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Sample records for competitive receptor antagonist

  1. Competitive AMPA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Catarzi, Daniela; Colotta, Vittoria; Varano, Flavia

    2007-03-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where it is involved in the physiological regulation of different processes. It has been well established that excessive endogenous Glu is associated with many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as cerebral ischaemia, epilepsy, amiotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. These data have consequently added great impetus to the research in this field. In fact, many Glu receptor antagonists acting at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), and/or kainic acid (KA) receptors have been developed as research tools and potential therapeutic agents. Ligands showing competitive antagonistic action at the AMPA type of Glu receptors were first reported in 1988, and the systemically active 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) was first shown to have useful therapeutic effects in animal models of neurological disease in 1990. Since then, the quinoxaline template has represented the backbone of various competitive AMPA receptor antagonists belonging to different classes which had been developed in order to increase potency, selectivity and water solubility, but also to prolong the "in vivo" action. Compounds that present better pharmacokinetic properties and less serious adverse effects with respect to the others previously developed are undergoing clinical evaluation. In the near future, the most important clinical application for the AMPA receptor antagonists will probably be as neuroprotectant in neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy, for the treatment of patients not responding to current therapies. The present review reports the history of competitive AMPA receptor antagonists from 1988 up to today, providing a systematic coverage of both the open and patent literature. PMID:16892196

  2. Rational design of competitive prolactin/growth hormone receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tallet, Estelle; Rouet, Vincent; Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Kelly, Paul A; Bernichtein, Sophie; Goffin, Vincent

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) act as growth-promoters of breast tumors. Recent arguments have accumulated to suggest that when they are locally-produced within the mammary tissue, these hormones, acting by an autocrine-paracrine mechanism may have enhanced, or even specific functions compared to endocrine PRL and GH. Classical drugs blocking pituitary hormone production (dopamine and somatostatin analogs) are ineffective on extrapituitary expression of PRL/GH genes, therefore the undesirable effects of these locally-produced hormones remain a target of interest for alternative strategies. This has encouraged the development of competitive PRL and/or GH receptor antagonists, which involve engineered variants of natural receptor ligands (PRL or GH) aimed at blocking receptor activation rather than hormone production in peripheral tissues. This article overviews the rational design of this new class of molecules, their specific molecular features (receptor specificity, biological properties, etc.) and whenever available, the data that have been obtained in cell or animal models of breast cancer. PMID:18219565

  3. Preclinical pharmacology of perampanel, a selective non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Michael A.; Hanada, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    Perampanel [2-(2-oxo-1-phenyl-5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)benzonitrile; E2007] is a potent, selective, orally-active non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Perampanel has a 2,3-bipyridin-6-one core structure, distinguishing it chemically from other AMPA receptor antagonist classes. Studies in various physiological systems indicate that perampanel selectively inhibits AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic excitation without affecting NMDA receptor responses. Blocking of AMPA receptors occurs at an allosteric site that is distinct from the glutamate recognition site. Radioligand binding studies suggest that the blocking site coincides with that of the non-competitive antagonist GYKI 52466, believed to be on linker peptide segments of AMPA receptor subunits that transduce agonist binding into channel opening. As is typical for AMPA receptor antagonists, perampanel exhibits broad-spectrum anti-seizure activity in diverse animal seizure models. Perampanel has high oral bioavailability, dose-proportional kinetics, and undergoes oxidative metabolism, primarily via CYP3A4, followed by glucuronidation. The terminal half-life (t) in humans is 105 h; however, in the presence of a strong CYP3A4 inducer (such as carbamazepine) the t can be reduced. In sum, perampanel is a selective, centrally-acting, negative allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors with good oral bioavailability and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23480152

  4. Competitive molecular docking approach for predicting estrogen receptor subtype α agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that interfere with the endocrine system of vertebrates, often through direct or indirect interactions with nuclear receptor proteins. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are particularly important protein targets and many EDCs are ER binders, capable of altering normal homeostatic transcription and signaling pathways. An estrogenic xenobiotic can bind ER as either an agonist or antagonist to increase or inhibit transcription, respectively. The receptor conformations in the complexes of ER bound with agonists and antagonists are different and dependent on interactions with co-regulator proteins that vary across tissue type. Assessment of chemical endocrine disruption potential depends not only on binding affinity to ERs, but also on changes that may alter the receptor conformation and its ability to subsequently bind DNA response elements and initiate transcription. Using both agonist and antagonist conformations of the ERα, we developed an in silico approach that can be used to differentiate agonist versus antagonist status of potential binders. Methods The approach combined separate molecular docking models for ER agonist and antagonist conformations. The ability of this approach to differentiate agonists and antagonists was first evaluated using true agonists and antagonists extracted from the crystal structures available in the protein data bank (PDB), and then further validated using a larger set of ligands from the literature. The usefulness of the approach was demonstrated with enrichment analysis in data sets with a large number of decoy ligands. Results The performance of individual agonist and antagonist docking models was found comparable to similar models in the literature. When combined in a competitive docking approach, they provided the ability to discriminate agonists from antagonists with good accuracy, as well as the ability to efficiently select true agonists and antagonists from decoys during enrichment analysis. Conclusion This approach enables evaluation of potential ER biological function changes caused by chemicals bound to the receptor which, in turn, allows the assessment of a chemical's endocrine disrupting potential. The approach can be used not only by regulatory authorities to perform risk assessments on potential EDCs but also by the industry in drug discovery projects to screen for potential agonists and antagonists. PMID:25349983

  5. Competitive (AP7) and non-competitive (MK-801) NMDA receptor antagonists differentially alter glucose utilization in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, D.W.; Lee, S.J.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    The effects of D,L-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on regional brain metabolism were studied in unanesthetized, freely moving rats by using the quantitative {sup 14}C2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic procedure. AP7 (338 or 901 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity throughout most of the regions studied including sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. In contrast, MK-801 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity in sensory cortices, and an increase in limbic regions such as the hippocampal stratum lacunosum moleculare and entorhinal cortex. MK-801 also produced a biphasic response in agranular motor cortex, whereby the low dose increased while the high dose decreased labeling. In addition, MK-801 produced heterogeneous effects on regional cerebral metabolism in sensory cortices. Metabolic activity decreased in layer IV relative to layer Va following MK-801 treatment in primary somatosensory (SI) and visual (VI) cortices, suggesting a shift in activity from afferent fibers innervating layer IV to those innervating layer Va. MK-801 administration also decreased metabolic activity in granular SI relative to dysgranular SI, and in VI relative to secondary visual cortex (VII), thus providing a relative sparing of activity in dysgranular SI and VII. Thus, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist suppressed activity from extrinsic neocortical sources, enhancing relative intracortical activity and stimulating limbic regions, while the competitive NMDA antagonist depressed metabolic activity in all cortical regions.

  6. Synthesis of inositol phosphate-based competitive antagonists of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Konieczny, Vera; Stefanakis, John G; Sitsanidis, Efstratios D; Ioannidou, Natalia-Anastasia T; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos V; Fylaktakidou, Konstantina C; Taylor, Colin W; Koumbis, Alexandros E

    2016-02-16

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca(2+) channels that are widely expressed in animal cells, where they mediate the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores evoked by extracellular stimuli. A diverse array of synthetic agonists of IP3Rs has defined structure-activity relationships, but existing antagonists have severe limitations. We combined analyses of Ca(2+) release with equilibrium competition binding to IP3R to show that (1,3,4,6)IP4 is a full agonist of IP3R1 with lower affinity than (1,4,5)IP3. Systematic manipulation of this meso-compound via a versatile synthetic scheme provided a family of dimeric analogs of 2-O-butyryl-(1,3,4,6)IP4 and (1,3,4,5,6)IP5 that compete with (1,4,5)IP3 for binding to IP3R without evoking Ca(2+) release. These novel analogs are the first inositol phosphate-based competitive antagonists of IP3Rs with affinities comparable to that of the only commonly used competitive antagonist, heparin, the utility of which is limited by off-target effects. PMID:26818818

  7. Competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists increase the proportion of functional high-affinity alpha6 subunit-containing receptors in granule cells of adult rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wall, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the properties of alpha6 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from granule cells in adult rat cerebellar slices. In control, only currents evoked by low concentrations of GABA were significantly reduced in amplitude by furosemide, the alpha6 subunit-containing receptor antagonist. However, in the presence of competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the furosemide block of currents evoked by higher GABA concentrations was markedly increased. Zinc, which preferentially blocks alpha6 subunit-containing receptors, also produced an increased block in the presence of bicuculline. To investigate whether similar effects occurred at synaptic receptors, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded. In most cells, furosemide produced little or no reduction in evoked IPSC amplitude. However in the presence of SR95531, a competitive antagonist, furosemide markedly reduced IPSC amplitude. One hypothesis, which could account for these observations, is that competitive antagonists prevent the continual activation of alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors by endogenous GABA and thus prevent their desensitisation. This hypothesis appears feasible as prolonged applications of low concentrations of GABA to recombinant alpha6beta2gamma2s receptors resulted in their desensitisation. PMID:12559122

  8. GABA{sub A} receptor open-state conformation determines non-competitive antagonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ligong; Xue Ling; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Casida, John E.

    2011-02-01

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA{sub A}R) is one of the most important targets for insecticide action. The human recombinant {beta}3 homomer is the best available model for this binding site and 4-n-[{sup 3}H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([{sup 3}H]EBOB) is the preferred non-competitive antagonist (NCA) radioligand. The uniquely high sensitivity of the {beta}3 homomer relative to the much-less-active but structurally very-similar {beta}1 homomer provides an ideal comparison to elucidate structural and functional features important for NCA binding. The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared using chimeragenesis and mutagenesis and various combinations with the {alpha}1 subunit and modulators. Chimera {beta}3/{beta}1 with the {beta}3 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}1 subunit transmembrane helices retained the high [{sup 3}H]EBOB binding level of the {beta}3 homomer while chimera {beta}1/{beta}3 with the {beta}1 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}3 subunit transmembrane helices had low binding activity similar to the {beta}1 homomer. GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold by increasing the open probability of the channel. Addition of the {alpha}1 subunit rescued the inactive {beta}1/{beta}3 chimera close to wildtype {alpha}1{beta}1 activity. EBOB binding was significantly altered by mutations {beta}1S15'N and {beta}3N15'S compared with wildtype {beta}1 and {beta}3, respectively. However, the binding activity of {alpha}1{beta}1S15'N was insensitive to GABA and {alpha}1{beta}3N15'S was stimulated much less than wildtype {alpha}1{beta}3 by GABA. The inhibitory effect of etomidate on NCA binding was reduced more than 5-fold by the mutation {beta}3N15'S. Therefore, the NCA binding site is tightly regulated by the open-state conformation that largely determines GABA{sub A} receptor sensitivity. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared by chimeragenesis, mutagenesis and modulators. > Low {beta}1 NCA binding was rescued by replacing its transmembrane helices with those of {beta}3. > GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold. > Mutation at 15' position in TM2 reduced GABA stimulation of NCA binding. > The open-state conformation largely determines GABAA receptor sensitivity to NCAs.

  9. Tying up Nicotine: New Selective Competitive Antagonist of the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Crestey, Franois; Jensen, Anders A; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Pedersen, Henrik; Andreasen, Jesper T; Balle, Thomas; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2015-04-01

    Conformational restriction of the pyrrolidine nitrogen in nicotine by the introduction of an ethylene bridge provided a potent and selective antagonist of the ?4?2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Resolution by chiral SFC, pharmacological characterization of the two enantiomers, and determination of absolute configuration via enantioselective synthesis showed that the pharmacological activity resided almost exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer. PMID:25941557

  10. BAY36-7620: a potent non-competitive mGlu1 receptor antagonist with inverse agonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Fiona Y.; Stolle, Andreas; Beart, Philip M.; Voerste, Arnd; Brabet, Isabelle; Mauler, Frank; Joly, Ccile; Antonicek, Horst; Bockaert, Jol; Mller, Thomas; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Przeau, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    L-glutamate (Glu) activates at least eight different G protein-coupled receptors, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which mostly act as regulators of synaptic transmission. These receptors consist of two domains: an extracellular one where agonists bind, and a transmembrane heptahelix region involved in G-protein activation. Although new mGlu receptor agonists and antagonists have been described, few are selective for a single mGlu subtype. Here, we have examined the effects of a novel compound BAY36-7620 [(3aS,6aS)-6a-Naphtalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydro-cyclopental[c]furan-1-on], on mGlu receptors (mGlu1-8), transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. BAY36-7620 is a potent (IC50 = 0.16 ?M) and selective antagonist at mGlu1 receptors and inhibits >60% of mGlu1a receptor constitutive activity (IC50 = 0.38 ?M). BAY36-7620 is therefore the first described mGlu1 receptor inverse agonist. To address the mechanism of action of BAY36-7620, Glu dose-response curves were performed in the presence of increasing concentrations of BAY36-7620. The results show that BAY36-7620 largely decreases the maximal effect of Glu. Moreover, BAY36-7620 did not displace the [3H]quisqualate binding from the Glu-binding pocket., further indicating that BAY36-7620 is a non-competitive mGlu1 antagonist. We then looked for its site of action. Studies of chimeric receptors containing regions of mGlu1, and regions of DmGluA, mGlu2 or mGlu5, revealed that the transmembrane region of mGlu1 is necessary for activity of BAY36-7620. Transmembrane helices 47 are shown to play a critical role in the selectivity of BAY36-7620. This specific site of action of BAY36-7620 differs from that of competitive antagonists, and indicates that the transmembrane region plays a pivotal role in the agonist-independent activity of this receptor. BAY36-7620 will be useful to further delineate the functional importance of the mGlu1 receptor, including its putative agonist-independent activity. PMID:11306677

  11. Discriminative effects of CGS 15943, a competitive adenosine receptor antagonist, have a dopamine component in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, S G

    1999-07-01

    9-Chloro-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolol[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-amin e (CGS 15943), like caffeine, is an antagonist at adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and a behavioral stimulant in animals. The two drugs have overlapping discriminative effects. Enhancement of dopamine-mediated neurotransmission appears to contribute to the behavioral effects of caffeine. This study was conducted to determine if there is a dopamine component to the discriminative effects of CGS 15943. Squirrel monkeys discriminating between i.m. injections of 1.0 mg/kg CGS 15943 and vehicle generalized dose-dependently and completely to eight dopamine receptor agonists that encompass a variety of mechanisms and sites of action, both pre- and postsynaptic. The discriminative effects of the training dose of CGS 15943 were blocked dose-dependently and completely by the dopamine receptor antagonists R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzaz epine (SCH 23390; D1) and eticlopride (D2). Thus, the discriminative effects of CGS 15943 have a dopamine component that appears to be mediated by both the D1 and D2 families of dopamine receptors. The monkeys also generalized to selective inhibitors of the neuronal transporters of norepinephrine (nisoxetine) and serotonin (fluoxetine), indicating that monoamines other than dopamine also contribute to the discriminative effects of CGS 15943. PMID:10440083

  12. Molecular determinants of non-competitive antagonist binding to the mouse GPRC6A receptor.

    PubMed

    Faure, Helene; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Rice, Nadejda; Dauban, Philippe; Dodd, Robert H; Bruner-Osborne, Hans; Rognan, Didier; Ruat, Martial

    2009-01-01

    GPRC6A displays high sequence homology to the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR). Here we report that the calcimimetic Calindol and the calcilytic NPS2143 antagonize increases in inositol phosphate elicited by L-ornithine-induced activation of mouse GPRC6A after transient coexpression with Galpha(qG66D) in HEK293 cells. The calcilytic Calhex 231 did not modulate this response. A three-dimensional model of the GPRC6A seven transmembrane domains (TMs) was constructed. It was used to identify seven residues strictly conserved within the CaSR and GPRC6A allosteric binding pockets, and previously demonstrated to interact with calcilytics or calcimimetics. The mutations F666A(3.32), F670A(3.36), W797A(6.48) caused a loss of L-ornithine ability to activate GPRC6A mutants. The F800A(6.51) mutant was not implicated in either Calindol or NPS 2143 recognition. The E816Q(7.39) mutation led to a loss of Calindol antagonist activity but was without effect on NPS2143 inhibitory response. In summary, these data suggest that Calindol is primarily anchored through an H-bond to E816(7.39) in TM7 and highlight important local differences at the level of the CaSR and GPRC6A allosteric binding pockets. We have identified the first antagonists of GPRC6A that could represent new tools to analyze GPRC6A functions and serve as chemical leads for the development of more specific modulators. PMID:19836834

  13. Cyclothiazide Selectively Inhibits mGluR1 Receptors Interacting with a Common Allosteric Site for Non-competitive Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Surin, Alexander; Pshenichkin, Sergey; Grajkowska, Ewa; Surina, Elena; Wroblewski., Jarda T.

    2007-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 and mGluR5 stimulate phospholipase C, leading to an increased inositol triphosphate level and to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Cyclothiazide (CTZ), known as a blocker of AMPA receptor desensitization, produced a non-competitive inhibition of [Ca2+]i increases induced by mGluR agonists in HEK 293 cells transfected with rat mGluR1a but had no effect on the [Ca2+]i signals in cells expressing rat mGluR5a. In cells expressing mGluR1, CTZ also inhibited phoshoinositide hydrolysis, as well as cAMP accumulation and arachidonic acid release induced by mGluR1 agonists, indicating a direct inhibition of the receptor and not of a particular signal transduction system. However, CTZ failed to antagonize cAMP inhibition stimulated by rat mGluR2, -3, -4, -6, -7 and -8 receptors confirming its selectivity for mGluR1. The use of chimeric receptors with substituted N-terminal domains showed that CTZ did not interact with the N-terminal mGluR1a domain. Instead, mutation analysis revealed that CTZ interacts with the Thr-815 and Ala-818 residues, located at the 7th transmembrane domain, similarly as the mGluR1-selective antagonist CPCCOEt. In primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons, expressing native metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors, the final outcome of CTZ effects depended on its combined ability to potentiate AMPA receptors and inhibit mGluR1a receptors. PMID:17095021

  14. The NMDA receptor competitive antagonist CPP modulates benzodiazepine tolerance and discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Koff, J M; Pritchard, G A; Greenblatt, D J; Miller, L G

    1997-11-01

    Benzodiazepine discontinuation is characterized by a syndrome of increased activity and reduced seizure threshold that is similar to effects mediated by the glutamatergic system. To elucidate the involvement of the glutamatergic system in benzodiazepine tolerance and discontinuation, we administered lorazepam, the NMDA antagonist CPP, and the combination of these compounds either concomitantly or consecutively to mice via osmotic pumps and evaluated pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold, open-field activity, and benzodiazepine receptor binding during and after chronic administration. Animals receiving lorazepam alone developed partial tolerance at 7 days and complete tolerance at 14 days to the anticonvulsant effects of lorazepam. This effect was partly attenuated by CPP coadministration with lorazepam. This combination produced only partial tolerance. A reduction in seizure threshold was observed 4 days after discontinuation of lorazepam alone. This effect was abolished by coadministration of CPP with lorazepam and by CPP administration during the withdrawal period. Benzodiazepine binding in most structures examined was significantly reduced at 14 days during chronic lorazepam administration (versus 1 day), and coadministration of CPP did not alter this decrement. After lorazepam discontinuation, binding was increased at 4 and 7 days versus chronically treated animals and versus vehicle within the cerebral cortex. This effect was abolished by coadministration of CPP as well as by CPP administration during the lorazepam withdrawal period. These data support the involvement of the glutamatergic system in benzodiazepine tolerance and discontinuation. PMID:9399331

  15. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives: A novel class of non-competitive NR2C/D subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Cara A.; Acker, Timothy M.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Andersen, Karen T.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Bruner-Osborne, Hans; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives is non-competitive and voltage-independent, suggesting that this family of compounds does not exert action on the agonist binding site of the receptor or block the channel pore. The compounds described here resemble CP-465,022 ((S)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(6-diethylaminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-vinyl]-6-fluoro-3H-quinazolin-4-one), a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors. However, modification of ring substituents resulted in analogues with greater than 100-fold selectivity for recombinant NMDA receptors over AMPA and kainate receptors. Furthermore, within this series of compounds, analogues were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of non-competitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:20684595

  16. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP disrupts cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, but spares behavioral sensitization.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Carmack SA; Kim JS; Sage JR; Thomas AW; Skillicorn KN; Anagnostaras SG

    2013-02-15

    Recently, the notion that memory and addiction share similar neural substrates has become widely accepted. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the cornerstones of synaptic models of memory. The present study examined the effect of the competitive NMDAR antagonist CPP on the induction of behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference to cocaine. Conditioned place preference is an associative memory model of drug seeking, while sensitization is a non-associative model of the transition from casual to compulsive use. There were three principal findings: (1) co-administration of CPP and cocaine altered the acute response to cocaine, suggesting a direct interaction between the two drugs; (2) NMDAR antagonism had no effect on behavioral sensitization; and (3) NMDAR antagonism abolished conditioned place preference. A review of prior evidence supporting a role for NMDARs in sensitization suggests that NMDAR antagonists directly interfere with cocaine's psychostimulant effects, and this interaction could be misinterpreted as a disruption of sensitization. Finally, we suggest that addiction recruits multiple kinds of plasticity, with sensitization recruiting NMDAR-independent mechanisms.

  17. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, in a range of animal models

    PubMed Central

    Gigler, G; Mricz, K; goston, M; Sim, A; Albert, M; Benedek, A; Kapus, G; Kertsz, S; Vegh, M; Barkczy, J; Mark, B; Szab, G; Matucz, ; Gacslyi, I; Lvay, G; Hrsing, L G; Sznsi, G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Blockade of AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate. Experimental approach: AMPA antagonist effects of EGIS-8332 were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332 were evaluated in various experimental models, relative to those of GYKI 53405. Key results: EGIS-8332 inhibited AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibited the AMPA- and quisqualate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of telencephalon neurons (IC50=5.1-9.0??M), in vitro. Good anticonvulsant actions were obtained in maximal electroshock-, sound- and chemically-induced seizures (range of ED50=1.4-14.0 mg kg?1 i.p.) in mice. Four days after transient global cerebral ischaemia, EGIS-8332 decreased neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area in gerbils and rats. EGIS-8332 dose-dependently reduced cerebral infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and rats (minimum effective dose=3 mg kg?1 i.p.). Side effects of EGIS-8332 emerged much above its pharmacologically active doses. A tendency for better efficacy of GYKI 53405 than that of EGIS-8332 was observed in anticonvulsant tests that reached statistical significance in few cases, while the contrary was perceived in cerebral ischaemia tests. Conclusions and implications: EGIS-8332 seems suitable for further development for the treatment of epilepsy, ischaemia and stroke based on its efficacy in a variety of experimental disease models, and on its low side effect potential. PMID:17603549

  18. Negative allosteric modulation of AMPA-preferring receptors by the selective isomer GYKI 53784 (LY303070), a specific non-competitive AMPA antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Jrme; Guitton, Matthieu J; Puell, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    GYKI 53784 or LY303070 [(-)1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-4,5-dihydro-3-methylcarbamoyl-2,3-benzodiazepine] belongs to a new family of 2,3-benzodiazepine compounds (also called homophtalazines) selective and non-competitive antagonists at alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. These compounds include the original GYKI-52466, its more potent derivative GYKI 53655 and the active isomer of the latter, GYKI 53784. This review summarizes current knowledge of this novel AMPA antagonist: GYKI 53784. GYKI 53784 is the most potent of the compounds in the 2,3-benzodiazepine class, blocking AMPA receptor-mediated responses. In contrast to the compounds of the quinoxalinedione family, that block AMPA as well as kainate receptors, GYKI 53784 does not block the activation of kainate receptors. Furthermore, GYKI 53784 does not act at the same receptor site as positive AMPA modulators (i.e., cyclothiazide, BDP-12, 1-BCP or aniracetam). GYKI 53784 is a powerful neuroprotective agent in both in vitro and in vivo models of AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. In contrast to NMDA receptor antagonists, whose favorable clinical actions are compromised by important side effects such as the impairment of memory functions, the selective AMPA antagonist, GYKI 53784, may be of potential clinical value, both in acute (stroke and trauma) and chronic (Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy) neurological disorders. PMID:12353057

  19. [Vasopressin receptor antagonists: the vaptans].

    PubMed

    Villabona, Carles

    2010-05-01

    The non-peptide vasopressin antagonists (VPA), called vaptans, were developed in the 1990s to antagonize both the pressor and antidiuretic effects of vasopressin. There are three subtypes of VPA receptors: V1a, V1b and V2. V1a receptors are widely distributed in the body, mainly the blood vessels and myocardium. The V1b receptors are located mainly in the anterior pituitary gland and play a role in ACTH release. V2 receptors are located in the collecting tubular renal cells. Both V1a and V1b receptors act through the intracellular phosphoinositol signalling pathway, Ca(++) being the second messenger. V2 receptors work through AMPc generation, which promotes aquaporin 2 (AQP2) trafficking and allows water to enter the cell. The vaptans act competitively at the AVP receptor. The most important are mozavaptan, lixivaptan, satavaptan and tolvaptan, all of which are selective V2 antagonists and are administered through the oral route. In contrast, conivaptan is a dual V1 and V2 antagonist administered through the endovenous route. The main characteristics of vaptans are their effect on free water elimination without affecting electrolyte excretion. There are several studies on the effects of these drugs in hypervolemic hyponatremia (heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis) as well as in normovolemic hyponatremia (inappropriate secretion of ADH [SIADH]). Current studies show that the vaptans are effective and well tolerated, although knowledge of these drugs remains limited. There are no studies of the use of vaptans in severe hyponatremia. Osmotic demyelination syndrome due to excessively rapid correction of hyponatremia has not been described. PMID:21130961

  20. Methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at the ?4?2 and ?3* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and an agonist at the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Talka, Reeta; Salminen, Outi; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine-methadone interactions have been studied in human beings and in various experimental settings regarding addiction, reward and pain. Most methadone maintenance treatment patients are smokers, and methadone administration has been shown to increase cigarette smoking. Previous in vitro studies have shown that methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at rat ?3?4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and an agonist at human ?7 nAChRs. In this study, we used cell lines expressing human ?4?2, ?7 and ?3* nAChRs to compare the interactions of methadone at the various human nAChRs under the same experimental conditions. A [(3) H]epibatidine displacement assay was used to determine whether methadone binds to the nicotinic receptors, and (86) Rb(+) efflux and changes in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+) ]i were used to assess changes in the functional activity of the receptors. Methadone displaced [(3) H]epibatidine from nicotinic agonist-binding sites in SH-EP1-h?7 and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in SH-EP1-h?4?2 cells. The Ki values for methadone were 6.3?M in SH-EP1-h?7 cells and 19.4?M and 1008?M in SH-SY5Y cells. Methadone increased [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and in SH-EP1-h?7 cells, the effect was more pronounced than the effect of nicotine treatment. In SH-EP1-h?4?2 cells, the effect of methadone was negligible compared to that of nicotine. Methadone pre-treatment abolished the nicotine-induced response in [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines expressing nAChRs. In SH-EP1-h?4?2 and SH-SY5Y cells, methadone had no effect on the (86) Rb(+) efflux, but it antagonized the nicotine-induced (86) Rb(+) ion efflux in a non-competitive manner. These results suggest that methadone is an agonist at human ?7 nAChRs and a non-competitive antagonist at human ?4?2 and ?3* nAChRs. This study adds further support to the previous findings that opioids interact with nAChRs, which may underlie their frequent co-administration in human beings and might be of interest to the field of drug discovery. PMID:25196810

  1. Effects of non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonists injected into some brain areas of WAG/Rij rats, an animal model of generalized absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Citraro, Rita; Russo, Emilio; Gratteri, Santo; Di Paola, Eugenio Donato; Ibbadu, Guido Ferreri; Curinga, Carmela; Gitto, Rosaria; Chimirri, Alba; Donato, Giuseppe; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2006-11-01

    CFM-2 [1-(4-aminophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-7,8-dimethoxy-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-one] and THIQ-10c [N-acetyl-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline], are two non-competitive 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl) propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists, which demonstrated to antagonize generalized tonic-clonic seizures in different animal models. We have evaluated the effects of such compounds in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy, the WAG/Rij rat. Animals were focally microinjected into specific brain areas of the cortico-thalamic circuit in order to evaluate the effects of these compounds on the number and duration of epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and better characterize the role of AMPA neurotransmission in this animal model. The focal microinjection of the two AMPA antagonists into some thalamic nuclei (ventralis posteromedialis (VPM), reticularis (NRT), ventralis posterolateralis (VPL) and the primary somatosensory forelimb region (S1FL)) was, generally, not able to significantly modify the occurrence of SWDs. Whereas, both compounds were able to reduce the number and duration of SWDs dose-dependently when microinjected into the peri-oral region of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1po). These findings suggest that AMPA receptor antagonists might play a role in absence epilepsies and that it might depend on the involvement of specific neuronal areas. PMID:16901515

  2. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) (/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor.

  3. 4,5-Substituted 3-Isoxazolols with Insecticidal Activity Act as Competitive Antagonists of Housefly GABA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Genyan; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Furuta, Kenjiro; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2015-07-22

    The insect GABA receptor (GABAR), which is composed of five RDL subunits, represents an important target for insecticides. A series of 4,5-disubstituted 3-isoxazolols, including muscimol analogues, were synthesized and examined for their activities against four splice variants (ac, ad, bc, and bd) of housefly GABARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Muscimol was a more potent agonist than GABA in all four splice variants, whereas synthesized analogues did not exhibit agonism but rather antagonism in housefly GABARs. The introduction of bicyclic aromatic groups at the 4-position of muscimol and the simultaneous replacement of the aminomethyl group with a carbamoyl group at the 5-position to afford six 4-aryl-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolols resulted in compounds that exhibited significantly enhanced antagonism with IC50 values in the low micromolar range in the ac variant. The inhibition of GABA-induced currents by 100 ?M analogues was approximately 1.5-4-fold greater in the ac and bc variants than in the ad and bd variants. 4-(3-Biphenylyl)-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolol displayed competitive antagonism, with IC50 values of 30, 34, 107, and 96 ?M in the ac, bc, ad, and bd variants, respectively, and exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against houseflies, with an LD50 value of 5.6 nmol/fly. These findings suggest that these 3-isoxazolol analogues are novel lead compounds for the design and development of insecticides that target the orthosteric site of housefly GABARs. PMID:26120732

  4. Vasopressin and vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yun Kyu

    2008-06-01

    Vasopressin, a neurohypophyseal peptide hormone, is the endogenous agonist at V1a, V1b, and V2 receptors. The most important physiological function of vasopressin is the maintenance of water homeostasis through interaction with V2 receptors in the kidney. Vasopressin binds to V2 receptor and increases the number of aquaporin-2 at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells. That induces high water permeability across the membrane. Several non-peptide vasopressin receptor antagonists have been developed and are being studied primarily for treating conditions characterized by hyponatremia and fluid overload. Further studies are needed to determine how they are best used in these situations. PMID:24459522

  5. Timosaponin derivative YY-23 acts as a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist and exerts a rapid antidepressant-like effect in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Guo, Fei; Fu, Zhi-wen; Zhang, Bing; Huang, Cheng-gang; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor modulators have shown promising results as potential antidepressant agents, whereas timosaponins extracted from the Chinese herb Rhizoma Anemarrhenae exhibit antidepressant activities. In the present study we examined whether YY-23, a modified metabolite of timosaponin B-III, could affect NMDA receptors in rat hippocampal neurons in vitro, and evaluated its antidepressant-like effects in stressed mice. Methods: NMDA-induced currents were recorded in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal CA1 neurons using a whole-cell recording technique. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a 6-week chronic mild stress (CMS) or a 10-d chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). The stressed mice were treated with YY-23 (20 mg·kg−1·d−1) or a positive-control drug, fluoxetine (10 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 3 weeks. Behavioral assessments were carried out every week. Results: In acutely dissociated rat hippocampal CA1 neurons, YY-23 selectively and reversibly inhibited NMDA-induced currents with an EC50 value of 2.8 μmol/L. This inhibition of NMDA-induced currents by YY-23 was non-competitive, and had no features of voltage-dependency or use-dependency. Treatment of the stressed mice with YY-23 not only reversed CMS-induced deficiency of sucrose preference and immobility time, and CSDS-induced reduction of social interaction, but also had faster onset as compared to fluoxetine. Conclusion: YY-23 is a novel non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors with promising rapid antidepressant-like effects in mouse models of CMS and CSDS depression. PMID:26687936

  6. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grandič, Marjana; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Turk, Tom; Sepčić, Kristina; Benoit, Evelyne; Frangež, Robert

    2012-12-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007–3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1{sub 2}β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ► APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ► APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

  7. Towards ?-selectivity in functional estrogen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Jose Juan; Filipiak, Kamila; Maslyk, Maciej; Ciepielski, Jakub; Demkowicz, Sebastian; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Martn-Santamara, Sonsoles; de Pascual-Teresa, Beatriz; Ramos, Ana

    2012-09-28

    Based on the benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]furan and benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]thiophene frameworks, a series of ligands with different basic side chains (BSCs) has been synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. Also, their binding modes have been modelled using docking techniques. It was found that the introduction of a BSC in these systems brings about a decrease of affinity for both estrogen receptors ? and ? in an in vitro competitive binding assay. However, two full antagonists of the estrogen receptor ? (9c and 9f) have been discovered, with potency in the low micromolar concentration in a cell-based luciferase reporter assay, and completely devoid of activity against the ? receptor at the same concentration range. Differences in the ER?/ER? binding modes have also been rationalized with the help of molecular modelling techniques. This interesting functional profile could be used to elucidate the physiological role of each ER subtype. PMID:22847655

  8. Endothelin receptors and their antagonists.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    All three members of the endothelin (ET) family of peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, are expressed in the human kidney, with ET-1 being the predominant isoform. ET-1 and ET-2 bind to two G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, whereas at physiological concentrations ET-3 has little affinity for the ET(A) receptor. The human kidney is unusual among the peripheral organs in expressing a high density of ET(B). The renal vascular endothelium only expresses the ET(B) subtype and ET-1 acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to release vasodilators. Endothelial ETB in kidney, as well as liver and lungs, also has a critical role in scavenging ET-1 from the plasma. The third major function is ET-1 activation of ET(B) in in the nephron to reduce salt and water re-absorption. In contrast, ET(A) predominate on smooth muscle, causing vasoconstriction and mediating many of the pathophysiological actions of ET-1. The role of the two receptors has been delineated using highly selective ET(A) (BQ123, TAK-044) and ET(B) (BQ788) peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists, bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan, that are either mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonists or display ET(A) selectivity, have been approved for clinical use but to date are limited to pulmonary hypertension. Ambrisentan is in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. This review summarizes ET-receptor antagonism in the human kidney, and considers the relative merits of selective versus nonselective antagonism in renal disease. PMID:25966344

  9. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  10. Competitive binding of antagonistic peptides fine-tunes stomatal patterning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Suk; Hnilova, Marketa; Maes, Michal; Lin, Ya-Chen Lisa; Putarjunan, Aarthi; Han, Soon-Ki; Avila, Julian; U.Torii, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    During development, cells interpret complex, often conflicting signals to make optimal decisions. Plant stomata, the cellular interface between a plant and the atmosphere, develop according to positional cues including a family of secreted peptides, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTORS (EPFs). How these signaling peptides orchestrate pattern formation at a molecular level remains unclear. Here we report that Stomagen/EPF-LIKE9 peptide, which promotes stomatal development, requires ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinases and interferes with the inhibition of stomatal development by the EPF2-ER module. Both EPF2 and Stomagen directly bind to ER and its co-receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS. Stomagen peptide competitively replaced EPF2 binding to ER. Furthermore, application of EPF2, but not Stomagen, elicited rapid phosphorylation of downstream signaling components in vivo. Our findings demonstrate how a plant receptor agonist and antagonist define inhibitory and inductive cues to fine-tune tissue patterning on the plant epidermis. PMID:26083750

  11. [Vasopressin receptor antagonists and heart failure].

