellular Ca2+, we demonstrate that different classes of antidepressants act as functional antagonists at the human 5-HT3A receptor stably expressed in HEK 293 cells

B Eisensamer; G Rammes; G Gimpl; M Shapa; U Ferrari; G Hapfelmeier; B Bondy; C Parsons; K Gilling; W Zieglgänsberger; F Holsboer; R Rupprecht



Structural insights into Resveratrol’s antagonist and partial agonist actions on estrogen receptor alpha  

PubMed Central

Background Resveratrol, a naturally occurring stilbene, has been categorized as a phytoestrogen due to its ability to compete with natural estrogens for binding to estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and modulate the biological responses exerted by the receptor. Biological effects of resveratrol (RES) on estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) remain highly controversial, since both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties were observed. Results Here, we provide insight into the structural basis of the agonist/antagonist effects of RES on ER? ligand binding domain (LBD). Using atomistic simulation, we found that RES bound ER? monomer in antagonist conformation, where Helix 12 moves away from the ligand pocket and orients into the co-activator binding groove of LBD, is more stable than RES bound ER? in agonist conformation, where Helix 12 lays over the ligand binding pocket. Upon dimerization, the agonistic conformation of RES-ER? dimer becomes more stable compared to the corresponding monomer but still remains less stable compared to the corresponding dimer in antagonist conformation. Interestingly, while the binding pocket and the binding contacts of RES to ER? are similar to those of pure agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES), the binding energy is much less and the hydrogen bonding contacts also differ providing clues for the partial agonistic character of RES on ER?. Conclusions Our Molecular Dynamics simulation of RES-ER? structures with agonist and antagonist orientations of Helix 12 suggests RES action is more similar to Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) opening up the importance of cellular environment and active roles of co-regulator proteins in a given system. Our study reveals that potential co-activators must compete with the Helix 12 and displace it away from the activator binding groove to enhance the agonistic activity. PMID:24160181



Administration of a Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonist Following Chronic ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Physical Withdrawal in the Absence of a Dysphoric State.  

E-print Network

??The selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 has been shown to precipitate physical signs of withdrawal in ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-dependent rats; however, the affective state associated… (more)

Ford, Brittany



Effect of selective agonists and antagonists on atrial adenosine receptors and their interaction with Bay K 8644 and [3H]-nitrendipine.  

PubMed Central

1. (-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) and N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), highly selective agonists at A1-adenosine receptors, 5'-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a non-selective agonist at A1 and A2 receptors, and 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV-1808), a selective A2 agonist, were compared in spontaneously beating and electrically driven atria. R-PIA, CHA and NECA inhibited contraction in both preparations. CV-1808 was not effective up to 500 nM. 2. 1,3-Dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), a new selective A1 receptor antagonist, competitively inhibited the effects of the adenosine agonists, at low concentrations (IC50 less than 1 nM). 3. CHA and NECA were able to inhibit the positive inotropic effect of Bay K 8644 both in spontaneously beating and in electrically driven atria. 4. R-PIA, CHA and NECA (agonists), 8-phenyltheophylline (PT) and DPCPX (antagonists), failed to influence [3H]-nitrendipine binding on microsomal membranes from guinea-pig atria and ventricles in a range of concentrations from 1 nM to 100 microM. 5. The data support the existence of A1 receptors in atrial tissue. No evidence for a direct interaction between adenosine analogues and Bay K 8644 was found at the level of slow calcium channels. Adenosine analogues appear to antagonize the effects of Bay K 8644 indirectly by activation of A1 receptors. PMID:2466519

Borea, P. A.; Caparrotta, L.; De Biasi, M.; Fassina, G.; Froldi, G.; Pandolfo, L.; Ragazzi, E.



Efficacy of H2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its symptoms.  


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is caused by prolonged esophageal mucosal exposure to acid gastric refluxate due to failure of the normal antireflux mechanisms of the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroesophageal reflux can be controlled by suppression of acid secretion or by improvement of gastric emptying and esophageal clearance. H2 receptor antagonists are the most commonly used antisecretory drugs, and in the past 20 years have constituted the cornerstone of therapy for the treatment of reflux disease. They have been shown to be effective in the symptomatic treatment of intermittent or mild nonerosive GERD (greater than 70%). When used at the usual recommended dose, all four H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and nizatidine) are equally effective and are found to be generally very safe; interactions with other drugs metabolized through the cytochrome p450 notwithstanding. However, their efficacy is limited in more severe forms of GERD such as erosive esophagitis (symptomatic improvement 40% to 60%, endoscopic healing 40% to 50%) in which the superior efficacy and more rapid symptomatic relief provided by proton pump inhibitors is clearly demonstrated. The availability of H2 receptor antagonists for over-the-counter use will increase their use for mild and intermittent disease but is unlikely to alter the need for more potent acid suppression in aggressive reflux disease. PMID:9347179

Tougas, G; Armstrong, D



Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Deficiency Presenting as Infantile Pustulosis Mimicking Infantile Pustular Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome of skin and bone caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Few studies have been published about this debilitating condition. Early identification is critical for targeted lifesaving intervention. Observations A male infant, born to nonconsanguineous Puerto Rican parents, was referred for management of a pustular eruption diagnosed as pustular psoriasis. At 2 months of age, the infant developed a pustular eruption. After extensive evaluation, he was confirmed to be homozygous for a 175-kb genomic deletion on chromosome 2 that includes the IL1RN gene, commonly found in Puerto Ricans. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, with rapid clearance of skin lesions and resolution of systemic inflammation. Conclusions Recent identification of DIRA as a disease entity, compounded by the limited number of reported cases, makes early identification difficult. It is critical to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of infantile pustulosis. Targeted therapy with the recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist anakinra can be lifesaving if initiated early. A high carrier frequency of the 175-kb DIRA-associated genomic deletion in the Puerto Rican population strongly supports testing infants presenting with unexplained pustulosis in patients from this geographic region. PMID:22431714

Minkis, Kira; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Magro, Cynthia; Scott, Rachelle; Davis, Jessica G.; Sardana, Niti; Herzog, Ronit



Comparison of a Thromboxane Receptor Antagonist and Aspirin in Experimental Arterial Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antithrombotic activities of aspirin, the thromboxane (Tx) A2\\/prostaglandin endoperoxide-receptor (TP-receptor) antagonist, SQ 30,741, and heparin were determined in anesthetized rats. Heparin (3 doses of 50, 300 U\\/kg), aspirin (1 and 10 mg\\/ kg), SQ 30,741 (1 mg\\/kg + 1 mg\\/kg\\/h), or the combination of SQ 30,741 and aspirin (10 mg\\/kg) was administered intravenously before inducing occlusive thrombosis with 0.1-mA

W. A. Schumacher; C. L. Heran; S. Youssef; J. R. Megill; I. Michel; S. K. Durham



Novel retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists having a dicarba-closo-dodecaborane as a hydrophobic moiety.  


We designed and synthesized novel retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective antagonists bearing a carborane moiety. Compounds 8a-d or 9a-d themselves have no differentiation-inducing activity toward HL-60 cells and no inhibitory activity towards a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist. However, they inhibit the synergistic activity of an RXR agonist, PA024, in the presence of Am80 on the cell differentiation of HL-60. Transactivation assay using RARs and RXRs suggested that the inhibitory activity of 9b resulted from the selective antagonism at the RXR site of RXR-RAR heterodimers. PMID:15501068

Ohta, Kiminori; Iijima, Toru; Kawachi, Emiko; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Endo, Yasuyuki



Deconstruction of sulfonamide inhibitors of the urotensin receptor (UT) and design and synthesis of benzylamine and benzylsulfone antagonists.  


Potent small molecule antagonists of the urotensin receptor are described. These inhibitors were derived via systematically deconstructing a literature inhibitor to understand the basic pharmacophore and key molecular features required to inhibit the protein receptor. The series of benzylamine and benzylsulfone antagonists herein reported display a combination of nanomolar molecular and cellular potency as well as acceptable in vitro permeability and metabolic stability. PMID:23453841

Taylor, Steven J; Soleymanzadeh, Fariba; Muegge, Ingo; Akiba, Isamu; Taki, Naoyuki; Ueda, Saisoku; Mainolfi, Elizabeth; Eldrup, Anne B



Effect of 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists on blood flow in the carotid vessels upon elevation of serotonin level.  


We studied the ability of predominantly 5-HT2A receptor antagonists to prevent a serotonin-induced change of blood flow in the carotid vessels of rats with experimental serotonin-induced spasm. Ritanserin, ketanserin, and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist RU-476 reduced the effect of serotonin on the blood fl ow velocity in the internal carotid artery by 2.3, 1.7, and 2.6 times, respectively. PMID:25070162

Yakovlev, D S; Spasov, A A; Mal'tsev, D V; Anisimova, V A



Discovery of piperidine ethers as selective orexin receptor antagonists (SORAs) inspired by filorexant.  


Highly selective orexin receptor antagonists (SORAs) of the orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) have become attractive targets both as potential therapeutics for insomnia as well as biological tools to help further elucidate the underlying pharmacology of the orexin signaling pathway. Herein, we describe the discovery of a novel piperidine ether 2-SORA class identified by systematic lead optimization beginning with filorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) that recently completed Phase 2 clinical trials. Changes to the ether linkage and pendant heterocycle of filorexant were found to impart significant selectivity for OX2R, culminating in lead compound PE-6. PE-6 displays sub-nanomolar binding affinity and functional potency on OX2R while maintaining >1600-fold binding selectivity and >200-fold functional selectivity versus the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R). PE-6 bears a clean off-target profile, a good overall preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, and reduces wakefulness with increased NREM and REM sleep when evaluated in vivo in a rat sleep study. Importantly, subtle structural changes to the piperidine ether class impart dramatic changes in receptor selectivity. To this end, our laboratories have identified multiple piperidine ether 2-SORAs, 1-SORAs, and DORAs, providing access to a number of important biological tool compounds from a single structural class. PMID:25577040

Raheem, Izzat T; Breslin, Michael J; Bruno, Joseph; Cabalu, Tamara D; Cooke, Andrew; Cox, Christopher D; Cui, Donghui; Garson, Susan; Gotter, Anthony L; Fox, Steven V; Harrell, C Meacham; Kuduk, Scott D; Lemaire, Wei; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Renger, John J; Stump, Craig; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Williams, Peter D; Winrow, Christopher J; Coleman, Paul J



Determination of the binding mode and interacting amino-acids for dibasic H3 receptor antagonists.  


Due to its involvement in major CNS functions, the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is the subject of intensive medicinal chemistry investigation, supported by the range of modern drug discovery tools, such as receptor modeling and ligand docking. Although the receptor models described to date share a majority of common traits, they display discrete alternatives in amino-acid conformation, rendering ligand binding modes quite different. Such variations impede structure-based drug design in the H3R field. In the present study, we used a combination of medicinal chemistry, receptor-guided and ligand-based methods to elucidate the binding mode of antagonists. The approaches converged towards a ligand orientation perpendicular to the membrane plane, bridging Glu206 of the transmembrane helix 5 to acidic amino acids of the extracellular loops. This consensus will help future structure-based drug design for H3R ligands. PMID:23787288

Levoin, Nicolas; Labeeuw, Olivier; Krief, Stéphane; Calmels, Thierry; Poupardin-Olivier, Olivia; Berrebi-Bertrand, Isabelle; Lecomte, Jeanne-Marie; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Capet, Marc



Early Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Refractory and Superrefractory Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) pose a difficult clinical challenge. Multiple cerebral receptor and transporter changes occur with prolonged status epilepticus leading to pharmacoresistance patterns unfavorable for conventional antiepileptics. In particular, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor upregulation leads to glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. Targeting these NMDA receptors may provide a novel approach to otherwise refractory seizures. Ketamine has been utilized in RSE. Recent systematic review indicates 56.5% and 63.5% cessation in seizures in adults and pediatrics, respectively. No complications were described. We should consider earlier implementation of ketamine or other NMDA receptor antagonists, for RSE. Prospective study of early implementation of ketamine should shed light on the role of such medications in RSE. PMID:25649724

Zeiler, F. A.



Early Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Refractory and Superrefractory Status Epilepticus.  


Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) pose a difficult clinical challenge. Multiple cerebral receptor and transporter changes occur with prolonged status epilepticus leading to pharmacoresistance patterns unfavorable for conventional antiepileptics. In particular, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor upregulation leads to glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. Targeting these NMDA receptors may provide a novel approach to otherwise refractory seizures. Ketamine has been utilized in RSE. Recent systematic review indicates 56.5% and 63.5% cessation in seizures in adults and pediatrics, respectively. No complications were described. We should consider earlier implementation of ketamine or other NMDA receptor antagonists, for RSE. Prospective study of early implementation of ketamine should shed light on the role of such medications in RSE. PMID:25649724

Zeiler, F A



The subtype-selective ? 2-adrenoceptor antagonists BRL 44408 and ARC 239 also recognize 5HT 1A receptors in the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several ?2-adrenoceptor compounds have been reported to recognize 5-HT1A receptors. The interaction of the ?2A\\/D- and ?2B\\/C-adrenoceptor antagonists BRL 44408 (2-[2H-(1-methyl-1,3-dihydroisoindole) methyl]-4,5-dihydroimidazole) and ARC 239 (2-[2-[4-(o-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl] ethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,3-(2H,4H)-isoquinolinedione) with 5-HT1A receptors was evaluated in rat brain. Competition experiments in cortex with both compounds against the specific binding of the 5-HT1A receptor radioligand [3H]8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(n-dipropyl-amine)-tetralin) yielded Ki values in the nanomolar range,

J. Javier Meana; Luis F. Callado; Angel Pazos; Bernardo Grijalba; Jesús A. García-Sevilla



Recent Patents on Novel P2X7 Receptor Antagonists and Their Potential for Reducing Central Nervous System Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Inflammation arises in the CNS from a number of neurodegenerative and oncogenic disorders, as well as from ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. These pathologies give rise to increased levels of extracellular adenine nucleotides which, via activation of a variety of cell surface P2 purinergic receptors, influence the inflammatory activities of responding immune cells. One P2 receptor subtype in particular, the P2X7 receptor, potentiates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?) from macrophage-like cells. It is also thought to contribute to secondary brain injury by inducing neuronal cell death. Therefore, antagonism of this receptor could have significant therapeutic impact on all disorders, not just CNS, to which excessive inflammatory activities contribute. The use of currently available P2X7 receptor antagonists for the treatment of CNS inflammation has been limited to the generally non-selective antagonists PPADS, oxidized ATP, Brilliant Blue G, suramin, calmidizolium, and KN-62. However, the recent patents and development of novel P2X7 receptor antagonists, as discussed in this review, will provide new tools both for clinical and research purposes. Here we discuss compounds for which patents have been applied since 2006, from the following categories: benzamide inhibitors, bicycloheteroaryl compounds, acylhdranzine antagonists, biaromatic P2X7 antagonists, heterocyclic compounds and amide derivatives, and aromatic amine antagonists. PMID:19705995

Friedle, Scott A.; Curet, Marjorie A.; Watters, Jyoti J.



Prospective therapeutic agents for obesity: molecular modification approaches of centrally and peripherally acting selective cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists.  


Presently, obesity is one of the major health problems in the developed as well as developing countries due to lack of physical work and increasing sedentary life style. Endocannabinoid system (ECS) and especially cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor play a key role in energy homeostasis. Food intake and energy storage is enhanced due to the stimulation of ECS hence, inhibition of ECS by blocking CB1 receptors could be a promising approach in the treatment of obesity. Rimonabant, a diaryl pyrazole was the first potent and selective CB1 receptor antagonist that was introduced into the market in 2006 but was withdrawn in 2008 due to its psychiatric side effects. Researchers all over the world are interested to develop peripherally acting potent and selective CB1 receptor antagonists having a better pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic index. In this development process, pyrazole ring of rimonabant has been replaced by different bioisosteric scaffolds like pyrrole, imidazole, triazole, pyrazoline, pyridine etc. Variations in substituents around the pyrazole ring have also been done. New strategies were also employed for minimizing the psychiatric side effects by making more polar and less lipophilic antagonists/inverse agonists along with neutral antagonists acting peripherally. It has been observed that some of the peripherally acting compounds do not show adverse effects and could be used as potential leads for the further design of selective CB1 receptor antagonists. Chemical modification strategies used for the development of selective CB1 receptor antagonists are discussed here in this review. PMID:24747288

Sharma, Mayank Kumar; Murumkar, Prashant R; Kanhed, Ashish M; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram



Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Regulate Behavioral Choice between Conflicting Alternatives in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model to study the neuronal or molecular basis for behavioral choice, a specific form of decision-making. Although it has been implied that both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors may contribute to the control of decision-making in mammals, the genetic interactions between D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors in regulating decision-making are still largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the molecular control of behavioral choice between conflicting alternatives (diacetyl and Cu2+) by D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors and their possible genetic interactions with C. elegans as the assay system. In the behavioral choice assay system, mutation of dop-1 gene encoding D1-like dopamine receptor resulted in the enhanced tendency to cross the Cu2+ barrier compared with wild-type. In contrast, mutations of dop-2 or dop-3 gene encoding D2-like dopamine receptor caused the weak tendency to cross the Cu2+ barrier compared with wild-type. During the control of behavioral choice, DOP-3 antagonistically regulated the function of DOP-1. The behavioral choice phenotype of dop-2; dop-1dop-3 triple mutant further confirmed the possible antagonistic function of D2-like dopamine receptor on D1-like dopamine receptor in regulating behavioral choice. The genetic assays further demonstrate that DOP-3 might act through G?o signaling pathway encoded by GOA-1 and EGL-10, and DOP-1 might act through G?q signaling pathway encoded by EGL-30 and EAT-16 to regulate the behavioral choice. DOP-1 might function in cholinergic neurons to regulate the behavioral choice, whereas DOP-3 might function in GABAergic neurons, RIC, and SIA neurons to regulate the behavioral choice. In this study, we provide the genetic evidence to indicate the antagonistic relationship between D1-like dopamine receptor and D2-like dopamine receptor in regulating the decision-making of animals. Our data will be useful for understanding the complex functions of dopamine receptors in regulating decision-making in animals. PMID:25536037

Wang, Daoyong; Yu, Yonglin; Li, Yinxia; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dayong



Antitumor activity of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists in MG-63 human osteosarcoma xenografts.  


Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Aprepitant is a selective high?affinity antagonist of the human neurokinin?1 (NK?1) receptor (NK1R) with robust antitumor activity. No data exist on the presence of NK1R in osteosarcoma and whether this tumor responds to NK1R antagonists. Here, we analyzed the expression of NK1R in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 with western blot analysis and PCR and found significant expression both at the protein and mRNA levels. We further studied the growth inhibitory capacity of aprepitant and other NK1R antagonists on MG-63 in vitro using an MTS cytotoxicity assay and DAPI staining. All antagonists induced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis. Synergism was observed for the combination of L-733,060 with common cytostatic drugs in MG-63, but not in non-malignant HEK293 cells. Pretreatment of HEK293 with L-733,060 prior to exposure to cytostatic drugs partially protected HEK293 cells from inhibition by these drugs. Furthermore, nanomolar concentrations of substance P (SP), the natural ligand of the NK1R, increased the growth rate of MG?63 cells and micromolar concentrations of aprepitant inhibited SP-induced growth in a dose?dependent manner. In vivo, a xenograft for MG-63 was created in nude mice and treated with peritumoral s.c. injections of fosaprepitant, which resulted in a significant reduction of tumor volume. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the NK1R is expressed in human osteosarcoma cell line MG?63 and that this receptor can be targeted with NK1R antagonists both in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:24190675

Muñoz, Miguel; Berger, Michael; Rosso, Marisa; Gonzalez-Ortega, Ana; Carranza, Andrés; Coveñas, Rafael



Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists for the reduction of symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT])3 receptor antagonists are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), in which exaggerated intestinal/colonic hypermotility is often observed. Recent studies have suggested that the motility disorder, especially spastic hypermotility, seen in the neorectum following sphincter-preserving operations for rectal cancer may be the basis of the postoperative defecatory malfunction seen in these patients. We investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients suffering from severe low anterior resection syndrome. Patients and methods A total of 25 male patients with complaints of uncontrollable urgency or fecal incontinence following sphincter-preserving operations were enrolled in this study. Defecatory status, assessed on the basis of incontinence score (0–20), urgency grade (0–3), and number of toilet visits per day, was evaluated using a questionnaire before and 1 month after the administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ramosetron. Results All the parameters assessed improved significantly after taking ramosetron for 1 month. The effect was more prominent in cases whose anastomotic line was lower, ie, inside the anal canal. Defecatory function was better in patients who commenced ramosetron therapy within 6 months postoperatively, as compared to those who were not prescribed ramosetron for more than 7 months postoperatively. Conclusion These results suggest that 5-HT3 antagonists are effective for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome, as in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The improvement in symptoms is not merely time dependent, but it is related to treatment with 5-HT3 antagonists. PMID:24648748

Itagaki, Ryohei; Koda, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masato; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kosugi, Chihiro; Hirano, Atsushi; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Shiragami, Risa; Yoshimura, Yukino; Suzuki, Masato



Cardiac effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists used for voiding dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Antimuscarinic agents are the main drugs used to treat patients with the overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, defined as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Since the treatment is not curative and since OAB is a chronic disease, treatment may be life-long. Antimuscarinics are generally considered to be ‘safe’ drugs, but among the more serious concerns related to their use is the risk of cardiac adverse effects, particularly increases in heart rate (HR) and QT prolongation and induction of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (torsade de pointes). An elevated resting HR has been linked to overall increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases. QT prolongation and its consequences are not related to blockade of muscarinic receptors, but rather linked to inhibition of the hERG potassium channel in the heart. However, experience with terodiline, an antimuscarinic drug causing torsade de pointes in patients, has placed the whole drug class under scrutiny. The potential of the different antimuscarinic agents to increase HR and/or prolong the QT time has not been extensively explored for all agents in clinical use. Differences between drugs cannot be excluded, but risk assessments based on available evidence are not possible. PMID:21595741

Andersson, Karl-Erik; Campeau, Lysanne; Olshansky, Brian



[18F]FDG-PET as an imaging biomarker to NMDA receptor antagonist-induced neurotoxicity.  


Positron emission tomography (PET) is an effective tool for noninvasive examination of the body and provides a range of functional information. PET imaging with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) has been used to image alterations in glucose metabolism in brain or cancer tissue in the field of clinical diagnosis but not in the field of toxicology. A single dose of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist induces neuronal cell degeneration/death in the rat retrosplenial/posterior cingulate (RS/PC) cortex region. These antagonists also increase local cerebral glucose utilization. Here, we examined the potential of [(18)F]FDG-PET as an imaging biomarker of neurotoxicity induced by an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Using [(18)F]FDG-PET, we determined that increased glucose utilization involved the neurotoxicity induced by MK-801. The accumulation of [(18)F]FDG was increased in the rat RS/PC cortex region showing neuronal cell degeneration/death and detected before the onset of neuronal cell death. This effect increased at a dose level at which neuronal cell degeneration recovered 24h after MK-801 administration. Scopolamine prevented the neurotoxicity and [(18)F]FDG accumulation induced by MK-801. Furthermore, in cynomolgus monkeys that showed no neuronal cell degeneration/death when treated with MK-801, we noted no differences in [(18)F]FDG accumulation between test and control subjects in any region of the brain. These findings suggest that [(18)F]FDG-PET, which is available for clinical trials, may be useful in generating a predictive imaging biomarker for detecting neurotoxicity against NMDA receptor antagonists with the same pharmacological activity as MK-801. PMID:23457119

Shirakawa, Takafumi; Mitsuoka, Keisuke; Kuroda, Kanae; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Shiraki, Katsuhisa; Naraoka, Hitoshi; Noda, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Michio



Correlation between log POCT/H2O and pKB estimates for a series of muscarinic and histamine H2-receptor antagonists.  

PubMed Central

1. With histamine used as agonist, pKB values were estimated for seventeen histamine H2-receptor antagonists on assays involving acid secretion by the mouse isolated stomach and contraction frequency of the guinea-pig right atrium. 2. With the exception of oxmetidine, SK&F 94,826 and SK&F 94,206 on the right atrium assay, the compounds behaved as simple competitive antagonists on both assays. Although the former three compounds produced concentration-dependent, parallel, displacement of the histamine concentration-effect curves, subsequent analysis indicated Schild plot slope parameters significantly less than unity. However, the application of a combined dose-ratio analysis indicated that their antagonistic behaviour did not differ from expectations for simple competition at dose-ratios of approximately 20, and pKB values were estimated on this basis. 3. In accordance with previously reported data, pKB values were found to be consistently lower on the stomach than atrial assays. The pKB value for tiotidine was underestimated to the same extent on the stomach assay when impromidine was used as agonist. 4. The removal of the serosal muscle from the mouse stomach, achieved by using an isolated, perfused, mucosal sheet preparation, did not significantly affect the underestimation of the pKB value for metiamide. 5. Linear regressional analysis indicated a significant, positive, correlation between lipophilicity (log POCT/H2O) of the antagonists and the degree of antagonist pKB value underestimation on the gastric secretion assay. PMID:2900037

Shankley, N. P.; Black, J. W.; Ganellin, C. R.; Mitchell, R. C.



The aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone prevents peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis.  


Peritoneal fibrosis is a complication of patients with long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Reports have indicated that angiotensin (Ang) II may correlate with the development of peritoneal fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether aldosterone also has a role in the development of peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of aldosterone in peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis. A rat model of peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis was established by daily intraperitoneal injection of dialysates and lipopolysaccharide in a 4-day interval over a period of 7 days. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: control (C); peritoneal dialysis (PD); peritoneal dialysis-spironolactone (PD-S); peritoneal dialysis-cilazapril (PD-C); and peritoneal dialysis-spironolactone-cilazapril (PD-SC). After 30 days, the TGF-?1 concentration in dialysates from all treatment groups was determined by ELISA. The histopathology of the parietal peritoneum was examined, and the expression of MCP-1, c-Jun, fibronectin (FN) and TGF-?1 in the abdominal membrane was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) were analyzed by real time-PCR. Collagen deposition was significantly higher in PD compared with the other groups. The expression of MR, 11?-HSD2 and CYP11B2 was significantly higher in PD compared with the other groups. Spironolactone and/or cilazapril treatment partially ablated the increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, p-c-Jun, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, FN, MR, 11?-HSD2 and CYP11B2. Furthermore, treatment with spironolactone and/or cilazapril also reduced the infiltration of CD-4- and ED-1-positive cells in rat peritoneal tissues after peritoneal fibrosis. Exogenous aldosterone may have a key role in the development of peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis. Spironolactone decreased peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis, which was associated with reduced secretion from peritoneal macrophages, inactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and subsequent downregulation of the expression of TGF-?1. PMID:24862968

Zhang, Lei; Hao, Jian-Bing; Ren, Lian-Sheng; Ding, Jiu-Li; Hao, Li-Rong



Biochemical and pharmacological characterisatioN OF SR141716A, the first potent and selective brain cannabinoid receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

SR141716A is a selective, potent and orally active antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor with a long duration of action. This compound shows high affinity for the central cannabinoid receptor (Ki=2 nM), displays low affinity for the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Ki >1000 nM). In vitro, SR141716A antagonizes the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on both mouse vas deferens contractions

Murielle Rinaldi-Carmona; Francis Barth; Michel Héaulme; Richard Alonso; David Shire; Christian Congy; Philippe Soubrié; Jean-Claude Brelière; Gérard Le Fur



Crystal structure and pharmacological characterization of a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist at the GluN1 glycine binding site.  


NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. They are tetrameric complexes composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits together with glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits. Subunit-selective antagonists that discriminate between the glycine sites of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits would be valuable pharmacological tools for studies on the function and physiological roles of NMDA receptor subtypes. In a virtual screening for antagonists that exploit differences in the orthosteric binding site of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits, we identified a novel glycine site antagonist, 1-thioxo-1,2-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-one (TK40). Here, we show by Schild analysis that TK40 is a potent competitive antagonist with Kb values of 21-63 nM at the GluN1 glycine-binding site of the four recombinant GluN1/N2A-D receptors. In addition, TK40 displayed >100-fold selectivity for GluN1/N2 NMDA receptors over GluN3A- and GluN3B-containing NMDA receptors and no appreciable effects at AMPA receptors. Binding experiments on rat brain membranes and the purified GluN1 ligand-binding domain using glycine site GluN1 radioligands further confirmed the competitive interaction and high potency. To delineate the binding mechanism, we have solved the crystal structure of the GluN1 ligand-binding domain in complex with TK40 and show that TK40 binds to the orthosteric binding site of the GluN1 subunit with a binding mode that was also predicted by virtual screening. Furthermore, the structure reveals that the imino acetamido group of TK40 acts as an ?-amino acid bioisostere, which could be of importance in bioisosteric replacement strategies for future ligand design. PMID:24072709

Kvist, Trine; Steffensen, Thomas Bielefeldt; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Mehrzad Tabrizi, Fatemeh; Hansen, Kasper B; Gajhede, Michael; Pickering, Darryl S; Traynelis, Stephen F; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans



Combined action of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists in two-hybrid recombinant yeast in vitro.  


Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonistic chemicals in aquatic environments are believed to influence the binding of both endogenous and exogenous estrogens to ERs in aquatic organisms. Although the combined effects of estrogenic compounds have attracted much scientific concern, little work has been done on the influence of such antiestrogens on the biological effects of estrogens. This study focused on how the presence of different amounts of antagonists affects the results of ER agonist activity tests. To achieve this, three questions were stated and answered in sequence. A two-hybrid recombinant yeast assay mediated by ER was adopted, providing a single mode of action and single target of action for this study. Mixtures created by an ER agonist and three antagonists following the fixed-ratio principle were assessed. The concentration of 17?-estradiol causing maximum induction was set as the fixed dose of estrogen in the antagonist activity test (question 1). When the two classes of chemicals coexisted, antiestrogens, which as a whole behaved according to the concentration addition model (question 2), decreased the response of estrogen and compressed the concentration-response curves along the y-axis in the agonist activity test (question 3). This may cause the estradiol equivalent to be underestimated and potentially mask the action of estrogenic effects in toxicity evaluation of environmental samples. PMID:25450938

Yang, Rong; Li, Na; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian



The role of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor antagonists in inflammatory response and sepsis.  


Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, mainly secreted by endothelial cells. It acts through two types of receptors: ETA and ETB. Apart from a vasoconstrictive action, ET-1 causes fibrosis of the vascular cells and stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. It is claimed that ET-1 induces proinflammatory mechanisms, increasing superoxide anion production and cytokine secretion. A recent study has shown that ET-1 is involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-?B and expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-1, and IL-6. It has been also indicated that during endotoxaemia, the plasma level of ET-1 is increased in various animal species. Some authors indicate a clear correlation between endothelin plasma level and morbidity/mortality rate in septic patients. These pathological effects of ET-1 may be abrogated at least partly by endothelin receptor blockade. ET-1 receptor antagonists may be useful for prevention of various vascular diseases. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding endothelin receptor antagonists and the role of ET-1 in sepsis and inflammation. PMID:25288367

Kowalczyk, Agata; Kleniewska, Paulina; Kolodziejczyk, Michal; Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna



Synthesis, structural activity-relationships, and biological evaluation of novel amide-based allosteric binding site antagonists in NR1A/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors?  

PubMed Central

The synthesis and structure–activity relationship analysis of a novel class of amide-based biaryl NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists are presented. Some of the studied compounds are potent, selective, non-competitive, and voltage-independent antagonists of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. Like the founding member of this class of antagonists (ifenprodil), several interesting compounds of the series bind to the amino terminal domain of the NR2B subunit to inhibit function. Analogue potency is modu-lated by linker length, flexibility, and hydrogen bonding opportunities. However, unlike previously described classes of NR2B-selective NMDA antagonists that exhibit off-target activity at a variety of monoamine receptors, the compounds described herein show much diminished effects against the hERG channel and ?1-adrenergic receptors. Selections of the compounds discussed have acceptable half-lives in vivo and are predicted to permeate the blood–brain barrier. These data together suggest that masking charged atoms on the linker region of NR2B-selective antagonists can decrease undesirable side effects while still maintaining on-target potency. PMID:19648014

Mosley, Cara A.; Myers, Scott J.; Murray, Ernest E.; Santangelo, Rose; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Kurtkaya, Natalie; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Yuan, Hongjie; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Yepes, Manuel; Dingledine, Ray; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Liotta, Dennis C.



Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo



Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT6 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia  

PubMed Central

The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT6R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT6R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT6R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT6R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT6R hypophagia. PMID:24566060

Garfield, Alastair S.; Burke, Luke K.; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L.; Heisler, Lora K.



The bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist R-954 inhibits Ehrlich tumor growth in rodents.  


The present study investigated the effects of a new bradykinin B(1) receptor antagonist, R-954, on the development of Ehrlich ascitic tumor (EAT) induced by the intraperitoneal inoculation of EAT cells in mice and the formation of a solid tumor by the subcutaneous injection of the cells in rat paw. The development of the tumor was associated with an increase in mouse total cell counts in bone marrow (10.8-fold), ascitic fluid (14.6-fold), and blood (12.6-fold). R-954 (2mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced the ascitic fluid volume (63.7%) and the mouse weight gain (30.5%) after 10 consecutive days of treatment. The B(1) antagonist as well as the anti-neoplasic drug vincristine also significantly inhibited the increase in total cell count in bone marrow, ascitic fluid, and blood. R-954 reduced significantly the total protein extravasation (57.3%), the production of nitric oxide (56%), PGE(2) production (82%), and TNF? release (85.7%) in mice peritoneal cavity whereas vincristine reduced the release of these inflammatory mediators by 84-94%. The increase in paw edema after intraplantar injection of EAT cells was reduced by approximately 52% by either R-954 or vincristine treatment. In conclusion, this study presents for the first time the antitumoral activity of a new bradykinin B(1) receptor antagonist on ascitic and solid tumors induced by Ehrlich cell inoculation in mice and rats. PMID:21835216

Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Gomes, Niele de Matos; Sirois, Pierre



Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases.  


Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

Alagha, Khuder; Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal



Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal



Impairment of stress adaptive behaviours in rats by the CCKA receptor antagonist, devazepide.  

PubMed Central

1. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released during stress both in limbic and hypothalamic areas suggesting that CCK could participate in modulating neuroendocrine as well as behavioural responses to stress. 2. In this study we have examined the effect of CCK receptor antagonists on the retention of the immobility response to a forced-swim stress in rats. In this test, rats are forced to swim during 15 min (conditioning period) and 24 h later, the duration of immobility is measured during a period of 5 min (re-test period). During the conditioning period rats display a period of vigorous activity, followed by progressive inactivity. During the re-test period rats remain 70-80% of the time in an immobile posture. 3. The CCKA receptor antagonist, devazepide (MK-329) but not the CCKB receptor antagonist, L-365,260, administered s.c. immediately before the conditioning period, decreased the duration of acquired immobility during the re-test period. The effect of devazepide was prevented by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8; 40 micrograms kg-1, s.c) as well as by the selective glucocorticosteroid GII receptor agonist, dexamethasone (30 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) 4. Neither corticosterone nor ACTH plasma levels measured both after the re-test period and after the conditioning period were modified by devazepide treatment. 5. The results suggest a role for CCK in the behavioural adaptation to stress and indicate a relationship between CCK systems and glucocorticoids in the neuronal mechanisms involved in the acquisition of adaptive behaviours to stress. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8735644

Hernando, F.; Fuentes, J. A.; Ruiz-Gayo, M.



PQ-69, a novel and selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist with inverse agonist activity.  


Potent and selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) antagonists with favourable pharmacokinetic properties used as novel diuretics and antihypertensives are desirable. Thus, we designed and synthesized a series of novel 4-alkylamino substitution-2-arylpyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one derivatives. The aim of the present study is to characterize the biological profiles of the optimized compound, PQ-69. In vitro binding assay revealed a K i value of 0.96 nM for PQ-69 in cloned hA1 receptor, which was 217-fold more selective compared with hA2A receptors and >1,000-fold selectivity for hA1 over hA3 receptor. The results obtained from [(35)S]-GTP?S binding and cAMP concentration assays indicated that PQ-69 might be an A1AR antagonist with inverse agonist activity. In addition, PQ-69 displayed highly inhibitory activities on isolated guinea pig contraction (pA2 value of 8.99) induced by an A1AR agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine. Systemic administration of PQ-69 (0.03, 0.3, 3 mg/kg) increased urine flow and sodium excretion in normal rats. Furthermore, PQ-69 displayed better metabolic stability in vitro and longer terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2) in vivo compared with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine. These findings suggest that PQ-69 exhibits potent antagonist effects on A1AR in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, it might be a useful research tool for investigating A1AR function, and it could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:25248972

Lu, Min; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Cheng; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Mei; Wang, Haoshan; Li, Weizhang; Su, Ruibin; Li, Jin



Kinin B1 receptor antagonists with multi-enzymatic resistance properties.  


The kinin B, receptor has been implicated in a variety of pathological states; therefore, potent, selective, and specific antagonists with prolonged duration of action in vivo are needed. Using R-715 (AcLys[D-beta-Nal(7),Ile(8)] desArg9BK) as a template, new peptides containing alpha-MePhe in position 5, Oic in position 2, and AcOrn instead of AcLys at the N-terminal were prepared and tested for their antagonist potency, their selectivity, and their specificity for the kinin B1 receptor. In vitro metabolic stabilities toward aminopeptidase M (from human plasma), aminopeptidase P (from human platelets), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (purified from rabbit lung) were also investigated. The results of this study indicate that the three modifications applied separately are as well tolerated as they are when present conjointly in the template R-715. Indeed, pA2 values of R-715 (ranging from 8.40 to 8.5) do not differ significantly from the analogues R-954 and R-955 (both ranging from 8.4 to 8.6) when measured at kinin B1 receptors from rabbit aortas and human umbilical veins. Moreover, the chemical modifications utilized in the peptides R-954 and R-955 have provided resistance against aminopeptidases M and P, as well as the angiotensin-converting enzyme, unlike the early (e.g., Lys[Leu8]desArg9BK) and more recent (e.g., R-715, B-9858) generations of B, receptor antagonists. Ongoing in vivo assays will validate the assumption that the analogues R-954 and R-955 have a prolonged duration of action. PMID:12025963

Neugebauer, Witold; Blais, Paul A; Hallé, Stephanie; Filteau, Catherine; Regoli, Domenico; Gobeil, Fernand



A-425619 [1-isoquinolin-5-yl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-urea], a novel and selective transient receptor potential type V1 receptor antagonist, blocks channel activation by vanilloids, heat, and acid.  


The vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) integrates responses to multiple stimuli, such as capsaicin, acid, heat, and endovanilloids and plays an important role in the transmission of inflammatory pain. Here, we report the identification and in vitro characterization of A-425619 [1-isoquinolin-5-yl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-urea], a novel, potent, and selective TRPV1 antagonist. A-425619 was found to potently block capsaicin-evoked increases in intracellular calcium concentrations in HEK293 cells expressing recombinant human TRPV1 receptors (IC50 = 5 nM). A-425619 showed similar potency (IC50 = 3-4 nM) to block TRPV1 receptor activation by anandamide and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine. Electrophysiological experiments showed that A-425619 also potently blocked the activation of native TRPV1 channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (IC50 = 9 nM). When compared with other known TRPV1 antagonists, A-425619 exhibited superior potency in blocking both naive and phorbol ester-sensitized TRPV1 receptors. Like capsazepine, A-425619 demonstrated competitive antagonism (pA2 = 2.5 nM) of capsaicin-evoked calcium flux. Moreover, A-425619 was 25- to 50-fold more potent than capsazepine in blocking TRPV1 activation. A-425619 showed no significant interaction with a wide range of receptors, enzymes, and ion channels, indicating a high degree of selectivity for TRPV1 receptors. These data show that A-425619 is a structurally novel, potent, and selective TRPV1 antagonist. PMID:15837819

El Kouhen, Rachid; Surowy, Carol S; Bianchi, Bruce R; Neelands, Torben R; McDonald, Heath A; Niforatos, Wende; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Lee, Chih-Hung; Honore, Prisca; Sullivan, James P; Jarvis, Michael F; Faltynek, Connie R



Modified 2'-ribose small RNAs function as Toll-like receptor-7/8 antagonists.  


A subset of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses microbial nucleic acids in endosomal compartments. Furthermore, under certain conditions TLRs can recognize self-RNAs leading to the induction and/or perpetuation of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the incorporation of modified nucleotides into small interfering RNA suppressed unwanted immunostimulation. Interestingly, RNA harboring 2'-ribose modifications, particularly 2'-O-methyl not only evaded immune activation but also suppressed TLR signaling triggered in-trans by immunostimulatory RNAs. This new generation of TLR antagonists may have utility as inhibitors of pathogenic inflammatory reactions mediated by TLR activation. Beyond their structural role, natural modifications in native eukaryotic RNAs may function as endogenous TLR antagonists as well. This chapter describes the characterization of short synthetic small RNAs that suppress immunostimulatory activity in-trans. PMID:25319669

Sioud, Mouldy



[New generation of androgen receptor antagonist in castration resistant prostate cancer].  


Androgen ablation therapy is performed for prostate cancer patients especially with advanced stage. Nevertheless, outgrowth of hormone independent cancer cells occurs within several years and leads to a lethal condition, so-called castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Even in CRPC cells under low levels of serum androgens, androgen receptor (AR) signaling still functions and is engaged in the establishment of CRPC. Recently, novel AR antagonists have been developed such as enzalutamide or ARN-509. This review focuses on these AR antagonists that have some features including high affinity to AR compared with bicalutamide, preventing nuclear translocation and DNA binding. These new hormonal agents have changed the landscape of CRPC treatment with a promising outcome. PMID:25518352

Uemura, Hiroji



Oral Administration of a Retinoic Acid Receptor Antagonist Reversibly Inhibits Spermatogenesis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Here we investigated a pharmacological approach to inhibit spermatogenesis in the mouse model by manipulating retinoid signaling using low doses of the pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist BMS-189453. Spermatogenesis was disrupted, with a failure of spermatid alignment and sperm release and loss of germ cells into lumen, abnormalities that resembled those in vitamin A-deficient and RAR?-knockout testes. Importantly, the induced sterility was reversible. Enhanced efficacy and a lengthened infertility period with full recovery of spermatogenesis were observed using systematically modified dosing regimens. Hematology, serum chemistry, and hormonal and pathological evaluations revealed no detectable abnormalities or adverse side effects except the distinct testicular pathology. Our results suggest that testes are exquisitely sensitive to disruption of retinoid signaling and that RAR antagonists may represent new lead molecules in developing nonsteroidal male contraceptives. PMID:21505053

Chung, Sanny S. W.; Wang, Xiangyuan; Roberts, Shelby S.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Reczek, Peter R.



Structure-activity relationship study of diphenylamine-based estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists.  


We have reported the design and synthesis of novel estrogen receptor (ER) agonists with a diphenylamine skeleton, which has several advantages over the formerly used diphenylmethane skeleton for drug development. Here, we confirmed the versatility of the diphenylamine skeleton by designing and synthesizing ER antagonist candidates bearing a basic alkylamino side chain on one of the two phenol groups of the diphenylamine agonist core structure. Among the tested compounds, cyclic alkylamine-containing derivatives showed more potent ER-antagonistic activity than the corresponding acyclic derivatives in cell proliferation assay using the MCF-7 cell line. Compound 5e showed the most potent antiestrogenic activity (IC50: 1.3×10(-7)M), being 10times more potent than tamoxifen. PMID:25614118

Ohta, Kiminori; Chiba, Yuki; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki



Pharmacology of SB-273779, a nonpeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide 1 receptor antagonist.  


Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilatory and cardiotonic peptide, has a potential role for CGRP in diverse physiologic and pathophysiologic situations such as congestive heart failure, diabetes, migraine, and neurogenic inflammation. Although a peptide CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP(8-37,) is available, its utility presents significant limitations for these indications. Here, we describe the properties of SB-(+)-273779 [N-methyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)-3-nitro-4-(2-thiazolylsulfinyl)nitrobenzanilide], a selective nonpeptide antagonist of CGRP(1) receptor. SB-(+)-273779 inhibited (125)I-labeled CGRP binding to SK-N-MC (human neuroblastoma cells) and human cloned CGRP(1) receptor with K(i) values of 310 +/- 40 and 250 +/-15 nM, respectively. SB-(+)-273779 also inhibited CGRP (3 nM)-activated adenylyl cyclase in these systems with IC(50) values of 390 +/-10 nM (in SK-N-MC) and 210 +/-16 nM (recombinant human CGRP receptors). Prolonged treatment (>30 min) of SK-N-MC cells with SB-(+)-273779 followed by extensive washing resulted in reduction in maximum CGRP-mediated adenylyl cyclase activity, suggesting that this compound has irreversible binding characteristics. In addition, SB-(+)-273779 antagonized CGRP-mediated 1) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) in recombinant CGRP receptors in HEK-293 cells, 2) inhibition of insulin-stimulated [(14)C]deoxyglucose uptake in L6 cells, 3) vasodilation in rat pulmonary artery, and 4) decrease in blood pressure in anesthetized rats. SB-(+)-273779 tested at 3 microM had no significant affinity for calcitonin, endothelin, angiotensin II, and alpha-adrenergic receptors under standard ligand binding assays. SB-(+)-273779 also did not inhibit forskolin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. These results suggest that SB-(+)-273779 is a valuable tool for studying CGRP-mediated functional responses in complex biological systems. PMID:11181905

Aiyar, N; Daines, R A; Disa, J; Chambers, P A; Sauermelch, C F; Quiniou, M; Khandoudi, N; Gout, B; Douglas, S A; Willette, R N