    PubMed

    Haass, Markus

    2009-11-01

    Vasopressin plays a physiological role in regulation of blood pressure, fluid volume, and serum osmolality. In heart failure inadequate release of vasopressin may result in excess fluid retention and hyponatremia. Vasopressin receptor antagonists are a new class of orally active drugs targeted to inhibit one or more of three distinct vasopressin receptors, namely V1a- (-->vasoconstriction), V1b- (-->release of ACTH) und V2-receptors (-->inhibition of free water reabsorption in the kidney). In cardiac decompensation with fluid overload selective V2- (Lixivaptan, satavaptan and tolvaptan) and non-selective V1a/V2-receptor blockers (Conivaptan) have been shown to be superior to standard therapy, as they allow for a faster weight loss and a more rapid symptomatic improvement (i.e. reduction in dyspnea). Inhibiting free water reabsorption without affecting renal sodium excretion vasopressin receptor antagonists allow for a controlled normalisation of serum natrium in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia. Vasopressin antagonists are well tolerated and have--in contrast to diuretics--no negative influence on renal function and serum potassium. Heart rate and blood pressure are not affected by vasopressin receptor antagonists. However, despite its excellent acute clinical effects long-term treatment with tolvaptan did not result in a reduced mortality and morbidity in heart failure patients over a mean follow-up of 9.9 months in the EVEREST trial. PMID:19885790

  12. Peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors. Can they be classified with the available antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the so-called 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin, spiperone, trazodone and methysergide were studied in isolated preparations of the rabbit aorta, rat jugular vein, and rat caudal artery. Trazodone and spiperone were apparently simple competitive antagonists since they produced antagonism that was surmountable over the concentration range studied and, in each tissue, their apparent affinity appeared to be independent of the antagonist concentration. Furthermore, concentration-ratios obtained with the two antagonists in combination suggested that antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of 5-HT receptors. Ketanserin was a non-surmountable antagonist of 5-HT in the rat caudal artery and methysergide demonstrated surmountable, competitive antagonism only in the rabbit aorta. Antagonist dissociation constants estimated for apparently competitive interactions showed that ketanserin, spiperone and trazodone expressed affinities which differed according to the tissue used. In the case of trazodone, affinity estimates differed by as much as 12 fold. These discrepancies were independent of the 5-HT receptor agonist used and could not be attributed to an inadequate equilibration of the antagonist. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either the receptors in the different tissues are heterogeneous or the antagonists used here must be considered as unreliable probes for the classification of 5-HT2-like receptors. PMID:2943354

  13. Androgen receptor antagonists for prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Christine; Van den Broeck, Thomas; Voet, Arnout; Prekovic, Stefan; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Joniau, Steven; Claessens, Frank

    2014-08-01

    Androgen deprivation is the mainstay therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Another way of suppressing androgen receptor (AR) signaling is via AR antagonists or antiandrogens. Despite being frequently prescribed in clinical practice, there is conflicting evidence concerning the role of AR antagonists in the management of PCa. In the castration-resistant settings of PCa, docetaxel has been the only treatment option for decades. With recent evidence that castration-resistant PCa is far from AR-independent, there has been an increasing interest in developing new AR antagonists. This review gives a concise overview of the clinically available antiandrogens and the experimental AR antagonists that tackle androgen action with a different approach. PMID:24639562

  14. Therapeutic potential of vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhan; Guglin, Maya; Vaitkevicius, Peter; Ghali, Jalal K

    2007-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide hormone that plays an important role in circulatory and sodium homeostasis, and regulating serum osmolality. Several clinical conditions have been associated with inappropriately elevated levels of AVP including heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Three receptor subtypes that mediate the actions of AVP have been identified (V(1A), V(2) and V(1B)). Activation of V(1A) receptors located in vascular smooth muscle cells and the myocardium results in vasoconstriction and increased afterload and hypertrophy. The V(2) receptors located primarily in the collecting tubules mediate free water absorption. The V(1B) receptors are located in the anterior pituitary and mediate adrenocorticotropin hormone release. The cardiovascular and renal effects of AVP are mediated primarily by V(1A) and V(2) receptors. Antagonism of V(1A) receptors results in vasodilatation and antagonism of V(2) receptors resulting in aquaresis, an electrolyte-sparing water excretion. Several non-peptide AVP antagonists (vasopressin receptor antagonists [VRAs]) also termed 'vaptans' have been developed and are vigorously being studied primarily for treating conditions characterised by hyponatraemia and fluid overload. Conivaptan is a combined V(1A)/V(2)-receptor antagonist that induces diuresis as well as haemodynamic improvement. It has been shown in clinical trials to correct euvolaemic and hypervolaemic hyponatraemia, and has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of euvolaemic hyponatraemia as an intravenous infusion. Tolvaptan, a selective V(2)-receptor antagonist, has undergone extensive clinical studies in the treatment of hyponatraemia and heart failure. It has been shown to effectively decrease fluid in volume overloaded patients with heart failure and to correct hyponatraemia. A large outcome study (n = 4133 patients) will define its role in the management of heart failure. Lixivaptan and satavaptan (SR-121463) are other selective V(2)-receptor antagonists being evaluated for the treatment of hyponatraemia. In addition, a potential role for the vaptans in attenuating polyuria in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and cyst development in polycystic kidney disease is being explored. Ongoing clinical trials should further define the scope of the potential therapeutic role of VRAs. PMID:17428103

  15. A Novel Aminotetralin-Type Serotonin (5-HT) 2C Receptor-Specific Agonist and 5-HT2A Competitive Antagonist/5-HT2B Inverse Agonist with Preclinical Efficacy for Psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Drake; Felsing, Daniel; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Rowland, Neil E.; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    Development of 5-HT2C agonists for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, substance abuse, and obesity, has been fraught with difficulties, because the vast majority of reported 5-HT2C selective agonists also activate 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2B receptors, potentially causing hallucinations and/or cardiac valvulopathy. Herein is described a novel, potent, and efficacious human 5-HT2C receptor agonist, (?)-trans-(2S,4R)-4-(3?[meta]-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (?)-MBP), that is a competitive antagonist and inverse agonist at human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively. (?)-MBP has efficacy comparable to the prototypical second-generation antipsychotic drug clozapine in three C57Bl/6 mouse models of drug-induced psychoses: the head-twitch response elicited by [2,5]-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (dizocilpine maleate)]; and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine. (?)-MBP, however, does not alter locomotion when administered alone, distinguishing it from clozapine, which suppresses locomotion. Finally, consumption of highly palatable food by mice was not increased by (?)-MBP at a dose that produced at least 50% maximal efficacy in the psychoses models. Compared with (?)-MBP, the enantiomer (+)-MBP was much less active across in vitro affinity and functional assays using mouse and human receptors and also translated in vivo with comparably lower potency and efficacy. Results indicate a 5-HT2C receptor-specific agonist, such as (?)-MBP, may be pharmacotherapeutic for psychoses, without liability for obesity, hallucinations, heart disease, sedation, or motoric disorders. PMID:24563531

  16. ? Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling.

    PubMed

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The ? opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the ?-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:26888328

  17. Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

  18. Azines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, when the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was cloned, it has constituted an interesting target for drug development. Pharmacological studies suggest the potential utility of histamine H4R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g. allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, colitis, or pruritus. The first H4R ligands were non-selective compounds, but intensive chemical and pharmacological work has led to the discovery of highly potent and selective H4R antagonists (e.g. JNJ7777120, CZC-13788, PF-2988403, A-940894, A-987306). The first compound (UR-63325) has finally entered into clinical studies for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases (completing the phase I ascending dose trial) and has been found to be safe and well tolerated. The number of scientific publications and patent applications in the H4 field is increasing annually. Among the diverse chemical structures of the H4R antagonists described a 2-aminopyrimidine scaffold is repeatedly found. This review looked at recent advances in the search for H4R antagonists as reflected in patent applications/patents and peer-reviewed publications over the last two years. The work concerns azines (mono-, di-, triazines) and their fused analogues. The chemistry and pharmacology has been described. PMID:22202103

  19. Ligands of the histamine H3-receptor: new potent antagonists of the 2-thioimidazole type.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, P V; Mor, M; Bordi, F; Silva, C; Rivara, S; Caretta, A; Ballabeni, V; Impicciatore, M; Vitali, T

    1997-05-01

    An overview of H3-receptor ligands is presented, with particular attention to antagonists. The protein binding of the classical H3-receptor antagonist thioperamide and its effect on in vivo distribution are discussed. A series of H3-receptor antagonists characterised by the presence of an imidazole ring, a spacer (ethylthio-, ethylamino-, propylthio- or propylamino-chain), a second heterocycle nucleus and a lipophilic group is described. Their H3-receptor antagonist potency has been measured on electrically stimulated guinea-pig intestine, and their affinity for central H3-receptor has been determined by competitive inhibition of [3H]N alpha-methylhistamine binding to rat cortex. Biphasic inhibition curves have been observed in some cases. Compounds endowed with interesting activity belong mostly to the class of 2-[[2-[4(5)-imidazolyl]ethyl]thio]imidazole, having a phenyl or a cyclohexyl group. PMID:9274000

  20. Identification and characterisation of a prototype for a new class of competitive PPAR? antagonists.

    PubMed

    Knape, Tilo; Flesch, Daniel; Kuchler, Laura; Sha, Lisa K; Giegerich, Annika K; Labocha, Sandra; Ferreirs, Nerea; Schmid, Tobias; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Proschak, Eugen; Brne, Bernhard; Parnham, Michael J; von Knethen, Andreas

    2015-05-15

    Understanding of the physiological role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) offers new opportunities for the treatment of cancers, immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. In contrast to PPAR? agonists, few PPAR? antagonists have been studied, though they do exert immunomodulatory effects. Currently, no therapeutically useful PPAR? antagonist is commercially available. The aim of this study was to identify and kinetically characterise a new competitive PPAR? antagonist for therapeutic use. A PPAR?-dependent transactivation assay was used to kinetically characterise (E)-2-(5-((4-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinolin-6-yl)methoxy)-2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)-benzylidene)-hexanoic acid (MTTB) in kidney, T and monocytic cell lines. Cytotoxic effects were analysed and intracellular accumulation of MTTB was assessed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Potential interactions of MTTB with the PPAR? protein were suggested by molecular docking analysis. In contrast to non-competitive, irreversible inhibition caused by 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide (GW9662), MTTB exhibited competitive antagonism against rosiglitazone in HEK293T and Jurkat T cells, with IC50 values in HEK293T cells of 4.3M and 1.6M, using the PPAR? ligand binding domain (PPAR?-LBD) and the full PPAR? protein, respectively. In all cell lines used, however, MTTB showed much higher intracellular accumulation than GW9662. MTTB alone exhibited weak partial agonistic effects and low cytotoxicity. Molecular docking of MTTB with the PPAR?-LBD supported direct interaction with the nuclear receptor. MTTB is a promising prototype for a new class of competitive PPAR? antagonists. It has weak partial agonistic and clear competitive antagonistic characteristics associated with rapid cellular uptake. Compared to commercially available PPAR? modulators, this offers the possibility of dose regulation of PPAR? and immune responses. PMID:25746464

  1. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai ; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; MPI Research, Mattawan, MI ; Wang, Ming-Wei; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  3. Nonpeptide antagonists for vasopressin receptors. Pharmacology of SR 121463A, a new potent and highly selective V2 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Serradeil-Le Gal, C

    1998-01-01

    Involvement of AVP in several pathological states is now established and specific modulation of the different AVP receptor subtypes (V1a, V1b and V2) offers new clinical perspectives for treating major diseases. Recent years have marked a turning point with the design and the use of the first nonpeptide vasopressin receptor antagonists expressing various selectively profile. In that field, we report here the characterization of SR 121463A a highly selective, orally-active antagonist of vasopressin V2 receptors in several models in vitro and in vivo. This compound displayed competitive nanomolar affinity for V2 receptors in various species including man and exhibited a highly selective AVP V2 profile. In vitro, SR 121463A potently antagonized AVP-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in human kidney preparations (Ki = 0.26 +/- 0.04 nM) without any intrinsic agonistic effect. In normally-hydrated rats, SR 121463A induced dose-dependent powerful and long-lasting aquaresis after intravenous (0.003 to 0.3 mg/kg) or oral (0.03 to 10 mg/kg) administration. The action of SR 121463A is purely aquaretic with no changes in urine Na+ and K+ excretions unlike that of known diuretic agents such as furosemide or hydrochlorothiazide. In vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats, SR 121463A is devoid of any V2 antidiuretic agonist properties. In addition, this compound potently antagonized DDAVP extrarenal V2 effects on hemostasis factor release (FVIII, vW and t-PA) in dogs (ID50 approximately 10 micrograms/kg i.v.). Thus, SR 121463A is the most potent and selective, orally-active V2 antagonist yet described. It is a useful ligand for exploring V2 receptors and the therapeutical usefulness of pure V2 aquaretic agents in several water-retaining diseases and congestive heart failure. PMID:10026834

  4. Therapeutic potential of vasopressin-receptor antagonists in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasukatsu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Iwao, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a 9-amino acid peptide that is secreted from the posterior pituitary in response to high plasma osmolality and hypotension. AVP has important roles in circulatory and water homoeostasis, which are mediated by oxytocin receptors and by AVP receptor subtypes: V(1a) (mainly vascular), V(1b) (pituitary), and V(2) (renal). Vaptans are orally and intravenously active nonpeptide vasopressin-receptor antagonists. Recently, subtype-selective nonpeptide vasopressin-receptor agonists have been developed. A selective V(1a)-receptor antagonist, relcovaptan, has shown initial positive results in the treatment of Raynaud's disease, dysmenorrhea, and tocolysis. A selective V(1b)-receptor antagonist, nelivaptan, has beneficial effects in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Selective V2-receptor antagonists including mozavaptan, lixivaptan, satavaptan, and tolvaptan induce highly hypotonic diuresis without substantially affecting the excretion of electrolytes. A nonselective V(1a)/V(2)-receptor antagonist, conivaptan, is used in the treatment for euvolaemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia. Recent basic and clinical studies have shown that AVP-receptor antagonists, especially V2-receptor antagonists, may have therapeutic potential for heart failure. This review presents current information about AVP and its antagonists. PMID:24401675

  5. Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

  6. Snake neurotoxin ?-bungarotoxin is an antagonist at native GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Saad; Mortensen, Martin; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    The snake neurotoxin ?-bungarotoxin (?-Bgtx) is a competitive antagonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is widely used to study their function and cell-surface expression. Increasingly, ?-Bgtx is also used as an imaging tool for fluorophore-labelling studies, and given the structural conservation within the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, we assessed whether ?-Bgtx could bind to recombinant and native ?-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Applying fluorophore-linked ?-Bgtx to recombinant ?x?1/2?2 GABAARs expressed in HEK-293 cells enabled clear cell-surface labelling of ?2?1/2?2 contrasting with the weaker staining of ?1/4?1/2?2, and no labelling for ?3/5/6?1/2?2. The labelling of ?2?2?2 was abolished by bicuculline, a competitive antagonist at GABAARs, and by d-tubocurarine (d-Tc), which acts in a similar manner at nAChRs and GABAARs. Labelling by ?-Bgtx was also reduced by GABA, suggesting that the GABA binding site at the receptor ?? subunit interface forms part of the ?-Bgtx binding site. Using whole-cell recording, high concentrations of ?-Bgtx (20?M) inhibited GABA-activated currents at all ?x?2?2 receptors examined, but at lower concentrations (5?M), ?-Bgtx was selective for ?2?2?2. Using ?-Bgtx, at low concentrations, permitted the selective inhibition of ?2 subunit-containing GABAARs in hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells, reducing synaptic current amplitudes without affecting the GABA-mediated tonic current. In conclusion, ?-Bgtx can act as an inhibitor at recombinant and native GABAARs and may be used as a selective tool to inhibit phasic but not tonic currents in the hippocampus. PMID:25634239

  7. Aldosterone receptor antagonists: current perspectives and therapies.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Jason L; Clark, Donald; Calhoun, David A; Ahmed, Mustafa I

    2013-01-01

    Aldosterone is a downstream effector of angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor. The classical view of aldosterone primarily acting at the level of the kidneys to regulate plasma potassium and intravascular volume status is being supplemented by evidence of new "off-target" effects of aldosterone in other organ systems. The genomic effects of aldosterone are well known, but there is also evidence for non-genomic effects and these recently identified effects of aldosterone have required a revision in the traditional view of aldosterone's role in human health and disease. The aim of this article is to review the biological action of aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor leading to subsequent physiologic and pathophysiologic effects involving the vasculature, central nervous system, heart, and kidneys. Furthermore, we outline current evidence evaluating the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the treatment of primary aldosteronism, primary hypertension, resistant hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. PMID:23836977

  8. Mu opioid receptor antagonists: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Allan J; Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Dolle, Roland E

    2007-11-01

    For thousands of years mu opioid agonists such as morphine have been utilized for their analgesic properties. Today, morphine and related compounds are still used as a first line therapy in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, despite the clear benefits of mu agonists in pain management, severe side effects such as dependence and respiratory depression are associated with use of these drugs. To date, there are only two approved mu opioid antagonists for use in the treatment of these adverse effects, that is, naloxone and naltrexone. However, many other clinical and therapeutic areas have been linked to mu opioid receptor antagonism. These include treatment of opioid induced pruritus of the skin, obesity, and Parkinson-induced tardive dyskinesia. Currently there are two compounds, N-methylnaltrexone and alvimopan, under FDA review as possible treatments for opioid induced bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus. These compounds are of special interest as they are peripherally restricted. This attribute enables treatment of peripheral side effects induced by opioid agonists without reversal of the centrally mediated analgesia of the agonist. In this article we discuss the structural classes of mu opioid antagonists, their potential clinical applications, and review the relevant patents of the last ten years. PMID:17918759

  9. Tricyclic imidazole antagonists of the Neuropeptide S Receptor.

    PubMed

    Trotter, B Wesley; Nanda, Kausik K; Manley, Peter J; Uebele, Victor N; Condra, Cindra L; Gotter, Anthony L; Menzel, Karsten; Henault, Martin; Stocco, Rino; Renger, John J; Hartman, George D; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2010-08-01

    A new structural class of potent antagonists of the Neuropeptide S Receptor (NPSR) is reported. High-throughput screening identified a tricyclic imidazole antagonist of NPSR, and medicinal chemistry optimization of this structure was undertaken to improve potency against the receptor as well as CNS penetration. Detailed herein are synthetic and medicinal chemistry studies that led to the identification of antagonists 15 and NPSR-PI1, which demonstrate potent in vitro NPSR antagonism and central exposure in vivo. PMID:20615693

  10. Conformations of cyclic pentapeptide endothelin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bean, J W; Peishoff, C E; Kopple, K D

    1994-09-01

    The solution conformations in methanol and chloroform of the endothelin A receptor antagonists cyclo(dV-L-dW-dD-P), 1, and cyclo(dV-N alpha-MeL-dW-dD-P), 2, have been studied by NMR spectroscopy at room temperature and below. In these solvents, both peptides were found to have a well defined peptide backbone conformation composed of a type II beta turn at the Leu-D-Trp and a gamma' turn at Pro. This conformation is in agreement with results reported for 1 in other solvents and consistent with the expected location of the N-methyl substituent in that backbone. In methanol, both peptides show NOE and chemical shift evidence of close contact between the Leu and D-Trp side chains. This interaction is greatly reduced or absent in chloroform, and is stronger in methanol at 203 K than at 298 K. PMID:7822098

  11. Label-Free Kinetics: Exploiting Functional Hemi-Equilibrium to Derive Rate Constants for Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Riddy, Darren M; Valant, Celine; Rueda, Patricia; Charman, William N; Sexton, Patrick M; Summers, Roger J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Langmead, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Drug receptor kinetics is as a key component in drug discovery, development, and efficacy; however, determining kinetic parameters has historically required direct radiolabeling or competition with a labeled tracer. Here we present a simple approach to determining the kinetics of competitive antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors by exploiting the phenomenon of hemi-equilibrium, the state of partial re-equilibration of agonist, antagonist, and receptor in some functional assays. Using functional [Ca(2+)]i-flux and extracellular kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation assays that have short incubation times and therefore are prone to hemi-equilibrium "behaviors," we investigated a wide range of structurally and physicochemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists. Using a combined operational and hemi-equilibrium model of antagonism to both simulate and analyze data, we derived estimates of association and dissociation rates for the test set of antagonists, identifying both rapidly dissociating (4-DAMP, himbacine) and slowly dissociating (tiotropium, glycopyrrolate) ligands. The results demonstrate the importance of assay incubation time and the degree of receptor reserve in applying the analytical model. There was an excellent correlation between estimates of antagonist pK(B), k(on), and k(off) from functional assays and those determined by competition kinetics using whole-cell [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine binding, validating this approach as a rapid and simple method to functionally profile receptor kinetics of competitive antagonists in the absence of a labeled tracer. PMID:26243731

  12. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin analogues: a new class of bombesin receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz-Erian, P.; Coy, D.H.; Tamura, M.; Jones, S.W.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.

    1987-03-01

    Previous attempts to develop analogues of bombesin that function as specific receptor antagonists have been unsuccessful. Alteration of the histidine in luteinizing hormone releasing factor has resulted in analogues that function as competitive antagonists. In the present study the authors have used a similar strategy and altered the histidine in bombesin. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin, (D-Phe/sup 12/,Leu/sup 14/)bombesin, and (Try/sup 4/, D-)je/sup 12/) bombesin did not stimulate amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini when present alone, but each analog inhibited bombesin-stimulated secretion. For each analog, detectable inhibition occurred at 1 ..mu..M and half-maximal inhibition at 4 ..mu..M. Each analog inhibited amylase release by bombesin and other agonists that stimulate secretion by interacting with bombesin receptors. The analogues of bombesin did not alter stimulation by substance P or other agonists that interact with other receptors. The inhibition of the action of bombesin was competitive with Schild plots having slopes of 1.0. Each analog also inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-labeled (Try/sup 4/) bombesin but not /sup 125/I-labeled substance P. These results demonstrate that (D-Phe/sup 12/) analogues of bombesin function as bombesin receptor antagonists and are the only bombesin receptor antagonists that interact only with the bombesin receptor. Because of their specificity, these analogues may prove useful for defining the role of bombesin in various physiological or pathological processes.

  13. Diphenyl Purine Derivatives as Peripherally Selective Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Seltzman, Herbert; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of several diseases. However, clinical development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects including depression and suicidal ideation in some users. Recently, studies have indicated that selective regulation of CB1 receptors in the periphery is a viable strategy for treating several important disorders. Past efforts to develop peripherally selective antagonists of CB1 have largely targeted rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1. Reported here are our efforts toward developing a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist based on the otenabant scaffold. Even though otenabant penetrates the CNS, it is unique among CB1 antagonists that have been clinically tested because it has properties that are normally associated with peripherally selective compounds. Our efforts have resulted in an orally absorbed compound that is a potent and selective CB1 antagonist with limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:23098108

  14. Approaches to the rational design of selective melanocortin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Victor J; Cai, Minying; Nyberg, Joel; Muthu, Dhanasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When establishing the physiological roles of specific receptors in normal and disease states, it is critical to have selective antagonist ligands for each receptor in a receptor system with several subtypes. The melanocortin receptors have five subtypes referred to as the melanocortin 1 receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, melanocortin 3 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and melanocortin 5 receptor, and they are of critical importance for many aspects of human health and disease. Areas covered This article reviews the current efforts to design selective antagonistic ligands for the five human melanocortin receptors summarizing the currently published orthosteric and allosteric antagonists for each of these receptors. Expert opinion Though there has been progress, there are still few drugs available that address the many significant biological activities and diseases that are associated with these receptors, which is possibly due to the lack of receptor selectivity that these designed ligands are currently showing. The authors believe that further studies into the antagonists 3D conformational and topographical properties in addition to future mutagenesis studies will provide greater insight into these ligands which could play a role in the treatment of various diseases in the future. PMID:22646078

  15. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.

  16. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  17. Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist responsive to anakinra.

    PubMed

    Schnellbacher, Charlotte; Ciocca, Giovanna; Menendez, Roxanna; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Duarte, Ana M; Rivas-Chacon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 3-month-old infant who presented to our institution with interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA), which consists of neutrophilic pustular dermatosis, periostitis, aseptic multifocal osteomyelitis, and persistently high acute-phase reactants. Skin findings promptly improved upon initiation of treatment with anakinra (recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist), and the bony lesions and systemic inflammation resolved with continued therapy. PMID:22471702

  18. CB1 receptor antagonists: new discoveries leading to new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kirilly, E; Gonda, X; Bagdy, G

    2012-05-01

    CB(1) receptor antagonists were among the most promising drug targets in the last decade. They have been explored and found to be effective as therapeutic agents for obesity and related cardiometabolic problems; however, use of rimonabant, the first marketed CB(1) receptor antagonist, has been suspended because of its anxiogenic and depressogenic side effects. Because some other antiobesity drugs, like dexfenfluramine or sibutramine, were also suspended, the unmet need for drugs that reduce body weight became enormous. One approach that emerged was the use of CB(1) receptor antagonists that poorly cross the blood brain barrier, the second, the development of neutral antagonists instead of inverse agonists, and the third, use of personalized medicine, namely the selection of the patient population without psychiatric side effects. In this review, we dissect the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in the effects of CB(1) receptor antagonists and argue that central mechanisms are more or less involved in most cardiometabolic therapeutic effects and thus, among patients with unsatisfactory therapeutic response to compounds with peripheral action, centrally acting antagonists may be needed. An analysis of pharmacogenetic factors may help to identify persons who are at no or low risk for psychiatric adverse effects. Here, we present the models and identify molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in the effects of stress-, anxiety- and depression-related neurocircuitries sensitive to CB(1) receptor antagonists, like the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, which are not only regulated by CB(1) receptors, but also regulate the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol. PMID:22463610

  19. CB1 receptor antagonists: new discoveries leading to new perspectives.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kirilly E; Gonda X; Bagdy G

    2012-05-01

    CB(1) receptor antagonists were among the most promising drug targets in the last decade. They have been explored and found to be effective as therapeutic agents for obesity and related cardiometabolic problems; however, use of rimonabant, the first marketed CB(1) receptor antagonist, has been suspended because of its anxiogenic and depressogenic side effects. Because some other antiobesity drugs, like dexfenfluramine or sibutramine, were also suspended, the unmet need for drugs that reduce body weight became enormous. One approach that emerged was the use of CB(1) receptor antagonists that poorly cross the blood brain barrier, the second, the development of neutral antagonists instead of inverse agonists, and the third, use of personalized medicine, namely the selection of the patient population without psychiatric side effects. In this review, we dissect the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in the effects of CB(1) receptor antagonists and argue that central mechanisms are more or less involved in most cardiometabolic therapeutic effects and thus, among patients with unsatisfactory therapeutic response to compounds with peripheral action, centrally acting antagonists may be needed. An analysis of pharmacogenetic factors may help to identify persons who are at no or low risk for psychiatric adverse effects. Here, we present the models and identify molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in the effects of stress-, anxiety- and depression-related neurocircuitries sensitive to CB(1) receptor antagonists, like the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, which are not only regulated by CB(1) receptors, but also regulate the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol.

  20. Discovery of cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists by virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gil Nam; Kim, Kwang Rok; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae; Kang, Nam Sook

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we tried to find a new scaffold for a CB1 receptor antagonist using virtual screening. We first analyzed structural features for the known cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists and, then, we built pharmacophore models using the HipHop concept and carried out a docking study based on our homology CB1 receptor 3D structure. The most active compound, including thiazole-4-one moiety, showed an activity value of 125 nM IC(50), with a good PK profile. PMID:20667724

  1. A potent nonpeptide antagonist of the substance P (NK sub 1 ) receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, R.M.; Constantine, J.W.; Lowe, J.A. III; Longo, K.P.; Lebel, W.S.; Woody, H.A.; Drozda, S.E.; Desai, M.C.; Vinick, F.J.; Spencer, R.W.; Hess, H.J. )

    1991-01-25

    CP-96,345 ((2S, 3S)-cis-2-(diphenylmethyl)-N-((2-methoxyphenyl)-methyl)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)octan-3-amine) is a potent nonpeptide antagonist of the substance P (NK{sub 1}) receptor. CP-96,345 inhibited {sup 3}H-labeled substance P binding and was a classical competitive antagonist in the NK{sub 1} monoreceptor dog carotid artery preparation. CP-96,345 inhibited substance P-induced salivation in the rat, a classical in vivo bioassay, but did not inhibit NK{sub 2}, NK{sub 3}, or numerous other receptors; it is thus a selective NK{sub 1} antagonist. This compound may prove to be a powerful tool for investigation of the physiological properties of substance P and exploration of its role in diseases.

  2. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Identification of three muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat lung using binding studies with selective antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, A.D.; El-Fakahany, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the muscarinic receptor population in the rat central and peripheral lung was found in competition binding experiments against ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB) using the selective antagonists pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pirenzepine displaced ({sup 3}H)QNB with low affinity from preparations of central airways indicating the absence of M{sub 1} receptors in the trachea and bronchi. Muscarinic receptors in the central airways are comprised of both M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} receptors since AF-DX 116, an M{sub 2}-selective antagonist, bound with high affinity to 70% of the available sites while HHSiD, an M{sub 3}-selective antagonist bound with high affinity to the remaining binding sites. In the peripheral lung, pirenzepine bound with high affinity to 14% of the receptor population, AF-DX 116 bound with high affinity 79% of the binding sites while HHSiD bound with high affinity to 18% of the binding sites. The presence of M{sub 1} receptors in the peripheral airways but not in the central airways was confirmed using ({sup 3}H)telenzepine, an M{sub 1} receptor ligand. ({sup 3}H)Telenzepine showed specific saturable binding to 8% of ({sup 3}H)QNB labeled binding sites in homogenates of rat peripheral lung, while there was no detectable specific binding in homogenates of rat trachea or heart.

  4. Design and synthesis of novel androgen receptor antagonists via molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Choi, You Hee; Khadka, Daulat Bikram; Jin, Yifeng; Lee, Kwang-Youl; Cho, Won-Jea

    2016-02-15

    Several androgen receptor (AR) antagonists are clinically prescribed to treat prostate cancer. Unfortunately, many patients become resistant to the existing AR antagonists. To overcome this, a novel AR antagonist candidate called DIMN was discovered by our research group in 2013. In order to develop compounds with improved potency, we designed novel DIMN derivatives based on a docking study and substituted carbons with heteroatom moieties. Encouraging in vitro results for compounds 1b, 1c, 1e, 3c, and 4c proved that the new design was successful. Among the newly synthesized compounds, 1e exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on LNCaP cell growth (IC50=0.35?M) and also acted as a competitive AR antagonist with selectivity over the estrogen receptor (ER) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). A docking study of compound 1e fully supported these biological results. Compound 1e is considered to be a novel, potent and AR-specific antagonist for treating prostate cancer. Thus, our study successfully applied molecular modeling and bioisosteric replacement for hit optimization. The methods here provide a guide for future development of drug candidates through structure-based drug discovery and chemical modifications. PMID:26780832

  5. Are CB1 Receptor Antagonists Nootropic or Cognitive Impairing Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Varvel, Stephen A.; Wise, Laura E.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, a considerable amount of research has examined the effects of rimonabant (SR 141716) and other CB1 receptor antagonists in both in vivo and in vitro models of learning and memory. In addition to its utility in determining whether the effects of drugs are mediated though a CB1 receptor mechanism of action, these antagonists are useful in providing insight into the physiological function of the endogenous cannabinoid system. Several groups have reported that CB1 receptor antagonists enhance memory duration in a variety of spatial and operant paradigms, but not in all paradigms. Conversely, disruption of CB1 receptor signaling also impairs extinction learning in which the animal actively suppresses a learned response when reinforcement has been withheld. These extinction deficits occur in aversively motivated tasks, such as in fear conditioning or escape behavior in the Morris water maze task, but not in appetitively motivated tasks. Similarly, in electrophysiological models, CB1 receptor antagonists elicit a variety of effects, including enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP), while disrupting long-term depression (LTD) and interfering with transient forms of plasticity, including depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE). The collective results of the in vivo and in vitro studies employing CB1 receptor antagonists, demonstrate that these receptors play integral roles in different components of cognitive processing. Functionally, pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors may strengthen memory duration, but interferes with extinction of learned behaviors that are associated with traumatic or aversive memories. PMID:20539824

  6. Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz?, Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M.

    2010-08-12

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  7. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. PMID:26548625

  8. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Modulates NMDA Receptor Antagonist Mediated Alterations in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; von Haefen, Clarissa; Nasser, Fatme; Rohrer, Benjamin; Endesfelder, Stefanie; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Spies, Claudia D.; Sifringer, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin expression and the extracellular matrix during NMDA receptor antagonist induced injury to the immature rat brain. The aim was to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, as well as expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after co-administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor physostigmine. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine ameliorated the MK801-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA and protein levels, reduced MK801-triggered MMP-2 activity and prevented decreased TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that AChE inhibition may prevent newborn rats from MK801-mediated brain damage by enhancing neurotrophin-associated signaling pathways and by modulating the extracellular matrix. PMID:24595240

  9. Novel H3 receptor antagonists with improved pharmacokinetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Santora, Vincent J; Covel, Jonathan A; Hayashi, Rena; Hofilena, Brian J; Ibarra, Jason B; Pulley, Michelle D; Weinhouse, Michael I; Semple, Graeme; Ren, Albert; Pereira, Guilherme; Edwards, Jeffrey E; Suarez, Marissa; Frazer, John; Thomsen, William; Hauser, Erin; Lorea, Jodie; Grottick, Andrew J

    2008-07-15

    A new series of H(3) antagonists derived from the natural product Conessine are presented. Several compounds from these new series retain the potency and selectivity of earlier diamine based analogs while exhibiting improved PK characteristics. One compound (3u) demonstrated functional antagonism of the H(3) receptor in an in vivo pharmacological model. PMID:18554904

  10. The mu-opioid receptor subtype is required for the anorectic effect of an opioid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaping; Frassetto, Andrea; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Lao, Julie Z; Pasternak, Alexander; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Metzger, Joseph M; Strack, Alison M; Fong, Tung M; Chen, Richard Z

    2006-09-18

    A diaryl ether derivative, (6-(4-{[(3-methylbutyl)amino]methyl}phenoxy)nicotinamide, was prepared and investigated for its biochemical properties at cloned opioid receptors and its pharmacological effects on animal feeding. The compound displaced [(3)H]DAMGO binding of human mu-opioid receptor, [(3)H]U-69593 of human kappa-opioid receptor, and [(3)H]DPDPE of human delta-opioid receptor with IC(50) values of 0.5+/-0.2 nM, 1.4+/-0.2 nM, and 71+/-15 nM, respectively. The compound also potently inhibited [(3)H]DAMGO binding of cloned mouse and rat mu-opioid receptors (IC(50) approximately 1 nM), and acted as a competitive antagonist in a cAMP functional assay using cultured cells expressing human or mouse mu-opioid receptors. Following a single oral administration in diet-induced obese mice (at 10 or 50 mg/kg) or rats (at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg), the compound caused a dose-dependent suppression of acute food intake and body weight gain in both species. Importantly, the anorectic efficacy of the compound was mostly diminished in mice deficient in the mu-opioid receptor. Our results suggest an important role for the mu-opioid receptor subtype in animal feeding regulation and support the development of mu-selective antagonists as potential agents for treating human obesity. PMID:16876155

  11. Use of the H3 receptor antagonist radioligand [3H]-A-349821 to reveal in vivo receptor occupancy of cognition enhancing H3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Miller, TR; Milicic, I; Bauch, J; Du, J; Surber, B; Browman, KE; Marsh, K; Cowart, M; Brioni, JD; Esbenshade, TA

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The histamine H3 receptor antagonist radioligand [3H]-A-349821 was characterized as a radiotracer for assessing in vivo receptor occupancy by H3 receptor antagonists that affect behaviour. This model was established as an alternative to ex vivo binding methods, for relating antagonist H3 receptor occupancy to blood levels and efficacy in preclinical models. Experimental approach: In vivo cerebral cortical H3 receptor occupancy by [3H]-A-349821 was determined in rats from differences in [3H]-A-349821 levels in the isolated cortex and cerebellum, a brain region with low levels of H3 receptors. Comparisons were made to relate antagonist H3 receptor occupancy to blood levels and efficacy in a preclinical model of cognition, the five-trial inhibitory avoidance response in rat pups. Key results: In adult rats, [3H]-A-349821, 1.5 gkg?1, penetrated into the brain and cleared more rapidly from cerebellum than cortex; optimally, [3H]-A-349821 levels were twofold higher in the latter. With increasing [3H]-A-349821 doses, cortical H3 receptor occupancy was saturable with a binding capacity consistent with in vitro binding in cortex membranes. In studies using tracer [3H]-A-349821 doses, ABT-239 and other H3 receptor antagonists inhibited H3 receptor occupancy by [3H]-A-349821 in a dose-dependent manner. Blood levels of the antagonists corresponding to H3 receptor occupancy were consistent with blood levels associated with efficacy in the five-trial inhibitory avoidance response. Conclusions and implications: When employed as an occupancy radiotracer, [3H]-A-349821 provided valid measurements of in vivo H3 receptor occupancy, which may be helpful in guiding and interpreting clinical studies of H3 receptor antagonists. PMID:19413577

  12. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonists as innovative antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Gavioli, Elaine Cristina; Calo', Girolamo

    2013-10-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor (NOP) were identified in the mid 90s as a novel peptidergic system structurally related to opioids. A growing body of preclinical evidence suggests that blockade of NOP receptors evokes antidepressant-like actions. These have been explored using a range of compounds (peptide and non peptide antagonists), across different species (rat and mouse) and assays (behavioral despair and chronic mild stress) suggesting a robust and consistent antidepressant-like effect. Moreover, rats and mice knockout for the NOP receptor gene display an antidepressant-like phenotype in behavioral despair assays. Electrophysiological, immunohistochemical and neurochemical studies point to an important role played by monoaminergic systems, particularly 5-HTergic, in mediating the antidepressant-like properties of NOP antagonists. However other putative mechanisms of action, including modulation of the CRF system, circadian rhythm and a possible neuroendocrine-immune control might be involved. A close relationship between the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system and stress responses is well described in the literature. Stressful situations also alter endocrine, behavioral and neurochemical parameters in rats and chronic administration of a NOP antagonist restored these alterations. Interestingly, clinical findings showed that plasma N/OFQ levels were significantly altered in major and post-partum depression, and bipolar disease patients. Collectively, data in the literature support the notion that blockade of NOP receptor signaling could be a novel and interesting strategy for the development of innovative antidepressants. PMID:23711793

  13. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnr, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (?)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

  14. Are all 5-HT3 receptor antagonists the same?

    PubMed

    McNulty, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have become the cornerstone for preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Four 5-HT3 antagonists are commercially available in the United States, and numerous reports have been published comparing 2 or more agents. The studies ranged from randomized, double-blinded to open-label or retrospective trials; included chemotherapy-nave and -non-nave patients; and covered a range of doses and routes of administration with and without concomitant steroids, for preventing and treating nausea and vomiting after highly and moderately high emetogenic chemotherapy. With few exceptions, the studies uniformly show an equivalent efficacy rate and side effect profile among the various agents at equivalent doses. This article reviews the pharmacology of the class for insight into minor differences among the agents that could possibly influence drug selection for certain patients, and considers data on the absorption, half-life, metabolism, and receptor activity. Clinical trials support the claim of various guidelines that the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are therapeutically similar in safety and efficacy, particularly because the current best practice for preventing nausea and vomiting after highly and moderately high emetogenic chemotherapy is a combination of a 5-HT3 antagonist, steroids, and aprepitant. PMID:17239324

  15. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-N?-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  16. Discovery of small molecule human C5a receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sanganee, Hitesh J; Baxter, Andrew; Barber, Simon; Brown, Alastair J H; Grice, Denise; Hunt, Fraser; King, Sarah; Laughton, David; Pairaudeau, Garry; Thong, Bob; Weaver, Richard; Unitt, John

    2009-02-15

    A novel series of small molecule C5a antagonists is reported. In particular, in vitro metabolic studies and solution based combinatorial synthesis are demonstrated as useful tools for the rapid identification of antagonists with low in vitro clearance. Members of this series specifically inhibited the binding of (125)I-labeled C5a to human recombinant C5a receptor (C5aR). In functional cell assays these compounds displayed surmountable antagonism against C5a and did not demonstrate any detectable agonist activity. PMID:19171482

  17. The renal effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Stefano; Batini, Valentina; Bigazzi, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Beyond its well known classic effects on renal water and electrolytes metabolism, an increasing amount of experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aldosterone contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. The binding of aldosterone on epithelial and non-epithelial cells of the kidney induces many deleterious effects, such as podocyte apoptosis and injury, mesangial cell proliferation and deformability and tubulointerstitial inflammation, finally resulting in glomerular fibrosis and sclerosis. Moreover, aldosterone acting by fast non-genomic mechanisms, may induce other potential deleterious effects on kidney function and structure. Indeed, many experimental studies have shown that aldosterone participates to the progression of kidney disease through hemodynamic and direct cellular actions and that antagonists of aldosterone may retard the progression of kidney disease, independently of effects on blood pressure. Therefore, blockade of the aldosterone pathway may prove to be a beneficial therapy for kidney disease. In this brief review we summarize the reported data that support an independent role of aldosterone in inducing kidney damage both in human and experimental models, and interventional studies that highlight how strategies aimed to antagonize its action may favorably modify the progressive decline of renal function in patient with kidney disease and in patients with extrarenal disease frequently associated with kidney function impairment. PMID:26049733

  18. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:26888328

  19. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  20. Halogenation of a capsaicin analogue leads to novel vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Appendino, Giovanni; Harrison, Selena; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Trevisani, Marcello; Benvenuti, Francesca; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The C-5 halogenation of the vanillyl moiety of resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent agonist of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors, results in a potent antagonist for these receptors. Here, we have synthesized a series of halogenated derivatives of ‘synthetic capsaicin' (nonanoyl vanillamide=nordihydrocapsaicin) differing for the nature (iodine, bromine–chlorine) and the regiochemistry (C-5, C-6) of the halogenation.The activity of these compounds was investigated on recombinant human TRPV1 receptors overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. None of the six compounds exerted any significant agonist activity, as assessed by measuring their effect on TRPV1-mediated calcium mobilization. Instead, all compounds antagonized, to various extents, the effect of capsaicin in this assay.All 6-halo-nordihydrocapsaicins behaved as competitive antagonists against human TRPV1 according to the corresponding Schild's plots, and were more potent than the corresponding 5-halogenated analogues. The iodo-derivatives were more potent than the bromo- and chloro-derivatives.Using human recombinant TRPV1, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin (IC50=10 nM against 100 nM capsaicin) was about four times more potent than the prototypical TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and was tested against capsaicin also on native TRPV1 in: (i) rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture; (ii) guinea-pig urinary bladder; and (iii) guinea-pig bronchi. In all cases, except for the guinea-pig bronchi, the compound was significantly more potent than capsazepine as a TRPV1 antagonist.In conclusion, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin, a stable and easily prepared compound, is a potent TRPV1 antagonist and a convenient replacement for capsazepine in most of the in vitro preparations currently used to assess the activity of putative vanilloid receptor agonists. PMID:12922928

  1. Nicotinic receptor antagonists as treatments for nicotine abuse.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Peter A; Bardo, Michael T; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven efficacy of current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, relapse rates continue to be high, indicating that novel medications are needed. Currently, several smoking cessation agents are available, including varenicline (Chantix), bupropion (Zyban), and cytisine (Tabex). Varenicline and cytisine are partial agonists at the ?4?2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Bupropion is an antidepressant but is also an antagonist at ?3?2* ganglionic nAChRs. The rewarding effects of nicotine are mediated, in part, by nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release leading to sensitization, which is associated with repeated nicotine administration and nicotine addiction. Receptor antagonists that selectivity target central nAChR subtypes mediating nicotine-evoked DA release should have efficacy as tobacco use cessation agents with the therapeutic advantage of a limited side-effect profile. While ?-conotoxin MII (?-CtxMII)-insensitive nAChRs (e.g., ?4?2*) contribute to nicotine-evoked DA release, these nAChRs are widely distributed in the brain, and inhibition of these receptors may lead to nonselective and untoward effects. In contrast, ?-CtxMII-sensitive nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release offer an advantage as targets for smoking cessation, due to their more restricted localization primarily to dopaminergic neurons. Small drug-like molecules that are selective antagonists at ?-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes that contain ?6 and ?2 subunits have now been identified. Early research identified a variety of quaternary ammonium analogs that were potent and selective antagonists at nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release. More recent data have shown that novel, nonquaternary bis-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine analogs potently inhibit (IC50<1nM) nicotine-evoked DA release in vitro by acting as antagonists at ?-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes; these compounds also decrease NIC self-administration in rats. PMID:24484986

  2. Probing the pharmacophore of ginkgolides as glycine receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anders A; Begum, Nasreen; Vogensen, Stine B; Knapp, Kolja M; Gundertofte, Klaus; Dzyuba, Sergei V; Ishii, Hideki; Nakanishi, Koji; Kristiansen, Uffe; Strmgaard, Kristian

    2007-04-01

    Ginkgolides are antagonists of the inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels for the neurotransmitters glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study the ginkgolide structure was modified in order to investigate the minimum structural requirements for glycine receptor antagonism. The five native ginkgolides and a series of 29 ginkgolide derivatives were characterized at the three glycine receptor subtypes alpha1, alpha1beta, and alpha2, which revealed that only minor changes in the ginkgolide skeleton were allowed for maintaining glycine receptor antagonism. A pharmacophore model was generated and applied in a virtual screening of a compound database (300000 compounds), resulting in the identification of 31 hits. Twenty-seven of these hits were screened for biological activity, but none displayed antagonist activity at the glycine receptors. This strongly suggests the importance of other pharmacophore components in the binding of ginkgolides to glycine receptors, and we propose that the structural rigidity of the ginkgolide molecule may be crucial for its glycine receptor activity. PMID:17352465

  3. Effects of dopamine receptor antagonists on sucrose consumption and preference.

    PubMed

    Muscat, R; Willner, P

    1989-01-01

    Effects of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and the D1 antagonist SCH-23390 were examined, in rats, in two-bottle preference tests (sucrose versus water) and in single-bottle tests, at different sucrose concentrations. Both drugs decreased sucrose intake in single bottle tests, at low sucrose concentrations, but had no effect at high concentrations; reducing drive level had exactly the opposite pattern of effects. In two-bottle tests, both drugs reduced preference for the weakest sucrose concentration (0.7%) but increased preference for the strongest concentration (34%). The effects of antagonizing either subtype of DA receptor appear to be similar to those of reducing the concentration of sucrose. PMID:2506610

  4. N',2-diphenylquinoline-4-carbohydrazide based NK3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jason M; Carling, Robert W; Chambers, Mark; Chicchi, Gary G; Hutson, Peter H; Jones, A Brian; MacLeod, Angus; Marwood, Rose; Meneses-Lorente, Georgina; Mezzogori, Elena; Murray, Fraser; Rigby, Michael; Royo, Inmaculada; Russell, Michael G N; Sohal, Bindi; Tsao, Kwei Lan; Williams, Brian

    2006-11-15

    A new class of potent NK3R antagonists based on the N',2-diphenylquinoline-4-carbohydrazide core is described. In an ex vivo assay in gerbil, the lead compound 2g occupies receptors within the CNS following oral dosing (Occ(90) 30 mg/kg po; plasma Occ(90) 0.95 microM) and has good selectivity and promising PK properties. PMID:16950620

  5. The Affinity of D2-Like Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Determines the Time to Maximal Effect on Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Michael R.; Norman, Mantana K.; Fey, Brittney K.; Tsibulsky, Vladimir L.; Millard, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the time to maximal effect (Tmax) of a series of dopamine receptor antagonists on the self-administration of cocaine are not consistent with their lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficients at pH 7.4) and expected rapid entry into the brain after intravenous injection. It was hypothesized that the Tmax reflects the time required for maximal occupancy of receptors, which would occur as equilibrium was approached. If so, the Tmax should be related to the affinity for the relevant receptor population. This hypothesis was tested using a series of nine antagonists having a 2500-fold range of Ki or Kd values for D2-like dopamine receptors. Rats self-administered cocaine at regular intervals and then were injected intravenously with a dose of antagonist, and the self-administration of cocaine was continued for 6 to 10 h. The level of cocaine at the time of every self-administration (satiety threshold) was calculated throughout the session. The satiety threshold was stable before the injection of antagonist and then increased approximately 3-fold over the baseline value at doses of antagonists selected to produce this approximately equivalent maximal magnitude of effect (maximum increase in the equiactive cocaine concentration, satiety threshold; Cmax). Despite the similar Cmax, the mean Tmax varied between 5 and 157 min across this series of antagonists. Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation between the in vivo Tmax values for each antagonist and the affinity for D2-like dopamine receptors measured in vitro. It is concluded that the cocaine self-administration paradigm offers a reliable and predictive bioassay for measuring the affinity of a competitive antagonist for D2-like dopamine receptors. PMID:21606176

  6. Leukotriene-receptor antagonists. Role in asthma management.

    PubMed Central

    D'Urzo, A. D.; Chapman, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of leukotriene-receptor antagonists (LTRAs) in management of asthma. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most data were derived from randomized, double-blind, controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Leukotrienes appear to have an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma, including airway inflammation. Leukotriene-receptor antagonists are effective in improving asthma control end points, such as allergen, ASA, and exercise challenge, in clinical models of asthma. In chronic asthma, LTRA administration reduces asthma symptoms and rescue beta 2-agonist use, changes that are paralleled by improvements in lung function. Both zafirlukast and montelukast decrease circulating levels of eosinophils and could have other useful anti-inflammatory properties. Administration of LTRAs allows doses of inhaled corticosteroids to be reduced. Currently available LTRAs are free of serious side effects and are available as oral formulations. CONCLUSIONS: Leukotriene-receptor antagonists belong to a new class of asthma medication. While inhaled corticosteroids remain first-line therapy for managing chronic asthma, LTRAs should be considered for patients with ASA-sensitive asthma; as adjunct therapy when low to moderate doses of inhaled steroid alone provide incomplete control; or as adjunct therapy to allow reduction in doses of inhaled corticosteroids. PMID:10790819

  7. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  8. Discovery of dopamine D? receptor antagonists with planar chirality.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Ortner, Birgit; Hbner, Harald; Lber, Stefan; Tschammer, Nuska; Gmeiner, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Employing the D4 selective phenylpiperazine 2 as a lead compound, planar chiral analogs with paracyclophane substructure were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to bind and activate dopamine receptors. The study revealed that the introduction of a [2.2]paracyclophane moiety is tolerated by dopamine receptors of the D2 family. Subtype selectivity for D4 and ligand efficacy depend on the absolute configuration of the test compounds. Whereas the achiral single-layered lead 2 and the double-layered paracyclophane (R)-3 showed partial agonist properties, the enantiomer (S)-3 behaved as a neutral antagonist. PMID:23428965

  9. Preclinical anxiolytic profiles of 7189 and 8319, novel non-competitive NMDA antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, R.W.; Corbett, R.; Martin, L.L.; Payack, J.F.; Laws-Ricker, L.; Wilmot, C.A.; Rush, D.K.; Cornfeldt, M.L.; Fielding, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Antagonists at excitatory amino acid receptors, especially the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype, have been shown to possess anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties. Two closely related benzeneethanamines, are potential novel anxiolytic agents which bind with high affinity to the NMDA receptor at the non-competitive site and are relatively non-toxic (LD50's-160 mg/kg, ip). 7189 and 8319 showed anxiolytic effects in schedule controlled conflict assays as well as in the social interaction (SI) and elevated plus maze (EPM) procedures in rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of 7189 at 20 to 60 mg/kg, conflict responding was increased from 2- to 7-fold in the modified Cook and Davidson and Geller conflict paradigms. 8319, at 2.5 to 5 mg/kg, produced a two fold increase in conflict responding. In the non-schedule controlled procedures, 7189 at 20 mg/kg increased SI time by 23% while in the EPM at 10 to 20 mg/kg, open arm exploration time increased by 41 to 77%. Likewise, 8319 at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg increased open arm exploration and SI time by 50 and 37%, respectively. In summary, 7189 and 8319 were efficacious in four behavioral procedures predictive of potential anxiolytic agents. Although these compounds have not been submitted for clinical evaluation, they may represent a new class of beneficial compounds for the treatment of anxiety.

  10. Potential antipsychotic properties of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Vollenweider, Franz X; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2010-03-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, and other agonists at the central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor may induce characteristic psychomotor effects, psychotic reactions and cognitive impairment resembling schizophrenia. These effects of Delta(9)-THC can be reduced in animal and human models of psychopathology by two exogenous cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and SR141716. CBD is the second most abundant constituent of Cannabis sativa that has weak partial antagonistic properties at the CB(1) receptor. CBD inhibits the reuptake and hydrolysis of anandamide, the most important endogenous CB(1) receptor agonist, and exhibits neuroprotective antioxidant activity. SR141716 is a potent and selective CB(1) receptor antagonist. Since both CBD and SR141716 can reverse many of the biochemical, physiological and behavioural effects of CB(1) receptor agonists, it has been proposed that both CBD and SR141716 have antipsychotic properties. Various experimental studies in animals, healthy human volunteers, and schizophrenic patients support this notion. Moreover, recent studies suggest that cannabinoids such as CBD and SR141716 have a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. In this review, both preclinical and clinical studies investigating the potential antipsychotic effects of both CBD and SR141716 are presented together with the possible underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:20218784

  11. Orexin, orexin receptor antagonists and central cardiovascular control

    PubMed Central

    Carrive, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Orexin makes an important contribution to the regulation of cardiovascular function. When injected centrally under anesthesia, orexin increases blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity. This is consistent with the location of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus and the distribution of orexin terminals in the central autonomic network. Thus, the two orexin receptors, Ox1R and Ox2R, which have partly overlapping distributions in the brain, are expressed in the sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) of the thoracic cord as well as in regions such as the pressor area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Both Ox1R and Ox2R appear to contribute to the cardiovascular effects of orexin, although Ox1R is probably more important. Blockade of orexin receptors reduces the cardiovascular response to certain stressors, especially psychogenic stressors such as novelty, aggressive conspecifics and induced panic. Blockade of orexin receptors also reduces basal blood pressure and heart rate in spontaneous hypertensive rats, a model of essential hypertension. Thus, there is a link between psychogenic stress, orexin and elevated blood pressure. The use of dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) and selective orexin receptor antagonists (SORAs) may be beneficial in the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. PMID:24415993

  12. IL-36 receptor antagonist with special emphasis on IL-38.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Y; Sabatino, G; Maccauro, G; Varvara, G; Murmura, G; Saggini, A; Rosati, M; Conti, F; Cianchetti, E; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pandolfi, F; Potalivo, G; Galzio, R; Conti, P; Theoharides, T C

    2013-01-01

    IL-36 is another family member of IL-1 and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and activates MAPK and NFkB pathways. IL-36 is a common mediator of innate and adaptive immune response and is inhibited by IL-36 receptor antagonist (RA). IL-36RA acts on IL-36 receptor ligand which exerts proinflammatory effect in vivo and in vitro. IL-38 binds to IL-36 receptor as does IL-36RA and has similar biological effects on immune cells. IL-38 is also a member of IL-1 cytokine and shares some characteristics of IL-1RA, binding the same IL-1 receptor type I. IL-38 plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, exerting protective effect in some autoimmune diseases. Both IL-38 and IL-36RA have an anti-inflammatory biological effect, however in some cases have contrary effects. PMID:23527706

  13. Targeting a family B GPCR/RAMP receptor complex: CGRP receptor antagonists and migraine

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eric L; Salvatore, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of antagonizing the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor for relief of migraine pain has been clearly demonstrated, but the road to the development of these small molecule antagonists has been daunting. The key hurdle that needed to be overcome was the CGRP receptor itself. The vast majority of the current antagonists recognize similar epitopes on the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). RAMP1 is a relatively small, single, transmembrane-spanning protein and along with the G-protein-coupled receptor CLR comprise a functional CGRP receptor. The tri-helical extracellular domain of RAMP1 plays a key role in the high affinity binding of CGRP receptor antagonists and drives their species-selective pharmacology. Over the years, a significant amount of mutagenesis data has been generated to identify specific amino acids or regions within CLR and RAMP1 that are critical to antagonist binding and has directed attention to the CLR/RAMP1 extracellular domain (ECD) complex. Recently, the crystal structure of the CGRP receptor ECD has been elucidated and not only reinforces the early mutagenesis data, but provides critical insight into the molecular mechanism of CGRP receptor antagonism. This review will highlight the drug design hurdles that must be overcome to meet the desired potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic profile while retaining drug-like properties. Although the development of these antagonists has proved challenging, blocking the CGRP receptor may one day represent a new way to manage migraine and offer hope to migraine sufferers. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-1 PMID:21871019

  14. The antimalarial drug proguanil is an antagonist at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Proguanil is an antimalarial prodrug that is metabolized to 4-chlorophenyl-1-biguanide (CPB) and the active metabolite cycloguanil (CG). These compounds are structurally related to meta-chlorophenyl biguanide (mCPBG), a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor agonist. Here we examine the effects of proguanil and its metabolites on the electrophysiology and ligand-binding properties of human 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor responses were reversibly inhibited by proguanil, with an IC50 of 1.81 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by a lack of voltage-dependence, Schild plot (Kb = 1.70 μM), and radioligand competition (Ki = 2.61 μM) with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [(3)H]granisetron. Kinetic measurements (kon = 4.0 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) ; koff = 0.23 s(-1)) were consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction scheme with a Kb of 4.35 μM. The metabolites CG and CPB similarly inhibited 5-HT3 receptors as assessed by IC50 (1.48 and 4.36 μM, respectively), Schild plot (Kb = 2.97 and 11.4 μM), and radioligand competition (Ki = 4.89 and 0.41 μM). At higher concentrations, CPB was a partial agonist (EC50 = 14.1 μM; I/Imax = 0.013). These results demonstrate that proguanil competitively inhibits 5-HT3 receptors, with an IC50 that exceeds whole-blood concentrations following its oral administration. They may therefore be responsible for the occasional gastrointestinal side effects, nausea, and vomiting reported following its use. Clinical development of related compounds should therefore consider effects at 5-HT3 receptors as an early indication of possible unwanted gastrointestinal side effects. PMID:25277140

  15. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to produce a multivalent conjugate exhibiting a desired biological effect, i.e., antithrombotic action.

  16. Comparative antihypertensive effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Burnier, M; Brunner, H R

    1999-04-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is recognized as an effective approach for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is possible to antagonize the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) by blocking its receptors, using nonpeptide receptor antagonists. Six angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have been approved for the treatment of hypertension: losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan, and eprosartan. These new drugs are highly selective for the AT1 receptor subtype and induce dose-dependent inhibition of the BP response to exogenous AngII. Numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that ARB are efficacious for treating mild, moderate, and severe hypertension. When compared with other classes of antihypertensive agents, ARB are as effective as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium antagonists, thiazide diuretics, and beta-blockers. One advantage of ARB as a class is their excellent tolerability and side effect profile. Several large clinical trials of ARB are now under way to demonstrate their benefits in hypertension, heart failure, and type II diabetic nephropathy. PMID:10201883

  17. NMDA receptor antagonists extend the sensitive period for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Rogers, L J

    2000-03-01

    Filial imprinting in the domestic chick occurs during a sensitive period of development. The exact timing of this period can vary according to the methods used to measure imprinting. Using our imprinting paradigm, we have shown that normal, dark-reared chicks lose the ability to imprint after the second day post-hatching. Further, we reported that chicks treated 10 h after hatching with a mixture of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (55 mg/kg) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine (6 mg/kg) were able to imprint on day 8 after hatching, whereas controls treated with saline did not imprint. We now show that the effect of the ketamine-xylazine mixture can be mimicked by treating chicks with ketamine alone or with another noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Treating chicks with a single dose of ketamine (55 mg/kg) or with a single dose of xylazine (6 mg/kg) failed to produce the effect on the sensitive period. However, prolonging the action of ketamine by treating chicks with two doses of ketamine (at 10 and 12 h after hatching) did allow imprinting on day 8. In contrast, prolonging the action of xylazine had no effect on the sensitive period for imprinting. Chicks treated with MK-801 were also able to imprint on day 8. Thus, we have evidence that the NMDA receptor system is involved in the mechanisms that control the sensitive period for imprinting. PMID:10764906

  18. Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Cho-Rong; Park, Chul-Seung; Chang, Sunghoe; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2011-04-15

    The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5 in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  19. Characterization of a Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Antagonist ProdrugS?