Identification of a proliferator-activated receptor-? antagonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a novel antagonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) was screened and identified, and a cell-based evaluation of the biological activity of this PPAR? antagonist was conducted. The aim of the study was to produce results that may provide a foundation for the development of a novel compound in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since obesity is the main cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, identifying a new reagent that is able to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation is a feasible method of developing novel anti-diabetes drugs. The PPAR? antagonist was screened using a mammalian one-hybrid system and transcriptional activation. The effects of the compound on adipocyte differentiation were investigated by staining the preadipocytes with Oil Red O. In addition, the effects of the compound on the expression levels of genes associated with lipid metabolism were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As a PPAR? antagonist, N-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl) aniline (Compound Q) was shown to depress the transcriptional activity and coactivator recruitment of PPAR?, as well as preadipocyte differentiation, in a concentration-dependent manner. The compound was also shown to decrease the expression levels of genes associated with PPAR?-regulated lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the compound screening platform was demonstrated to be valid, and the present study identified a novel PPAR? antagonist that was shown to effectively reduce the rate of adipocyte differentiation and the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism. PMID:25574213




NMDA receptor antagonists ameliorate the stepping deficits produced by unilateral medial forebrain bundle injections of 6-OHDA in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objectives To test the hypothesis that excess glutamatergic transmission at NMDA receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), we examined the effects of various NMDA receptor antagonists on a recently developed rat model of PD. Methods Following unilateral injections of 12 µg 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle of male Long Evans rats, stepping with both

John E. Kelsey; Stephen D. Mague; Reyna S. Pijanowski; Ryan C. Harris; Nancy W. Kleckner; Russell T. Matthews



Selective Modulation of Gq/Gs pathways by Naphtho Pyrano Pyrimidines As Antagonists of the Neuropeptide S Receptor  

PubMed Central

Antagonists of the neuropeptide S receptor have been postulated as promising therapeutics in the treatment of respiratory, sleep, anxiety, and addictive disorders. Here, we present the SAR of a new series of orthosteric antagonists. Neuropeptide S receptor signaling is coupled to both Gq and Gs proteins, and we observe that different analogues in this structural series can selectively antagonize these two pathways. Many G-protein coupled receptors transduce signals through multiple pathways. Selective antagonism of these pathways may lead the way to the development of more targeted pharmacological profiles and therapies. PMID:21116448



Identification of Ghrelin Receptor Blocker, D-[Lys3] GHRP-6 as a CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist  

PubMed Central

[D-Lys3]-Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (DLS) is widely utilized in vivo and in vitro as a selective ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) antagonist. Unexpectedly, we identified that DLS also has the ability to block CXCL12 binding and activity through CXCR4 on T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, as CXCR4 has been shown to act as a major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into CD4 positive host cells, we have also found that DLS partially blocks CXCR4-mediated HIV-1 entry and propagation in activated human PBMCs. These data demonstrate that DLS is not the specific and selective antagonist as thought for GHS-R1a and appears to have additional effects on the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Our findings also suggest that structural analogues that mimic DLS binding properties may also have properties of blocking HIV infectivity, CXCR4 dependent cancer cell migration and attenuating chemokine-mediated immune cell trafficking in inflammatory disorders. PMID:22211109

Patel, Kalpesh; Dixit, Vishwa Deep; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Jie Wan; Schaffer, Eric M.; Nguyen, Dzung; Taub, Dennis D.



Discovery of MK-3697: a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (2-SORA) for the treatment of insomnia.  


Orexin receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical utility for the treatment of insomnia. The majority of clinical efforts to date have focused on the development of dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs), small molecules that antagonize both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. Our group has recently disclosed medicinal chemistry efforts to identify highly potent, orally bioavailable selective orexin 2 receptor antagonists (2-SORAs) that possess acceptable profiles for clinical development. Herein we report additional SAR studies within the 'triaryl' amide 2-SORA series focused on improvements in compound stability in acidic media and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. These studies resulted in the discovery of 2,5-disubstituted isonicotinamide 2-SORAs such as compound 24 that demonstrated improved stability and TDI profiles as well as excellent sleep efficacy across species. PMID:25248679

Roecker, Anthony J; Reger, Thomas S; Mattern, M Christa; Mercer, Swati P; Bergman, Jeffrey M; Schreier, John D; Cube, Rowena V; Cox, Christopher D; Li, Dansu; Lemaire, Wei; Bruno, Joseph G; Harrell, C Meacham; Garson, Susan L; Gotter, Anthony L; Fox, Steven V; Stevens, Joanne; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Cabalu, Tamara D; Cui, Donghui; Stellabott, Joyce; Hartman, George D; Young, Steven D; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Coleman, Paul J



Alkaloids from Microcos paniculata with Cytotoxic and Nicotinic Receptor Antagonistic Activities  

PubMed Central

Microcos paniculata is a large shrub or small tree that grows in several countries in South and Southeast Asia. In the present study, three new piperidine alkaloids, microgrewiapines A-C (1-3), as well as three known compounds, inclusive of microcosamine A (4), 7?-(3?,4?-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]propenamide (5), and liriodenine (6), were isolated from cytotoxic fractions of the separate chloroform-soluble extracts of the stem bark, branches, and leaves of M. paniculata. Compounds 1-6 and 1a showed a range of cytotoxicity values against the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. When evaluated for their effects on human ?3?4 or ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), several of these compounds were shown to be active as nAChR antagonists. As a result of this study, microgrewiapine A (1) was found to be a selective cytotoxic agent for colon cancer cells over normal colon cells, and to exhibit nicotinic receptor antagonistic activity for both the h?3?4 and h?4?2 receptor subtypes. PMID:23327794

Still, Patrick C.; Yi, Bitna; González-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Pan, Li; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Chai, Hee-Byung; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Li, Chenglong; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel; McKay, Dennis B.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas



Structural and Energetic Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Mutations on Agonist and Antagonist Binding  

PubMed Central

To predict structural and energetic effects of point mutations on ligand binding is of considerable interest in biochemistry and pharmacology. This is not only useful in connection with site-directed mutagenesis experiments, but could also allow interpretation and prediction of individual responses to drug treatment. For G-protein coupled receptors systematic mutagenesis has provided the major part of functional data as structural information until recently has been very limited. For the pharmacologically important A2A adenosine receptor, extensive site-directed mutagenesis data on agonist and antagonist binding is available and crystal structures of both types of complexes have been determined. Here, we employ a computational strategy, based on molecular dynamics free energy simulations, to rationalize and interpret available alanine-scanning experiments for both agonist and antagonist binding to this receptor. These computer simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental data and, most importantly, reveal the molecular details behind the observed effects which are often not immediately evident from the crystal structures. The work further provides a distinct validation of the computational strategy used to assess effects of point-mutations on ligand binding. It also highlights the importance of considering not only protein-ligand interactions but also those mediated by solvent water molecules, in ligand design projects. PMID:25285959

Keränen, Henrik; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Åqvist, Johan



Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists in experimental myocarditis.  


Myocarditis is a disease whose pathogenesis is not completely understood and whose prevalence is likely underestimated. Individuals afflicted with this condition may be treated with agents that relieve symptoms arising from inflammation and concurrent cellular damage. One class of drugs commonly used in the treatment of myocarditis includes the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, such as captopril, enalapril and lisinopril, and the angiotensin Pi receptor antagonists, such as L-158,809 and losartan. The effects of these drugs on cardiomyopathy have been studied using a variety of animal models of heart failure and hypertension. However, less research has been done in the area of animal models of frank myocarditis. Here we review the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin Pi receptor antagonists in animal models of myocarditis. We extend the implications of that published work by correlation with results from studies of other disease models and in vitro experiments that highlight the immunomodulatory potential of these compounds. The literature strongly suggests that aggressive therapy employing angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and/or blockade of angiotensin Pi receptors is beneficial. Treatment is useful not only for reducing complications associated with myocarditis, but also for downregulating the potential autoimmune component of disease without increasing the levels of the infectious agent that may initiate the myocarditis. PMID:12570790

Godsel, Lisa M; Leon, Juan S; Engman, David M



5-HT1B receptor antagonist properties of novel arylpiperazide derivatives of 1-naphthylpiperazine.  


A new series of arylpiperazide derivatives of 1-naphthylpiperazine of general formula 4 has been prepared and evaluated as 5-HT1B antagonists. Binding experiments at cloned human 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1D receptors show that these derivatives are potent and selective ligands for 5-HT1B/1D subtypes with increased binding selectivity versus the 5-HT1A receptor when compared to 1-naphthylpiperazine (1-NP). Studies of inhibition of the forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation mediated by the human 5-HT1B receptor demonstrate that the nature of the arylpiperazide substituent modulates the intrinsic activity of these 1-NP derivatives. Among them, 2-[[8-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)naphthalen-2-yl]oxy] -1-(4-o-tolylpiperazin-1-yl)ethanone (4a) was identified as a potent neutral 5-HT1B antagonist able to antagonize the inhibition of 5-HT release induced by 5-CT (5-carbamoyltryptamine) in guinea pig hypothalamus slices. Moreover, 4a was found to potently antagonize the hypothermia induced by a selective 5-HT1B/1D agonist in vivo in the guinea pig following oral administration (ED50 = 0.13 mg/kg). PMID:9397179

Jorand-Lebrun, C; Pauwels, P J; Palmier, C; Moret, C; Chopin, P; Perez, M; Marien, M; Halazy, S



Modulation of gastrointestinal function by MuDelta, a mixed µ opioid receptor agonist/ µ opioid receptor antagonist  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE Loperamide is a selective µ opioid receptor agonist acting locally in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as an effective anti-diarrhoeal but can cause constipation. We tested whether modulating µ opioid receptor agonism with ? opioid receptor antagonism, by combining reference compounds or using a novel compound (‘MuDelta’), could normalize GI motility without constipation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH MuDelta was characterized in vitro as a potent µ opioid receptor agonist and high-affinity ? opioid receptor antagonist. Reference compounds, MuDelta and loperamide were assessed in the following ex vivo and in vivo experiments: guinea pig intestinal smooth muscle contractility, mouse intestinal epithelial ion transport and upper GI tract transit, entire GI transit or faecal output in novel environment stressed mice, or four weeks after intracolonic mustard oil (post-inflammatory). Colonic ? opioid receptor immunoreactivity was quantified. KEY RESULTS ? Opioid receptor antagonism opposed µ opioid receptor agonist inhibition of intestinal contractility and motility. MuDelta reduced intestinal contractility and inhibited neurogenically-mediated secretion. Very low plasma levels of MuDelta were detected after oral administration. Stress up-regulated ? opioid receptor expression in colonic epithelial cells. In stressed mice, MuDelta normalized GI transit and faecal output to control levels over a wide dose range, whereas loperamide had a narrow dose range. MuDelta and loperamide reduced upper GI transit in the post-inflammatory model. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS MuDelta normalizes, but does not prevent, perturbed GI transit over a wide dose-range in mice. These data support the subsequent assessment of MuDelta in a clinical phase II trial in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:22671931

Wade, PR; Palmer, JM; McKenney, S; Kenigs, V; Chevalier, K; Moore, BA; Mabus, JR; Saunders, PR; Wallace, NH; Schneider, CR; Kimball, ES; Breslin, HJ; He, W; Hornby, PJ



Effect of Intranasal Administration of CV11974, a Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, on Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Airway Inflammation Induced by Antigen Inhalation in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Angiotensin II is a putative mediator in asthma, but the effect of topical administration of type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonists on allergic airway reactions is not known. Objective: To investigate the effect of intranasal administration of CV-11974, an AT1 receptor antagonist, and of PD123319, a type 2 angiotensin II (AT2) receptor antagonist, on antigen-induced airway reactions in

Shigeharu Myou; Masaki Fujimura; Toshiyuki Kita; Kazuyoshi Watanabe; Tatsuki Hirose; Hideki Tachibana; Yoshihisa Ishiura; Shinji Nakao



Clinical and preclinical characterization of the histamine H(4) receptor antagonist JNJ-39758979.  


The histamine H4 receptor (H(4)R) has been shown to have preclinical involvement in both inflammatory and pruritic responses. JNJ-39758979 [(R)-4-(3-amino-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-6-isopropyl-pyrimidin-2-ylamine] is a potent and selective H(4)R antagonist with a Ki at the human receptor of 12.5 ± 2.6 nM and greater than 80-fold selectivity over other histamine receptors. The compound also exhibited excellent selectivity versus other targets. JNJ-39758979 showed dose-dependent activity in models of asthma and dermatitis consistent with other H(4)R antagonists. Preclinical toxicity studies of up to 6 months in rats and 9 months in monkeys indicated an excellent safety profile, supporting the clinical testing of the compound. An oral formulation of JNJ-39758979 was studied in a phase 1 human volunteer study to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. The compound was well tolerated, with the exception of dose-dependent nausea, and no safety issues were noted in the phase 1 study. JNJ-39758979 exhibited good pharmacokinetics upon oral dosing with a plasma half-life of 124-157 hours after a single oral dose. In addition, dose-dependent inhibition of histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was detected, suggesting that the H4R was inhibited in vivo. In conclusion, JNJ-39758979 is a potent and selective H(4)R antagonist that exhibited good preclinical and phase 1 safety in healthy volunteers with evidence of a pharmacodynamics effect in humans. PMID:24549371

Thurmond, Robin L; Chen, Bin; Dunford, Paul J; Greenspan, Andrew J; Karlsson, Lars; La, David; Ward, Peter; Xu, Xie L



Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of respiratory disease.  


The use of muscarinic receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established. More recently, the potential for long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) in the treatment of asthma has also been investigated. While LAMAs offer advantages over short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists, in terms of a reduced dosing frequency, there remains a need for therapies that improve symptom control throughout both the day and night, provide better management of exacerbations and deliver improved health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the potential for unwanted anticholinergic side effects, particularly cardiovascular effects, remains a concern for this class of compounds. Novel LAMAs in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory disease include: aclidinium bromide, NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), GP-MDI, EP-101, CHF-5259, umeclidinium bromide, CHF-5407, TD-4208, AZD8683 and V-0162. These compounds offer potential advantages in terms of onset of action, symptom control and safety. In addition, a number of LAMAs are also being developed as combination treatments with long-acting ?2-agonists (LABAs) or inhaled glucocorticosteroids, potentially important treatment options for patients who require combination therapy to achieve an optimal therapeutic response as their disease progresses. More recently, compounds such as GSK961081 and THRX-198321 have been identified that combine LAMA and LABA activity in the same molecule, and have the potential to offer the benefits of combination therapy in a single compound. Here, we review novel LAMAs and dual action compounds in clinical development, with a particular focus on how they may address the current unmet clinical needs in the treatment of respiratory disease, particularly COPD. PMID:23274274

Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive; Matera, Maria Gabriella



Pharmacology of modality-specific transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonists that do not alter body temperature.  