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Perry C.; Zhu, Ran; Huang, Tao; Tomsig, Jose L.; Mathews, Thomas P.; David, Marion; Peyruchaud, Olivier; Macdonald, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a phospholipid that binds to a set of G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1S1P5) to initiate an array of signaling cascades that affect cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. On a larger physiological scale, the effects of S1P on immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier integrity, angiogenesis, and heart rate have also been observed. An impetus for the characterization of S1P-initiated signaling effects came with the discovery that FTY720 [fingolimod; 2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol] modulates the immune system by acting as an agonist at S1P1. In the course of structure-activity relationship studies to better understand the functional chemical space around FTY720, we discovered conformationally constrained FTY720 analogs that behave as S1P receptor type-selective antagonists. Here, we present a pharmacological profile of a lead S1P1/3 antagonist prodrug, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(3-octylphenyl)cyclobutane (VPC03090). VPC03090 is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 to form the competitive antagonist species 3-(3-octylphenyl)-1-(phosphonooxymethyl)cyclobutane (VPC03090-P) as observed in guanosine 5?-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding assays, with effects on downstream S1P receptor signaling confirmed by Western blot and calcium mobilization assays. Oral dosing of VPC03090 results in an approximate 1:1 phosphorylated/alcohol species ratio with a half-life of 30 h in mice. Because aberrant S1P signaling has been implicated in carcinogenesis, we applied VPC03090 in an immunocompetent mouse mammary cancer model to assess its antineoplastic potential. Treatment with VPC03090 significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 primary tumors in mice. This result calls to attention the value of S1P receptor antagonists as not only research tools but also potential therapeutic agents. PMID:21632869

  20. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of ciproxifan, a potent histamine H3-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ligneau, X; Lin, J; Vanni-Mercier, G; Jouvet, M; Muir, J L; Ganellin, C R; Stark, H; Elz, S; Schunack, W; Schwartz, J

    1998-11-01

    Ciproxifan, i.e., cyclopropyl-(4-(3-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyloxy) phenyl) ketone, belongs to a novel chemical series of histamine H3-receptor antagonists. In vitro, it behaved as a competitive antagonist at the H3 autoreceptor controlling [3H]histamine release from synaptosomes and displayed similar Ki values (0.5-1.9 nM) at the H3 receptor controlling the electrically-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum or at the brain H3 receptor labeled with [125I]iodoproxyfan. Ciproxifan displayed at least 3-orders of magnitude lower potency at various aminergic receptors studied in functional or binding tests. In vivo, measurement of drug plasma levels, using a novel radioreceptor assay in mice receiving ciproxifan p.o. or i.v., led to an oral bioavailability ratio of 62%. Oral administration of ciproxifan to mice enhanced by approximately 100% histamine turnover rate and steady state level of tele-methylhistamine with an ED50 of 0.14 mg/kg. Ciproxifan reversed the H3-receptor agonist induced enhancement of water consumption in rats with and ID50 of 0.09 +/- 0.04 mg/kg, i.p. In cats, ciproxifan (0.15-2 mg/kg, p.o.) induced marked signs of neocortical electroencephalogram activation manifested by enhanced fast-rhythms density and an almost total waking state. In rats, ciproxifan enhanced attention as evaluated in the five-choice task performed using a short stimulus duration. Ciproxifan appears to be an orally bioavailable, extremely potent and selective H3-receptor antagonist whose vigilance- and attention-promoting effects are promising for therapeutic applications in aging disorders. PMID:9808693

  1. Suvorexant: The first orexin receptor antagonist to treat insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ashok K.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Mediratta, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    Primary insomnia is mainly treated with drugs acting on benzodiazepine receptors and a few other classes of drugs used for different co-morbidities. A novel approach to treat insomnia has been introduced recently, with the approval of suvorexant, the first in a new class of orexin receptor antagonists. Orexin receptors in the brain have been found to play an important role in the regulation of various aspects of arousal and motivation. The drugs commonly used for insomnia therapy to date, have often been associated with adverse effects, such as, day-time somnolence, amnesia, confusion, and gait disturbance, apart from the risk of dependence on chronic use. Suvorexant has not shown these adverse effects because of its unique mechanism of action. It also appears to be suitable as a chronic therapy for insomnia, because of minimal physical dependence. The availability of this new drug as an effective and safe alternative is an important and welcome development in insomnia management. PMID:25969666

  2. Crystal Structure of Antagonist Bound Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Chrencik, Jill E; Roth, Christopher B; Terakado, Masahiko; Kurata, Haruto; Omi, Rie; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Warshaviak, Dora; Nakade, Shinji; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Mileni, Mauro; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Griffith, Mark T; Rodgers, Caroline; Han, Gye Won; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Chun, Jerold; Stevens, Raymond C; Hanson, Michael A

    2015-06-18

    Lipid biology continues to emerge as an area of significant therapeutic interest, particularly as the result of an enhanced understanding of the wealth of signaling molecules with diverse physiological properties. This growth in knowledge is epitomized by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which functions through interactions with at least six cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Herein, we present three crystal structures of LPA1 in complex with antagonist tool compounds selected and designed through structural and stability analyses. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics identified a basis for ligand access to the LPA1 binding pocket from the extracellular space contrasting with the proposed access for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Characteristics of the LPA1 binding pocket raise thepossibility of promiscuous ligand recognition of phosphorylated endocannabinoids. Cell-based assays confirmed this hypothesis, linking the distinct receptor systems through metabolically related ligands with potential functional and therapeutic implications for treatment of disease. PMID:26091040

  3. Vasopressin receptor antagonists, heart failure, and polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente E

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of nonpeptide orally bioavailable vasopressin antagonists devoid of agonistic activity (vaptans) has made possible the selective blockade of vasopressin receptor subtypes for therapeutic purposes. Vaptans acting on the vasopressin V2 receptors (aquaretics) have attracted attention as a possible therapy for heart failure and polycystic kidney disease. Despite a solid rationale and encouraging preclinical testing, aquaretics have not improved clinical outcomes in randomized clinical trials for heart failure. Additional clinical trials with select population targets, more flexible dosing schedules, and possibly a different drug type or combination (balanced V1a/V2 receptor antagonism) may be warranted. Aquaretics are promising for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and have been approved in Japan for this indication. More studies are needed to better define their long-term safety and efficacy and optimize their utilization. PMID:25493947

  4. Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists as Treatments for Nicotine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Peter A.; Bardo, Michael T.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven efficacy of current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, relapse rates continue to be high, indicating that novel medications are needed. Currently, several smoking cessation agents are available, including varenicline (Chantix®), bupropion (Zyban®), and cytisine (Tabex®). Varenicline and cytisine are partial agonists at the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Bupropion is an antidepressant but is also an antagonist at α3β2* ganglionic nAChRs. The rewarding effects of nicotine are mediated, in part, by nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release leading to sensitization, which is associated with repeated nicotine administration and nicotine addiction. Receptor antagonists that selectivity target central nAChR subtypes mediating nicotine-evoked DA release should have efficacy as tobacco use cessation agents with the therapeutic advantage of a limited side-effect profile. While α-conotoxin MII (α-CtxMII)-insensitive nAChRs (e.g., α4β2*) contribute to nicotine-evoked DA release, these nAChRs are widely distributed in the brain, and inhibition of these receptors may lead to nonselective and untoward effects. In contrast, α-CtxMII-sensitive nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release offer an advantage as targets for smoking cessation, due to their more restricted localization primarily to dopaminergic neurons. Small drug-like molecules that are selective antagonists at α-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes that contain α6 and β2 subunits have now been identified. Early research identified a variety of quaternary ammonium analogs that were potent and selective antagonists at nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release. More recent data have shown that novel, non-quaternary bis-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine analogs potently inhibit (IC50<1 nM) nicotine-evoked DA release in vitro by acting as antagonists at α-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes; these compounds also decrease NIC self-administration in rats. PMID:24484986

  5. Safety profile of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: Spironolactone and eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Pelliccia, Francesco; Rosano, Giuseppe; Vitale, Cristiana; Schiariti, Michele; Greco, Cesare; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more mineralocorticoid receptor-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone has been shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure. Also, spironolactone is safe and protective in arterial hypertension, particularly in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Eplerenone is the second oral aldosterone antagonist available for the treatment of arterial hypertension and heart failure. Treatment with eplerenone has been associated with decreased blood pressure and improved survival for patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Due to the selectivity of eplerenone for the aldosterone receptor, severe adverse effects such as gynecomastia and vaginal bleeding seem to be less likely in patients who take eplerenone than in those who take spironolactone. The most common and potentially dangerous side effect of spironolactone--hyperkalemia--is also observed with eplerenone but the findings from clinical trials do not indicate more hyperkalemia induced drug withdrawals. Treatment with eplerenone should be initiated at a dosage of 25mg once daily and titrated to a target dosage of 50mg once daily preferably within 4 weeks. Serum potassium levels and renal function should be assessed prior to initiating eplerenone therapy, and periodic monitoring is recommended, especially in patients at high risk of developing hyperkalemia. PMID:26404748

  6. Agonist versus antagonist binding to alpha-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, B B; Michel, T; Kilpatrick, D M; Lefkowitz, R J; Tolbert, M E; Gilman, H; Fain, J N

    1980-01-01

    The binding properties of two alpha-adrenergic radioligands, [3H]epinephrine (an agonist) and [3H]dihydroergocryptine (an antagonist), were compared in two model systems--membranes derived from human platelets and membranes from rat liver. The platelet contains exclusively alpha 2 and the liver mostly (approximately 80%) alpha 1 receptors. Agonists induce the formation of a guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity state of alpha 2 but not alpha 1 receptors. [3H]Dihydroergocryptine labels all the alpha receptors, whereas [3H]epinephrine at low concentrations labels predominantly the high-affinity form of the alpha 2 receptor in both platelet and liver. However, in the liver, alpha-adrenergic effects such as glycogen phosphorylase activation are shown to be mediated via alpha 1 receptors. Thus, in liver membranes the endogenous "physiological" agonist may not label the physiologically relevant alpha 1 receptors in typical radioligand binding assays using low concentrations of [3H]epinephrine. PMID:6107908

  7. Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines as Selective Antagonists for the Orexin 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, David A.; German, Nadezhda A.; Gilmour, Brian P.; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Zhang, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in reward processes, suggesting OX1 antagonism could be therapeutic in drug addiction. In a program to develop an OX1 selective antagonist, we designed and synthesized a series of substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines and determined their potency in OX1 and OX2 calcium mobilization assays. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed limited steric tolerance and preference for electron deficiency at the 7-position. Pyridylmethyl groups were shown to be optimal for activity at the acetamide position. Computational studies resulted in a pharmacophore model and confirmed the SAR results. Compound 72 significantly attenuated the development of place preference for cocaine in rats. PMID:23941044

  8. Treating neuromyelitis optica with the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab

    PubMed Central

    Lauenstein, Ann-Sophie; Stettner, Mark; Kieseier, Bernd C; Lensch, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    We present a 32-year-old female patient with fulminant neuromyelitis optica. After the initial treatment with the monoclonal antibody rituximab failed, therapy with the anti-IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab was initiated. The patient experienced a clinically relevant improvement from severe tetraparesis to low-grade paresis, which is still maintained. On MRI of the spinal cord an almost complete restitution of a predescribed extensive myelopathy accompanied this clinical improvement. Meanwhile clinical stability was achieved for over 1 year without any side effects of the ongoing treatment with tocilizumab. PMID:24671322

  9. Competitive antagonism at thromboxane receptors in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. A.; Jones, R. L.; Peesapati, V.; Will, S. G.; Wilson, N. H.

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of three prostanoid analogues, EP 045, EP 092 and pinane thromboxane A2 (PTA2), on the aggregation of human platelets in vitro have been investigated. In diluted platelet-rich plasma (PRP), EP 045 (20 microM) and EP 092 (1 microM) completely inhibited irreversible aggregation responses to thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) and five chemically stable thromboxane mimetics, including 11,9-epoxymethano-PGH2 and 9,11-azo-PGH2. Reversible aggregation produced by the prostanoid analogue, CTA2, was also inhibited. The block of the stable agonist action was surmountable. In plasma-free platelet suspensions EP 045 and EP 092 were more potent antagonists. Schild analysis indicated a competitive type of antagonism for EP 045 (affinity constant of 1.1 X 10(7) M-1); the nature of the EP 092 block is not clear. Primary aggregation waves induced by ADP, platelet activating factor (Paf) and adrenaline were unaffected by EP 045 and EP 092, whereas the corresponding second phases of aggregation were suppressed. Aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release induced by either PGH2 or 11,9-epoxymethano-PGH2 were inhibited in a parallel manner by EP 045. Inhibition of thromboxane biosynthesis is not involved in these effects. EP 045 and EP 092 did not raise adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in the platelet suspensions. In plasma-free platelet suspensions PTA2 produced a shape change response which could be blocked by EP 045. PTA2, therefore, has a thromboxane-like agonist action. The block of the aggregatory action of 11,9-epoxymethano-PGH2 by PTA2 appears to be mainly due to competition at the thromboxane receptor. However, PTA2 produced a slight rise in cyclic AMP levels; this could be due to a very weak stimulant action on either PGI2 or PGD2 receptors present in the human platelet. Functional antagonism by PTA2 may therefore augment its thromboxane receptor blocking activity. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the specificity of antagonism produced by EP 045, EP 092 and PTA2, (b) the validity of affinity constant determinations for receptor antagonists when aggregation is the biological response, and (c) the characteristics of the human platelet thromboxane receptor in comparison with those of thromboxane receptors in smooth muscle. PMID:2580580

  10. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  11. Evodiamine as a novel antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hui; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 ; Tu, Yongjiu; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xia; Wang, Xi; Wang, Zhanli; Liang, Huaping

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Evodiamine interacted with the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine inhibited the specific binding of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD to the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine acts as an antagonist of the AhR. -- Abstract: Evodiamine, the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Wu-Chu-Yu, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activities. In this study, we investigated the interaction between evodiamine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Molecular modeling results revealed that evodiamine directly interacted with the AhR. Cytosolic receptor binding assay also provided the evidence that evodiamine could interact with the AhR with the K{sub i} value of 28.4 {+-} 4.9 nM. In addition, we observed that evodiamine suppressed the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and the expression of CYP1A1 dose-dependently. These results suggested that evodiamine was able to bind to the AhR as ligand and exhibit antagonistic effects.

  12. 3D pharmacophore models for thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Yixi; Wang, Songqing

    2009-10-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative closely correlated to thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The action of TXA(2) can be effectively inhibited with TXA(2) receptor antagonists (TXRAs). Previous studies have attempted to describe the interactions between the TXA(2) receptor and its ligands, but their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is used as a new and effective way to investigate the structure-activity relationship of TXRAs. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models of TXRAs were built with HypoGenRefine and HipHop modules in CATALYST software. The optimal HypoGenRefine model was developed on the basis of 25 TXRAs. It consists of two hydrophobic groups, one aromatic ring, one hydrogen-bond acceptor and four excluded volumes. The optimal HipHop model contains two hydrophobic groups and two hydrogen-bond acceptors. These models describe the key structure-activity relationship of TXRAs, can predict their activities, and can thus be used to design novel antagonists. PMID:19263096

  13. Classification and virtual screening of androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-24

    Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), are highly useful as screening support for prioritization of substances of very high concern (SVHC). From the practical point of view, QSAR models should be effective to pick out more active rather than inactive compounds, expressed as sensitivity in classification works. This research investigates the classification of a big data set of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, mainly aiming to improve the external sensitivity and to screen for potential AR binders. The kNN, lazy IB1, and ADTree methods and the consensus approach were used to build different models, which improve the sensitivity on external chemicals from 57.1% (literature) to 76.4%. Additionally, the models' predictive abilities were further validated on a blind collected data set (sensitivity: 85.7%). Then the proposed classifiers were used: (i) to distinguish a set of AR binders into antagonists and agonists; (ii) to screen a combined estrogen receptor binder database to find out possible chemicals that can bind to both AR and ER; and (iii) to virtually screen our in-house environmental chemical database. The in silico screening results suggest: (i) that some compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a complex mechanism binding both to ER and AR; (ii) new EDCs, which are nonER binders, but can in silico bind to AR, are recognized; and (iii) about 20% of compounds in a big data set of environmental chemicals are predicted as new AR antagonists. The priority should be given to them to experimentally test the binding activities with AR. PMID:20405856

  14. Agonist and antagonist effects of nicotine on chick neuronal nicotinic receptors are defined by alpha and beta subunits.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Ballivet, M; Bertrand, D

    1994-09-01

    1. Functional neuronal nicotinic receptors were reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes by the nuclear injection of different combinations of chick and rat cDNAs encoding alpha and beta subunits. The pharmacology of these nicotinic receptors was investigated using two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. The sensitivity of the chick alpha 3/beta 2, alpha 3/beta 4, and alpha 4/beta 2 receptors to acetylcholine (ACh) and neuronal bungarotoxin differed markedly, indicating that both subunits contribute to the pharmacological properties of the receptors. 3. Nicotine acted as an agonist on the chick alpha 3/beta 4 and alpha 4/beta 2 receptors and rat alpha 3/beta 2 receptor. In contrast, nicotine (at concentrations > 3 microM) was only a weak partial agonist of the chick alpha 3/beta 2 receptor. Moreover, nicotine coapplied with 3 microM ACh on the chick alpha 3/beta 2 receptor acted as a potent competitive antagonist, with an IC50 of 0.43 microM. No antagonist effect of nicotine could be revealed on the other nicotinic receptors. 4. The effect of nicotine was tested on hybrid receptors obtained by coinjection of chick and rat cDNAs encoding the alpha 3 and beta 2 subunits (yielding the rat alpha 3/chick beta 2 and chick alpha 3/rat beta 2 receptors). Nicotine (10 microM) strongly inhibited both hybrid receptors. 5. Chimeric subunits were constructed by exchanging a segment located in the extracellular N-termini of chick alpha 3 and alpha 4 subunits and chick alpha 3 and rat alpha 3 subunits. These subunits were coexpressed in oocytes with chick or rat beta 2 subunits. The effect of nicotine on these receptors pointed to the importance of a 15 amino acid stretch located 3' of the first transmembrane segment in the determination of the agonist and antagonist action of nicotine. 6. Within this 15 amino acid segment, a single residue differs in chick and rat alpha 3 subunits, at position 198, within the ligand binding site of alpha subunits. Gln198 of the rat alpha 3 subunit was replaced by Thr as found in the chick alpha 3 subunit, using site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant subunit was coexpressed with the rat beta 2 subunit, yielding receptors which were inhibited by nicotine. 7. It is concluded that both alpha and beta subunits not only alter considerably the sensitivity of the nicotinic receptor to agonists and antagonists, but also can turn an agonist into a potent antagonist of one receptor subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7807214

  15. Snake neurotoxin ?-bungarotoxin is an antagonist at native GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Saad; Mortensen, Martin; Smart, Trevor G

    2015-06-01

    The snake neurotoxin ?-bungarotoxin (?-Bgtx) is a competitive antagonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is widely used to study their function and cell-surface expression. Increasingly, ?-Bgtx is also used as an imaging tool for fluorophore-labelling studies, and given the structural conservation within the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, we assessed whether ?-Bgtx could bind to recombinant and native ?-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Applying fluorophore-linked ?-Bgtx to recombinant ?x?1/2?2 GABAARs expressed in HEK-293 cells enabled clear cell-surface labelling of ?2?1/2?2 contrasting with the weaker staining of ?1/4?1/2?2, and no labelling for ?3/5/6?1/2?2. The labelling of ?2?2?2 was abolished by bicuculline, a competitive antagonist at GABAARs, and by d-tubocurarine (d-Tc), which acts in a similar manner at nAChRs and GABAARs. Labelling by ?-Bgtx was also reduced by GABA, suggesting that the GABA binding site at the receptor ?-? subunit interface forms part of the ?-Bgtx binding site. Using whole-cell recording, high concentrations of ?-Bgtx (20?M) inhibited GABA-activated currents at all ?x?2?2 receptors examined, but at lower concentrations (5?M), ?-Bgtx was selective for ?2?2?2. Using ?-Bgtx, at low concentrations, permitted the selective inhibition of ?2 subunit-containing GABAARs in hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells, reducing synaptic current amplitudes without affecting the GABA-mediated tonic current. In conclusion, ?-Bgtx can act as an inhibitor at recombinant and native GABAARs and may be used as a selective tool to inhibit phasic but not tonic currents in the hippocampus. PMID:25634239

  16. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists role in arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Hernndez, R; Sosa-Canache, B; Velasco, M; Armas-Hernndez, M J; Armas-Padilla, M C; Cammarata, R

    2002-03-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers represent a class of effective and well tolerated orally active antihypertensive drugs. Activation of AT(1) receptors leads to vasoconstriction, stimulation of the release of catecholamines and antidiuretic hormone and promote growth of vascular and cardiac muscle. AT(1) receptor blockers antagonise all those effects. Losartan was the first drug of this class marketed, shortly followed by valsartan, irbesartan, telmisartan, candesartan, eprosartan and others on current investigation. All these drugs have the common properties of blockading the AT(1) receptor thereby relaxing vascular smooth muscle, increase salt excretion, decrease cellular hypertrophy and induce antihypertensive effect without modifying heart rate or cardiac output. Most of the AT(1) receptor blockers in use controlled blood pressure during the 24 h with a once-daily dose, without evidence of producing tolerance to the antihypertensive effect and being with low incidence of side effects even at long term use. Monotherapy in mild-to-moderate hypertension controls blood pressure in 40 to 50% of these patients; when a low dose of thiazide diuretic is added, 60-70% of patients are controlled. The efficacy is similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, calcium antagonists and beta-blocking agents. AT(1) receptor blockers are specially indicated in patients with hypertension who are being treated with ACE inhibitors and developed side effects such as, cough or angioedema. The final position in the antihypertensive therapy in this special population and other clinical situations, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, diabetes mellitus and renal disease, has to be determined in large prospective clinical trials, some of which are now being conducted and seem promising. PMID:11986904

  17. Endothelin B receptor antagonist increases preproendothelin-1 transcription in bovine aortic endothelial cells and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peled, Michael; Shaish, Aviv; Frishman, Liron; Cohen, Hofit; Tal, Reshef; Harats, Dror

    2006-05-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor antagonists increase plasma immunoreactive ET-1 levels. However, their effect on preproendothelin-1 (PPE-1) mRNA levels is still controversial. Few studies have found a decrease in PPE-1 mRNA levels in endothelial cells treated with the nonselective ETA/B receptor antagonist, and others demonstrated that an ETB blockade by the selective antagonist BQ788 increases PPE-1 mRNA levels. We studied the effect of ETA and ETB selective receptor antagonists on PPE-1 transcription, both in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial cells, transiently transfected with PPE-1 luciferase plasmid, were treated with ET-1 receptor antagonists. Bosentan, a dual ETA/B receptor antagonist, and BQ788 (ETB receptor antagonist) treatment resulted in a 1.6-fold and 1.3-fold increase, respectively in luciferase activity as compared with the untreated control. In contrast, the ETA receptor antagonist, BQ123, had no effect on luciferase activity. Transgenic mice that express the luciferase gene under the control of PPE-1 promoter were treated with Bosentan. Luciferase activity, PPE-1 mRNA levels, and plasma immunoreactive ET-1 levels were increased by 1.6-fold to 2.0-fold in the Bosentan-treated group compared with the untreated, control group. ET-1 receptor blockade increased PPE-1 transcription both in vitro and in vivo. The increased transcription can be attributed to ETB receptor blockade, because BQ-788, but not BQ-123, increased PPE-1 transcription. PMID:16775506

  18. Purification and reconstitution of the calcium antagonist receptor of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment with digitonin solubilized the calcium antagonist receptor as a stable complex with (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine from rat brain membranes. The solubilized complex retains allosteric coupling to binding sites for diltiazem, verapamil, and inorganic calcium antagonist sites. The calcium antagonist receptor from cardiac sarcolemma and the transverse-tubule membrane of skeletal muscle is also efficiently solubilized with digitonin and the receptor in all three tissues is a large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor complex was extensively purified by a combination of chromatography on WGA-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography, and sedimentation on sucrose gradients to yield preparations estimated to be 41% homogeneous by specific activity and 63% homogeneous by SDS gel electrophoresis. Analysis of SDS gels detect three polypeptides termed ..cap alpha..(Mr 135,000), ..beta..(Mr 50,000), and ..gamma..(Mr 32,000) as noncovalently associated subunits of the calcium antagonist receptor. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. subunits are glycosylated polypeptides, and the molecular weight of the core polypeptides are 108,000 and 24,000 respectively. The calcium antagonist receptor was reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer by adding CHAPS and exogeneous lipid to the purified receptor followed by rapid detergent removal. This procedure resulted in the incorporation of 45% of the calcium antagonist receptor into closed phospholipid vesicles. Data suggests that the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. subunits of the T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor are sufficient to form a functional calcium channel.

  19. Interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptor antagonists with different selectivity profiles: Effects on locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Collins, Patricia; Jones, Shawnet K; Port, Russell G; Paul, Nicholas E; Hockemeyer, Jrg; Mller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2010-08-25

    Forebrain dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverse many of the behavioral effects of DA antagonists, and A(2A) receptors are co-localized with D(2) receptors on striatal medium spiny neurons. The present work was undertaken to determine if the ability of an A(2A) antagonist, a non-selective adenosine antagonist, or an A(1) antagonist to reverse the locomotor effects of DA blockade in rats differed depending upon whether D(1) or D(2) family receptors were being antagonized. The adenosine antagonists MSX-3, caffeine, DPCPX and CPT were studied for their ability to reverse the locomotor suppression induced by the D(1) antagonist SCH 39166 (ecopipam) and the D(2) antagonist eticlopride. The D(1) and D(2) antagonists suppressed locomotion in all experiments. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) significantly reversed the suppression of locomotion induced by eticlopride. The non-selective adenosine antagonist caffeine (5.0-20.0 mg/kg IP) also reversed the effect of eticlopride, though the effect was not as robust as that seen with MSX-3. The adenosine A(1) antagonists DPCPX (0.375-1.5 mg/kg) and CPT (3.0-12.0 mg/kg IP) were unable to reverse the locomotor impairment elicited by eticlopride. Furthermore, the attenuation of locomotion induced by the D(1) antagonist could only be reversed by the highest dose of MSX-3, but not by caffeine, DPCPX or CPT. DA and adenosine receptor antagonists interact in the regulation of locomotor activation, but the nature of this interaction appears to depend upon the receptor selectivity profiles of the specific drugs being tested. PMID:20211657

  20. Small-molecule vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist identified by a g-protein coupled receptor "pathway" screen.

    PubMed

    Yangthara, Buranee; Mills, Aaron; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Verkman, A S

    2007-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as the vasopressin-2 receptor (V(2)R) are an important class of drug targets. We developed an efficient screen for GPCR-induced cAMP elevation using as read-out cAMP activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels. Fischer rat thyroid cells expressing CFTR and a halide-sensing yellow fluorescent protein (H148Q/I152L) were transfected with V(2)R. Increased cell Cl(-) conductance after agonist-induced cAMP elevation was assayed using a plate reader from cell fluorescence after solution I(-) addition. The Z' factor for the assay was approximately 0.7 with the V(2)R agonist [deamino-Cys1, Val4, d-Arg8]-vasopressin (1 nM) as positive control. Primary screening of 50,000 small molecules yielded a novel, 5-aryl-4-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-1-(2-arylethyl)-2H-pyrrol-2-one class of V(2)R antagonists that are unrelated structurally to known V(2)R antagonists. The most potent compound, V(2)R(inh)-02, which was identified by screening 35 structural analogs, competitively inhibited V(2)R-induced cAMP elevation with K(i) value of approximately 70 nM and fully displaced radiolabeled vasopressin in binding experiments. V(2)R(inh)-02 did not inhibit forskolin or beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-induced cAMP production and was more than 50 times more potent for V(2)R than for V(1a)R. The favorable in vitro properties of the pyrrol-2-one antagonists suggests their potential usefulness in aquaretic applications. The CFTR-linked cAMP assay developed here is applicable for efficient, high-throughput identification of modulators of cAMP-coupled GPCRs. PMID:17435162

  1. Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-05-01

    A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 ?M, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 ?M against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue. PMID:24726305

  2. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-03-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 ..mu..M, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 ..mu..M) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

  3. Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Equihua, Ana C; De La Herrn-Arita, Alberto K; Drucker-Colin, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:24416019

  4. Angiotensin II receptors-antagonists, molecular biology, and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, G

    1998-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in both the short-term and long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure, and fluid and electrolyte balance. The RAAS is a dual hormone system, serving as both a circulating and a local tissue hormone system (i.e., local mediator) as well as neurotransmitter or neuromediator functions in CNS. Control of blood pressure by the RAAS is exerted through multiple actions of angiotensin II, a small peptide which is a potent vasoconstrictor hormone implicated in the genesis and maintenance of hypertension. Hypertension is a primary risk factor associated with cardiovascular, cerebral and renal vascular disease. One of the approaches to the treatment of hypertension, which may be considered as a major scientific advancement, involves the use of drugs affecting the RAAS. Pharmacological interruption of the RAAS was initially employed in the late 1970s with the advent of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril. ACE inhibitors have since gained widespread use in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and diabetic nephropathy. As the roles of the RAAS in the pathophysiology of several diseases was explored, so did the realization of the importance of inhibiting the actions of angiotensin II. Although ACE inhibitors are well tolerated, they are also involved in the activation of bradykinin, enkephalins, and other biologically active peptides. These actions result in adverse effects such as cough, increased bronchial reactivity, and angioedema. Thus, the goal of achieving a more specific blockade of the effects of angiotensin II than is possible with ACE inhibition. The introduction of the nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan in 1995 marked the achievement of this objective and has opened new vistas in understanding and controlling the additional biological effects of angiotensin II. Complementary investigations into the cloning and sequencing of angiotensin II receptors have demonstrated the existence of a family of angiotensin II receptor subtypes. Two major types of angiotensin II receptors have been identified in humans. The type 1 receptor (AT1) mediates most known effects of angiotensin II. The type 2 receptor (AT2), for which no precise function was known in the past, has gained importance recently and new mechanisms of intracellular signalling have been proposed. This review presents recent advances in angiotensin II receptor pharmacology, molecular biology, and signal transduction, with particular reference to the AT1 receptor. Excellent reviews have appeared recently on this subject. PMID:10093499

  5. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists-pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic differences.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Young, Morag J

    2016-04-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are best known as potassium-sparing diuretics due to their blockade of aldosterone action in renal epithelial tissues. They are also beneficial for the treatment of heart failure, primarily due to effects in non-epithelial tissues. Currently there are only two steroidal MRAs that have been approved for use; spironolactone (and its active metabolite canrenone) and eplerenone. However, the search is on for novel generations of MRAs with increased potency and tissue selectivity. A number of novel non-steroidal compounds are in preclinical and early development, with one agent moving to phase III trials. The development of these agents and the mechanisms for their pharmacologic superiority compared to earlier generations of MRAs will be discussed in this review. PMID:26939027

  6. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Madery, Brandon D.; Pike, Tasha L.; Eisenach, John H.; Dietz, Niki M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Wilkins, Brad W.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (?-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in mlmin?1100 mmHg?1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (?FVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 29 and 314 34 mlmin?1100 mmHg?1 (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect ?FVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 29 mlmin?1100 mmHg?1, P = 0.4) or 20% (287 48 mlmin?1100 mmHg?1, P = 0.3). In protocol 2, ?FVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 30 and 453 41 mlmin?1100 mmHg?1 (10% and 20% respectively). ?FVC was similar at 10% (352 39 mlmin?1100 mmHg?1, P = 0.8) and 20% (528 45 mlmin?1100 mmHg?1, P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, ?FVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

  7. GLP-1 receptor antagonist as a potential probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Eri; Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo ; Toyoda, Kentaro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, Tokyo ; Ueda, Masashi; Temma, Takashi; Hirao, Konomu; Nagakawa, Kenji; Saji, Hideo; Inagaki, Nobuya; CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation , Kyoto

    2009-11-20

    We examined exendin(9-39), an antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), as a potential probe for imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cells. To evaluate in vitro receptor specificity, binding assay was performed using dispersed mouse islet cells. Binding assay showed competitive inhibition of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) binding by non-radioactive exendin(9-39). To assess in vivo selectivity, the biodistribution was evaluated by intravenous administration of [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) to mice. Radioactivity of harvested pancreas reached highest levels at 60 and 120 min among organs examined except lung. Pre-administration of excess non-radioactive exendin(9-39) remarkably and specifically blocked the radioactivity of pancreas. After [{sup 125}I]BH-exendin(9-39) injection into transgenic mice with pancreatic {beta}-cells expressing GFP, fluorescent and radioactive signals of sections of pancreas were evaluated with an image analyzer. Imaging analysis showed that the fluorescent GFP signals and the radioactive signals were correspondingly located. Thus, the GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) may serve as a useful probe for pancreatic {beta}-cell imaging.

  8. Cholinergic antagonists in a solitary wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Piek, T; Mantel, P

    1986-01-01

    The venom of the solitary wasp Philanthus triangulum contains a cholinergic antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog, Xenopus laevis. The venom of African P. triangulum contains two different cholinergic factors, a competitive and a non-competitive antagonist. The venom of the European P. triangulum may not contain a competitive antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of X. laevis, but only a very strong non-competitive antagonist. The possible non-synonymity of both groups of P. triangulum is discussed. PMID:2879703

  9. Selection of a C5a receptor antagonist from phage libraries attenuating the inflammatory response in immune complex disease and ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Hennecke, M; Baumann, U; Gessner, J E; zu Vilsendorf, A M; Baensch, M; Boulay, F; Kola, A; Klos, A; Bautsch, W; Khl, J

    1999-07-15

    A C5a-receptor antagonist was selected from human C5a phage display libraries in which the C terminus of des-Arg74-hC5a was mutated. The selected molecule is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist in vitro and in vivo. Signal transduction is interrupted at the level of G-protein activation. In addition, the antagonist does not cause any C5a receptor phosphorylation. Proinflammatory properties such as chemotaxis or lysosomal enzyme release of differentiated U937 cells, as well as C5a-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of murine peritoneal macrophages, are inhibited. The in vivo efficacy was evaluated in three different animal models of immune complex diseases in mice, i.e., the reverse passive Arthus reaction in the peritoneum, skin, and lung. The i.v. application of the C5a receptor antagonist abrogated polymorphonuclear neutrophil accumulation in peritoneum and markedly attenuated polymorphonuclear neutrophil migration into the skin and the lung. In a model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, i.v. administration of the C5a receptor antagonist decreased local and remote tissue injury: bowel wall edema and hemorrhage as well as pulmonary microvascular dysfunction. These data give evidence that C5a is an important mediator triggering the inflammatory sequelae seen in immune complex diseases and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The selected C5a receptor antagonist may prove useful to attenuate the inflammatory response in these disorders. PMID:10395696

  10. Novel antagonists for proteinase-activated receptor 2: inhibition of cellular and vascular responses in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kanke, T; Kabeya, M; Kubo, S; Kondo, S; Yasuoka, K; Tagashira, J; Ishiwata, H; Saka, M; Furuyama, T; Nishiyama, T; Doi, T; Hattori, Y; Kawabata, A; Cunningham, MR; Plevin, R

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor associated with many pathophysiological functions. To date, the development of PAR2 antagonists has been limited. Here, we identify a number of novel peptide-mimetic PAR2 antagonists and demonstrate inhibitory effects on PAR2-mediated intracellular signalling pathways and vascular responses. Experimental approach: The peptide-mimetic compound library based on the structures of PAR2 agonist peptides were screened for inhibition of PAR2-induced calcium mobilisation in human keratinocytes. Representative compounds were further evaluated by radioligand binding and inhibition of NFκB transcriptional activity and IL-8 production. The vascular effects of the antagonists were assessed using in vitro and in vivo models. Key results: Two compounds, K-12940 and K-14585, significantly reduced SLIGKV-induced Ca2+ mobilisation in primary human keratinocytes. Both K-12940 and K-14585 exhibited competitive inhibition for the binding of a high-affinity radiolabelled PAR2-ligand, [3H]-2-furoyl-LIGRL-NH2, to human PAR2 with Ki values of 1.94 and 0.627 µM respectively. NFκB reporter activity and IL-8 production were also significantly reduced. Furthermore, relaxation of rat-isolated aorta induced by SLIGRL-NH2 was inhibited competitively by K-14585. K-14585 also significantly lowered plasma extravasation in the dorsal skin of guinea pigs and reduced salivation in mice. Conclusions and implications: K-12940 and K-14585 antagonized PAR2 competitively, resulting in inhibition of PAR2-mediated signalling and physiological responses both in vitro and in vivo. These peptide-mimetic PAR2 antagonists could be useful in evaluating PAR2-mediated biological events and might lead to a new generation of therapeutically useful antagonists. PMID:19719785

  11. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  12. Discovery of the First Small-Molecule Opioid Pan Antagonist with Nanomolar Affinity at Mu, Delta, Kappa, and Nociceptin Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine scaffold is a known pharmacophore for mu opioid (MOP), kappa opioid (KOP), and delta opioid (DOP) receptor antagonists; however, it has not been explored in nociceptin opioid (NOP/ORL-1) receptor ligands. We recently found that the selective KOP antagonist JDTic, (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-((1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide, containing this opioid antagonist pharmacophore, has significant binding affinity at the NOP receptor (Ki 16.67 ± 0.76 nM), with no intrinsic activity in the [35S]GTPγS functional assay. Since this is the first ligand containing the trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine opioid antagonist pharmacophore to have affinity for the NOP receptor, we explored the structural determinants of its NOP binding affinity. When rational chemical modifications of JDTic were carried out, based on our previously established NOP pharmacophoric structure–activity relationship (SAR) model, most modifications led to a significant decrease in NOP and opioid binding affinity compared to JDTic. Interestingly, however, removal of the 3,4-dimethyl groups of the trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine antagonist scaffold of JDTic increased the binding affinity at NOP by 10-fold (Ki 1.75 ± 0.74 nM) while maintaining comparable affinity for KOP, MOP, and DOP receptors (Ki 1.14 ± 0.63, 1.67 ± 0.6, and 19.6 ± 1.3 nM, respectively). In vitro functional efficacy studies using the [35S]GTPγS assay showed that this compound AT-076 functions as an antagonist at all four opioid receptors. Detailed characterization of the antagonist activity of AT-076 shows that it has a noncompetitive antagonist profile at the NOP and KOP receptors (insurmountable antagonism), but is a potent competitive antagonist at the MOP and DOP receptors, with Ke values 3–6-fold more potent than those of JDTic. AT-076 is the first opioid pan antagonist with high affinity at all four opioid receptor subtypes. Our SAR studies show that the 3,4-dimethyl groups of the well-known trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine opioid antagonist scaffold may be removed without significant loss in binding affinity or antagonist potency to obtain an opioid pan antagonist such as AT-076. PMID:25635572

  13. Use of Enterally Delivered Angiotensin II Type Ia Receptor Antagonists to Reduce the Severity of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Koga, Hiroyuki; Larsen, Scott D.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Turbiak, Anjanette J.; Jin, Xiaohong; Lucas, Peter C.; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Kim, Jae Seung

    2011-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system blockade reduces inflammation in several organ systems. Having found a fourfold increase in angiotensin II type Ia receptor expression in a dextran sodium sulfate colitis model, we targeted blockade with angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists to prevent colitis development. Because hypotension is a major complication of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists use, we hypothesized that use of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists compounds which lack cell membrane permeability, and thus enteric absorption, would allow for direct enteral delivery at far higher concentrations than would be tolerated systemically, yet retain efficacy. Methods Based on the structure of the angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist losartan, deschloro-losartan was synthesized, which has extremely poor cell membrane permeability. Angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy was evaluated by determining the ability to block NF-?B activation in vitro. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in mice and angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy delivered transanally was assessed. Results In vitro, deschloro-losartan demonstrated near equal angiotensin II type Ia receptor blockade compared to losartan as well as another angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist, candesartan. In the dextran sodium sulfate model, each compound significantly improved clinical and histologic scores and epithelial cell apoptosis. Abundance of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL6 mRNA were significantly decreased with each compound. In vitro and in vivo intestinal drug absorption, as well as measures of blood pressure and mucosal and colonic blood flow, showed significantly lower uptake of deschloro-losartan compared to losartan and candesartan. Conclusions This study demonstrated efficacy of high-dose angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists in this colitis model. We postulate that a specially designed angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist with poor oral absorption may have great potential as a new therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease in the future. PMID:21399927

  14. Inhibitory effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonists and leukotriene receptor antagonists on the transport of human organic anion transporter 4.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Fumiaki; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Koyabu, Noriko; Ushigome, Fumihiko; Satoh, Hiroki; Murakami, Hideyasu; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takanori; Kuwano, Michihiko; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2006-11-01

    Human organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) is the only member of the OAT family that is expressed in the placenta and also expressed in kidney. Although OAT4 has been shown to transport certain organic anions as well as other members of the OAT family, fewer numbers of substrates have been identified for OAT4 compared with OAT1 and OAT3, suggesting that the substrate specificity of OAT4 is greater than other OAT members. However, the substrate specificity of OAT4 remains to be investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various drugs on the OAT4-mediated transport of estrone-3-sulfate, a typical substrate of OAT4, by using human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with OAT4 (HEK-OAT4). HEK-OAT4 cells exhibited concentration-dependent uptake of estrone-3-sulfate, with a K(m) value of 20.9+/-3.53 microM. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and probenecid potently inhibited estrone-3-sulfate uptake. We also searched for the potential inhibitors of OAT4 and identified candesartan, candesartan cilexetil, losartan, losartan carboxyl (EXP3174) and valsartan as inhibitors of OAT4, with K(i) values of 88.9, 135.2, 24.8, 13.8 and 19.6 microM, respectively. The above angiotensin II receptor antagonists and leukotriene receptor antagonists share a common structural feature, that is the tetrazole group. Although pranlukast is devoid of anionic motifs other than the tetrazole group, it potently inhibited the OAT4-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate, indicating that a tetrazole group may be one important structural feature in substrate recognition by OAT4. PMID:17132213

  15. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  16. Vasopressin receptor antagonists: from pivotal trials to current practice.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ankur; Maharaj, Valmiki; Goldsmith, Steven R

    2014-03-01

    Heart failure is a growing health and economic problem in America, and outcomes continue to remain dismal, particularly for those presenting with acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS). In theory, arginine vasopressin antagonists (VRAs) could be useful in both acute and chronic heart failure, depending on which vasopressin receptor is targeted. Most studies of VRAs in heart failure have focused on V2 receptor antagonism, and to a lesser extent on combined V1a/V2 antagonism, due to the availability of appropriate agents and the unmet need of improving outcomes in AHFS. These agents are particularly attractive as adjunctive or alterative agents in AHFS because of their ability to produce a substantial diuresis without some of the drawbacks intrinsic to loop diuretics. While VRAs have been shown to ameliorate signs and symptoms of congestion when added to standard care, the largest trial of these agents showed no improvement in long-term morbidity, mortality, or hospitalization rates when added to standard care. This article reviews the mechanism of action of VRAs, the relevant clinical trials data, and current recommendations for clinical use, and suggests future directions for study of these agents in patients with heart failure. PMID:24197791

  17. Identification of Glycyrrhiza as the rikkunshito constituent with the highest antagonistic potential on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A receptors due to the action of flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Gnter

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Japanese phytomedicine rikkunshito is traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders, cachexia and nausea. These effects indicate 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. E.g., setrons, specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the strongest antiemetics, developed so far. Therefore, the antagonistic effects of the eight rikkunshito constituents at heterologously expressed 5-HT3Areceptors were analyzed using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results indicate that tinctures from Aurantii, Ginseng, Zingiberis, Atractylodis and Glycyrrhiza inhibited the 5-HT3A receptor response, whereas the tinctures of Poria cocos, Jujubae and Pinellia exhibited no effect. Surprisingly, the strongest antagonism was found for Glycyrrhiza, whereas the Zingiberis tincture, which is considered to be primarily responsible for the effect of rikkunshito, exhibited the weakest antagonism of 5-HT3A receptors. Rikkunshito contains various vanilloids, ginsenosides and flavonoids, a portion of which show an antagonistic effect on 5-HT3 receptors. A screening of the established ingredients of the active rikkunshito constituents and related substances lead to the identification of new antagonists within the class of flavonoids. The flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin, glabridin and licochalcone A from Glycyrrhiza species were found to be the most effective inhibitors of the 5-HT-induced currents in the screening. The flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin and hesperetin from Aurantii inhibited the receptor response in a non-competitive manner, whereas glabridin and licochalcone A exhibited a potential competitive antagonism. Furthermore, licochalcone A acts as a partial antagonist of 5-HT3A receptors. Thus, this study reveals new 5-HT3A receptor antagonists with the aid of increasing the comprehension of the complex effects of rikkunshito. PMID:26191003

  18. Identification of Glycyrrhiza as the rikkunshito constituent with the highest antagonistic potential on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A receptors due to the action of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M; Hoffmann, Katrin M; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Gnter

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Japanese phytomedicine rikkunshito is traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders, cachexia and nausea. These effects indicate 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. E.g., setrons, specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the strongest antiemetics, developed so far. Therefore, the antagonistic effects of the eight rikkunshito constituents at heterologously expressed 5-HT3Areceptors were analyzed using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results indicate that tinctures from Aurantii, Ginseng, Zingiberis, Atractylodis and Glycyrrhiza inhibited the 5-HT3A receptor response, whereas the tinctures of Poria cocos, Jujubae and Pinellia exhibited no effect. Surprisingly, the strongest antagonism was found for Glycyrrhiza, whereas the Zingiberis tincture, which is considered to be primarily responsible for the effect of rikkunshito, exhibited the weakest antagonism of 5-HT3A receptors. Rikkunshito contains various vanilloids, ginsenosides and flavonoids, a portion of which show an antagonistic effect on 5-HT3 receptors. A screening of the established ingredients of the active rikkunshito constituents and related substances lead to the identification of new antagonists within the class of flavonoids. The flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin, glabridin and licochalcone A from Glycyrrhiza species were found to be the most effective inhibitors of the 5-HT-induced currents in the screening. The flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin and hesperetin from Aurantii inhibited the receptor response in a non-competitive manner, whereas glabridin and licochalcone A exhibited a potential competitive antagonism. Furthermore, licochalcone A acts as a partial antagonist of 5-HT3A receptors. Thus, this study reveals new 5-HT3A receptor antagonists with the aid of increasing the comprehension of the complex effects of rikkunshito. PMID:26191003

  19. Identification of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) residues essential for leukemia inhibitory factor receptor binding and generation of CNTF receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, A; Gloaguen, I; Graziani, R; Paonessa, G; Saggio, I; Hudson, K R; Laufer, R

    1996-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) drives the sequential assembly of a receptor complex containing the ligand-specific alpha-receptor subunit (CNTFR alpha) and the signal transducers gp130 and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-beta (LIFR). The D1 structural motif, located at the beginning of the D-helix of human CNTF, contains two amino acid residues, F152 and K155, which are conserved among all cytokines that signal through LIFR. The functional importance of these residues was assessed by alanine mutagenesis. Substitution of either F152 or K155 with alanine was found to specifically inhibit cytokine interaction with LIFR without affecting binding to CNTFR alpha or gp130. The resulting variants behaved as partial agonists with varying degrees of residual bioactivity in different cell-based assays. Simultaneous alanine substitution of both F152 and K155 totally abolished biological activity. Combining these mutations with amino acid substitutions in the D-helix, which enhance binding affinity for the CNTFR alpha, gave rise to a potent competitive CNTF receptor antagonist. This protein constitutes a new tool for studies of CNTF function in normal physiology and disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 PMID:8799186

  20. Pentapeptides displaying mu opioid receptor agonist and delta opioid receptor partial agonist/antagonist properties

    PubMed Central

    Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic use of mu-opioid agonists has been shown to cause neurochemical adaptations resulting in tolerance and dependence. While the analgesic effects of these drugs are mediated by mu-opioid receptors (MOR), several studies have shown that antagonism or knockdown of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) can lessen or prevent development of tolerance and dependence. Based on computational modeling of putative active and inactive conformations of MOR and DOR, we have synthesized a series of pentapeptides with the goal of developing a MOR agonist/DOR antagonist peptide with similar affinity at both receptors as a tool to probe functional opioid receptor interaction(s). The eight resulting naphthylalanine-substituted cyclic pentapeptides displayed variable mixed-efficacy profiles. The most promising peptide (9; Tyr-c(S-CH2-S)[D-Cys-Phe-2-Nal-Cys]NH2) displayed a MOR agonist and DOR partial agonist/antagonist profile and bound with equipotent affinity (Ki ~ 0.5 nM) to both receptors, but also showed kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist activity. PMID:19788201

  1. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of DH?E Analogues as Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dihydro-?-erythroidine (DH?E) is a member of the Erythrina family of alkaloids and a potent competitive antagonist of the ?4?2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Guided by an X-ray structure of DH?E in complex with an ACh binding protein, we detail the design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of a series of DH?E analogues in which two of the four rings in the natural product has been excluded. We found that the direct analogue of DH?E maintains affinity for the ?4?2-subtype, but further modifications of the simplified analogues were detrimental to their activities on the nAChRs. PMID:25050162

  2. Effects of aging on antagonist and agonist interactions with. beta. -adrenergic receptors on human leukocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zahniser, N.R.; Parker, D.C.; Bier-Laning, C.M.; Miller, J.A.; Gerber, J.G.; Nies, A.S.

    1986-03-01

    Alterations in properties and/or coupling of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors might explain the diminished responsiveness to ..beta..-receptor agonists observed in aged humans. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) leukocytes were isolated on Percoll gradients from young or old healthy volunteers (25-34 and 60-76 yrs). Saturation isotherms of /sup 125/I-pindolol binding to PMN and MN membranes were generated. The affinities did not differ between the two age groups or cell types (52-61 pM). The number of receptors differed only on MN membranes (PMN young: 37 +/- 5.7, old: 44 +/- 6.7; MN young: 55 +/- 7.1, old: 122 +/- 23 fmol/mg protein; N = 6-8); however, this apparent increase became a decrease if the data were expressed in fmol/million cells (MN young: 0.82 +/- 0.12; old: 0.57 +/- 0.10) suggesting alterations in protein content or cell types rather than receptors in aged MN's. Agonist affinities, determined from isoproterenol competition curves in the absence and presence of GTP, were not different between the two age groups or cell types. In agreement with most previous reports, no change with aging in the properties of antagonist binding to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on MN's was detected. However, in contrast with an earlier report, no changes in agonist binding or coupling of the receptor in MN's from the elderly were found. These observations were extended to PMN's and suggest that changes in ..beta..-adrenergic receptors may not underlie age-related decreases in isoproterenol responsiveness.

  3. Endothelin receptor B antagonists decrease glioma cell viability independently of their cognate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jennifer P; Patterson, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin receptor antagonists inhibit the progression of many cancers, but research into their influence on glioma has been limited. Methods We treated glioma cell lines, LN-229 and SW1088, and melanoma cell lines, A375 and WM35, with two endothelin receptor type B (ETRB)-specific antagonists, A-192621 and BQ788, and quantified viable cells by the capacity of their intracellular esterases to convert non-fluorescent calcein AM into green-fluorescent calcein. We assessed cell proliferation by labeling cells with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and quantifying the fluorescence by FACS analysis. We also examined the cell cycle status using BrdU/propidium iodide double staining and FACS analysis. We evaluated changes in gene expression by microarray analysis following treatment with A-192621 in glioma cells. We examined the role of ETRB by reducing its expression level using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results We report that two ETRB-specific antagonists, A-192621 and BQ788, reduce the number of viable cells in two glioma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We describe similar results for two melanoma cell lines. The more potent of the two antagonists, A-192621, decreases the mean number of cell divisions at least in part by inducing a G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Microarray analysis of the effects of A-192621 treatment reveals up-regulation of several DNA damage-inducible genes. These results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, reducing expression of ETRB with siRNAs does not abrogate the effects of either A-192621 or BQ788 in glioma or melanoma cells. Furthermore, BQ123, an endothelin receptor type A (ETRA)-specific antagonist, has no effect on cell viability in any of these cell lines, indicating that the ETRB-independent effects on cell viability exhibited by A-192621 and BQ788 are not a result of ETRA inhibition. Conclusion While ETRB antagonists reduce the viability of glioma cells in vitro, it appears unlikely that this effect is mediated by ETRB inhibition or cross-reaction with ETRA. Instead, we present evidence that A-192621 affects glioma and melanoma viability by activating stress/DNA damage response pathways, which leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This is the first evidence linking ETRB antagonist treatment to enhanced expression of DNA damage-inducible genes. PMID:19040731

  4. Biomolecular recognition of antagonists by ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Antagonistic mechanism and structure-activity relationships studies.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei

    2015-08-30

    As the key constituent of ligand-gated ion channels in the central nervous system, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and neurodegenerative diseases are strongly coupled in the human species. In recently years the developments of selective agonists by using nAChRs as the drug target have made a large progress, but the studies of selective antagonists are severely lacked. Currently these antagonists rest mainly on the extraction of partly natural products from some animals and plants; however, the production of these crude substances is quite restricted, and artificial synthesis of nAChR antagonists is still one of the completely new research fields. In the context of this manuscript, our primary objective was to comprehensively analyze the recognition patterns and the critical interaction descriptors between target ?7 nAChR and a series of the novel compounds with potentially antagonistic activity by means of virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, and meanwhile these recognition reactions were also compared with the biointeraction of ?7 nAChR with a commercially natural antagonist - methyllycaconitine. The results suggested clearly that there are relatively obvious differences of molecular structures between synthetic antagonists and methyllycaconitine, while the two systems have similar recognition modes on the whole. The interaction energy and the crucially noncovalent forces of the ?7 nAChR-antagonists are ascertained according to the method of Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area. Several amino acid residues, such as B/Tyr-93, B/Lys-143, B/Trp-147, B/Tyr-188, B/Tyr-195, A/Trp-55 and A/Leu-118 played a major role in the ?7 nAChR-antagonist recognition processes, in particular, residues B/Tyr-93, B/Trp-147 and B/Tyr-188 are the most important. These outcomes tally satisfactorily with the discussions of amino acid mutations. Based on the explorations of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships, the structure-antagonistic activity relationships of antagonists and the characteristics of ?7 nAChR-ligand recognitions were received a reasonable summary as well. These attempts emerged herein would not only provide helpful guidance for the design of ?7 nAChR antagonists, but shed new light on the subsequent researches in antagonistic mechanism. PMID:25963024

  5. Volunteer models for predicting antiemetic activity of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N A

    1994-01-01

    1. Selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are highly effective in preventing nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Their pharmacological activity may be determined in vitro and in animal models of emesis. However, these methods may not give an accurate indication of the antiemetic dose range of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists in patients. Two volunteer models have been used to predict more accurately clinically effective antiemetic doses of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists. 2. The flare response to intradermal 5-HT is thought to be mediated by excitation of 5-HT3-receptors on cutaneous afferents, with release of substance P and subsequent vasodilation. Antagonism of the flare response appears to provide an indication of the effective antiemetic dose of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists but data on duration of action are conflicting. 3. Ipecacuanha-induced emesis is thought to be mediated through both peripheral and central 5-HT3-receptors. Antagonism of this response has demonstrated a close correlation with clinically effective antiemetic doses of the specific 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron, and has the advantage of being more conceptually relevant than the flare model. 4. Further work, with newer 5-HT3-receptor antagonists, will clarify the role of these models as predictive of the use of these drugs in clinical practice. PMID:7917768

  6. Receptors and Channels Targeted by Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that non-endogenous compounds that target CB1 and/or CB2 receptors possess therapeutic potential for the clinical management of an ever growing number of disorders. Just a few of these disorders are already treated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone, both CB1/CB2 receptor agonists, and there is now considerable interest in expanding the clinical applications of such agonists and also in exploiting CB2-selective agonists, peripherally restricted CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and CB1/CB2 antagonists and inverse agonists as medicines. Already, numerous cannabinoid receptor ligands have been developed and their interactions with CB1 and CB2 receptors well characterized. This review describes what is currently known about the ability of such compounds to bind to, activate, inhibit or block non-CB1, non-CB2 G protein-coupled receptors such as GPR55, transmitter gated channels, ion channels and nuclear receptors in an orthosteric or allosteric manner. It begins with a brief description of how each of these ligands interacts with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. PMID:20166927

  7. Advantages of histamine H4 receptor antagonist usage with H1 receptor antagonist for the treatment of murine allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Ayuko; Seike, Masahiro; Okawa, Haruka; Kadawaki, Yayoi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Histamine facilitates development of eczematous lesions in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to the well-known corticosteroid treatments, H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists also have been used. This study observed effects of histamine H4 receptor (H4R) antagonist usage with H1R antagonist in a murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis model, developed by repeated percutaneous challenge to the dorsal skin with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB). The H1R antagonist olopatadine hydrochloride and/or the H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 was then administered. Combination therapy was more effective than H1R antagonist monotherapy. Serum IgE and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-6 (Th2 cytokines) in eczematous lesions decreased with combined therapy. Combined therapy with H1R and H4R antagonists counteracts the disadvantages of each as monotherapeutic agents and potentially represents a new strategy for the treatment of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:22897580

  8. Stilbenes as κ-Selective, Non-nitrogenous Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The natural stilbene pawhuskin A has been shown to function as an opioid receptor antagonist, with preferential binding to the κ receptor. This finding encouraged assembly of a set of analogues to probe the importance of key structural features. Assays on these compounds determined that one (compound 29) shows potent opioid receptor binding activity and significantly improved selectivity for the κ receptor. These studies begin to illuminate the structural features of these non-nitrogenous opioid receptor antagonists that are required for activity. PMID:24456556

  9. Leukotriene receptor antagonists for chronic urticaria: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with chronic urticaria respond inadequately to first line treatment with antihistamines. Leukotreine receptor antagonists (LTRA) are also used for chronic urticaria, although firm recommendations on their use are lacking. We performed a systematic review of randomised trials to determine the role of LTRA in treatment of chronic urticaria. A search of PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Web of Science for relevant randomized control trials or cross over studies yielded 10 eligible studies. The heterogeneity of trials were high, preventing valid meta-analysis of data. Most trials indicated that LTRA are not superior to placebo or antihistamine therapy, while combination therapy of LTRA and antihistamines appear to be more efficacious compared to antihistamine alone. The side effect profile and tolerability of this group of drugs is acceptable. The use of LTRA as monotherapy cannot be recommended. LTRA are effective add-on therapy to anti-histamines, and their use in patients responding poorly to antihistamines is justifiable. Further well designed randomized controlled trials with clear and standardized outcome measures are needed to determine the role of LTRA in chronic urticaria. PMID:24817895

  10. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  11. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat.

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, C F; Goldmuntz, E A; Cammer, W; Factor, S M; Bloom, B R; Norton, W T

    1985-01-01

    Prazosin, an antagonist of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, has been found to suppress the clinical and histological expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. Suppression was more significant in females than in males and was a dose-dependent phenomenon. Analysis of the effect of other adrenergic receptor antagonists supports the conclusion that the suppressive effect of prazosin is a consequence of blockade of the alpha 1-receptor since treatment with either the alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine or the beta-antagonist propranolol exacerbated the disease, whereas treatment with the long-acting mixed alpha 1/alpha 2-antagonist phenoxybenzamine had some suppressive activity. Treatment with prazosin was also able to suppress clinical and histological signs of EAE in animals sensitized by adoptive transfer with activated spleen or lymph node cells. Whether prazosin acts through altering vascular permeability or the immune response, or both, remains to be determined. Images PMID:2994053

  12. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX exerts anti-seizure but not antiepileptogenic effects in the intrahippocampal kainate mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Twele, Friederike; Bankstahl, Marion; Klein, Sabine; Rmermann, Kerstin; Lscher, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    The AMPA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors, which mediates fast synaptic excitation, is of primary importance in initiating epileptiform discharges, so that AMPA receptor antagonists exert anti-seizure activity in diverse animal models of partial and generalized seizures. Recently, the first AMPA receptor antagonist, perampanel, was approved for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of resistant partial seizures in patients. Interestingly, the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX has recently been reported to prevent development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in a neonatal seizure model in rats, indicating the AMPA antagonists may exert also antiepileptogenic effects. This prompted us to evaluate competitive (NBQX) and noncompetitive (perampanel) AMPA receptor antagonists in an adult mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In this model, SRS develop after status epilepticus (SE) induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainate. Focal electrographic seizures in this model are resistant to several major antiepileptic drugs. In line with previous studies, phenytoin was not capable of blocking such seizures in the present experiments, while they were markedly suppressed by NBQX and perampanel. However, perampanel was less tolerable than NBQX in epileptic mice, so that only NBQX was subsequently tested for antiepileptogenic potential. When mice were treated over three days after kainate-induced SE with NBQX (20 mg/kg t.i.d.), no effect on development or frequency of seizures was found in comparison to vehicle controls. These results suggest that AMPA receptor antagonists, while being effective in suppressing resistant focal seizures, are not exerting antiepileptogenic effects in an adult mouse model of partial epilepsy. PMID:25839899

  13. Dipyrimidine Amines: A Novel Class of Chemokine Receptor Type 4 Antagonists with High Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Aizhi; Zhan, Weiqiang; Liang, Zhongxing; Yoon, Younghyoun; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Xu, Jianguo; Rojas, Mauricio; Lockwood, Mark; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2010-01-01

    The C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade play a key role in metastasis and inflammation. Based on the previously published CXCR4 antagonist 5 (WZ811), a series of novel non-peptidic anti-CXCR4 small molecules have been designed and synthesized to improve potency. Following a structure-activity profile around 5, more advanced compounds in the N, N'-(1, 4-phenylenebis(methylene)) dipyrimidin-2-amines series were discovered and shown to possess higher CXCR4 binding potential and specificity than 5. Compound 26 (508MCl) is the leading compound, and exhibits subnanomolar potency in three in vitro assays including competitive binding, Matrigel invasion, and G?i cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulation signaling. Furthermore, compound 26 displays promising effects by interfering with CXCR4 function in three mouse models: paw inflammation, Matrigel plug angiogenesis, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis. These data demonstrate that dipyrimidine amines are unique CXCR4 antagonists with high potency and specificity. PMID:21105715

  14. Identification of potent CNS-penetrant thiazolidinones as novel CGRP receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pramod; Anderson, Corey; Binch, Hayley; Hadida, Sabine; Yoo, Sanghee; Bergeron, Danielle; Decker, Caroline; terHaar, Ernst; Moore, Jonathan; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Termin, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in acute migraine pathogenesis. In an effort to identify novel CGRP receptor antagonists for the treatment of migraine, we have discovered thiazolidinone 49, a potent (Ki=30 pM, IC50=1 nM), orally bioavailable, CNS-penetrant CGRP antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:24405707

  15. Transition strategies from cangrelor to oral platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cangrelor is the first parenteral antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. This direct-acting antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor should be considered an adjunct to a percutaneous coronary intervention in patients who have not been adequately pretreated with platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists at the time of the procedure. The use of cangrelor requires transition to an oral platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Transition strategies have been developed on the basis of pharmacologic characteristics of platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists, results of pharmacodynamic studies, and results from clinical trials. Cangrelor blocks the binding to the platelet P2Y12 receptor of the active metabolite of the thienopyridines, clopidogrel and prasugrel. The active metabolite of thienopyridines is present in blood for a short interval after administration. For this reason, clopidogrel should be administered after cangrelor is stopped. Prasugrel can be administered at the end of the cangrelor infusion or up to 30 min before cangrelor is stopped. Ticagrelor is also a reversible direct-acting antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. Because there is no interaction between ticagrelor and cangrelor, ticagrelor can be administered before or during the infusion of cangrelor. PMID:26444255

  16. SST3-selective potent peptidic somatostatin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Schaer, Jean-Claude; Wenger, Sandra; Hoeger, Carl; Erchegyi, Judit; Waser, Beatrice; Rivier, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A family of octapeptide derivatives of somatostatin cyclized via a disulfide bridge (des-AA1,2,4,5,12,13[d-2Nal8]-somatostatin-14, ODN-8) was identified that has high affinity and selectivity for the human sst3 somatostatin receptor subtype transfected in CCL39 cells. The binding affinity of carbamoyl-des-AA1,2,4,5,12,13[d-Cys3,Tyr7,d-Agl8(Me,2-naphthoyl)]-somatostatin-14 (sst3-ODN-8) is equal to that of somatostatin-28 for sst3 and less than one-thousandth that for the other four somatostatin receptor subtypes. Compound sst3-ODN-8 potently reverses the somatostatin-28-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production (pKB = 9.07) and reverses the somatostatin-28-induced stimulation of phospholipase C activity (pKi = 9.22) in sst3-transfected CCL39 cells. [125I-Tyr7]sst3-ODN-8 selectively labels sst3-expressing cells with subnanomolar binding affinity (KD = 0.27 nM). With the use of this radioligand, sst3-expressing human tumors, particularly inactive pituitary adenomas, can be identified with receptor autoradiography; moreover, areas of the human lymphoreticular system express sst3 binding sites selectively displaced by nanomolar concentrations of sst3-ODN-8. Based on the structureactivity relationship of selected analogs substituted at positions 3, 7, and 8, we hypothesize that the basis for sst3 selectivity, high affinity, and possibly antagonism resides in the ring size of the analog and the unique conformational and structural character of the N-methylated amino-2-naphthoyl side chain of aminoglycine at position 8 and not in the Tyr7 substitution or in the d-configuration at position 3. The family of labeled and unlabeled sst3-ODN-8 analogs represents highly innovative, potent, and specific sst3-selective antagonist tools for the study of sst3-mediated physiological and pathophysiological conditions that may suggest novel clinical applications. PMID:11095748

  17. Different affinity states of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors defined by agonists and antagonists in bovine aorta plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, G.; Deth, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    Evidence for a nonlinear relationship between alpha-1 adrenergic receptor occupancy and tissue responses, together with the finding of different affinity states for agonist binding, has raised the possibility of functional heterogeneity of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We have conducted studies to examine: 1) binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, 2) competition of antagonists at these sites and 3) different affinity states of the receptor for agonists and modulation of these states by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p). A plasma membrane-enriched vesicular fraction (F2; 15%/33% sucrose interphase) was prepared from the muscular medial layer of bovine thoracic aorta. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding was characterized by a monophasic saturation isotherm (KD = 0.116 nM, Bmax = 112 fmol/mg of protein). Antagonist displacement studies yielded a relative potency order of prazosin greater than or equal to WB4104 much greater than phentolamine greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine greater than or equal to idazoxan greater than rauwolscine. Competition curves for unlabeled prazosin, WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4 benzodioxane) and phentolamine were shallow and were best modeled to two binding sites with picomolar and nanomolar KD values. Gpp(NH)p was without effect on antagonist affinity. Agonist (epinephrine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine) competition with (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding was biphasic with pseudo-Hill slopes less than 1.0. Binding was best described by a two-site model in which the average contribution of high affinity sites was 23% of total binding. KD values for the high affinity site ranged from 2.9 to 18 nM, and 3.9 to 5.0 microM for the low affinity site.