The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel is involved in the development and maintenance of pain and participates in the regulation of temperature. The channel is activated by diverse agents, including capsaicin, noxious heat (? 43°C), acidic pH (< 6), and endogenous lipids including N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA). Antagonists that block all modes of TRPV1 activation elicit hyperthermia. To identify efficacious TRPV1 antagonists that do not affect temperature antagonists representing multiple TRPV1 pharmacophores were evaluated at recombinant rat and human TRPV1 channels with Ca(2+) flux assays, and two classes of antagonists were identified based on their differential ability to inhibit acid activation. Although both classes of antagonists completely blocked capsaicin- and NADA-induced activation of TRPV1, select compounds only partially inhibited activation of the channel by protons. Electrophysiology and calcitonin gene-related peptide release studies confirmed the differential pharmacology of these antagonists at native TRPV1 channels in the rat. Comparison of the in vitro pharmacological properties of these TRPV1 antagonists with their in vivo effects on core body temperature confirms and expands earlier observations that acid-sparing TRPV1 antagonists do not significantly increase core body temperature. Although both classes of compounds elicit equivalent analgesia in a rat model of knee joint pain, the acid-sparing antagonist tested is not effective in a mouse model of bone cancer pain. PMID:22570364

Reilly, Regina M; McDonald, Heath A; Puttfarcken, Pamela S; Joshi, Shailen K; Lewis, LaGeisha; Pai, Madhavi; Franklin, Pamela H; Segreti, Jason A; Neelands, Torben R; Han, Ping; Chen, Jun; Mantyh, Patrick W; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Turner, Teresa M; Voight, Eric A; Daanen, Jerome F; Schmidt, Robert G; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Kort, Michael E; Faltynek, Connie R; Kym, Philip R



[Nphe1,Arg14,Lys15]Nociceptin-NH2, a novel potent and selective antagonist of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor  

PubMed Central

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) modulates several biological functions by activating a specific G-protein coupled receptor (NOP). Few molecules are available that selectively activate or block the NOP receptor. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of a novel NOP receptor ligand, [Nphe1,Arg14,Lys15]N/OFQ-NH2 (UFP-101).UFP-101 binds to the human recombinant NOP receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with high affinity (pKi 10.2) and shows more than 3000 fold selectivity over classical opioid receptors. UFP-101 competitively antagonizes the effects of N/OFQ on GTP?35S binding in CHOhNOP cell membranes (pA2 9.1) and on cyclic AMP accumulation in CHOhNOP cells (pA2 7.1), being per se inactive at concentrations up to 10??M.In isolated peripheral tissues of mice, rats and guinea-pigs, and in rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes preloaded with [3H]-5-HT, UFP-101 competitively antagonized the effects of N/OFQ with pA2 values in the range of 7.3–7.7. In the same preparations, the peptide was inactive alone and did not modify the effects of classical opioid receptor agonists.UFP-101 is also active in vivo where it prevented the depressant action on locomotor activity and the pronociceptive effect induced by 1?nmol N/OFQ i.c.v. in the mouse. In the tail withdrawal assay, UFP-101 at 10?nmol produces per se a robust and long lasting antinociceptive effect.UFP-101 is a novel, potent and selective NOP receptor antagonist which appears to be a useful tool for future investigations of the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system. PMID:12010780

Calo, Girolamo; Rizzi, Anna; Rizzi, Daniela; Bigoni, Raffaella; Guerrini, Remo; Marzola, Giuliano; Marti, Matteo; McDonald, John; Morari, Michele; Lambert, David G; Salvadori, Severo; Regoli, Domenico



In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of the novel NK? receptor selective antagonist Netupitant.  


The novel NK(1) receptor ligand Netupitant has been characterized in vitro and in vivo. In calcium mobilization studies CHO cells expressing the human NK receptors responded to a panel of agonists with the expected order of potency. In CHO NK(1) cells Netupitant concentration-dependently antagonized the stimulatory effects of substance P (SP) showing insurmountable antagonism (pK(B) 8.87). In cells expressing NK(2) or NK(3) receptors Netupitant was inactive. In the guinea pig ileum Netupitant concentration-dependently depressed the maximal response to SP (pK(B) 7.85) and, in functional washout experiments, displayed persistent (up to 5h) antagonist effects. In mice the intrathecal injection of SP elicited the typical scratching, biting and licking response that was dose-dependently inhibited by Netupitant given intraperitoneally in the 1-10mg/kg dose range. In gerbils, foot tapping behavior evoked by the intracerebroventricular injection of a NK(1) agonist was dose-dependently counteracted by Netupitant given intraperitoneally (ID(50) 1.5mg/kg) or orally (ID(50) 0.5mg/kg). In time course experiments in gerbils Netupitant displayed long lasting effects. In all the assays Aprepitant elicited similar effects as Netupitant. These results suggest that Netupitant behaves as a brain penetrant, orally active, potent and selective NK(1) antagonist. Thus this molecule can be useful for investigating the NK(1) receptor role in the control of central and peripheral functions. Netupitant has clinical potential in conditions such as chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, in which the blockade of NK(1) receptors has been demonstrated valuable for patients. PMID:22732666

Rizzi, Anna; Campi, Barbara; Camarda, Valeria; Molinari, Stefano; Cantoreggi, Sergio; Regoli, Domenico; Pietra, Claudio; Calo', Girolamo



Antagonist efficacy in MORS196L mutant is affected by the interaction between transmembrane domains of the opioid receptor.  


In a previous study, we demonstrated that antagonists such as naloxone or naltrexone acted as full agonists at the mu-opioid receptor (MOR)/delta-opioid receptor (DOR) chimeric receptor (mudelta2, where the DOR sequence from the first extracellular loop to the carboxyl terminus was spliced to the MOR sequence) when a conserved serine residue in transmembrane 4 (TM4) was mutated to leucine. However, when Ser196 in the TM4 of MOR was mutated to Leu, antagonists exhibited partial agonistic properties. Since molecular modeling studies suggested transmembrane movement during receptor activation, the observed partial agonistic properties could be due to TM1 and TM7 interaction. Hence, MOR/DOR chimeric mutant receptors with the MOR TM1 and TM7 sequence (mudelta2mu7S196L) or with the MOR TM1 and TM6/7 sequence (mudelta2mu67S196L) were constructed to test such a hypothesis. Using four tests of opioid receptor activation, we found that the opioid antagonists were full agonists in chimeric mutant receptor if the TM1 and TM7 were from different opioid receptors. Additionally, when two of the TM7 amino acid residues of MORS196L receptor mutants were mutated (T327A and C330S), resulting in a mutant receptor with DOR TM7 sequence, opioid antagonist naloxone exhibited full agonistic properties. These data suggest that the efficacy of opioid antagonists in the Ser196 mutant can be affected by the interaction between TM1 and TM7. PMID:15579496

Claude-Geppert, Patricia A; Liu, Jiahui; Solberg, Jonathan; Erickson-Herbrandson, Laurie J; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee



Oral efficacy of a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist in colitic cotton-top tamarins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent neutrophil activator and chemotaxin that is present in increased concentrations in the colonic tissue and rectal dialysates of acute ulcerative colitis patients. Cotton-top tamarins (CTTs) with confirmed active colitis were treated with the second generation LTB4 receptor antagonist, SC-53228 ((+)-(S)-7-[3-(2-cyclopropyl-methyl)-3-methoxy-4-[(methylamino) carbonyl]phenoxy]propoxy]-3,4-dihydro-8-propyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2- propanoic acid), 20 mg\\/kg bodyweight by gavage, twice daily for 56 days. End

D Fretland; T Sanderson; P Smith; L Adams; R Carson; J Fuhr; J Tanner; N Clapp



The discovery of potent, orally bioavailable pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile-6-alkyl CXCR2 receptor antagonists.  


A hit-to-lead optimisation programme was carried out on the Novartis archive screening hit, pyrimidine 2-((2,6-dichlorobenzyl)thio)-5-isocyano-6-phenylpyrimidin-4-ol 4, resulting in the discovery of CXCR2 receptor antagonist 2-((2,3-difluorobenzyl)thio)-6-(2-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropyl)-5-isocyanopyrimidin-4-ol 24. The SAR was investigated by systematic variation of the aromatic group at c-6, the linker between c-2 and the halogenated ring, and the c-5 nitrile moiety. PMID:24974342

Porter, David W; Bradley, Michelle; Brown, Zarin; Charlton, Steven J; Cox, Brian; Hunt, Peter; Janus, Diana; Lewis, Sarah; Oakley, Paul; O'Connor, Des; Reilly, John; Smith, Nichola; Press, Neil J



Potentiation of the hypoglycaemic response to glipizide in diabetic patients by histamine H2-receptor antagonists.  

PubMed Central

In a randomised placebo controlled study, two groups of six maturity onset diabetic patients stabilised on glipizide were given cimetidine (400 mg) or ranitidine (150 mg) 3 h before a standardised meal. In comparison with placebo, both cimetidine and ranitidine significantly reduced the post-prandial rise in blood glucose by a mean of 40% and 25% respectively producing glucose levels of less than 3 mmol l-1 (lowest 1.5 mmol l-1) in four patients. Both drugs also significantly increased plasma glipizide AUC by approximately 20%. Caution should be exercised when initiating treatment with H2-receptor antagonists in diabetics receiving sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents. PMID:8471413

Feely, J; Collins, W C; Cullen, M; el Debani, A H; MacWalter, R S; Peden, N R; Stevenson, I H



The cholecystokinin receptor antagonist L-364,718 reduces taurocholate-induced pancreatitis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Conclusion  Our results suggest that the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist L-364,718 has a protective effect on taurocholate-induced\\u000a pancreatitis, and thus, it is inferred that CCK may have a significant pathophysiological role in the early phase of pancreatitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Conflicting results have been obtained from studies designed to determine the role of CCK in the initial stages of pancreatitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We evaluated the

Kyung Hwan Kim; Min Goo Lee; Dong Goo Kim



Identification of Novel Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists by Virtual Screening  

PubMed Central

Virtual screening was performed against experimentally enabled homology models of the adenosine A2A receptor, identifying a diverse range of ligand efficient antagonists (hit rate 9%). By use of ligand docking and Biophysical Mapping (BPM), hits 1 and 5 were optimized to potent and selective lead molecules (11–13 from 5, pKI = 7.5–8.5, 13- to >100-fold selective versus adenosine A1; 14–16 from 1, pKI = 7.9–9.0, 19- to 59-fold selective). PMID:22250781



Association of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene with ulcerative colitis in Northern European Caucasians  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—An association between the allele 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene variable number tandem repeats polymorphism in intron 2 and ulcerative colitis was first reported in 1994. Subsequent studies in Caucasian Northern European patients have not confirmed this, although trends towards an association were observed. The lack of statistical significance could reflect inadequate power. In this study the association was reassessed in a large independent set of well characterised Caucasian patients and a meta-analysis of reported patient series was performed.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—A total of 320 patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed ulcerative colitis (124 pancolitis, 196 left sided and distal disease) and 827 ethnically matched controls were genotyped at polymorphic sites in the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene. Carriage rates were compared using ?2 statistics. A meta-analysis of this and seven previous studies in North European Caucasian patients was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel ?2 test.?RESULTS—Patients had a significantly increased carriage rate of allele 2 compared with controls (52% v 45%; odds ratio 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.7); p=0.04). The allele 2 carriage rate was highest in extensive colitis (carriage rate 56%; odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.3) p=0.02) and in individuals who had undergone colectomy (carriage rate 55%; odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI 0.95-2.4); p=0.08). Meta-analysis of all eight studies showed a significant association between carriage of allele 2 and ulcerative colitis (odds ratio 1.23 (95% CI 1.04-1.45); p=0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—The association of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism with ulcerative colitis is confirmed. The association is minor and confers only a small risk to an individual but will contribute a high attributable risk in a population due to the high allelic frequency. Accurate phenotypic characterisation defines more homogeneous subsets of patients, such as those with extensive disease, in whom the association is greater.???Keywords: ulcerative colitis; cytokine gene polymorphisms; interleukin 1 receptor antagonist; interleukin 1; inflammatory bowel disease; genetics PMID:11247888

Carter, M; di, G; Jones, S; Mee, J; Camp, N; Lobo, A; Duff, G



A representative retinoid X receptor antagonist UVI3003 induced teratogenesis in zebrafish embryos.  


Retinoid X receptor (RXR) interfering activity has been detected in different water resources. To study RXR disruptor-induced toxicological effects on vertebrates, embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to a representative RXR antagonist UVI3003. Results showed that the teratogenic index (LC50 /EC50 ) of UVI3003 was as high as 5.4. UVI3003 induced multiple malformations of embryos, including deformed fins, reduced brains, small jaws, bent tails and edema in hearts, the degree of which became more severe with increasing exposure concentration. Although no significant difference was observed in the hatching rates between the exposure group and control, the whole body length was significantly reduced by 6.5% and 8.9% when exposed to 200 and 300?µg?l(-1) of UVI3003, respectively. The heart rate also significantly decreased by 8.8-50.2% during exposure. Further experiments revealed that the pharyngula stage was the most sensitive development phase in terms of embryo response to UVI3003. The results demonstrated severe teratogenicity of RXR antagonist in zebrafish embryos and provided important data for ecotoxicological evaluation of RXR antagonists. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25186191

Zheng, Liang; Xu, Ting; Li, Daoji; Zhou, Junliang



Effects of high affinity leptin antagonist on prolactin receptor deficient male mouse.  


Hyperprolactinemia occurs during gestation and lactation with marked hyperphagia associated with leptin resistance. Prolactin (PRL) induces the expression of orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) leading to hyperphagia. Along this line prolactin receptor deficient (PRLR-/-) mice are resistant to obesity under high fat diet due to increased energy expenditure. As these mice have an altered food intake, our objective was to test whether leptin is responsible for these characteristics. PRLR-/- male mice and control littermates were injected subcutaneously every other day with 12 mg/kg pegylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (PEG-SMLA) for 3 weeks. We tested the effect of PEG-SMLA on body weight, food intake and metabolic parameters. The antagonist led to a rapid increase in body weight (20%) but increased adipose mass in PEG-SMLA treated mice was less pronounced in PRLR-/- than in WT mice. Food intake of PEG-SMLA-injected animals increased during the first week period of the experiment but then declined to a similar level of the control animals during the second week. Interestingly, PRLR-/- mice were found to have the same bone volume than those of control mice although PEG-SMLA increased bone mass by 7% in both strains. In addition, PEG-SMLA led to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance as well as an altered lipid profile in treated mice. Altogether, these results suggest that PRLR-/- mice respond to leptin antagonist similarly to the control mice, indicating no interaction between the actions of the two hormones. PMID:24667351

Carré, Nadège; Solomon, Gili; Gertler, Arieh; Binart, Nadine



Discovery and SAR of 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines as histamine H? receptor antagonists.  