  18. Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in severe traumatic brain injury: a phase II randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Adel; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Carpenter, Keri LH; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the commonest cause of death and disability in those aged under 40 years. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) is an endogenous competitive antagonist at the interleukin-1 type-1 receptor (IL-1R). Antagonism at the IL-1R confers neuroprotection in several rodent models of neuronal injury (i.e., trauma, stroke and excitotoxicity). We describe a single center, phase II, open label, randomized-control study of recombinant human IL1ra (rhIL1ra, anakinra) in severe TBI, at a dose of 100 mg subcutaneously once a day for 5 days in 20 patients randomized 1:1. We provide safety data (primary outcome) in this pathology, utilize cerebral microdialysis to directly determine brain extracellular concentrations of IL1ra and 41 cytokines and chemokines, and use principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the resultant cerebral cytokine profile. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was safe, penetrated into plasma and the brain extracellular fluid. The PCA showed a separation in cytokine profiles after IL1ra administration. A candidate cytokine from this analysis, macrophage-derived chemoattractant, was significantly lower in the rhIL1ra-treated group. Our results provide promising data for rhIL1ra as a therapeutic candidate by showing safety, brain penetration and a modification of the neuroinflammatory response to TBI by a putative neuroprotective agent in humans for the first time. PMID:24569690

  19. A new family of H3 receptor antagonists based on the natural product Conessine.

    PubMed

    Santora, Vincent J; Covel, Jonathan A; Hayashi, Rena; Hofilena, Brian J; Ibarra, Jason B; Pulley, Michelle D; Weinhouse, Michael I; Sengupta, Dipanjan; Duffield, Jonathan J; Semple, Graeme; Webb, Robert R; Sage, Carleton; Ren, Albert; Pereira, Guilherme; Knudsen, Jens; Edwards, Jeffrey E; Suarez, Marissa; Frazer, John; Thomsen, William; Hauser, Erin; Whelan, Kevin; Grottick, Andrew J

    2008-02-15

    A new family of Histamine H(3) receptor antagonists (5a-t) has been prepared based on the structure of the natural product Conessine, a known H(3) antagonist. Several members of the new series are highly potent and selective binders of rat and human H(3) receptors and display inverse agonism at the human H(3) receptor. Compound 5n exhibited promising rat pharmacokinetic properties and demonstrated functional antagonism of the H(3) receptor in an in-vivo pharmacological model. PMID:18194865

  20. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in normal and psoriatic epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Hammerberg, C; Arend, W P; Fisher, G J; Chan, L S; Berger, A E; Haskill, J S; Voorhees, J J; Cooper, K D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to characterize the IL-1 inhibitory activity present in normal and psoriatic epidermis from clinically stable lesions. Fractionation of normal epidermal cytosol on a molecular sizing column failed to reveal the presence of IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity. However, specific ELISAs indicated that both the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-1 alpha were present in overlapping peaks. Further fractionation of the normal epidermal cytosol by anion exchange chromatography separated these two molecules, revealing the IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity of the IL-1ra molecule. Similar studies on psoriatic epidermal cytosol indicated the presence of IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity and IL-1ra protein. The IL-1 inhibitory bioactivity of both normal and psoriatic cytosol was neutralized by a mAb specific for IL-1ra. The ratio of IL-1ra to IL-1 alpha proteins was significantly increased in involved psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. By Western blot analysis this IL-1ra was approximately 20 kD, slightly larger than monocyte-derived IL-1ra and equivalent to an intracellular variant of IL-1ra expressed by keratinocytes. Polymerase chain reaction indicated the presence of mRNA for both forms of IL-1ra in normal epidermis, with both forms increased in psoriatic-involved skin. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the IL-1ra protein to be concentrated in the stratum granulosum of normal skin and in the basal-midbasal layers of psoriatic epidermis. These results suggest that the balance between intracellular IL-1ra and IL-1 alpha may be an important influence on keratinocyte growth and/or differentiation, as well as on the inflammatory potential of IL-1 in injured skin. Images PMID:1386612

  1. Icatibant, a New Bradykinin-Receptor Antagonist, in Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Cicardi, M.; Banerji, A.; Bracho, F.; Malbrn, A.; Rosenkranz, B.; Riedl, M.; Bork, K.; Lumry, W.; Aberer, W.; Bier, H.; Bas, M.; Greve, J.; Hoffmann, T.K.; Farkas, H.; Reshef, A.; Ritchie, B.; Yang, W.; Grabbe, J.; Kivity, S.; Kreuz, W.; Levy, R.J.; Luger, T.; Obtulowicz, K.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Bull, C.; Sitkauskiene, B.; Smith, W.B.; Toubi, E.; Werner, S.; Ann, S.; Bjrkander, J.; Bouillet, L.; Cillari, E.; Hurewitz, D.; Jacobson, K.W.; Katelaris, C.H.; Maurer, M.; Merk, H.; Bernstein, J.A.; Feighery, C.; Floccard, B.; Gleich, G.; Hbert, J.; Kaatz, M.; Keith, P.; Kirkpatrick, C.H.; Langton, D.; Martin, L.; Pichler, C.; Resnick, D.; Wombolt, D.; Fernndez Romero, D.S.; Zanichelli, A.; Arcoleo, F.; Knolle, J.; Kravec, I.; Dong, L.; Zimmermann, J.; Rosen, K.; Fan, W.-T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Bradykinin is the key mediator of symptoms. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. METHODS In two double-blind, randomized, multicenter trials, we evaluated the effect of icatibant in patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with cutaneous or abdominal attacks. In the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST) 1 trial, patients received either icatibant or placebo; in FAST-2, patients received either icatibant or oral tranexamic acid, at a dose of 3 g daily for 2 days. Icatibant was given once, subcutaneously, at a dose of 30 mg. The primary end point was the median time to clinically significant relief of symptoms. RESULTS A total of 56 and 74 patients underwent randomization in the FAST-1 and FAST-2 trials, respectively. The primary end point was reached in 2.5 hours with icatibant versus 4.6 hours with placebo in the FAST-1 trial (P = 0.14) and in 2.0 hours with icatibant versus 12.0 hours with tranexamic acid in the FAST-2 trial (P<0.001). In the FAST-1 study, 3 recipients of icatibant and 13 recipients of placebo needed treatment with rescue medication. The median time to first improvement of symptoms, as assessed by patients and by investigators, was significantly shorter with icatibant in both trials. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS In patients with hereditary angioedema having acute attacks, we found a significant benefit of icatibant as compared with tranexamic acid in one trial and a nonsignificant benefit of icatibant as compared with placebo in the other trial with regard to the primary end point. The early use of rescue medication may have obscured the benefit of icatibant in the placebo trial. (Funded by Jerini; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00097695 and NCT00500656.) PMID:20818888

  2. Antagonistic effects of a covalently dimerized insulin derivative on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, M.; Joost, H.G. ); Brandenburg, C.; Brandenburg, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In the present study the authors describe the antagonistic effects of the covalently dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 mouse cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the derivative fully inhibits binding of {sup 125}I-labeled insulin to its receptor with about the same affinity as unlabeled insulin. In contrast, the dimerized derivative only partially (approximately 20%) mimics insulin's effects on glucose transport and DNA synthesis in the absence of insulin. In the presence of insulin, the agent competitively inhibits insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis (({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into total DNA), glucose transport activity (2-deoxyglucose uptake rate), and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In rat adipocytes, in contrast, the dimerized derivative stimulates glucose transport (initial 3-O-methylglucose as well as 2-deoxyglucose uptake rates) to the same extent as insulin does, and it fails to inhibit the effect of insulin. The data indicate that the dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin is an insulin receptor antagonist (partial agonist) which retains a moderate intrinsic activity. The effects of this agent reveal a striking difference in insulin receptor-mediated stimulation of glucose transport between 3T3-L1 fatty fibroblasts and the mature rat adipocyte.

  3. Sisters' curse: sexually antagonistic effects constrain the spread of a mitochondrial haplogroup superior in sperm competition

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Michael V.; Zeh, David W.; Bonilla, Melvin M.; Zeh, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve with implications for male longevity, disease susceptibility and infertility. Because males are an evolutionary dead end for mitochondria, mitochondrial mutations that are harmful or beneficial to males but not females cannot respond directly to selection. Although the importance of this male/female asymmetry in evolutionary response depends on the extent to which mitochondrial mutations exert antagonistic effects on male and female fitness, few studies have documented sex-specific selection acting on mitochondria. Here, we exploited the discovery of two highly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A and B2) in central Panamanian populations of the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest that selection on the ND4 and ND4L mitochondrial genes may partially explain sexually antagonistic mitochondrial effects on reproduction. Males carrying the rare B2 mitochondrial haplogroup enjoy a marked advantage in sperm competition, but B2 females are significantly less sexually receptive at second mating than A females. This reduced propensity for polyandry is likely to significantly reduce female lifetime reproductive success, thereby limiting the spread of the male beneficial B2 haplogroup. Our findings suggest that maternal inheritance of mitochondria and sexually antagonistic selection can constrain male adaptation and sexual selection in nature. PMID:25377452

  4. Sisters' curse: sexually antagonistic effects constrain the spread of a mitochondrial haplogroup superior in sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Padua, Michael V; Zeh, David W; Bonilla, Melvin M; Zeh, Jeanne A

    2014-12-22

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve with implications for male longevity, disease susceptibility and infertility. Because males are an evolutionary dead end for mitochondria, mitochondrial mutations that are harmful or beneficial to males but not females cannot respond directly to selection. Although the importance of this male/female asymmetry in evolutionary response depends on the extent to which mitochondrial mutations exert antagonistic effects on male and female fitness, few studies have documented sex-specific selection acting on mitochondria. Here, we exploited the discovery of two highly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A and B2) in central Panamanian populations of the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest that selection on the ND4 and ND4L mitochondrial genes may partially explain sexually antagonistic mitochondrial effects on reproduction. Males carrying the rare B2 mitochondrial haplogroup enjoy a marked advantage in sperm competition, but B2 females are significantly less sexually receptive at second mating than A females. This reduced propensity for polyandry is likely to significantly reduce female lifetime reproductive success, thereby limiting the spread of the male beneficial B2 haplogroup. Our findings suggest that maternal inheritance of mitochondria and sexually antagonistic selection can constrain male adaptation and sexual selection in nature. PMID:25377452

  5. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to A?-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-? level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-?B, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications. PMID:25377794

  6. Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chairungsrilerd, N; Furukawa, K I; Ohta, T; Nozoe, S; Ohizumi, Y

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-mangostin, purified from the fruit hull of the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana caused a parallel rightwards shift of the concentration/response curve for the contraction elicited by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the rabbit aorta (pA2 = 8.2) without affecting the contractile responses to KCl, phenylephrine (alpha1) or histamine (H1). The perfusion pressure response of rat coronary artery to 5-HT (5-HT2A) was reduced concentration dependently by gamma-mangostin (IC50 = 0.32 microM). 5-HT amplified, ADP-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets (5-HT2A) was inhibited by gamma-mangostin (IC50 = 0.29 microM), whereas that induced by thrombin was not affected, nor did gamma-mangostin affect 5-HT-induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum (5-HT3)in the presence of 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced contraction of the rat fundus (5-HT2B) and 5-HT-induced relaxation of the rabbit aorta in the presence of ketanserin (5-HT1) and carbachol-induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum (muscarinic M3) were not affected by gamma-mangostin (5 microM). Gamma-mangostin inhibited [3H]spiperone binding to cultured rat aortic myocytes (IC50 = 3.5 nM). The Kd for [3H]spiperone binding was increased by gamma-mangostin (3 nM) from 11.7 to 27.4 nM without affecting Bmax. These results suggest that gamma-mangostin is a novel competitive antagonist, free from a nitrogen atom, for the 5-HT2A receptors in vascular smooth muscles and platelets. PMID:9459569

  7. Peripheral neural serotonin receptors: identification and characterization with specific antagonists and agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Mawe, G M; Branchek, T A; Gershon, M D

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to be a neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Although 5-HT is a mediator of slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of interganglionic connectives, the precise role it plays in the physiology of the gut is unclear. Research has been hampered by an inadequate knowledge of the types of 5-HT receptor in the ENS and thus the lack of well-characterized antagonists. We now report the identification of two classes of enteric neural 5-HT receptor, the effects of activating these receptors on myenteric type II/AH neurons, and their characterization with specific agonists and antagonists. One class, which we propose to call 5-HT1P, is characterized by a high affinity for [3H]5-HT in radioligand binding assays. This class of receptor mediates a slow depolarization of myenteric type II/AH neurons associated with an increase in input resistance. Agonists at this receptor include, in addition to 5-HT (in order of potency), 5- and 6-hydroxyindalpine and 2-methyl-5-HT. 5-HT1P-mediated responses are specifically antagonized by 5-hydroxytryptophyl-5-hydroxytryptophan amide. The other class of 5-HT receptor, which we propose to call 5-HT2P, appears not to have a high affinity for [3H]5-HT. This receptor mediates a brief depolarization of myenteric II/AH neurons associated with a fall in input resistance. 2-Methyl-5-HT, at low concentrations, is a specific agonist at this receptor and ICS 205-930 is a specific antagonist. Binding of [3H]5-HT to enteric membranes is inhibited by 5-HT1P receptor agonists and antagonists but not by the 5-HT2P receptor antagonist ICS 205-930 or by MDL 72222, another compound reported to be an antagonist of 5-HT at peripheral receptors. Images PMID:3467338

  8. Role of D?/D? dopamin receptors antagonist perphenazine in morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ercan; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Gursoy, Sinan

    2013-05-01

    While opioid receptors have been implicated in the development of tolerance, the subsequent mechanisms involved in these phenomena have not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist perphenazine on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. Male Wistar albino rats weighing 190-205 g were used in these experiments. To constitute of morphine tolerance, animals received morphine (50 mg/kg) once daily for 3 days. After last dose of morphine was injected on day 4, morphine tolerance was evaluated by the analgesia tests. The analgesic effects of perphenazine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg ), D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg), D2-dopamine receptor antagonist eticlopride (1 mg/kg), and morphine were considered at 30-min intervals (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) by tail-flick and hot-plate analgesia tests. Obtained data suggested that D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist perphenazine was capable of suppressing opioid tolerance, possibly by the mechanism of inhibiting D2-dopamine receptor. Because the data indicated that D2-dopamine receptor antagonist eticloride, but not D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390, significantly decreased morphine tolerance in analgesia tests. In addition, administration of perphenazine with morphine increased morphine analgesia. Results from the present study suggested that dopamine receptors play a significant role in the morphine analgesic tolerance. In particular, D2-dopamine receptor has an important role rather than D1-dopamine receptor in development tolerance to morphine. PMID:23725509

  9. Pharmacophore modeling of dual angiotensin II and endothelin A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Zhe; Lü, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Zhan-Li

    2009-09-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were generated for AT1 and ET(A) receptors based on highly selective AT1 and ET(A) antagonists using the program Catalyst/HipHop. Both the best pharmacophore model for selective AT1 antagonists (Hypo-AT(1)-7) and ETA antagonists (Hypo-ET(A)-1) were obtained through a careful validation process. All five features contained in Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1 (hydrogen-bond acceptor (A), hydrophobic aliphatic (Z), negative ionizable (N), ring aromatic (R), and hydrophobic aromatic (Y)) seem to be essential for antagonists in terms of binding activity. Dual AT1 and ET(A) receptor antagonists (DARAs) can map to both Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1, separately. Comparison of Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1, not only AT1 and ET(A) antagonist pharmacophore models consist of essential features necessary for compounds to be highly active and selective toward their corresponding receptor, but also have something in common. The results in this study will act as a valuable tool for designing and researching structural relationship of novel dual AT1 and ET(A) receptor antagonists. PMID:20055175

  10. Subglutinol A, an immunosuppressive α-pyrone diterpenoid from Fusarium subglutinans, acts as an estrogen receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wonchung; Park, Joonwoo; Lee, Yong Hee; Hong, Jiyong; Lee, YoungJoo

    2015-06-01

    Subglutinol A is an immunosuppressive α-pyrone diterpenoid isolated from Fusarium subglutinans that exhibits osteogenic activity. Several non-steroid mycotoxins isolated from various strains of Fusarium fungi exhibit female steroid hormone activities. In this study, we characterized the estrogenic activity of subglutinol A (1). Subglutinol A blocked the 17β-estradiol-induced activation of reporter plasmids and endogenous estrogen-responsive target genes in a dose-dependent manner and efficiently destabilized ER proteins as shown using the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Subglutinol A also displaced the specific binding of [(3)H]17β-estradiol from ER in MCF-7 whole-cell ligand binding assays. These data demonstrate the potential of subglutinol A as an ER antagonist though its competition with 17β-estradiol for direct ER association. PMID:25896764

  11. Interactions of a Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist with Glutamate NMDA Receptor Antagonists on the Volitional Consumption of Ethanol by the mHEP Rat.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brian A; Lommatzsch, Courtney L; Sayonh, Michael J; Williams, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of the dopamine D1 receptor is reported to cause the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at the thre34 position and activates the protein. If intracellular Ca2+ is increased, such as after activation of the glutamate NMDA receptor, calcineurin activity increases and the phosphates will be removed. This balance of phosphorylation control suggests that a D1 receptor agonist and a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist should have additive or synergistic actions to increase activated DARPP-32 and consequent behavioral effects. This hypothesis was tested in a volitional consumption of ethanol model: the selectively bred Myers' high ethanol preferring (mHEP) rat. A 3-day baseline period was followed by 3-days of twice daily injections of drug(s) or vehicle(s) and then a 3-day post-treatment period. Vehicle, the D1 agonist SKF 38393, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, or their combination were injected 2 h before and after lights out. The combination of 5.0 mg/kg SKF 38393 with either 3.0 or 10 mg/kg memantine did not produce an additive or synergistic effect. For example, 5.0 mg/kg SKF reduced consumption of ethanol by 27.3% and 10 mg/kg memantine by 39.8%. When combined, consumption declined by 48.2% and the proportion of ethanol solution to total fluids consumed declined by 17%. However, the consumption of food also declined by 36.6%. The latter result indicates that this dose combination had a non-specific effect. The combination of SKF 38393 with (+)-MK-801, another NMDA receptor antagonist, also failed to show an additive effect. The lack of additivity and specificity suggests that the hypothesis may not be correct for this in vivo model. The interaction of these different receptor systems with intraneuronal signaling and behaviors needs to be studied further. PMID:24276118

  12. Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Tourw, Dirk

    2011-04-14

    A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], which combines the N terminus of the established Dmt(1)-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2)) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, that is, Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH(2) (36), also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced ? and ? opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity. PMID:21413804

  13. Effects of ANP receptor antagonists on ANP secretion from adult rat cultured atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nachshon, S; Zamir, O; Matsuda, Y; Zamir, N

    1995-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone-secreted predominantly by atrial myocytes. ANP exerts many of its actions via activation of the particulate guanylyl cyclase receptor ANPR-A and the formation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), which serves as a second messenger in the target cells. Using membrane-permeable cGMP analogues (8-bromo-cGMP and dibutyryl- cGMP), we first tested the hypothesis that ANP secretion by adult rat cultured atrial myocytes can be modulated through the second messenger cGMP. Second, we examined the effects of two competitive ANPR-A receptor antagonists, namely HS-142-1 and anantin, on cGMP formation and ANP secretion from cultured atrial myocytes. Cultured atrial myocytes secreted large quantities of immunoreactive (ir) ANP under basal conditions. We found that cGMP analogues inhibited basal irANP secretion from cultured atrial myocytes, whereas HS-142-1 and anantin had stimulating effects. HS-142-1 and anantin reduced cGMP formation in cultured atrial myocytes at basal conditions. These results suggest an autoregulatory mechanism of ANP secretion by atrial myocytes in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. PMID:7900789

  14. Structure-based discovery of antagonists for GluN3-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, Trine; Greenwood, Jeremy R.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Bruner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that assemble into tetrameric receptor complexes composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits (GluN3A-B) and glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits (GluN2A-D). NMDA receptors can assemble as GluN1/N2 receptors and as GluN3-containing NMDA receptors, which are either glutamate/glycine-activated triheteromeric GluN1/N2/N3 receptors or glycine-activated diheteromeric GluN1/N3 receptors. The glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits display strikingly different pharmacological selectivity profiles. However, the pharmacological characterization of GluN3-containing receptors has been hampered by the lack of methods and pharmacological tools to study GluN3 subunit pharmacology in isolation. Here, we have developed a method to study the pharmacology of GluN3 subunits in recombinant diheteromeric GluN1/N3 receptors by mutating the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket in GluN1. This method is suitable for performing compound screening and characterization of structure-activity relationship studies on GluN3 ligands. We have performed a virtual screen of the orthosteric binding site of GluN3A in the search for antagonists with selectivity for GluN3 subunits. In the subsequent pharmacological evaluation of 99 selected compounds, we identified 6-hydroxy-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5(4H)-one (TK80) a novel competitive antagonist with preference for the GluN3B subunit. Serendipitously, we also identified [2-hydroxy-5-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)thiazol-2-yl)amino]benzoic acid (TK13) and 4-(2,4-dichlorobenzoyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (TK30), two novel non-competitive GluN3 antagonists. These findings demonstrate that structural differences between the orthosteric binding site of GluN3 and GluN1 can be exploited to generate selective ligands. PMID:23973313

  15. NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ~90 minutes after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  16. Investigation of the binding and functional properties of extended length D3 dopamine receptor-selective antagonists.

    PubMed

    Furman, Cheryse A; Roof, Rebecca A; Moritz, Amy E; Miller, Brittney N; Doyle, Trevor B; Free, R Benjamin; Banala, Ashwini K; Paul, Noel M; Kumar, Vivek; Sibley, Christopher D; Newman, Amy Hauck; Sibley, David R

    2015-09-01

    The D3 dopamine receptor represents an important target in drug addiction in that reducing receptor activity may attenuate the self-administration of drugs and/or disrupt drug or cue-induced relapse. Medicinal chemistry efforts have led to the development of D3 preferring antagonists and partial agonists that are >100-fold selective vs. the closely related D2 receptor, as best exemplified by extended-length 4-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Based on the D3 receptor crystal structure, these molecules are known to dock to two sites on the receptor where the 4-phenylpiperazine moiety binds to the orthosteric site and an extended aryl amide moiety docks to a secondary binding pocket. The bivalent nature of the receptor binding of these compounds is believed to contribute to their D3 selectivity. In this study, we examined if such compounds might also be "bitopic" such that their aryl amide moieties act as allosteric modulators to further enhance the affinities of the full-length molecules for the receptor. First, we deconstructed several extended-length D3-selective ligands into fragments, termed "synthons", representing either orthosteric or secondary aryl amide pharmacophores and investigated their effects on D3 receptor binding and function. The orthosteric synthons were found to inhibit radioligand binding and to antagonize dopamine activation of the D3 receptor, albeit with lower affinities than the full-length compounds. Notably, the aryl amide-based synthons had no effect on the affinities or potencies of the orthosteric synthons, nor did they have any effect on receptor activation by dopamine. Additionally, pharmacological investigation of the full-length D3-selective antagonists revealed that these compounds interacted with the D3 receptor in a purely competitive manner. Our data further support that the 4-phenylpiperazine D3-selective antagonists are bivalent and that their enhanced affinity for the D3 receptor is due to binding at both the orthosteric site as well as a secondary binding pocket. Importantly, however, their interactions at the secondary site do not allosterically modulate their binding to the orthosteric site. PMID:25583363

  17. The Oxytocin-Oxytocin Receptor System and Its Antagonists as Tocolytic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M.; Sifakis, Stavros; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Iliodromiti, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin, a hormone involved in numerous physiologic processes, plays a central role in the mechanisms of parturition and lactation. It acts through its receptor, which belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, while Gq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) is the main pathway via which it exerts its action in the myometrium. Changes in receptor levels, receptor desensitization, and locally produced oxytocin are factors that influence the effect of oxytocin on uterine contractility in labor. Activation of oxytocin receptor causes myometrial contractions by increasing intracellular Ca+2 and production of prostaglandins. Since oxytocin induces contractions, the inhibition of its action has been a target in the management of preterm labor. Atosiban is today the only oxytocin receptor antagonist that is available as a tocolytic. However, the quest for oxytocin receptor antagonists with a better pharmacological profile has led to the synthesis of peptide and nonpeptide molecules such as barusiban, retosiban, L-368,899, and SSR-126768A. Many of these oxytocin receptor antagonists are used only as pharmacological tools, while others have tocolytic action. In this paper, we summarize the action of oxytocin and its receptor and we present an overview of the clinical and experimental data of oxytocin antagonists and their tocolytic action. PMID:22190926

  18. The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and memantine preferentially increase the choice for a small, immediate reward in low-impulsive rats

    PubMed Central

    Iemolo, Attilio; Narayan, Aditi R.; Kwak, Jina; Momaney, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Impulsive behavior is categorically differentiated between impulsive action, the inability to withhold from acting out a response, and impulsive choice, the greater preference for an immediate and smaller reward over a delayed but more advantageous reward. While the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists on impulsive action have been extensively characterized, there are very few and conflicting reports on the effects of this class of drugs on impulsive choice. Objectives Using a modified adjusting delay task, we investigated the effects of uncompetitive and competitive blockade of NMDA receptors on impulsive choice. Methods Male Wistar rats were trained in a modified adjusting delay task, which involved repeated choice between a low reinforcing solution delivered immediately and a highly reinforcing solution delivered after a variable delay. Rats were then administered either the NMDA receptor uncompetitive antagonists ketamine or memantine, or the competitive antagonists D-AP-5 or CGS 19755. Results Ketamine treatment dose-dependently increased impulsive choice, and this effect was selective for low-impulsive but not high-impulsive rats. Similarly, memantine treatment dose-dependently increased impulsive choice with a preferential effect for low-impulsive rats. While D-AP-5 treatment did not affect impulsive choice, CGS 19755 increased impulsivity, however, at the same doses at which it caused a marked response inhibition. Conclusions NMDA receptor uncompetitive, but not competitive, antagonists significantly increased impulsive choice, preferentially in low-impulsive rats. These findings demonstrate that the effects of NMDA receptor blockade on impulsive choice are not generalizable and depend on the specific mechanism of action of the antagonist used. PMID:23104264

  19. Binding characteristics of [3H]-JSM10292: a new cell membrane-permeant non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Faussner, A; Schüssler, S; Feierler, J; Bermudez, M; Pfeifer, J; Schnatbaum, K; Tradler, T; Jochum, M; Wolber, G; Gibson, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A 3H-labelled derivative of the novel small-molecule bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonist JSM10292 was used to directly study its binding properties to human and animal B2 receptors in intact cells and to closely define its binding site. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Equilibrium binding, dissociation and competition studies with various B2 receptor ligands and [3H]-JSM10292 were performed at 4°C and 37°C. The experiments were carried out using HEK293 cells stably (over)expressing wild-type and mutant B2 receptors of human and animal origin. KEY RESULTS [3H]-JSM10292 bound to B2 receptors at 4°C and at 37°C with the same high affinity. Its dissociation strongly depended on the temperature and increased when unlabelled B2 receptor agonists or antagonists were added. [3H]-JSM10292 is cell membrane-permeant and thus also bound to intracellular, active B2 receptors, as indicated by the different ‘nonspecific’ binding in the presence of unlabelled JSM10292 or of membrane-impermeant BK. Equilibrium binding curves with [3H]-JSM10292 and competition experiments with unlabelled JSM10292 and [3H]-BK showed a different affinity profile for the wild-type B2 receptor in different species (man, cynomolgus, rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, pig, guinea pig). Characterization of B2 receptor mutants and species orthologues combined with homology modelling, using the CXCR4 as template, suggests that the binding site of JSM10292 is different from that of BK but overlaps with that of MEN16132, another small non-peptide B2 receptor ligand. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS [3H]-JSM10292 is a novel, cell membrane-permeant, high-affinity B2 receptor antagonist that allows direct in detail studies of active, surface and intracellularly located wild-type and mutant B2 receptors. PMID:22646218

  20. Screening of 5-HT1A Receptor Antagonists using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    OConnor, Naphtali A.; Paisner, David A.; Huryn, Donna; Shea, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting produces network polymers with recognition sites for imprint molecules. The high binding affinity and selectivity in conjunction with the polymers physical robustness positions molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) as candidates for use as preliminary screens in drug discovery. As such, MIPs can serve as crude mimics of native receptors. In an effort to evaluate the relationship between MIPs and native receptors, imprinted polymers for WAY-100635, an antagonist of the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5-HT1A were prepared. The resulting MIP P(WAY) was evaluated as an affinity matrix in the screening of serotonin receptor antagonists with known affinities for the native receptor. Rough correlations in affinity between the synthetic P(WAY) and native receptor 5-HT1A were found. These findings provide some support for the analogy between MIPs and native receptors and their possible use as surrogates. PMID:17284006

  1. Pharmacological lineage analysis revealed the binding affinity of broad-spectrum substance P antagonists to receptors for gonadotropin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kazune; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Fujiwara, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Nobuya; Shibata, Katsushi; Koshimizu, Taka-aki

    2015-02-15

    A group of synthetic substance P (SP) antagonists, such as [Arg(6),D-Trp(7,9),N(Me)Phe(8)]-substance P(6-11) and [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]-substance P, bind to a range of distinct G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family members, including V1a vasopressin receptors, and they competitively inhibit agonist binding. This extended accessibility enabled us to identify a GPCR subset with a partially conserved binding site structure. By combining pharmacological data and amino acid sequence homology matrices, a pharmacological lineage of GPCRs that are sensitive to these two SP antagonists was constructed. We found that sensitivity to the SP antagonists was not limited to the Gq-protein-coupled V1a and V1b receptors; Gs-coupled V2 receptors and oxytocin receptors, which couple with both Gq and Gi, also demonstrated sensitivity. Unexpectedly, a dendrogram based on the amino acid sequences of 222 known GPCRs showed that a group of receptors sensitive to the SP antagonists are located in close proximity to vasopressin/oxytocin receptors. Gonadotropin-releasing peptide receptors, located near the vasopressin receptors in the dendrogram, were also sensitive to the SP analogs, whereas ?1B adrenergic receptors, located more distantly from the vasopressin receptors, were not sensitive. Our finding suggests that pharmacological lineage analysis is useful in selecting subsets of candidate receptors that contain a conserved binding site for a ligand with broad-spectrum binding abilities. The knowledge that the binding site of the two broad-spectrum SP analogs partially overlaps with that of distinct peptide agonists is valuable for understanding the specificity/broadness of peptide ligands. PMID:25592317

  2. Agonist- and antagonist-induced conformational changes of loop F and their contributions to the ρ1 GABA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianliang; Xue, Fenqin; Chang, Yongchang

    2009-01-01

    Binding of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor initiates a conformational change to open the channel, but the mechanism of the channel activation is not well understood. To this end, we scanned loop F (K210–F227) in the N-terminal domain of the ρ1 GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a site-specific fluorescence technique. We detected GABA-induced fluorescence changes at six positions (K210, K211, L216, K217, T218 and I222). At these positions the fluorescence changes were dose dependent and highly correlated to the current dose–response, but with lower Hill coefficients. The competitive antagonist 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid (3-APMPA) induced fluorescence changes in the same direction at the four middle or lower positions. The non-competitive antagonist picrotoxin blocked nearly 50% of GABA-induced fluorescence changes at T218 and I222, but only <20% at K210 and K217 and 0% at K211 and L216 positions. Interestingly, the picrotoxin-blocked fraction of the GABA-induced fluorescence changes was highly correlated to the Hill coefficient of the GABA-induced dose-dependent fluorescence change. The PTX-insensitive mutant L216C exhibited the lowest Hill coefficient, similar to that in binding. Thus, the PTX-sensitive fraction reflects the conformational change related to channel gating, whereas the PTX-insensitive fraction represents a binding effect. The binding effect is further supported by the picrotoxin resistance of a competitive antagonist-induced fluorescence change. A cysteine accessibility test further confirmed that L216C and K217C partially line the binding pocket, and I222C became more exposed by GABA. Our results are consistent with a mechanism that an outward movement of the lower part of loop F is coupled to the channel activation. PMID:19015197

  3. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tricoci P; Huang Z; Held C; Moliterno DJ; Armstrong PW; Van de Werf F; White HD; Aylward PE; Wallentin L; Chen E; Lokhnygina Y; Pei J; Leonardi S; Rorick TL; Kilian AM; Jennings LH; Ambrosio G; Bode C; Cequier A; Cornel JH; Diaz R; Erkan A; Huber K; Hudson MP; Jiang L; Jukema JW; Lewis BS; Lincoff AM; Montalescot G; Nicolau JC; Ogawa H; Pfisterer M; Prieto JC; Ruzyllo W; Sinnaeve PR; Storey RF; Valgimigli M; Whellan DJ; Widimsky P; Strony J; Harrington RA; Mahaffey KW; TRACER Investigators

    2012-01-05

    BACKGROUND: Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation.METHODS: In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization.RESULTS: Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00527943 target=new>NCT00527943.).