This report discloses the discovery and SAR of a series of 6-alkyl-2-aminopyrimidine derived histamine H4 antagonists that led to the development of JNJ 39758979, which has been studied in phase II clinical trials in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Building on our SAR studies of saturated derivatives from the indole carboxamide series, typified by JNJ 7777120, and incorporating knowledge from the tricyclic pyrimidines led us to the 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidine series. A focused medicinal chemistry effort delivered several 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines that behaved as antagonists at both the human and rodent H4 receptor. Further optimization led to a panel of antagonists that were profiled in animal models of inflammatory disease. On the basis of the preclinical profile and efficacy in several animal models, JNJ 39758979 was selected as a clinical candidate; however, further development was halted during phase II because of the observation of drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIAG) in two subjects. PMID:24495018

Savall, Brad M; Chavez, Frank; Tays, Kevin; Dunford, Paul J; Cowden, Jeffery M; Hack, Michael D; Wolin, Ronald L; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P



Effects of High Affinity Leptin Antagonist on Prolactin Receptor Deficient Male Mouse  

PubMed Central

Hyperprolactinemia occurs during gestation and lactation with marked hyperphagia associated with leptin resistance. Prolactin (PRL) induces the expression of orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) leading to hyperphagia. Along this line prolactin receptor deficient (PRLR?/?) mice are resistant to obesity under high fat diet due to increased energy expenditure. As these mice have an altered food intake, our objective was to test whether leptin is responsible for these characteristics. PRLR?/? male mice and control littermates were injected subcutaneously every other day with 12 mg/kg pegylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (PEG-SMLA) for 3 weeks. We tested the effect of PEG-SMLA on body weight, food intake and metabolic parameters. The antagonist led to a rapid increase in body weight (20%) but increased adipose mass in PEG-SMLA treated mice was less pronounced in PRLR?/? than in WT mice. Food intake of PEG-SMLA-injected animals increased during the first week period of the experiment but then declined to a similar level of the control animals during the second week. Interestingly, PRLR?/? mice were found to have the same bone volume than those of control mice although PEG-SMLA increased bone mass by 7% in both strains. In addition, PEG-SMLA led to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance as well as an altered lipid profile in treated mice. Altogether, these results suggest that PRLR?/? mice respond to leptin antagonist similarly to the control mice, indicating no interaction between the actions of the two hormones. PMID:24667351

Carré, Nadège; Solomon, Gili; Gertler, Arieh; Binart, Nadine



Synthesis and biological evaluation of imidazole-based small molecule antagonists of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of imidazole-based small molecule antagonists of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) is reported. Members of this series have been identified, which exhibit sub-micromolar binding affinity for the MC4-R, functional potency <100nM, and good oral exposure in rat. Antagonists of the MC4-R are potentially useful in the therapeutic treatment of involuntary weight loss due to advanced age or

Thomas H Marsilje; Jonathan B Roses; Emily F Calderwood; Stephen G Stroud; Nancy E Forsyth; Christopher Blackburn; David L Yowe; Wenyan Miao; Stacey V Drabic; Marie D Bohane; J Scott Daniels; Ping Li; Lijun Wu; Michael A Patane; Christopher F Claiborne



Replacement of imidazole by a piperidine moiety differentially affects the potency of histamine H 3 -receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether replacement of imidazole by a piperidine or pyrrolidine moiety will affect the potency and affinity of six H3-receptor antagonists. Potencies were determined in superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with [3H]noradrenaline, in which the interaction of the antagonists with histamine with respect to its inhibitory effect on the electrically evoked tritium overflow was studied. Affinities were determined

Susanna Liedtke; Karsten Flau; Markus Kathmann; Eberhard Schlicker; Holger Stark; Galina Meier; Walter Schunack



D1Like Receptor Antagonist Inhibits IL17 Expression and Attenuates Crescent Formation in Nephrotoxic Serum Nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: A dopamine type 1-like receptor (D1-like-R) expressed on dendritic cells was involved in Th17 cell differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Thus, we treated mice with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN) with a D1-like-R antagonist to test whether Th17 cells play a role in this kidney disease. Methods: The SCH group of nephritic mice was administered with a D1-like-R antagonist,

Hirokazu Okada; Tsutomu Inoue; Kumiko Hashimoto; Hiromichi Suzuki; Sho Matsushita



NMDA receptor antagonists reduce medial, but not lateral, perforant path-evoked EPSPs in dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slice  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMDA receptor antagonists produced differential effects on medial and lateral perforant path-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) recorded in the dentate gyrus molecular layer of hippocampal slices. D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D(-)APV) and 3-[(±)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) significantly reduced the peak amplitude and total area, but not the initial negative slope, of the medial perforant path-evoked EPSP. Neither antagonist affected any component of the

D. Dahl; E. C. Burgard; J. M. Sarvey



Sulfur-Containing 1,3-Dialkylxanthine Derivatives as Selective Antagonists at A1-Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5?-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective. PMID:2754711

Kiriasis, Leonidas; Barone, Suzanne; Bradbury, Barton J.; Kammula, Udai; Campagne, Jean Michel; Secunda, Sherrie; Daly, John W.; Neumeyer, John L.; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang



Effects of the selective kainate receptor antagonist ACET on altered sensorimotor gating in a genetic model of reduced NMDA receptor function.  


The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve reduced NMDA receptor function. Accordingly, experimental models of NMDA receptor hypofunction may be useful for testing potential new antipsychotic agents and for characterizing neurobiological abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. We demonstrated previously that mice under-expressing the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor show supersensitive behavioral responses to kainic acid and that a kainate receptor antagonist normalized altered behaviors in the mutant mice (NR1(neo/neo)). The present work examined effects of another selective kainate receptor antagonist, (S)-1-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxy-5-phenylthiophene-3-yl-methylpyrimidine-2,4-dione (ACET), on altered behavioral phenotypes in the genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction. ACET, at a dose of 15 mg/kg, partially reversed the deficits in prepulse inhibition produced by the mutation. The 15 mg/kg dose of ACET was also effective in reversing behavioral effects of the selective kainate agonist ATPA. However, ACET did not significantly reduce the increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior observed in the NR1(neo/neo) mice. These findings show that a highly selective kainate receptor antagonist can affect the deficits in sensorimotor gating in the NR1(neo/neo) mice. The results also provide further support for the idea that selective kainate receptor antagonists could be novel therapeutic candidates for schizophrenia. PMID:22297176

Duncan, Gary E; Koller, Beverly H; Moy, Sheryl S



Effects of the selective kainate receptor antagonist ACET on altered sensorimotor gating in a genetic model of reduced NMDA receptor function  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve reduced NMDA receptor function. Accordingly, experimental models of NMDA receptor hypofunction may be useful for testing potential new antipsychotic agents and for characterizing neurobiological abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. We demonstrated previously that mice under-expressing the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor show supersensitive behavioral responses to kainic acid and that a kainate receptor antagonist normalized altered behaviors in the mutant mice (NR1neo/neo). The present work examined effects of another selective kainate receptor antagonist, (S)-1-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxy-5-phenylthiophene-3-yl-methylpyrimidine-2,4-dione (ACET), on altered behavioral phenotypes in the genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction. ACET, at a dose of 15 mg/kg, partially reversed the deficits in prepulse inhibition produced by the mutation. The 15 mg/kg dose of ACET was also effective in reversing behavioral effects of the selective kainate agonist ATPA. However, ACET did not significantly reduce the increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior observed in the NR1neo/neo mice. These findings show that a highly selective kainate receptor antagonist can affect the deficits in sensorimotor gating in the NR1neo/neo mice. The results also provide further support for the idea that selective kainate receptor antagonists could be novel therapeutic candidates for schizophrenia. Section: Disease-Related Neuroscience PMID:22297176

Duncan, Gary E.; Koller, Beverly H.; Moy, Sheryl S.



Effect of ?{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice  

SciTech Connect

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ? Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ? These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ? There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

Welch, Kevin D., E-mail: [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Pfister, James A. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)] [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Lima, Flavia G. [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil)] [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil); Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)] [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)



Cyclic hexapeptide antagonists of the bradykinin B2 receptor: Receptor binding and solution backbone conformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic hexapeptide analogs of bradykinin, based on a folded receptor-bound model of bradykinin, were found to be able to antagonize the action of bradykinin at its B2 bradykinin receptor. The best of these, cyclo(d-Lys(Arg)-Phe-Ser-d-Tic-Oic- Arg) [compound 17], has affinities at the human and rat B2 bradykinin receptors of 230 and 8.5 nM, respectively. This potency is significant, since the analogs

John L. Krstenansky; Teresa Ho; Ram Tahilramani; Joseph H. B. Pease; Sunil Bhakta; Helene Ostrelich; Kurt Jarnagin



On-line visualization of the competitive behavior of antagonistic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

To study the interaction between cocultured Listeria monocytogenes and an antagonistic Leuconostoc strain producing an anti-Listeria bacteriocin, flow cytometry, a technique allowing on-line and real-time analysis, was used along with classical microbiological methods. Culture methods and flow cytometric measurements of the mixed culture over time point to a bactericidal action of the lactic acid-producing bacterial strain against L. monocytogenes cells. Images PMID:1482199

Héchard, Y; Jayat, C; Letellier, F; Julien, R; Cenatiempo, Y; Ratinaud, M H



Biological and Conformational Evaluation of Bifunctional Compounds for Opioid Receptor Agonists and Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists Possessing Two Penicillamines  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain states and tolerance to opioids can result from system changes in the CNS, such as up-regulation of the NK1 receptor and substance P, which have anti-opioid effects in ascending or descending pain-signaling pathways. Bifunctional compounds, possessing both the NK1 antagonist pharmacophore and the opioid agonist pharmacophore with delta-selectivity, could counteract these system changes to have significant analgesic efficacy without undesirable side effects. As a result of the introduction of cyclic and topological constraints with penicillamines, 2 (Tyr-cyclo[D-Pen-Gly-Phe-Pen]-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-[3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bzl]) was found as the best bifunctional compound with effective NK1 antagonist and potent opioid agonist activities, and 1400-fold delta-selectivity over the mu-receptor. The NMR structural analysis of 2 revealed that the relative positioning of the two connected pharmacophores as well as its cyclic and topological constraints might be responsible for its excellent bifunctional activities as well as its significant delta-opioid selectivity. Together with the observed high metabolic stability, 2 could be considered as a valuable research tool and possibly a promising candidate for a novel analgesic drug. PMID:20617791

Yamamoto, Takashi; Nair, Padma; Jacobsen, Neil E.; Kulkarni, Vinod; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Navratilova, Edita; Yamamura, Henry I.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Porreca, Frank; Lai, Josephine; Hruby, Victor J.



Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells  

SciTech Connect

The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.



Effect of the H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine on xerostomia in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.  


In Sjögren's syndrome (SS), oral dryness (xerostomia) is frequently the most bothersome symptom. An H2 histamine receptor antagonist is often administered to SS patients to treat associated superficial gastritis. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of nizatidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, to also relieve xerostomia in patients with primary SS. Twenty-seven patients with primary SS were randomly assigned to receive nizatidine (n=14, 300 mg a day) or another H2 blocker, famotidine (n=13, 40 mg a day; control), were followed for eight weeks, and were asked for both subjective and objective assessments of oral dryness using a visual analog scale (VAS; 1-100 mm) and the Saxon's test, respectively. Patients receiving oral nizatidine, but not famotidine, obtained significant objective relief from their xerostomia (Saxon's test; baseline, 0.57 g/2 min; after eight weeks, 0.90 g/2 min, P<0.05). VAS scores indicated that nizatidine also provides mild improvement (20% improvement over baseline) of xerostomia-related clinical conditions, including mouth dryness and difficulty in chewing, tasting and swallowing food. Both drugs were generally well tolerated, without adverse effects. The present preliminary study suggests that nizatidine may represent a new option for the treatment of xerostomia in SS. PMID:18478182

Kasama, Tsuyoshi; Shiozawa, Fumitaka; Isozaki, Takeo; Matsunawa, Mizuho; Wakabayashi, Kuninobu; Odai, Tsuyoshi; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Miwa, Yusuke; Negishi, Masao; Ide, Hirotsugu



Serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonists for the treatment of cognitive deficiency in Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide and has a significant clinical and socioeconomic impact. In the search for novel therapeutic strategies, serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) has been proposed as a promising drug target for cognition enhancement in AD. This manuscript reviews the compelling evidence for the implication of this receptor in learning and memory processes. We have summarized the current status of the medicinal chemistry of 5-HT6R antagonists and the encouraging preclinical findings that demonstrate their significant procognitive behavioral effects in a number of learning paradigms, probably acting through modulation of multiple neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways. The results of the ongoing clinical trials are eagerly awaited to shed some light on the validation of 5-HT6R antagonists as a new drug class for the treatment of symptomatic cognitive impairment in AD, either as stand-alone therapy or in combination with established agents. PMID:24850589

Benhamú, Bellinda; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Pardo, Leonardo; López-Rodríguez, María L



Stereoselective synthesis and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor antagonistic activity of optically active phenol derivatives.  


Enantiomers of four potent nonprostanoid thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor antagonists, (+/-)-7-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)heptanoic acids (1-4), were synthesized stereoselectively by direct ortho-alkylation of phenols under modified Mitsunobu conditions. The reaction of 5 eq of phenols (6a-c) with 1 eq of (S)- or (R)-methyl 7-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-hydroxyheptanoate ((S)- or (R)-7) afforded ortho-alkylated phenol derivatives (6a-c) enantioselectively in 33 to 42% chemical yield and 90 to 93% ee. In these compounds, the (R)-enantiomers (1-4) exhibited potent TXA2 receptor antagonistic activity and the (S)-isomer (3) was much less active. In particular, compound (R)-3 strongly inhibited U-46619-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 = 48 nM), and also showed a very potent inhibitory effect with a minimum effective dose (MED) of 0.3 mg/kg (p.o.) on U-46619-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs. PMID:8681407

Fukumoto, S; Terashita, Z; Ashida, Y; Terao, S; Shiraishi, M



[Problems in ulcer surgery after the introduction of H2-receptor antagonists].  


Recently, antisecretory drugs such as H2-receptor antagonists (H2-RA) or proton pump inhibitor have been used for peptic ulcer patients widely in Japan. However, there are possibilities that long term administration of H2-RA might cause changes in intragastric environment. The present study was designed to clarify the changes of surgical treatment in Japan Surgical Society training hospitals, before and after introduction of H2-RA. Serum gastrin and antral G-cell number was measured after administration of H2-RA (1 mg/kg 14 days continuous infusion) in rat. Also, acid secretion and gastrin response stimulated by adrenalin (40 ng/kg.min) were measured in duodenal ulcer patients. 1) In the view of surgical treatment, elective operation highly decreased after the introduction of H2-receptor antagonists, and showed the increase of the rate of emergency operation up to 70%. 2) Hypergastrinemia and antral G cell hyperplasia were observed after administration of H2-RA in rats. 3) Acid secretion stimulated by adrenalin which is considered as antral G cell dependent, showed a higher response in H2-RA treated cases than in those untreated. 4) Antrectomy was carried out in 43.4% of the patients treated with H2-RA versus 18.9% to the patients untreated. PMID:1361654

Akimoto, H; Kashiwagi, H; Ito, A; Fukuchi, Y; Kimura, K; Kashiwagi, T; Aoki, T



In vitro metabolism studies of new adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists.  


Evidence, obtained in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in preliminary clinical trials, indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might represent a promising non-dopaminergic therapeutic tool for the treatment of PD. Recently, we have reported the biological evaluation of 8-substituted 9-ethyladenines (ANR) as new A(2A) receptor antagonists, three of which (ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152) showed high efficacy in in vivo models for Parkinson's. Understanding the metabolic pathways of new drug candidates is an important aspect of drug discovery. The ANR compounds have been investigated in order to clarify their activity on rat liver microsomes, and more specifically on recombinant human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The metabolites of all three compounds were detected by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results indicate that this class of 9-ethyladenines is metabolized only to a fraction of 1.5-5%. These compounds also act as potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP450 and in particular of human isoform CYP2D6. Kinetic-analysis of enzyme inactivation was used to describe the effect of these time-dependent inhibitors and to derive the inhibition parameters K(inact) and K(i) defined with respect to the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan. PMID:19356109

Marucci, Gabriella; Finaurini, Sara; Buccioni, Michela; Lammi, Carmen; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram; Volpini, Rosaria; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Angeli, Piero; Commandeur, Jan N M; Cristalli, Gloria



Effects of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on rat hypothalamic noradrenergic neurotransmission.  


We have investigated the effects of specific mu-, kappa-and delta-opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on the hypothalamic noradrenergic neurotransmission and on luteinising hormone (LH) release in the ovariectomised and steroid-primed rat. The opioid agents were infused intracerebroventricularly under ketamine anaesthesia and blood samples collected at hourly intervals on the afternoon of the anticipated LH surge. At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated and the medial preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence and arcuate nucleus surgically isolated by micropunch. The concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) and its metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol; DHPG) in these samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma LH levels were measured by radioimmunassay. The three opioid agonists reduced concentrations of NA and DHPG in all four hypothalamic areas. These inhibitory effects of the opioid agonists were mostly prevented following coadministration with their respective antagonists. However, naloxone had no significant effect on DHPG levels in any of the hypothalamic regions examined. Plasma LH levels were found to be either low or undetectable in all groups. These results suggest that mu-, kappa- and delta-opioid receptors have inhibitory influence on the hypothalamic noradrenergic neurotransmission around the time of the LH surge. It is thought that the ketamine anaesthesia interfered with LH release. PMID:10372509

Yilmaz, B; Gilmore, D P



Kinetics and dynamics of the peripheral neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist SLV317 in healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamic effects in dorsal hand veins of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist SLV317. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study 19 healthy men received a single oral dose of SLV317 or placebo. Blood samples were collected for analysis of SLV317 plasma concentrations and the inhibition of the venodilator response to substance P was evaluated using the hand vein compliance method. Results Administration of 250 mg SLV317 as an oral solution was well tolerated and resulted in mean peak plasma concentrations (± SEM) of 77 ± 9 ng ml?1 within 47 ± 3 min; the mean half-life was 9.9 ± 1.6 h. In hand veins preconstricted with phenylephrine, local infusion of substance P resulted in a mean venodilation of 56 ± 8% and 49 ± 6% (P = 0.91) before administration of SLV317 or placebo, respectively. SLV317 caused a substantial inhibition of substance P-induced venodilation, whereas placebo had no effect (P < 0.001). The maximum antagonizing effect of SLV317 averaged 95 ± 8% and was observed after 1.47 ± 00.24 h. Correspondingly, the mean area under the effect curve after administration of SLV317 [278 ± 67% h?1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 198, 358] was significantly higher compared with placebo (49 ± 12% h?1; 95% CI ?24, 122; P < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist SLV317 is an orally active and highly effective antagonist of substance P-induced effects in humans. PMID:16542202

Hesse, Christiane; Luntz, Steffen P; Siedler, Heike; Unnebrink, Kristina; Mikus, Gerd; de Bruijn, Marianne; Zondag, Edu; de Vries, Michiel; Seibert-Grafe, Monika; Haefeli, Walter E



LTB4-induced transient neutropenia in the rat: a model for evaluating efficacy and bioavailability of LTB4 receptor antagonists.  


An animal model of leukotriene B4- (LTB4) induced neutropenia has been developed to evaluate LTB4 receptor antagonists in vivo. LTB4, a potent chemotactic inflammatory mediator, when administered intravenously, induces a profound, rapid, and transient redistribution of blood neutrophils from the circulating pool to the marginated pool. This phenomenon is applied in the neutropenia model whereby circulating blood neutrophil counts prior to and after intravenous infusion of LTB4 are compared. Kinetics of LTB4-induced neutrophil responses are determined through the use of a Technicon H*1 automated blood cell analyzer. LTB4 receptor antagonists are identified by inhibition of LTB4-induced neutropenia. Standard antiinflammatory compounds including BW-755C, Abbott A-64077 (zileuton), dexamethasone-21-acetate, indomethacin, and naproxen did not affect LTB4-induced neutropenia. A potent LTB4 receptor antagonist, designated "RPR," inhibited LTB4-induced neutropenia following oral administration in a dose-dependent fashion. PMID:8305713

Pellas, T C; Colombo, C; Fryer, L R; Pastor, G; Haston, W; Raychaudhuri, A; Kotyuk, B; Greenspan, P D; Healy, C; DiPasquale, G



Polish Academy of Sciences Bismuth increases hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of histamine H2-receptor antagonists  

E-print Network

The effects of histamine H2-receptor antagonists, alone or in a combination with bismuth, on • OH-provoked degradation of deoxyribose were studied. The histamine H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine and roxatidine), themselves decreased the deoxyribose damage in Fenton-type systems. In combinations with bismuth, their inhibitory effect in Fenton system (Fe(III)/ascorbic acid + H2O2) was stronger. Moreover, unlike Fe(III) and Cu(II), which in the presence of ascorbic acid + H2O2led to an increase in the • OH formation (deoxyribose damage), Bi(III) showed an opposite effect. The present results are interpreted in view of a better • OH scavenging activity of bismuth complexes of histamine H2-receptor antagonists as compared to that of the corresponding drugs. These findings might be one more explanation why bismuth salts, in combination with acid-reducing agents, are more effective anti-ulcer agents. Key words:

Margarita Kirkova; Albena Alex; Neli Yordanova



The C5a receptor antagonist PMX205 ameliorates experimentally induced colitis associated with increased IL-4 and IL-10  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Anti-complement therapies have not been advanced for treating the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) despite a growing body of evidence that blocking C5a protects against induced colitis in rodents. The purpose of this study was to further build on this evidence by examining the efficacy, mechanism and specificity of a potent, non-competitive and orally active C5a receptor (CD88) antagonist, PMX205, in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of murine innate colitis. Experimental Approach Mice with DSS added to their drinking water were orally administered 100 or 200 ?g day?1 PMX205 in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. Clinical illness, colon histology and local generation of inflammatory mediators were measured to evaluate the impact of PMX205 on disease. Key Results PMX205 significantly prevented DSS-induced colon inflammation in both regimens, associated with lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production and nitrotyrosine staining in colon sections. Additionally, the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were increased. PMX205 had no significant effect on C5a levels. The beneficial effect of PMX205 was seen in two strains of mice of differing sensitivities to DSS inflammation, but was inactive in mice lacking CD88. Conclusions and Implications Pharmacological inhibition of C5a activity by PMX205 is efficacious in preventing DSS-induced colitis, providing further evidence that targeting CD88 in IBD patients could be a valuable therapeutic option. PMID:22924972

Jain, U; Woodruff, TM; Stadnyk, AW



Environmental factors and not genotype influence the plasma level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in normal individuals  

PubMed Central

Cytokine production may be regulated by both genotypic (single nucleotide or tandem repeat polymorphisms) and non-genotypic factors relating to the environment and inherent biology (i.e. gender). Interleukin (IL)-1 is one of the body's most highly proinflammatory cytokines and is implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, but also in the maintenance of homeostasis in a number of tissues. The cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the competitive inhibitor of the IL-1 agonists IL-1? and IL-1?. In vivo IL-1Ra was measured in a cohort of 200 + blood donors and the effect of the IL-1 gene polymorphisms, environmental and biological factors assessed. In this study, we observed that possession of particular alleles of 5 IL-1 gene polymorphisms (IL1A-889, IL1? VNTR, IL1B -511, IL1B +3953 and the IL1RN VNTR) did not correlate with higher plasma IL-1Ra levels. Environmental factors such as smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion were associated with higher in vivo IL-1Ra levels (P = 0·015 and 0·022, respectively), but biological factors such as gender, age and menstruation status did not have any impact upon in vivo IL-1Ra levels. Genotypic associations of IL-1 gene family polymorphisms with disease features may reflect characteristics of stressed rather than normal control circuits for cytokine production. PMID:15270852

Cullup, H; Middleton, P G; Duggan, G; Conn, J S; Dickinson, A M



The utility of excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonists as analgesic agents. I. Comparison of the antinociceptive activity of various classes of EAA antagonists in mechanical, thermal and chemical nociceptive tests.  


The present study was performed to assess the utility of excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonists as analgesia agents. The antinociceptive activity of various classes of EAA antagonists was assessed in mechanical and thermal flexion reflexes tests, as well as in the formalin test. Additional testing assessed the motor dysfunction associated with antinociceptive dose levels of the agents used, by examining placing, grasping and righting reflexes, as well as occurrences of balance loss during locomotion. No antinociceptive activity was observed on any of the nociceptive measures for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists CNQX or L-AP-3. High doses of the non-competitive (PCP-site) NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the allosteric-glycine receptor antagonist 7-CKA produced antinociception on both the mechanical and thermal flexion reflex measures, while a high dose of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP produced antinociception only on the thermal flexion reflex measure. Hyperalgesic effects on thermal flexion reflexes were obtained with all doses of the polyamine receptor antagonist ARCA, and with the highest dose of the allosteric-glycine receptor antagonist FICA. Formalin nociceptive behaviours were significantly reduced only by high doses of competitive (APV) and non-competitive (MK-801) NMDA receptor antagonists. The doses of EAA receptor antagonists which produced antinociceptive effects on any of the 3 nociceptive tests also produced evidence of motor dysfunction. Both competitive NMDA receptor antagonists (APV and CPP) produced disruptions of placing, grasping and righting reflexes, while 2 of the allosteric-glycine receptor antagonists (7-CKA and DCQX) significantly disrupted placing and righting reflexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7708408

Coderre, T J; Van Empel, I



Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1  

PubMed Central

The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr6.63 forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr6.63 to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr3566.63 allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R. PMID:25628267

Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan



Mutation of a conserved serine in TM4 of opioid receptors confers full agonistic properties to classical antagonists.  

PubMed Central

The involvement of a conserved serine (Ser196 at the mu-, Ser177 at the delta-, and Ser187 at the kappa-opioid receptor) in receptor activation is demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. It was initially observed during our functional screening of a mu/delta-opioid chimeric receptor, mu delta2, that classical opioid antagonists such as naloxone, naltrexone, naltriben, and H-Tyr-Tic[psi,CH2NH]Phe-Phe-OH (TIPPpsi; Tic = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) could inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells stably expressing the chimeric receptor. Antagonists also activated the G protein-coupled inward rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing the mu delta2 opioid receptor and the GIRK1 channel. By sequence analysis and back mutation, it was determined that the observed antagonist activity was due to the mutation of a conserved serine to leucine in the fourth transmembrane domain (S196L). The importance of this serine was further demonstrated by analogous mutations created in the mu-opioid receptor (MORS196L) and delta-opioid receptor (DORS177L), in which classical opioid antagonists could inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells stably expressing either MORS196L or DORS177L. Again, antagonists could activate the GIRK1 channel coexpressed with either MORS196L or DORS177L in Xenopus oocytes. These data taken together suggest a crucial role for this serine residue in opioid receptor activation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8650158

Claude, P A; Wotta, D R; Zhang, X H; Prather, P L; McGinn, T M; Erickson, L J; Loh, H H; Law, P Y



Stereoselective synthesis of a novel 2-aza-7-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane as neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist.  


A novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, (+/-)-(1R( *),3S( *),4S( *),5S( *))-4-[(N-(2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethoxybenzyl)amino]-3-phenyl-2-aza-7-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (1), was synthesized stereoselectively using Padwa's intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methodology as the key step. Compound (+/-)-1 showed high affinity for the NK-1 receptors in human IM-9 cells with an IC(50) value of 0.22 nM. This new structural scaffold demonstrated significant in vivo antagonistic activity in the guinea pig ureter capsaicin-induced plasma extravasation model with an ED(50) value of 1-10mg/kg, po. PMID:17967540

Shishido, Yuji; Ito, Fumitaka; Morita, Hiromasa; Ikunaka, Masaya



Stereoselective synthesis of a novel 2-aza-7-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane as neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, (±)-(1R?,3S?,4S?,5S?)-4-[(N-(2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethoxybenzyl)amino]-3-phenyl-2-aza-7-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (1), was synthesized stereoselectively using Padwa’s intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methodology as the key step. Compound (±)-1 showed high affinity for the NK-1 receptors in human IM-9 cells with an IC50 value of 0.22nM. This new structural scaffold demonstrated significant in vivo antagonistic activity in the guinea pig ureter capsaicin-induced plasma extravasation model with an

Yuji Shishido; Fumitaka Ito; Hiromasa Morita; Masaya Ikunaka



Blockade and reversal of spinal morphine tolerance by P2X3 receptor antagonist.  


In recent years, studies have substantiated the view that P2X3 receptors play a part in the generation and transmission of purinergic signals in inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain. Data have also been presented to suggest that the process of P2X3 receptor antagonism inhibits inflammatory hyperalgesia, involving the spinal opioid system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491 on the development of antinociceptive tolerance to chronic morphine administration in mice. Daily systemic injection of A-317491 attenuated the morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance to von Frey and thermal stimuli. Repeated morphine injections alone led to a significant rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve compared with that with A-317491. A single dose of A-317491 also showed a reversal effect in morphine-tolerant mice. In a withdrawal test, co-administration of A-317491 and morphine also reduced the naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms compared with the morphine-alone group. Thus, we propose that the P2X3 receptor is involved in the process of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and may be a new therapeutic target in the prevention of tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception. PMID:25350728

Ma, Xiaqing; Xu, Tao; Xu, Hao; Jiang, Wei



Context-specific reversal of cocaine sensitization by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant.  


The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor is implicated in the rewarding properties of many drugs of abuse, including cocaine. While CB(1) receptor involvement in the acute rewarding properties of cocaine is controversial, CB(1) antagonists such as SR141716 (rimonabant) have clearly been found to prevent cue- and cocaine-elicited reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in rodents. Here we demonstrate the novel involvement of CB(1) receptors in the maintenance of behavioral sensitization to cocaine in C57BL/6 mice. Consistent with previous reports, the induction of locomotor sensitization following repeated daily cocaine was not prevented by systemic pretreatment of either rimonabant, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or a 1:1 mixture of THC and cannabidiol (CBD). In contrast, established cocaine sensitization was markedly disrupted following subchronic treatment with rimonabant alone. This effect was notably context-dependent, in that rimonabant did not diminish established cocaine sensitization if delivered in the home cage, but only if the rimonabant-injected mice were exposed to activity chambers previously paired with cocaine. These findings are consistent with CB(1) receptor involvement in conditioned cocaine-seeking behaviors, and further suggest that endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated synaptic plasticity may act specifically within drug-paired environments to maintain cocaine-directed behavioral responses. PMID:18059436

Gerdeman, Gregory L; Schechter, Jason B; French, Edward D



A Novel Series of Piperidin-4-yl-1,3-Dihydroindol-2-ones as Agonist and Antagonist Ligands at the Nociceptin Receptor  

PubMed Central

A series of N-(4-piperidinyl)-2-indolinones were discovered as a new structural class of nociceptin receptor (NOP) ligands. Unlike other previously reported classes of NOP receptor ligands, modifications of the piperidine N substituents afforded both potent agonists and antagonists, with modest selectivities over other opioid receptors. The SAR revealed in this new series will provide important insights for the development of pharmacophores for agonist and antagonist actions at the NOP receptor. PMID:15163178

Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Jiang, Faming; Olsen, Cris M.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Parrish, Damon; Polgar, Willma; Toll, Lawrence



SCH 206272: a potent, orally active tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptor antagonist.  