  4. Characterization of BU09059: A Novel Potent Selective κ-Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (κ) antagonists are potential therapeutic agents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The feasibility of developing κ-antagonists has been limited by the pharmacodynamic properties of prototypic κ-selective antagonists; that is, they inhibit receptor signaling for weeks after a single administration. To address this issue, novel trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl) piperidine derivatives, based on JDTic, were designed using soft-drug principles. The aim was to determine if the phenylpiperidine-based series of κ-antagonists was amenable to incorporation of a potentially metabolically labile group, while retaining good affinity and selectivity for the κ-receptor. Opioid receptor binding affinity and selectivity of three novel compounds (BU09057, BU09058, and BU09059) were tested. BU09059, which most closely resembles JDTic, had nanomolar affinity for the κ-receptor, with 15-fold and 616-fold selectivity over μ- and δ-receptors, respectively. In isolated tissues, BU09059 was a potent and selective κ-antagonist (pA2 8.62) compared with BU09057 (pA2 6.87) and BU09058 (pA2 6.76) which were not κ-selective. In vivo, BU09059 (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly blocked U50,488-induced antinociception and was as potent as, but shorter acting than, the prototypic selective κ-antagonist norBNI. These data show that a new JDTic analogue, BU09059, retains high affinity and selectivity for the κ-receptor and has a shorter duration of κ-antagonist action in vivo. PMID:24410326

  5. Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles As Novel Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Michiyo; Kori, Masakuni; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yano, Takahiko; Sako, Yuu; Tanaka, Maiko; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Gyorkos, Albert C; Corrette, Christopher P; Cho, Suk Young; Pratt, Scott A; Aso, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-24

    Benzazole derivatives with a flexible aryl group bonded through a one-atom linker as a new scaffold for a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We expected that structural diversity could be expanded beyond that of reported CRF1 receptor antagonists. In a structure-activity relationship study, 4-chloro-N(2)-(4-chloro-2-methoxy-6-methylphenyl)-1-methyl-N(7),N(7)-dipropyl-1H-benzimidazole-2,7-diamine 29g had the most potent binding activity against a human CRF1 receptor and the antagonistic activity (IC50 = 9.5 and 88 nM, respectively) without concerns regarding cytotoxicity at 30 μM. Potent CRF1 receptor-binding activity in brain in an ex vivo test and suppression of stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were also observed at 138 μmol/kg of compound 29g after oral administration in mice. Thus, the newly designed benzimidazole 29g showed in vivo CRF1 receptor antagonistic activity and good brain penetration, indicating that it is a promising lead for CRF1 receptor antagonist drug discovery research. PMID:26901666

  6. Ligand and Structure Based Models for the Identification of Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jayadev; Dimri, Manali; Ghosh, Subhajit; Shrivastava, Nitisha; Chakraborti, Rina; Sehgal, Neeta; Ray, Jharna; Kumar, Indracanti Prem

    2015-01-01

    Ligand bound beta 2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) crystal structures are in use for screening of compound libraries for identifying inducers and blockers. However, in case of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR), docking and binding energy (BE) calculations are not enough to discriminate agonist and antagonists. Absence of a reliable model for discriminating β2AR antagonist is still a major hurdle. Docking of known antagonists and agonists into activated and ground state β2AR revealed several key intermolecular interactions and H-bonding patterns, which in combination, emerged as a model for prediction of antagonists. Present study identifies an alternative binding orientation, within the binding pocket, for blockers and a minimum grid size to lessen the false positive predictions. Cluster analysis revealed structural variability among the antagonists and a conserved pattern in case of agonists. A combination of docking and structure activity relationship (SAR) model reliably discriminated antagonists. Based on key intermolecular interactions, a set of agonists and antagonists useful to SAR, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and pharmacophore modeling, has also been proposed for identifying antagonists. PMID:26265253

  7. Structure-activity relationships of suramin and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate derivatives as P2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Gnter; Braun, Kirsten; Damer, MiSusannechelle; Ganso, Matthias; Hildebrandt, Caren; Ullmann, Heiko; Kassack, Matthias U; Nickel, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular adenine and uracil 5'-nucleotides are important signalling molecules that exert a great variety of effects in numerous tissues and cell types through the activation of P2 receptors. In the past eight years, an extended series of P2 receptors (P2X(17), ionotropic subunits; P2Y(1,2,4,6,11,12), metabotropic receptors) has been cloned from vertebrate tissues. In this rapidly expanding field, one of the main current challenges is to relate the cloned P2 receptor subtypes to the diverse physiological responses mediated by the pharmacological phenotypes of native P2 receptors. Unfortunately, subtype-selective P2 ligands, especially potent and selective antagonists, have been only slowly forthcoming, and this acts as a considerable impediment to progress. However, a number of new P2 receptor antagonists have recently been described which to some degree are more potent and more selective than earlier antagonists like suramin or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS). This work moves us closer to the ideal goal of classifying the recombinant and native P2 receptor subtypes on the basis of antagonist profiles. This review begins with a brief account of the current status of P2 receptors and their ligands. It then focuses on structure-activity relationships of PPADS and suramin analogues and will finish with a brief discussion of some related therapeutic possibilities. PMID:12369951

  8. In silico binding characteristics between human histamine H1 receptor and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Yang, Qian; Li, Minyong; Yin, Dali; You, Qidong

    2010-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the H(1) receptor antagonists have important therapeutic significance in the treatment of various allergic disorders, but little was known about the binding mode between the receptor and antagonists since the crystal structure of G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs) were hard to obtain. In this paper, a theoretical three-dimensional model of human histamine H(1) receptor (HHR1) was developed on the basis of recently reported high resolution structures of human A(2A) adenosine receptor, human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and turkey beta(1)-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, three representative H(1) receptor antagonists were chosen for docking studies. Subsequently, a qualitative pharmacophore model was developed by Hiphop algorithm based on the docking conformations of these three antagonists. In this paper, active environment, certain key residues, and the corresponding pharmacophore features of H(1) receptor were identified by such combinations of receptor-based and ligand-based approaches, which would give sufficient guidance for the rational design of novel antihistamine agents. PMID:20179978

  9. Benzotriazonine as a new core structure for the design of CCK-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Escherich, A; Escrieut, C; Fourmy, D; Moroder, L

    1999-03-01

    The search for heterocyclic scaffolds for the design of non-peptidic and highly selective agonists or antagonists of peptide hormone receptors led to 4-N-benzyl-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H-1,4,7-benzotriazonin-2, 6-dione with a 9-membered core structure as a new low mass lead compound that exhibits submicromolar antagonistic activity at the CCK-A receptor with a 54-fold selectivity over the CCK-B/gastrin receptor. PMID:10323559

  10. A Distinct Functional Site in ?-Neurotoxins: Novel Antagonists of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from Snake Venom.

    PubMed

    Hassan-Puttaswamy, Varuna; Adams, David J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2015-12-18

    Snake venom ?-neurotoxins from the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family are competitive antagonists with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Here, we report the characterization of a new group of competitive nAChR antagonists: ?-neurotoxins. Although they belong to the 3FTx family, the characteristic functional residues of ?-neurotoxins are not conserved. We evaluated the subtype specificity and structure-function relationships of Oh9-1, an ?-neurotoxin from Ophiophagus hannah venom. Recombinant Oh9-1 showed reversible postsynaptic neurotoxicity in the micromolar range. Experiments with different nAChR subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes indicated Oh9-1 is selective for rat muscle type ?1?1?? (adult) and ?1?1?? (fetal) and rat neuronal ?3?2 subtypes. However, Oh9-1 showed low or no affinity for other human and rat neuronal subtypes. Twelve individual alanine-scan mutants encompassing all three loops of Oh9-1 were evaluated for binding to ?1?1?? and ?3?2 subtypes. Oh9-1's loop-II residues (M25, F27) were the most critical for interactions and formed the common binding core. Mutations at T23 and F26 caused a significant loss in activity at ?1?1?? receptors but had no effect on the interaction with the ?3?2 subtype. Similarly, mutations at loop-II (H7, K22, H30) and -III (K45) of Oh9-1 had a distinctly different impact on its activity with these subtypes. Thus, Oh9-1 interacts with these nAChRs via distinct residues. Unlike ?-neurotoxins, the tip of loop-II is not involved. We reveal a novel mode of interaction, where both sides of the ?-strand of Oh9-1's loop-II interact with ?1?1??, but only one side interacts with ?3?2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed functional organization of the ?-neurotoxins independent of ?-neurotoxins. Thus, ?-neurotoxin: Oh9-1 may be a new, structurally distinct class of 3FTxs that, like ?-neurotoxins, antagonize nAChRs. However, Oh9-1 binds to the ACh binding pocket via a different set of functional residues. PMID:26448325

  11. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry Translational Research in Addiction symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

  12. Tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lecci, Alessandro; Capriati, Angela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Tachykinin NK2 receptors are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of both laboratory animals and humans. Experimental data indicate a role for these receptors in the regulation of intestinal motor functions (both excitatory and inhibitory), secretions, inflammation and visceral sensitivity. In particular, NK2 receptor stimulation inhibits intestinal motility by activating sympathetic extrinsic pathways or NANC intramural inhibitory components, whereas a modulatory effect on cholinergic nerves or a direct effect on smooth muscle account for the NK2 receptor-mediated increase in intestinal motility. Accordingly, selective NK2 receptor antagonists can reactivate inhibited motility or decrease inflammation- or stress-associated hypermotility. Intraluminal secretion of water is increased by NK2 receptor agonists via a direct effect on epithelial cells, and this mechanism is active in models of diarrhoea since selective antagonists reverse the increase in faecal water content in these models. Hyperalgesia in response to intraluminal volume signals is possibly mediated through the stimulation of NK2 receptors located on peripheral branches of primary afferent neurones. NK2 receptor antagonists reduce the hyper-responsiveness that occurs following intestinal inflammation or application of stressful stimuli to animals. Likewise, NK2 receptor antagonists reduce intestinal tissue damage induced by chemical irritation of the intestinal wall or lumen. In healthy volunteers, the selective NK2 antagonist nepadutant reduced the motility-stimulating effects and irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms triggered by intravenous infusion of neurokinin A, and displayed other characteristics that could support its use in patients. It is concluded that blockade of peripheral tachykinin NK2 receptors should be considered as a viable mechanism for decreasing the painful symptoms and altered bowel habits of irritable bowel syndrome patients. PMID:15037522

  13. Therapeutic action of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists targeting peritoneal macrophages in post-operative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Maehara, Toko; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horiguchi, Kazuhide; Kondo, Makoto; Iino, Satoshi; Horie, Shunji; Murata, Takahisa; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Shimada, Shoichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hori, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Post-operative ileus (POI) is induced by intestinal inflammation. Here, we aimed to clarify the effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists against POI. Experimental Approach We administered three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron, tropisetron and palonosetron, to a mouse model of POI induced by surgical intestinal manipulation (IM). Immunohistochemistry, intestinal transit, inflammatory mediator mRNA expression and 5-HT content were measured. In some experiments, 5-HT3A receptor null mice were used. Key Results Three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists reduced IM-induced infiltration of inflammatory CD68-positive macrophages and myeloperoxidase-stained neutrophils. Ondansetron exhibited no anti-inflammatory actions in 5-HT3A receptor null mice. Ondansetron inhibited expression of the chemokine CCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and iNOS mRNAs up-regulated by IM, and also ameliorated the delayed gastrointestinal transit. Peritoneal macrophages, but not most infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages, expressed 5-HT3 receptors. IM stimulation increased the 5-HT content of peritoneal lavage fluid, which up-regulated mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines in peritoneal macrophages. Immunohistochemical localization of 5-HT3 receptors suggests that ondansetron suppressed expression of these mRNAs in activated peritoneal macrophages, adhering to the serosal region of the inflamed intestinal wall. Conclusion and Implications 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were anti-inflammatory, mainly targeting peritoneal macrophages expressing these receptors. They also restored the delayed gastrointestinal transit by IM. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists should be therapeutically useful agents against POI. PMID:25377620

  14. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  15. Preclinical anticonvulsant and neuroprotective profile of 8319, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, S.; Wilker, J.C.; Chernack, J.; Ramirez, V.; Wilmot, C.A.; Martin, L.L.; Payack, J.F.; Cornfeldt, M.L.; Rudolphi, K.A.; Rush, D.K. )

    1990-01-01

    8319, ((+-)-2-Amino-N-ethyl-alpha- (3-methyl-2-thienyl) benzeneethanamine 2HCl), is a novel compound with the profile of a non-competitive NMDA antagonist. The compound displaced (3H) TCP with high affinity (IC50 = 43 nM), but was inactive at the NMDA, benzodiazepine and GABA sites; in vivo, 8319 showed good efficacy as an anticonvulsant and potential neuroprotective agent. It blocked seizures induced by NMDLA, supramaximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin, and thiosemicarbazide with ED50's of 1-20 mg/kg ip. As a neuroprotective agent, 8319 (30-100 mg/kg sc) prevented the death of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells induced by direct injection of 20 nmol NMDA. At 15 mg/kg ip, the compound was also effective against hippocampal neuronal necrosis induced via bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries in gerbils. In summary, 8319 is a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with good anticonvulsant activity and may possess neuroprotective properties useful in the treatment of brain ischemia.

  16. Testosterone dynamics and psychopathic personality traits independently predict antagonistic behavior towards the perceived loser of a competitive interaction.

    PubMed

    Geniole, Shawn N; Busseri, Michael A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of changes in testosterone on subsequent competitive, antagonistic behavior in humans. Further, little is known about the extent to which such effects are moderated by personality traits. Here, we collected salivary measures of testosterone before and after a rigged competition. After the competition, participants were given the opportunity to act antagonistically against the competitor (allocate a low honorarium). We hypothesized that changes in testosterone throughout the competition would predict antagonistic behavior such that greater increases would be associated with the allocation of lower honorariums. Further, we investigated the extent to which personality traits related to psychopathy (fearless dominance, FD; self-centered impulsivity, SCI; and coldheartedness) moderated this relationship. In men (n=104), greater increases in testosterone and greater FD were associated with more antagonistic behavior, but testosterone concentrations did not interact with personality measures. In women (n=97), greater FD and SCI predicted greater antagonistic behavior, but there were no significant endocrine predictors or interactions with personality measures. In a secondary set of analyses, we found no support for the dual-hormone hypothesis that the relationship between baseline testosterone concentrations and behavior is moderated by cortisol concentrations. Thus, results are consistent with previous findings that in men, situation-specific testosterone reactivity rather than baseline endocrine function is a better predictor of future antagonistic behavior. The results are discussed with respect to the Challenge Hypothesis and the Biosocial Model of Status, and the possible mechanisms underlying the independent relations of testosterone and personality factors with antagonistic behavior. PMID:24120551

  17. Endothelin B receptor antagonists block proliferation and induce apoptosis in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Mayra; Russo, Marika A; Curti, Daniela; Lanni, Cristina; Schinelli, Sergio

    2010-04-01

    The proliferative and antiapoptotic actions of endothelin (ET)-1 in cancer cells have been documented and ET receptor antagonists have been exploited as potential anticancer drugs. Glioblastoma cell lines express both ETA and ETB receptors and previous works have shown that ETB receptors are involved in the proliferation of different cancer cell types. In this study we have investigated the effects of two structurally unrelated ETB receptor antagonists, BQ788 and A192621, on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis in 1321-N1, U87 and IPDDCA2 glioma cell lines. BQ788 and A192621 reduced glioma cells viability and proliferation assessed by BrdU incorporation and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, while in contrast the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 had no effect on cell survival. TUNEL assay and immunocytochemical experiments showed that BQ788 and A192621 trigger apoptotic processes mainly via activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-9 activation, AIF release and cytochrome c translocation. Furthermore, treatment with ETB antagonists downregulates ERK- and p38MAPK-dependent pathways but does not affect VEGF mRNA levels. Our findings support the hypothesis that ETB antagonists represent a new promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of high grade gliomas. PMID:19931393

  18. A peripherally selective diphenyl purine antagonist of the CB1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Marusich, Julie A.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Seltzman, Herbert; Maitra, Rangan

    2014-01-01

    Antagonists of the CB1 receptor can be useful in the treatment of several diseases including obesity, diabetes, and liver disease. However, to date, the only clinically approved CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was withdrawn due to adverse CNS related side effects such as depression and suicidal ideation. Since rimonabants withdrawal, several groups have begun pursuing peripherally selective CB1 antagonists. These compounds are expected to be devoid of undesirable CNS related effects but maintain efficacy through antagonism of peripherally expressed CB1 receptors within target tissues. Reported here are our latest results toward development of a peripherally selective analog of the diphenyl purine CB1 antagonist otenabant 1. Compound 9 (N-{1-[8-(2-Chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}pentanamide) is a potent, orally absorbed antagonist of the CB1 receptor that is >50-fold selective for CB1 over CB2, highly selective for the periphery in a rodent model, and without efficacy in a series of in vivo assays designed to evaluate its ability to mitigate the central effects of ?9-THC through the CB1 receptor. PMID:24041123

  19. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Luitel, Himal; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF. PMID:25667920

  20. Pharmacological characterization of GSK1004723, a novel, long-acting antagonist at histamine H1 and H3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Slack, RJ; Russell, LJ; Hall, DA; Luttmann, MA; Ford, AJ; Saunders, KA; Hodgson, ST; Connor, HE; Browning, C; Clark, KL

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Preclinical pharmacological characterization of GSK1004723, a novel, dual histamine H1 and H3 receptor antagonist. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH GSK1004723 was characterized in vitro and in vivo using methods that included radioligand binding, intracellular calcium mobilization, cAMP production, GTP?S binding, superfused human bronchus and guinea pig whole body plethysmography. KEY RESULTS In cell membranes over-expressing human recombinant H1 and H3 receptors, GSK1004723 displayed high affinity, competitive binding (H1 pKi = 10.2; H3 pKi = 10.6). In addition, GSK1004723 demonstrated slow dissociation from both receptors with a t1/2 of 1.2 and 1.5 h for H1 and H3 respectively. GSK1004723 specifically antagonized H1 receptor mediated increases in intracellular calcium and H3 receptor mediated increases in GTP?S binding. The antagonism exerted was retained after cell washing, consistent with slow dissociation from H1 and H3 receptors. Duration of action was further evaluated using superfused human bronchus preparations. GSK1004723 (100 nmolL?1) reversed an established contractile response to histamine. When GSK1004723 was removed from the perfusate, only 20% recovery of the histamine response was observed over 10 h. Moreover, 21 h post-exposure to GSK1004723 there remained almost complete antagonism of responses to histamine. In vivo pharmacology was studied in conscious guinea pigs in which nasal congestion induced by intranasal histamine was measured indirectly (plethysmography). GSK1004723 (0.1 and 1 mgmL?1 intranasal) antagonized the histamine-induced response with a duration of up to 72 h. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS GSK1004723 is a potent and selective histamine H1 and H3 receptor antagonist with a long duration of action and represents a potential novel therapy for allergic rhinitis. PMID:22022805

  1. Competitive Androgen Receptor Antagonism as a Factor Determining the Predictability of Cumulative Antiandrogenic Effects of Widely Used Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many pesticides in current use have recently been revealed as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their combined effects is lacking. Objective: We investigated the combined effects and the competitive AR antagonism of pesticide mixtures. Methods: We used the MDA-kb2 assay to test a combination of eight AR antagonists that did not also possess AR agonist properties (pure antagonists; 8 mix: fludioxonil, fenhexamid, ortho-phenylphenol, imazalil, tebuconazole, dimethomorph, methiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl), a combination of five AR antagonists that also showed agonist activity (5 mix: cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, vinclozolin, chlorpropham, linuron), and all pesticides combined (13 mix). We used concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) to formulate additivity expectations, and Schild plot analyses to investigate competitive AR antagonism. Results: A good agreement between the effects of the mixture of eight pure AR antagonists and the responses predicted by CA was observed. Schild plot analysis revealed that the 8 mix acted by competitive AR antagonism. However, the observed responses of the 5 mix and the 13 mix fell within the prediction window boundaries defined by the predicted regression curves of CA and IA. Schild plot analysis with these mixtures yielded anomalous responses incompatible with competitive receptor antagonism. Conclusions: A mixture of widely used pesticides can, in a predictable manner, produce combined AR antagonist effects that exceed the responses elicited by the most potent component alone. Inasmuch as large populations are regularly exposed to mixtures of antiandrogenic pesticides, our results underline the need for considering combination effects for these substances in regulatory practice. PMID:23008280

  2. Rigidified 2-aminopyrimidines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists: effects of substitution about the rigidifying ring.

    PubMed

    Koenig, John R; Liu, Huaqing; Drizin, Irene; Witte, David G; Carr, Tracy L; Manelli, Arlene M; Milicic, Ivan; Strakhova, Marina I; Miller, Thomas R; Esbenshade, Timothy A; Brioni, Jorge D; Cowart, Marlon

    2010-03-15

    Three novel series of histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) antagonists containing the 2-aminopyrimidine motif are reported. The best of these compounds display good in vitro potency in both functional and binding assays. In addition, representative compounds are able to completely block itch responses when dosed ip in a mouse model of H(4)-agonist induced scratching, thus demonstrating their activities as H(4)R antagonists. PMID:20171098

  3. Design and evaluation of xanthine based adenosine receptor antagonists: Potential hypoxia targeted immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Rhiannon; Lee, Joslynn; Chevalier, Vincent; Sadler, Sara; Selesniemi, Kaisa; Hatfield, Stephen; Sitkovsky, Michail; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Jones, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular modeling techniques were applied to the design, synthesis and optimization of a new series of xanthine based adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. The optimized lead compound was converted to a PEG derivative and a functional in vitro bioassay used to confirm efficacy. Additionally, the PEGylated version showed enhanced aqueous solubility and was inert to photoisomerization, a known limitation of existing antagonists of this class. PMID:24126093

  4. Discovery of BMS-641988, a Novel Androgen Receptor Antagonist for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Balog, Aaron; Rampulla, Richard; Martin, Gregory S; Krystek, Stanley R; Attar, Ricardo; Dell-John, Janet; DiMarco, John D; Fairfax, David; Gougoutas, Jack; Holst, Christian L; Nation, Andrew; Rizzo, Cheryl; Rossiter, Lana M; Schweizer, Liang; Shan, Weifang; Spergel, Steven; Spires, Thomas; Cornelius, Georgia; Gottardis, Marco; Trainor, George; Vite, Gregory D; Salvati, Mark E

    2015-08-13

    BMS-641988 (23) is a novel, nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist designed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The compound has high binding affinity for the AR and acts as a functional antagonist in vitro. BMS-641988 is efficacious in multiple human prostate cancer xenograft models, including CWR22-BMSLD1 where it displays superior efficacy relative to bicalutamide. Based on its promising preclinical profile, BMS-641988 was selected for clinical development. PMID:26288692

  5. Rate constants of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors in rat brain medulla. Evaluation by competition kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, G.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1985-07-25

    The method of competition kinetics, which measures the binding kinetics of an unlabeled ligand through its effect on the binding kinetics of a labeled ligand, was employed to investigate the kinetics of muscarinic agonist binding to rat brain medulla pons homogenates. The agonists studied were acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and oxotremorine, with N-methyl-4-(TH)piperidyl benzilate employed as the radiolabeled ligand. Our results suggested that the binding of muscarinic agonists to the high affinity sites is characterized by dissociation rate constants higher by 2 orders of magnitude than those of antagonists, with rather similar association rate constants. Our findings also suggest that isomerization of the muscarinic receptors following ligand binding is significant in the case of antagonists, but not of agonists. Moreover, it is demonstrated that in the medulla pons preparation, agonist-induced interconversion between high and low affinity bindings sites does not occur to an appreciable extent.

  6. Selective opioid receptor antagonist effects upon intake of a high-fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K; Bodnar, R J

    1990-02-01

    Short-term (2 h) intake of a high-fat diet in rats was significantly inhibited by intravenous (0.1-10 mg/kg: 39-67%) and central (1-5 micrograms, i.c.v.: 51%) naloxone. The irreversible mu opioid antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (10 micrograms, i.c.v.: 37%), but not the irreversible mu 1 antagonist, naloxonazine (10 mg/kg, i.v.) inhibited intake, suggesting mu 2 receptor mediation. The delta antagonist, ICI 174864 (1-10 micrograms, i.c.v.: 41%) inhibited high-fat diet intake only at doses that also produced motor dysfunction. PMID:2155039

  7. The neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant is a promising candidate for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Muoz, Miguel; Gonzlez-Ortega, Ana; Salinas-Martn, Manuel Vicente; Carranza, Andrs; Garcia-Recio, Susana; Almendro, Vanessa; Coveas, Rafael

    2014-10-01

    The substanceP (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system plays an important role in the development of cancer. No in-depth studies of the involvement of this system in breast cancer (BC) have been carried out, and the action exerted by the drug aprepitant on BC cells is currently unknown. We show the involvement of this system in human BC cell lines: i)these cells express mRNA for the NK-1 receptor; ii) they overexpress NK-1 receptors; iii) the NK-1 receptor is involved in their viability; iv) SP induces their proliferation; v) NK-1 receptor antagonists block SP-induced mitogen stimulation of these cells; vi) the specific antitumor action of such antagonists on these cells occurs through the NK-1 receptor; and vii) BC cell death is due to apoptosis. We also found NK-1 receptors and SP in all human BC samples studied. The NK-1 receptor may be a promising target in the treatment of BC and NK-1 receptor antagonists could be candidates as a new antitumor drug in the treatment of BC. PMID:25175857

  8. Fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 are muscarinic receptor antagonists: intravital visualization of receptor occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Burman, Miriam; Palovich, Michael; Belmonte, Kristen E; Canning, Brendan J

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 have been used to visualize the endocytic and exocytic processes involved in neurotransmission in a variety of central and peripheral nerve preparations. Their utility is limited to some extent by a poorly understood vesicular-independent labelling of cells and tissues. We show here that one likely cause of this troublesome background labelling is that FM1-43 and FM2-10 are selective and competitive antagonists at both cloned and endogenously expressed muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In radioligand binding studies, FM1-43 and FM2-10 bound with moderate affinity (23220 nm) to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing cloned human muscarinic receptors (M1M5). In functional studies in vitro, FM1-43 and FM2-10 inhibited electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine-induced cholinergic contractions of guinea-pig tracheal strips (IC50: FM1-43, 0.4 0.1; FM2-10, 1.6 0.1 ?m; concentration of antagonist producing a 2-fold leftward shift in the acetylcholine concentrationresponse curve (Kb): FM1-43, 0.3 0.1; FM2-10, 15.8 10.1 ?m). Neither compound inhibited EFS-evoked, non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve-mediated relaxations or contractions of the airways, or contractions mediated by histamine H1 receptor or tachykinin NK2 receptor activation. Incubating freshly excised tracheal whole-mount preparations with 5 ?m FM1-43 resulted in intense fluorescence labelling of the smooth muscle that was reduced by up to 90% in the presence of selective M2 and M3 receptor antagonists. The potency of the FM dyes as muscarinic receptor antagonists is within the concentration range used to study vesicular cycling at nerve terminals. Given that muscarinic receptors play a key role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release from a variety of neurones, the anticholinergic properties of FM dyes may have important implications when studying vesicular events in the nervous system. In addition, these dyes may provide a novel tool for visualizing muscarinic receptor occupancy in living tissue or cell preparations. PMID:16728454

  9. Molecular basis for selectivity of high affinity peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Tokita, K; Katsuno, T; Hocart, S J; Coy, D H; Llinares, M; Martinez, J; Jensen, R T

    2001-09-28

    Few gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters have high affinity peptide receptor antagonists, and little is known about the molecular basis of their selectivity or affinity. The receptor mediating the action of the mammalian bombesin (Bn) peptide, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), is an exception, because numerous classes of peptide antagonists are described. To investigate the molecular basis for their high affinity for the GRPR, two classes of peptide antagonists, a statine analogue, JMV594 ([d-Phe(6),Stat(13)]Bn(6-14)), and a pseudopeptide analogue, JMV641 (d-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leupsi(CHOH-CH(2))-(CH(2))(2)-CH(3)), were studied. Each had high affinity for the GRPR and >3,000-fold selectivity for GRPR over the closely related neuromedin B receptor (NMBR). To investigate the basis for this, we used a chimeric receptor approach to make both GRPR loss of affinity and NMBR gain of affinity chimeras and a site-directed mutagenesis approach. Chimeric or mutated receptors were transiently expressed in Balb/c 3T3. Only substitution of the fourth extracellular (EC) domain of the GRPR by the comparable NMBR domain markedly decreased the affinity for both antagonists. Substituting the fourth EC domain of NMBR into the GRPR resulted in a 300-fold gain in affinity for JMV594 and an 11-fold gain for JMV641. Each of the 11 amino acid differences between the GRPR and NMBR in this domain were exchanged. The substitutions of Thr(297) in GRPR by Pro from the comparable position in NMBR, Phe(302) by Met, and Ser(305) by Thr decreased the affinity of each antagonist. Simultaneous replacement of Thr(297), Phe(302), and Ser(305) in GRPR by the three comparable NMBR amino acids caused a 500-fold decrease in affinity for both antagonists. Replacing the comparable three amino acids in NMBR by those from GRPR caused a gain in affinity for each antagonist. Receptor modeling showed that each of these three amino acids faced inward and was within 5 A of the putative binding pocket. These results demonstrate that differences in the fourth EC domain of the mammalian Bn receptors are responsible for the selectivity of these two peptide antagonists. They demonstrate that Thr(297), Phe(302), and Ser(305) of the fourth EC domain of GRPR are the critical residues for determining GRPR selectivity and suggest that both receptor-ligand cation-pi interactions and hydrogen bonding are important for their high affinity interaction. PMID:11463790

  10. Discovery of 2,5-diarylnicotinamides as selective orexin-2 receptor antagonists (2-SORAs).

    PubMed

    Mercer, Swati P; Roecker, Anthony J; Garson, Susan; Reiss, Duane R; Meacham Harrell, C; Murphy, Kathy L; Bruno, Joseph G; Bednar, Rodney A; Lemaire, Wei; Cui, Donghui; Cabalu, Tamara D; Tang, Cuyue; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Hartman, George D; Young, Steven D; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Coleman, Paul J

    2013-12-15

    The orexin (or hypocretin) system has been identified as a novel target for the treatment of insomnia due to the wealth of biological and genetic data discovered over the past decade. Recently, clinical proof-of-concept was achieved for the treatment of primary insomnia using dual (OX1R/OX2R) orexin receptor antagonists. However, elucidation of the pharmacology associated with selective orexin-2 receptor antagonists (2-SORAs) has been hampered by the lack of orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule probes. Herein, the discovery and optimization of a novel series of 2,5-diarylnicotinamides as potent and orally bioavailable orexin-2 receptor selective antagonists is described. A compound from this series demonstrated potent sleep promotion when dosed orally to EEG telemetrized rats. PMID:24215892

  11. An Antagonistic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Variant Inhibits VEGF-Stimulated Receptor Autophosphorylation and Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemeister, Gerhard; Schirner, Michael; Reusch, Petra; Barleon, Bernhard; Marme, Dieter; Martiny-Baron, Georg

    1998-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen with a unique specificity for endothelial cells and a key mediator of aberrant endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in a variety of human pathological situations, such as tumor angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. VEGF is a symmetric homodimeric molecule with two receptor binding interfaces lying on each pole of the molecule. Herein we report on the construction and recombinant expression of an asymmetric heterodimeric VEGF variant with an intact receptor binding interface at one pole and a mutant receptor binding interface at the second pole of the dimer. This VEGF variant binds to VEGF receptors but fails to induce receptor activation. In competition experiments, the heterodimeric VEGF variant antagonizes VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of endothelial cells. A 15-fold excess of the heterodimer was sufficient to inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 50%, and a 100-fold excess resulted in an almost complete inhibition. By using a rational approach that is based on the structure of VEGF, we have shown the feasibility to construct a VEGF variant that acts as an VEGF antagonist.

  12. Distinct CCK-2 receptor conformations associated with ?-arrestin-2 recruitment or phospholipase-C activation revealed by a biased antagonist.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Rmi; Escrieut, Chantal; Gigoux, Vronique; De, Kavita; Clerc, Pascal; Niu, Fan; Azema, Joelle; Masri, Bernard; Cordomi, Arnau; Baltas, Michel; Tikhonova, Irina G; Fourmy, Daniel

    2013-02-20

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), form the largest class of cell surface membrane receptors, involving several hundred members in the human genome. Nearly 30% of marketed pharmacological agents target 7TMRs. 7TMRs adopt multiple conformations upon agonist binding. Biased agonists, in contrast to non-biased agonists, are believed to stabilize conformations preferentially activating either G-protein- or ?-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways. However, proof that cognate conformations of receptors display structural differences within their binding site where biased agonism initiates, are still lacking. Here, we show that a non-biased agonist, cholecystokinin (CCK) induces conformational states of the CCK2R activating Gq-protein-dependent pathway (CCK2R(G)) or recruiting ?-arrestin2 (CCK2R(?)) that are pharmacologically and structurally distinct. Two structurally unrelated antagonists competitively inhibited both pathways. A third ligand (GV150013X) acted as a high affinity competitive antagonist on CCK2R(G) but was nearly inefficient as inhibitor of CCK2R(?). Several structural elements on both GV150013X and in CCK2R binding cavity, which hinder binding of GV150013X only to the CCK2R(?) were identified. At last, proximity between two conserved amino acids from transmembrane helices 3 and 7 interacting through sulfur-aromatic interaction was shown to be crucial for selective stabilization of the CCK2R(?) state. These data establish structural evidence for distinct conformations of a 7TMR associated with ?-arrestin-2 recruitment or G-protein coupling and validate relevance of the design of biased ligands able to selectively target each functional conformation of 7TMRs. PMID:23323542

  13. Cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of murine interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein.