Experiments were performed to characterize the pharmacology of SCH 206272 [(R,R)-1'[5-[(3,5-dichlorobenzoyl)methylamino]-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4(Z)-(methoxyimino)pentyl]-N-methyl-2-oxo-[1,4'bipiperidine]-3-acetamide] as a potent and selective antagonist of tachykinin (NK) NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptors. SCH 206272 inhibited binding at human tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptors (K(i) = 1.3, 0.4, and 0.3 nM, respectively) and antagonized [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the cloned human tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), or NK(3) receptors. SCH 206272 inhibited relaxation of the human pulmonary artery (pK(b) = 7.7 +/- 0.3) induced by the tachykinin NK(1) receptor agonist, [Met-O-Me] substance P and contraction of the human bronchus (pK(b = 8.2 +/- 0.3) induced by the tachykinin NK(2) receptor agonist, neurokinin A. In isolated guinea pig tissues, SCH 206272 inhibited substance P-induced enhancement of electrical field stimulated contractions of the vas deferens, (pK(b = 7.6 +/- 0.2), NKA-induced contraction of the bronchus (pK(b) = 7.7 +/- 0.2), and senktide-induced contraction of the ileum. In vivo, oral SCH 206272 (0.1-10 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited substance P-induced airway microvascular leakage and neurokinin A-induced bronchospasm in the guinea pig. In a canine in vivo model, SCH 206272 (0.1-3 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited NK(1) and NK(2) activities induced by exogenous substance P and neurokinin A. Furthermore, in guinea pig models involving endogenously released tachykinins, SCH 206272 inhibited hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm, capsaicin-induced cough, and airway microvascular leakage induced by nebulized hypertonic saline. These data demonstrate that SCH 206272 is a potent, orally active tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptor antagonist. This compound may have beneficial effects in diseases thought to be mediated by tachykinins, such as cough, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:12206858

Anthes, John C; Chapman, Richard W; Richard, Christian; Eckel, Stephen; Corboz, Michel; Hey, John A; Fernandez, Xiomara; Greenfeder, Scott; McLeod, Robbie; Sehring, Susan; Rizzo, Charles; Crawley, Yvette; Shih, Neng-Yang; Piwinski, John; Reichard, Greg; Ting, Pauline; Carruthers, Nick; Cuss, Francis M; Billah, Motasim; Kreutner, William; Egan, Robert W



Selective and Potent Agonists and Antagonists for Investigating the Role of Mouse Oxytocin Receptors  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to play a central role in social behaviors; as a consequence, they have been recognized as potential drugs to treat neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by impaired social interactions. However, despite the basic and preclinical relevance of mouse strains carrying genetic alterations in the OT/AVP systems to basic and preclinical translational neuroscience, the pharmacological profile of mouse OT/AVP receptor subtypes has not been fully characterized. To fill in this gap, we have characterized a number of OT and AVP agonists and antagonists at three murine OT/AVP receptors expressed in the nervous system as follows: the oxytocin (mOTR) and vasopressin V1a (mV1aR) and V1b (mV1bR) subtypes. These three receptors were transiently expressed in vitro for binding and intracellular signaling assays, and then a homology model of the mOTR structure was constructed to investigate how its molecular features compare with human and rat OTR orthologs. Our data indicate that the selectivity profile of the natural ligands, OT and AVP, is conserved in humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic peptide [Thr4Gly7]OT (TGOT) is remarkably selective for the mOTR and, like the endogenous OT ligand, activates Gq and Gi and recruits ?-arrestins. Finally, we report three antagonists that exhibit remarkably high affinities and selectivities at mOTRs. These highly selective pharmacological tools will contribute to the investigation of the specific physiologic and pathologic roles of mOTR for the development of selective OT-based therapeutics. PMID:23723434

Busnelli, Marta; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Manning, Maurice; Kleinau, Gunnar



Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1? receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1? receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1? activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1? receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-?B and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1? activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong



The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) Losartan has cardioprotective effects during ischemia–reperfusion injury and inhibits reperfusion arrhythmias –effects that go beyond the benefits of lowering blood pressure. The renin–angiotensin and kallikrein–kinin systems are intricately connected and some of the cardioprotective effects of Losartan are abolished by blocking the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) signaling.In this study, we investigated

Marie Mi Bonde; Kristine Boisen Olsen; Niels Erikstrup; Tobias Speerschneider; Christina Lyngsø; Stig Haunsø; Morten Schak Nielsen; Søren P. Sheikh; Jakob Lerche Hansen



Effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on contraction of isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on the isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon. METHODS: Cathartic colon model was established by feeding rats with contact laxatives, and effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on electricity- stimulated contraction of isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon

Bao-Hua Liu; Ping Mo; Sheng-Ben Zhang



Effects of 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists on gastrointestinal motor activity in dogs  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists on normal colonic motor activity in conscious dogs. METHODS: Colonic motor activity was recorded using a strain gauge force transducer in 5 dogs before and after 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist administration. The force transducers were implanted on the serosal surfaces of the gastric antrum, terminal ileum, ileocecal sphincter and colon. Test materials or vehicle alone was administered as an intravenous bolus injection during a quiescent period of the whole colon in the interdigestive state. The effects of these receptor antagonists on normal gastrointestinal motor activity were analyzed. RESULTS: 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists had no contractile effect on the fasting canine terminal ileum. The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited phase III of the interdigestive motor complex of the antrum and significantly inhibited colonic motor activity. In the proximal colon, the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. Dose dependency, however, was not observed in the distal colon. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited normal colonic motor activity. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. PMID:24151388

Morita, Hiroki; Mochiki, Erito; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Sutou, Toshinaga; Ogawa, Atsushi; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kyoichi; Fujii, Takaaki; Ohno, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Souichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki



Influence of H 1 -and H 2 -receptor antagonists on the circulatory system and on the endogenous plasma histamine concentrations in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the H1-receptor antagonist dimethpyrindene and the H2-receptor antagonist burimamide on circulatory and respiratory parameters and on plasma histamine levels were tested in 21 mongrel dogs. Both drugs released histamine. The incidence for this effect was 10\\/11 in the case of dimethpyrindene and 5\\/10 in the case of burimamide.

M. Thermann; A. Schmal; F. Schingale; P. Dormann; H. Hamelmann



Effects of CRF 1 receptor antagonists and benzodiazepines in the Morris water maze and delayed non-matching to position tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Benzodiazepinescontinuetobewide- lyused for the treatment of anxiety, but it is well known that benzodiazepines have undesirable side effects, including sedation, ataxia, cognitive deficits and the risk of addiction and abuse. CRF1 receptor antagonists are being developed as potential novel anxiolytics, but while CRF1 receptor antagonists seem to have a better side-effect profile than benzodiazepines with respect to sedation and

John B. Hogan; Donald B. Hodges Jr; Snjezana Lelas; Paul J. Gilligan; John F. McElroy; Mark D. Lindner



Brain-Penetrant Tetrahydronaphthalene Thromboxane A2-Prostanoid (TP) Receptor Antagonists as Prototype Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

A hallmark pathological feature of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain is the presence of senile plaques, which comprise amyloid ? (A?) peptides that are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The plaque-containing AD brain is thought to be under oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased lipid oxidation products that include isoprostane-F2?III (iPF2?III). IPF2?III can bind to and activate the thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptor, and TP receptor activation causes increased A? production through enhancement of APP mRNA stability. Moreover, TP receptor antagonists have been shown to block iPF2?III-induced increases of A? secretion. Thus, the TP receptor may be a potential drug target for AD therapy. However, here we show that existing TP receptor antagonists have poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, likely due to the presence of a carboxylic acid moiety that is believed to be important for receptor interaction, but which may hamper passive diffusion across the BBB. We now report selected analogues of a known tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonist, wherein the carboxylic acid moiety has been replaced by heterocyclic bioisosteres. These heterocyclic analogues retained relatively high affinity for the mouse and human TP receptors, and, unlike the parent carboxylic acid compound, several examples freely diffused across the BBB into the brain upon administration to mice. These results reveal that brain-penetrant tetrahydronaphthalene TP receptor antagonists can be developed by substituting the carboxylic acid moiety with a suitable nonacidic bioisostere. Compounds of this type hold promise as potential lead structures to develop drug candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:23173073



Molecular modeling, quantum polarized ligand docking and structure-based 3D-QSAR analysis of the imidazole series as dual AT1 and ETA receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Aim: Both endothelin ETA receptor antagonists and angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. A dual AT1 and ETA receptor antagonist may be more efficacious antihypertensive drug. In this study we identified the mode and mechanism of binding of imidazole series of compounds as dual AT1 and ETA receptor antagonists. Methods: Molecular modeling approach combining quantum-polarized ligand docking (QPLD), MM/GBSA free-energy calculation and 3D-QSAR analysis was used to evaluate 24 compounds as dual AT1 and ETA receptor antagonists and to reveal their binding modes and structural basis of the inhibitory activity. Pharmacophore-based virtual screening and docking studies were performed to identify more potent dual antagonists. Results: 3D-QSAR models of the imidazole compounds were developed from the conformer generated by QPLD, and the resulting models showed a good correlation between the predicted and experimental activity. The visualization of the 3D-QSAR model in the context of the compounds under study revealed the details of the structure-activity relationship: substitution of methoxymethyl and cyclooctanone might increase the activity against AT1 receptor, while substitution of cyclohexone and trimethylpyrrolidinone was important for the activity against ETA receptor; addition of a trimethylpyrrolidinone to compound 9 significantly reduced its activity against AT1 receptor but significantly increased its activity against ETA receptor, which was likely due to the larger size and higher intensities of the H-bond donor and acceptor regions in the active site of ETA receptor. Pharmacophore-based virtual screening followed by subsequent Glide SP, XP, QPLD and MM/GBSA calculation identified 5 potential lead compounds that might act as dual AT1 and ETA receptor antagonists. Conclusion: This study may provide some insights into the development of novel potent dual ETA and AT1 receptor antagonists. As a result, five compounds are found to be the best dual antagonists against AT1R and ETA receptors. PMID:24304920

Singh, Khuraijam Dhanachandra; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan



Synthesis of novel 1-alkyl-8-substituted-3-(3-methoxypropyl) xanthines as putative A(2B) receptor antagonists.  


In order to identify a high-affinity, selective antagonist for the A(2B) subtype adenosine receptor, more than 40 1,8-disubstituted-3-(3-methoxypropyl) xanthines were prepared and evaluated for their binding affinity at recombinant human adenosine receptors, mainly of the A(2A) and A(2B) subtypes. Some of the 1-ethyl-3-(3-methoxypropyl)-8-aryl substituted derivatives 15(a-m) showed moderate-to-high affinity at human A(2B) receptors, with compound 15d showing A(2B) selectivity over the other A receptors assayed (A(1), A(2A), A(3)) of 34-fold or over. PMID:19346133

Nieto, María Isabel; Balo, María Carmen; Brea, José; Caamaño, Olga; Cadavid, María Isabel; Fernández, Franco; Mera, Xerardo García; López, Carmen; Rodríguez-Borges, José Enrique



Constitutional isomers of Reactive Blue 2 - selective P2Y-receptor antagonists?  


The anthraquinone derivative Reactive Blue 2 (RB 2) is one of the most widely used P2-receptor antagonists, still claimed to be P2Y-selective. RB 2 is defined as a mixture of two constitutional isomers and commercially available in different identity and purity. A sample of RB 2, offered for sale by RBI, purchased from Biotrend, Köln, Germany, was chromatographically purified and identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR studies as a 35:65 mixture of the terminal ring F meta and para constitutional isomers. The two constitutional isomers of RB 2 were synthesised and tested alongside with the ortho isomer Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB 3GA) on contractions of the rat vas deferens (RVD) elicited by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-MeATP), mediated by P2X(1)-receptors, and relaxations of the carbachol-precontracted guinea pig taenia coli elicited by adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiophosphate) (ADPbetaS), mediated by P2Y(1)-like-receptors. All compounds inhibited the alpha,beta-MeATP induced contraction of the RVD and the ADPbetaS induced relaxation of the carbachol precontracted guinea-pig taenia coli. The IC(50)-values at P2X(1)-R were 9.1 microM for CB 3GA, 28.4 microM for RB 2, 19.7 microM for RB 2 meta, and 35.5 microM for RB 2 para. The IC(50)-values at P2Y(1)-like-R were 17.4 microM for CB 3GA, 7.7 microM for RB 2, 12.0 microM for RB 2 meta, and 2.6 microM for RB 2 para. The results clearly show that neither RB 2 as a mixture nor the pure ortho and meta isomer are P2Y(1)-like- versus P2X(1)-selective antagonists. In contrast the pure para-isomer of RB 2 is a moderately P2Y(1)-like- versus P2X(1)-selective antagonist. PMID:12667697

Glänzel, Markus; Bültmann, Ralph; Starke, Klaus; Frahm, August W



Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human pregnane X-receptor in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Sulforaphane (SFN), is an effective in vitro antagonist of ligand activation of the human pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR). PXR mediated CYP3A4 up-regulation is implicated in adverse drug-drug interactions making identification of small molecule antagonists a desirable therapeutic goal. SFN is not an antagonist to mouse or rat PXR in vitro; thus, normal rodent species are not suitable as in vivo models for human response. To evaluate whether SFN can effectively antagonize ligand activation of human PXR in vivo, a three-armed, randomized, crossover trial was conducted with 24 healthy adults. The potent PXR ligand — rifampicin (300 mg/d) was given alone for 7 days in arm 1, or in daily combination with 450 ?mol SFN (Broccoli Sprout extract) in arm 2; SFN was given alone in arm 3. Midazolam as an in vivo phenotype marker of CYP3A was administered before and after each treatment arm. Rifampicin alone decreased midazolam AUC by 70%, indicative of the expected increase in CYP3A4 activity. Co-treatment with SFN did not reduce CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with SFN alone also did not affect CYP3A4 activity in the cohort as a whole, although in the subset with the highest basal CYP3A4 activity there was a statistically significant increase in midazolam AUC (i.e., decrease in CYP3A4 activity). A parallel study in humanized PXR mice yielded similar results. The parallel effects of SFN between humanized PXR mice and human subjects demonstrate the predictive value of humanized mouse models in situations where species differences in ligand-receptor interactions preclude the use of a native mouse model for studying human ligand-receptor pharmacology. -- Highlights: ? The effects of SFN on PXR mediated CYP3A4 induction in humanized PXR mice and humans were examined. ? SFN had no effect on rifampicin mediated CYP3A4 induction in humans or humanized mice. ? SFN had a modest effect on basal CYP3A4 activity among subjects with higher baseline activity. ? Humanized PXR mice were generally predictive of the in vivo human response.

Poulton, Emma Jane [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States) [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington (United States); Levy, Lisa [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (United States)] [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States) [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States); Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (United States); Shen, Danny D. [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States) [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington (United States); Tracy, Julia [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States) [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington (United States); Shuhart, Margaret C. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine (United States)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine (United States); Thummel, Kenneth E. [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States) [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington (United States); Eaton, David L., E-mail: [Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington (United States)



A Selective Orexin-1 Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Stress-Induced Hyperarousal without Hypnotic Effects.  


Orexins (OXs) are peptides produced by perifornical (PeF) and lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes, including stress. A critical role for the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) in complex emotional behavior is emerging, such as overactivation of the OX1R pathway being associated with panic or anxiety states. Here we characterize a brain-penetrant, selective, and high-affinity OX1R antagonist, compound 56 [N-({3-[(3-ethoxy-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)carbonyl]-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-4-yl}methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-amine]. Ex vivo receptor binding studies demonstrated that, after subcutaneous administration, compound 56 crossed the blood-brain barrier and occupied OX1Rs in the rat brain at lower doses than standard OX1R antagonists GSK-1059865 [5-bromo-N-({1-[(3-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)carbonyl]-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl}methyl)pyridin-2-amine], SB-334867 [1-(2-methyl-1,3-benzoxazol-6-yl)-3-(1,5-naphthyridin-4-yl)urea], and SB-408124 [1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea]. Although compound 56 did not alter spontaneous sleep in rats and in wild-type mice, its administration in orexin-2 receptor knockout mice selectively promoted rapid eye movement sleep, demonstrating target engagement and specific OX1R blockade. In a rat model of psychological stress induced by cage exchange, the OX1R antagonist prevented the prolongation of sleep onset without affecting sleep duration. In a rat model of panic vulnerability (involving disinhibition of the PeF OX region) to threatening internal state changes (i.e., intravenous sodium lactate infusion), compound 56 attenuated sodium lactate-induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses without altering baseline locomotor or autonomic activity. In conclusion, OX1R antagonism represents a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders associated with stress or hyperarousal states. PMID:25583879