    PubMed

    Shuck, M E; Eessalu, T E; Tracey, D E; Bienkowski, M J

    1991-11-01

    A cDNA coding for the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein (IL 1Ra) was used to clone the corresponding murine cDNA. The nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame coding for the processed form of mIL 1Ra predicted a 152-residue protein that was 77% identical to human IL 1Ra. The cellular and tissue distribution of murine IL 1Ra (mIL 1Ra) transcripts showed high levels in macrophages and skin while lower levels were detected in tissues that contain significant numbers of resident macrophages. The portion of the mIL 1Ra cDNA that codes for the mature form of the protein was placed under the control of a Trp promoter and expressed in E. coli at a level of 37% of total cell protein. The expressed protein was secreted into the periplasm and was purified to homogeneity in a single step by cation-exchange chromatography. Recombinant mIL 1Ra competitively inhibited 125I-labeled IL 1 alpha binding to murine type I IL 1R present on EL4 6.1 cells (Ki value of 0.21 nM) and antagonized IL 1-stimulated co-mitogenesis in murine thymocytes (0.7 x 10(6)-1.1 x 10(6) units/mg). PMID:1834470

  14. Orexin 1 receptor antagonists in compulsive behavior and anxiety: possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Merlo Pich, Emilio; Melotto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years after the discovery of hypocretin/orexin a large body of evidence has been collected supporting its critical role in the modulation of several regulatory physiological functions. While reduced levels of hypocretin/orexin were initially associated with narcolepsy, increased levels have been linked in recent years to pathological states of hypervigilance and, in particular, to insomnia. The filing to FDA of the dual-activity orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) suvorexant for the indication of insomnia further corroborates the robustness of such evidences. However, as excessive vigilance is also typical of anxiety and panic episodes, as well as of abstinence and craving in substance misuse disorders. In this review we briefly discuss the evidence supporting the development of hypocretin/orexin receptor 1 (OX1) antagonists for these indications. Experiments using the OX1 antagonist SB-334867 and mutant mice have involved the OX1 receptor in mediating the compulsive reinstatement of drug seeking for ethanol, nicotine, cocaine, cannabinoids and morphine. More recently, data have been generated with the novel selective OX1 antagonists GSK1059865 and ACT-335827 on behavioral and cardiovascular response to stressors and panic-inducing agents in animals. Concluding, while waiting for pharmacologic data to become available in humans, risks and benefits for the development of an OX1 receptor antagonist for Binge Eating and Anxiety Disorders are discussed. PMID:24592206

  15. Targeted Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence. However, treatments requiring daily administration, such as naltrexone, are inconsistently adhered to in substance abusing populations, and constant medication exposure can increase risk of adverse outcomes, e.g., hepatotoxicity. This has fostered a targeted or as needed approach to opioid receptor antagonist treatment, in which medications are used only in anticipation of or during high-risk situations, including times of intense cravings. Initial studies of the ability of targeted naltrexone to reduce drinking-related outcomes were conducted in problem drinkers and have been extended into larger, multi-site, placebo-controlled investigations with positive results. Another ?-opioid receptor antagonist, nalmefene, has been studied on an as-needed basis to reduce heavy drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. These studies include three large multi-site trials in Europe of up to 1 year in duration, and serve as the basis for the recent approval of nalmefene by the European Medicines Agency as an as-needed adjunctive treatment for alcohol dependence. We review potential moderators of opioid receptor antagonist treatment response including subjective assessments, objective clinical measures and genetic variants. In sum, the targeted or as-needed approach to treatment with opioid antagonists is an efficacious harmreduction strategy for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23881605

  16. Chemogenomic discovery of allosteric antagonists at the GPRC6A receptor.

    PubMed

    Gloriam, David E; Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars D; Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie; Phonekeo, Karina; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Bruner-Osborne, Hans

    2011-11-23

    GPRC6A is a Family C G protein-coupled receptor recently discovered and deorphanized by our group. This study integrates chemogenomic ligand inference, homology modeling, compound synthesis, and pharmacological mechanism-of-action studies to disclose two noticeable results of methodological and pharmacological character: (1) chemogenomic lead identification through the first, to our knowledge, ligand inference between two different GPCR families, Families A and C; and (2) the discovery of the most selective GPRC6A allosteric antagonists discovered to date. The unprecedented inference ofpharmacological activity across GPCR families provides proof-of-concept for insilico approaches against Family C targets based on Family A templates, greatly expanding the prospects of successful drug design and discovery. The antagonists were tested against a panel of seven Family A and C G protein-coupled receptors containing the chemogenomic binding sequence motif where some of the identified GPRC6A antagonists showed some activity. However, three compounds with at least ?3-fold selectivity for GPRC6A were discovered, which present a significant step forward compared with the previously published GPRC6A antagonists, calindol and NPS 2143, which both display ?30-fold selectivity for the calcium-sensing receptor compared to GPRC6A. The antagonists constitute novel research tools toward investigating the signaling mechanism of the GPRC6A receptor at the cellular level and serve as initial ligands for further optimization of potency and selectivity enabling future exvivo/invivo pharmacological studies. PMID:22118683

  17. Functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B; Wetzel, C H; Pestel, E; Zieglgnsberger, W; Holsboer, F; Rupprecht, R

    1996-08-23

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine is thought to exert its psychopharmacological actions through a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. It binds preferentially to D4 and 5-HT2 receptors; however, little is known on it's interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Using a cell line stably expressing the 5-HT3 receptor, whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis revealed functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at low nanomolar concentrations in view of a binding affinity in the upper nanomolar range. Because the concentration of clozapine required for an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor can be achieved with therapeutical doses, functional antagonistic properties at this ligand-gated ion channel may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile. PMID:8780717

  18. Attenuation of D-1 antagonist-induced D-1 receptor upregulation by conccomitant D-2 receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Parashos, S.A.; Barone, P.; Tucci, I.; Chase, T.N.

    1987-11-16

    The effect of chronic selective D-1 and/or D-2 dopamine receptor blockade on regional D-1 receptor binding was studied in rat brain following chronic treatment with the specific D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 and/or the predominantly D-2 antagonist haloperidol. D-1 receptor density and affinity were evaluated by quantitative autoradiography using /sup 125/I-SCH 23982. Chronic SCH 23390 treatment increased D-1 receptor density by 30 to 40% in the striatum, accumbens and tuberculum olfactorium; receptor affinity remained unchanged. Haloperidol had no effect on D-1 receptor Bmax or Kd values, although, when administered with SCH 23390, reduced the D-1 receptor upregulation induced by the D-1 antagonist in striatum and tuberculum olfactorium, but not in nucleus accumbens, These results may be attributable to D-1/D-2 dopamine receptor interactions occurring in the striatum and tuberculum olfactorium and may have implications for the prevention and treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Pharmacological characterization and appetite suppressive properties of BMS-193885, a novel and selective neuropeptide Y(1) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Antal-Zimanyi, Ildiko; Bruce, Marc A; Leboulluec, Karen L; Iben, Lawrence G; Mattson, Gail K; McGovern, Rachel T; Hogan, John B; Leahy, Christina L; Flowers, Sharon C; Stanley, Jennifer A; Ortiz, Astrid A; Poindexter, Graham S

    2008-08-20

    Treatment of obesity is still a large unmet medical need. Neuropeptide Y is the most potent orexigenic peptide in the animal kingdom. Its five cloned G-protein couple receptors are all implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis evidenced by overexpression or deletion of neuropeptide Y or its receptors. Neuropeptide Y most likely exerts its orexigenic activity via the neuropeptide Y(1) and neuropeptide Y(5) receptors, although the involvement of the neuropeptide Y(2) and neuropeptide Y(4) receptors are also gaining importance. The lack of potent, selective, and brain penetrable pharmacologic agents at these receptors made our understanding of the modulation of food intake by neuropeptide Y-ergic agents elusive. BMS-193885 (1,4-dihydro-[3-[[[[3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperidinyl]propyl]amino] carbonyl]amino]phenyl]-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester) is a potent and selective neuropeptide Y(1) receptor antagonist. BMS-193885 has 3.3 nM affinity at the neuropeptide Y(1) receptor, acting competitively at the neuropeptide Y binding site. BMS-193885 increased the K(d) of [(125)I]PeptideYY from 0.35 nM to 0.65 nM without changing the B(max) (0.16 pmol/mg of protein) in SK-N-MC cells that endogenously express the neuropeptide Y(1) receptor. It is also found to be a full antagonist with an apparent K(b) of 4.5 nM measured by reversal of forskolin (FK)-stimulated inhibition of cAMP production by neuropeptide Y. Pharmacological profiling showed that BMS-193885 has no appreciable affinity at the other neuropeptide Y receptors, and is also 200-fold less potent at the alpha(2) adrenergic receptor. Testing the compound in a panel of 70 G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels resulted in at least 200-fold or greater selectivity, with the exception of the sigma(1) receptor, where the selectivity was 100-fold. When administered intracerebroventricularly or directly into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, it blocked neuropeptide Y-induced food intake in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of BMS-193885 (10 mg/kg) also reduced one-hour neuropeptide Y-induced food intake in satiated rats, as well as spontaneous overnight food consumption. Chronic administration of BMS-193885 (10 mg/kg) i.p. for 44 days significantly reduced food intake and the rate of body weight gain compared to vehicle treated control without developing tolerance or affecting water intake. These results provide supporting evidence that BMS-193885 reduces food intake and body weight via inhibition of the central neuropeptide Y(1) receptor. BMS-193885 has no significant effect of locomotor activity up to 20 mg/kg dose after 1 h of treatment. It also showed no activity in the elevated plus maze when tested after i.p. and i.c.v. administration, indicating that reduction of food intake is unrelated to anxious behavior. BMS-193885 has good systemic bioavailability and brain penetration, but lacks oral bioavailability. The compound had no serious cardiovascular adverse effect in rats and dogs up to 30 and 10 mg/kg dose, respectively, when dosed intravenously. These data demonstrate that BMS-193885 is a potent, selective, brain penetrant Y(1) receptor antagonist that reduces food intake and body weight in animal models of obesity both after acute and chronic administration. Taken together the data suggest that a potent and selective neuropeptide Y(1) receptor antagonist might be an efficacious treatment for obesity in humans. PMID:18573246

  20. Pharmacological characterization of RWJ-676070, a dual vasopressin V(1A)/V(2) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Gunnet, Joseph W; Wines, Pamela; Xiang, Min; Rybczynski, Philip; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; de Garavilla, Lawrence; Parry, Tom J; Cheung, Wai-Man; Minor, Lisa; Demarest, Keith T; Maryanoff, Bruce E; Damiano, Bruce P

    2008-08-20

    The dysregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and activation of vasopressin V(1A) and V(2) receptors may play a role in disease. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of RWJ-676070, a potent, balanced antagonist of both the V(1A) and V(2) receptors is described. RWJ-676070 binding and intracellular functional antagonist activity was characterized using cells expressing V(1A), V(1B) or V(2) receptors. Its inhibition of V(1A) receptor-mediated contraction of vascular rings and platelet aggregation was determined. V(2) receptor-medated aquaresis was determined in rats, dogs and monkeys. V(1A) receptor-mediated inhibitory activity was assessed in vivo in a vasopressin-induced hypertension model and in normotensive rats and in two hypertensive rat models. RWJ-676070 inhibited AVP binding to human V(1A) and V(2) receptors (Ki=1 and 14 nM, respectively). RWJ-676070 inhibited V(1A) receptor-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and V(2) receptor-induced cAMP accumulation with Ki values of 14 nM and 13 nM, respectively. The compound was slightly less potent against rat V(1A) receptors. RWJ-676070 inhibited V(1A) receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in rat and dog vascular rings and AVP-induced human platelet aggregation. Dose dependent aquaresis was demonstrated in rats, dogs and monkeys following oral administration. RWJ-676070 inhibited AVP-induced hypertension in rats but had no effect on arterial pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats but did decrease arterial pressure in Dahl, salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. RWJ-676070 is a new, potent antagonist of V(1A) and V(2) receptors that may be useful for treatment of diseases benefiting from balanced inhibition of both V(1A) and V(2) receptors. PMID:18599033

  1. Substituted benzimidazole derivatives as angiotensin II-AT1 receptor antagonist: a review.

    PubMed

    Vyas, V K; Ghate, M

    2010-12-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulation of blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte homeostasis. The renin-angiotensin system consists of a cascade of enzymatic reactions producing angiotensin II (Ang II). Ang II is a vasoconstrictive peptide hormone that exerts a wide variety of physiological actions on cardiovascular, renal, endocrine and central nervous systems. The RAS can be inhibited at various points to control pathogenesis of hypertension. Renin inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were the earliest RAS blocking agents. A relatively new class of compounds known as Ang II receptor antagonists (SARTANs) is developed for the treatment of hypertension. They exert their action by blocking the binding of Ang II on AT(1) receptor. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are associated with incident of side effects such as cough and angioedema while clinical trials with Ang II receptor antagonists have confirmed that these drugs are safe and efficacious for the treatment of hypertension. Based upon the understanding of molecular interaction of Ang II receptor antagonists with AT(1) receptor some of the common structural features have been identified, such as a heterocyclic (nitrogen atom) ring system, an alkyl side chain and an acidic tetrazole group. Research efforts for development of new molecules with similar structural features have led to the discovery of various non-peptidic Ang II receptor antagonists with different substituted heterocyclic such as imidazole (losartan) and benzimidazole (candesartan and telmisartan). In this study we have critically reviewed various benzimidazole substituted compounds as Ang II-AT(1) receptor antagonists and explored other potential clinical uses for this class of compounds. PMID:20937029

  2. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, W. David; Daugherty, Jennifer; Gao, ChongFeng; Xie, Qian; Miranti, Cindy; Gherardi, Ermanno; Vande Woude, George; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Met receptor tyrosine kinase by binding and promoting receptor dimerization. Here we describe a mechanistic basis for designing Met antagonists based on NK1, a natural variant of HGF containing the N-terminal and the first kringle domain. Through detailed biochemical and structural analyses, we demonstrate that both mouse and human NK1 induce Met dimerization via a conserved NK1 dimer interface. Mutations designed to alter the NK1 dimer interface abolish its ability to promote Met dimerization but retain full Met-binding activity. Importantly, these NK1 mutants act as Met antagonists by inhibiting HGF-mediated cell scattering, proliferation, branching, and invasion. The ability to separate the Met-binding activity of NK1 from its Met dimerization activity thus provides a rational basis for designing Met antagonists. This strategy of antagonist design may be applicable for other growth factor receptors by selectively abolishing the receptor activation ability but not the receptor binding of the growth factors.

  3. Three-dimensional models for beta-adrenergic receptor complexes with agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Furse, Kristina E; Lybrand, Terry P

    2003-10-01

    Molecular modeling methods have been used to construct three-dimensional models for agonist and antagonist complexes with beta-adrenergic receptors. The recent rhodopsin crystal structure was used as a template in standard homology modeling methods. The rhodopsin-based homology models were assessed for agreement with experimental results for beta-adrenergic receptors, and compared with receptor models developed using de novo modeling techniques. While the de novo and homology-derived receptor models are generally quite similar, there are some localized structural differences that impact the putative ligand-binding site significantly. The de novo receptor models appear to provide much better agreement with experimental data, particularly for receptor complexes with agonist ligands. The de novo receptor models also yield some interesting and testable hypotheses for the structural basis of beta-adrenergic receptor subtype ligand selectivity. PMID:14521408

  4. Investigation of the species selectivity of a nonpeptide CGRP receptor antagonist using a novel pharmacodynamic assay.

    PubMed

    Hershey, James C; Corcoran, Halea A; Baskin, Elizabeth P; Salvatore, Christopher A; Mosser, Scott; Williams, Theresa M; Koblan, Kenneth S; Hargreaves, Richard J; Kane, Stefanie A

    2005-04-15

    The recent discovery of several nonpeptide CGRP antagonists have led to significant advances in our understanding of CGRP receptor pharmacology. Specifically, these antagonists have demonstrated a clear species selectivity with >100-fold greater affinity for human CGRP receptor compared to receptors from other species, such as rat, rabbit and guinea pig. Therefore, nonhuman primate models are required to accurately assess the in vivo activity of these antagonists. The commonly used model in marmosets involves electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglia and is a technically difficult and terminal procedure. In this report, we describe a noninvasive pharmacodynamic model in which topical application of capsaicin is utilized to induce the release of endogenous CGRP and a vasodilatory response which can be measured using laser Doppler imaging. Using the potent and selective CGRP antagonist Compound 3, which is an analog of the well-characterized compound BIBN4096BS, we demonstrated 62% inhibition with 300 microg/kg, i.v., in the rat. When tested in the rhesus monkey, only 30 microg/kg of Compound 3 was needed to produce complete inhibition, suggesting that the rhesus CGRP receptor shares a pharmacological profile similar to marmoset and human receptors. Two separate measurements were obtained in this model to provide an indication of both the acute inhibitory effect as well as the prophylactic effect of the CGRP antagonist. At the doses studied, Compound 3 was equally effective on both the acute and prophylactic inhibition of CGRP-mediated vasodilation in rat and rhesus. In conclusion, this is the first report to describe and validate a noninvasive model in nonhuman primates that allows rapid evaluation of CGRP antagonist activity against endogenous CGRP. PMID:15680472

  5. Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: a review 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Heidbreder, Christian

    2006-11-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that dopamine (DA) D(3) receptors are significantly involved in the control of drug-seeking behavior, and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of impulse control disorders and schizophrenia. This hypothesis has been difficult to test due to the lack of compounds with high selectivity for central DA D(3) receptors. Recently, however, the synthesis and characterization of new highly potent and selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists has permitted to characterize the role of the DA D(3) receptor in a wide range of preclinical animal models. Although the proof of efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic agents is to be derived ultimately from clinical trials, the preclinical findings that selective antagonism at DA D(3) receptors reduces the reinforcing efficacy of drugs of abuse, reverses cognitive deficits, and shows efficacy in animal models of schizophrenia add to an accumulating body of evidence that selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists may hold highest promise in the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases. The present review is aiming at describing current areas of interest and the possible future development of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists by outlining about 40 patents and 100 publications in this research field between 2001 and 2005. PMID:18221209

  6. Rational Design of Potent Antagonists to the Human Growth Hormone Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Germaine; Cunningham, Brian C.; Fukunaga, Rikiro; Nagata, Shigekazu; Goeddel, David V.; Wells, James A.

    1992-06-01

    A hybrid receptor was constructed that contained the extracellular binding domain of the human growth hormone (hGH) receptor linked to the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. Addition of hGH to a myeloid leukemia cell line (FDC-P1) that expressed the hybrid receptor caused proliferation of these cells. The mechanism for signal transduction of the hybrid receptor required dimerization because monoclonal antibodies to the hGH receptor were agonists whereas their monovalent fragments were not. Receptor dimerization occurs sequentially-a receptor binds to site 1 on hGH, and then a second receptor molecule binds to site 2 on hGH. On the basis of this sequential mechanism, which may occur in many other cytokine receptors, inactive hGH analogs were designed that were potent antagonists to hGH-induced cell proliferation. Such antagonists could be useful for treating clinical conditions of hGH excess, such as acromegaly.

  7. Enantiomeric Propanolamines as selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate 2B Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Geballe, Matthew; Gruszecka-Kowalik, Ewa; Myers, Scott J.; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; French, Adam; Irier, Hasan; Choi, Woo-baeg; Easterling, Keith; Yuan, Hongjie; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Kotloski, Robert; McNamara, James O.; Dingledine, Raymond; Liotta, Dennis C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Snyder, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Enantiomeric propanolamines have been identified as a new class of NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists. The most effective agents are biaryl structures, synthesized in six steps with overall yields ranging from 1164%. The compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of NR2B-containing recombinant NMDA receptors with IC50 values between 30100 nM. Potency is strongly controlled by substitution on both rings and the centrally located amine nitrogen. SAR analysis suggests that well-balanced polarity and chain-length factors provide the greatest inhibitory potency. Structural comparisons based on 3D shape analysis and electrostatic complementarity support this conclusion. The antagonists are neuroprotective in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic cell death. In addition, some compounds exhibit anticonvulsant properties. Unlike earlier generation NMDA receptor antagonists and some NR2B-selective antagonists, the present series of propanolamines does not cause increased locomotion in rodents. Thus, the NR2B-selective antagonists exhibit a range of therapeutically interesting properties. PMID:18800760

  8. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  9. (?) Arctigenin and (+) Pinoresinol Are Antagonists of the Human Thyroid Hormone Receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lignans are important biologically active dietary polyphenolic compounds. Consumption of foods that are rich in lignans is associated with positive health effects. Using modeling tools to probe the ligand-binding pockets of molecular receptors, we found that lignans have high docking affinity for the human thyroid hormone receptor ?. Follow-up experimental results show that lignans (?) arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor ?. The modeled complexes show key plausible interactions between the two ligands and important amino acid residues of the receptor. PMID:25383984

  10. Identification of Trisubstituted-pyrazol Carboxamide Analogs as Novel and Potent Antagonists of Farnesoid X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Forman, Barry M.; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NRIH4) plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. This suggests that antagonizing the transcriptional activity of FXR is a potential means to treat cholestasis and related metabolic disorders. Here we describe the synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of trisubstituted-pyrazol carboxamides as novel and potent FXR antagonists. One of these novel FXR antagonists, 4j has an IC50 of 7.5 nM in an FXR binding assay and 468.5 nM in a cell-based FXR antagonistic assay. Compound 4j has no detectable FXR agonistic activity or cytotoxicity. Notably, 4j is the most potent FXR antagonist identified to date; it has a promising in vitro profile and could serve as an excellent chemical tool to elucidate the biological function of FXR. PMID:24775917

  11. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacological effects of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Christina; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Merk, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear bile acid sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) constitutes a rising target for the treatment of a variety of diseases including metabolic disorders, inflammation and certain forms of cancer. While the research on FXR agonists has yielded many compounds and first clinical candidates, only few FXR antagonists have been discovered so far and the knowledge about their in vivo effects is quite narrow. We have evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies with FXR antagonists as well as FXR knockout models to elucidate a potential pharmacological use of FXR antagonism. To date, the in vitro and in vivo data suggests that FXR inhibition by knockout or the use of antagonists causes beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism, ameliorates liver toxicity in cholestasis and can reduce the proliferation and migration of some cancer cell lines. Unfortunately, also many disadvantageous effects are connected with FXR antagonists. PMID:25388533

  12. Oxytocin differentially modulates compromise and competitive approach but not withdrawal to antagonists from own vs. rivaling other groups.

    PubMed

    Ten Velden, Femke S; Baas, Matthijs; Shalvi, Shaul; Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-09-11

    In humans, oxytocin promotes cognitive and motivational tendencies that benefit the groups on which humans depend for their survival and prosperity. Here we examined decision making in an incentivized two-player poker game with either an in-group or out-group antagonist. Sixty nine healthy males received 24 IU oxytocin or matching placebo, and played four rounds of a simplified poker game. On each round they received either low or high value cards to create differences in competitive strength, and then responded to a bet placed by their (simulated) (in-group or out-group) antagonist. Under placebo, participants withdrew and competed depending on their own (low vs. high) competitive strength, regardless of their antagonist's group membership. Under oxytocin, however, participants settled more and competed less with an in-group as compared to an out-group antagonist; withdrawal was unaffected by group membership. We conclude that oxytocin sensitizes humans to the group membership of their interaction partner, rendering them relatively more benevolent and less competitive towards those seen as belonging to their own group. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. PMID:24055737

  13. Identifying bias in CCR1 antagonists using radiolabelled binding, receptor internalization, ?-arrestin translocation and chemotaxis assays

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, A; Gauntner, T D; Fazzini, A; Alley, K M; Pyen, D S; Ahn, J; Ha, S J; Willett, A; Sansom, S E; Yarfi, J L; Bachovchin, K A; Mazzoni, M R; Merritt, J R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Investigators have suggested that the chemokine receptor CCR1 plays a role in multiple myeloma. Studies using antisense and neutralizing antibodies to CCR1 showed that down-regulation of the receptor altered disease progression in a mouse model. More recently, experiments utilizing scid mice injected with human myeloma cells demonstrated that the CCR1 antagonist BX471 reduced osteolytic lesions, while the CCR1 antagonist MLN-3897 prevented myeloma cell adhesion to osteoclasts. However, information is limited regarding the pharmacology of CCR1 antagonists in myeloma cells. Experimental Approach We compared several well-studied CCR1 antagonists including AZD4818, BX471, CCX354, CP-481715, MLN-3897 and PS899877 for their ability to inhibit binding of [125I]-CCL3 in vitro using membranes prepared from RPMI 8226 cells, a human multiple myeloma cell line that endogenously expresses CCR1. In addition, antagonists were assessed for their ability to modulate CCL3-mediated internalization of CCR1 and CCL3-mediated cell migration using RPMI 8226 cells. As many GPCRs signal through ?arrestin-dependent pathways that are separate and distinct from those driven by G-proteins, we also evaluated the compounds for their ability to alter ?-arrestin translocation. Key Results There were clear differences between the CCR1 antagonists in their ability to inhibit CCL3 binding to myeloma cells, as well as in their ability to inhibit Gprotein-dependent and -independent functional responses. Conclusions and Implications Our studies demonstrate that tissue phenotype seems to be relevant with regards to CCR1. Moreover, it appears that for CCR1 antagonists, inhibition of ?-arrestin translocation is not necessarily linked to chemotaxis or receptor internalization. PMID:24990525

  14. Bradykinin as a pain mediator: receptors are localized to sensory neurons, and antagonists have analgesic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Steranka, L.R.; Manning, D.C.; DeHaas, C.J.; Ferkany, J.W.; Borosky, S.A.; Connor, J.R.; Vavrek, R.J.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Autoradiographic studies localize (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptor binding sites to the substantia gelatinosa, dorsal root, and a subset of small cells in both the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the guinea pig. (/sup 3/H)Bradykinin labeling is also observed over myocardinal/coronary visceral afferent fibers. The localization of (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptors to nociceptive pathways supports a role for bradykinin in pain mediation. Several bradkykinin antagonists block bradykinin-induced acute vascular pain in the rat. The bradykinin antagonists also relieve bradykinin- and urate-induced hyperalgesia in the rat paw. These results indicate that bradykinin is a physiologic mediator of pain and that bradykinin antagonists have analgesic activity in both acute and chronic pain models.

  15. Orexin Receptor Antagonists: New Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Anthony J; Cox, Christopher D; Coleman, Paul J

    2016-01-28

    Since its discovery in 1998, the orexin system, composed of two G-protein coupled receptors, orexins 1 and 2, and two neuropeptide agonists, orexins A and B, has captured the attention of the scientific community as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity, anxiety, and sleep/wake disorders. Genetic evidence in rodents, dogs, and humans was revealed between 1999 and 2000, demonstrating a causal link between dysfunction or deletion of the orexin system and narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by hypersomnolence during normal wakefulness. These findings encouraged efforts to discover agonists to treat narcolepsy and, alternatively, antagonists to treat insomnia. This perspective will focus on the discovery and development of structurally diverse orexin antagonists suitable for preclinical pharmacology studies and human clinical trials. The work described herein culminated in the 2014 FDA approval of suvorexant as a first-in-class dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia. PMID:26317591

  16. A new class of diacidic nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: candesartan cilexetil.

    PubMed

    Naka, T; Kubo, K; Inada, Y; Nishikawa, K

    1999-08-01

    Blockade of the action of angiotensin ii (AII) has long been a target for development of novel antihypertensive agents. We recently discovered a novel class of potent non-peptide AII receptor antagonists, benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acids including candesartan. Candesartan is a highly potent and insurmountable antagonist selective in the angiotensin II type-I receptor (AT1). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the adjacent arrangement of a lipophilic substituent, a tetrazolylbiphenylmethyl moiety and a carboxyl group was the important structural requirement for potent AII antagonistic activity. Especially, the presence of a carboxyl group at the 7-position was found to be essential for insurmountable antagonism. To improve bioavailability of candesartan, chemical modification was examined to yield candesartan cilexetil, a prodrug of candesartan. Candesartan cilexetil is a potent and long-acting blocker that, when given once-daily to patients, provides effective 24 hr blood pressure control. PMID:10533806

  17. Successful treatment of portopulmonary hypertension with the selective endothelin receptor antagonist Sitaxentan.

    PubMed

    Khler, Christian M; Graziadei, Ivo; Vogelsinger, Helene; Desole, Susanna; Cima, Katharina; Vogel, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is a rare complication of portal hypertension. Prostanoids have been shown to be effective in the treatment of POPH and have been used as a bridge to liver transplantation. More recently, case series revealed beneficial effects of both the dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan and the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil. The efficacy of sitaxentan, a selective endothelin receptor A (ERA) antagonist in the reversal of POPH, is still unclear. We report a case of POPH that was successfully treated with oral sitaxentan. Haemodynamic and symptomatic improvements were maintained after a 12-week long-term treatment period. Additionally, hepatic vein pressure gradient significantly decreased from 12 mmHg to 8 mm after treatment with sitaxentan. This is the first reported case of a successful therapy with a selective ERA antagonist in a patient suffering from POPH. Oral sitaxentan therapy might be a promising new option for patients suffering from POPH. PMID:21451953

  18. AVP receptor antagonists as aquaretics: review and assessment of clinical data.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2006-09-01

    The antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is primarily responsible for regulating osmotic and volume homeostasis of body fluids, largely through binding to vasopressin type 1A (V(1A)) and type 2 (V2) receptors. Increased AVP secretion leads to decreased free water excretion with resulting water retention, and can cause dilutional hyponatremia. A new class of medications known as AVP receptor antagonists induces free water diuresis without natriuresis or kaliuresis, an effect termed aquaresis. Numerous clinical trials show AVP antagonists to be effective at increasing free water excretion and serum sodium in patients with hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion or edema-forming states such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis. This article reviews clinical trial data on the AVP antagonists in late development (lixivaptan, satavaptan, and tolvaptan) and recently approved for marketing (conivaptan). PMID:16970150

  19. Molecular determinants of agonist and antagonist signaling through the IL-36 receptor.

    PubMed

    Gnther, Sebastian; Sundberg, Eric J

    2014-07-15

    The IL-1 family consists of 11 cytokines that control a complex network of proinflammatory signals critical for regulating immune responses to infections. They also play a central role in numerous chronic inflammatory disorders. Accordingly, inhibiting the activities of these cytokines is an important therapeutic strategy for treating autoimmune diseases and lymphomas. Agonist cytokines in the IL-1 family activate signaling by binding their cognate receptor and then recruiting a receptor accessory protein. Conversely, antagonist cytokines bind their cognate receptor but prohibit recruitment of receptor accessory protein, which precludes functional signaling complexes. The IL-36 subfamily of cytokines is the most diverse, including three agonists and at least one antagonist, and is the least well-characterized group within this family. Signaling through the IL-36 receptor directly stimulates dendritic cells and primes naive CD4 T cells for Th1 responses. Appropriately balanced IL-36 signaling is a critical determinant of skin and lung health. IL-36 signaling has been presumed to function analogously to IL-1 signaling. In this study, we have defined molecular determinants of agonist and antagonist signaling through the IL-36 receptor. We present the crystal structure of IL-36?, which, to our knowledge, is the first reported structure of an IL-36 agonist. Using this structure as a guide, we designed a comprehensive series of IL-36 agonist/antagonist chimeric proteins for which we measured binding to the IL-36 receptor/IL-1 receptor accessory protein complex and functional activation and inhibition of signaling. Our data reveal how the fine specificity of IL-36 signaling is distinct from that of IL-1. PMID:24935927

  20. SAR of the arylpiperazine moiety of obeline somatostatin sst1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hurth, Konstanze; Enz, Albert; Floersheim, Philipp; Gentsch, Conrad; Hoyer, Daniel; Langenegger, Daniel; Neumann, Peter; Pfffli, Paul; Sorg, Dieter; Swoboda, Robert; Vassout, Annick; Troxler, Thomas

    2007-07-15

    The SAR of over 50 derivatives of octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline (obeline)-type somatostatin sst(1) receptor antagonist 1 is presented, focusing on the modification of its arylpiperazine moiety. Sst(1) affinities in this series cover a range of five orders of magnitude with the best derivatives displaying subnanomolar sst(1) affinities and >10,000-fold selectivities over the sst(2) receptor subtype as well as promising pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:17512199

  1. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1-blockers, ARBs, sartans): similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A survey is presented of the registered non-peptidergic angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1 blockers, ARBs, sartans) and their general properties and similarities. Accordingly, their receptor profile, pharmacokinetic and therapeutic applications are discussed. In addition, attention is paid to the individual characteristics of the AT1 blockers now available. A few components of this category offer additional potentially beneficial properties, owing to their pharmacological or metabolic characteristics. Such additional properties are critically discussed for eprosartan, losartan, telmisartan and valsartan. PMID:25696573

  2. Identification of MK-8133: An orexin-2 selective receptor antagonist with favorable development properties.

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Scott D; Skudlarek, Jason W; DiMarco, Christina N; Bruno, Joseph G; Pausch, Mark H; O'Brien, Julie A; Cabalu, Tamara D; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Savitz, Alan T; Harrell, Charles M; Gotter, Anthony L; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Coleman, Paul J

    2015-06-15

    Antagonism of orexin receptors has shown clinical efficacy as a novel paradigm for the treatment of insomnia and related disorders. Herein, molecules related to the dual orexin receptor antagonist filorexant were transformed into compounds that were selective for the OX2R subtype. Judicious selection of the substituents on the pyridine ring and benzamide groups led to 6b; which was highly potent, OX2R selective, and exhibited excellent development properties. PMID:25981685

  3. Remote functionalization of SCH 39166: discovery of potent and selective benzazepine dopamine D1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, T K; Burnett, Duane A; Greenlee, William J; Smith, Michelle; Fawzi, Ahmad; Zhang, Hongtao; Lachowicz, Jean E

    2010-02-01

    A series of novel benzazepine derived dopamine D(1) antagonists have been discovered. These compounds are highly potent at D(1) and showed excellent selectivity over D(2) and D(4) receptors. SAR studies revealed that a variety of functional groups are tolerated on the D-ring of known tetracyclic benzazepine analog 2, SCH 39166, leading to compounds with nanomolar potency at D(1) and good selectivity over D(2)-like receptors. PMID:20064718

  4. THE METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE 2/3 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST LY341495 DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS RECOGNITION MEMORY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Kaffe, Eleanna; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists affect cognitive function, although contradictory findings have been reported. To clarify the role of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists in one aspect of cognition, the present study investigated the effects of a broad range of doses of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on post-training recognition memory components (storage and/or retrieval) in rats. The efficacy of LY341495 in antagonizing the extinction of recognition memory was also investigated. The novel object recognition test was used as the memory test. The highest LY341495 doses administered (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) disrupted performance in this recognition memory procedure in rats at all delay conditions tested, whereas administration of lower doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not impair recognition memory. Moreover, administration of the low LY341495 doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) counteracted the extinction of recognition memory. The present results indicate that administration of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 can either impair or enhance recognition memory in rats, depending on the dose of the compound and delay period used. Thus, together with previously reported findings, the present data suggest complex effects of this compound on cognitive function, particularly recognition memory. PMID:22586715

  5. Tetrahydroisoquinoline Phenols: Selective Estrogen Receptor Downregulator Antagonists with Oral Bioavailability in Rat.

    PubMed

    Scott, James S; Bailey, Andrew; Davies, Robert D M; Degorce, Sbastien L; MacFaul, Philip A; Gingell, Helen; Moss, Thomas; Norman, Richard A; Pink, Jennifer H; Rabow, Alfred A; Roberts, Bryan; Smith, Peter D

    2016-01-14

    A series of tetrahydroisoquinoline phenols was modified to give an estrogen receptor downregulator-antagonist profile. Optimization around the core, alkyl side chain, and pendant aryl ring resulted in compounds with subnanomolar levels of potency. The phenol functionality was shown to be required to achieve highly potent compounds, but unusually this was compatible with obtaining high oral bioavailabilities in rat. PMID:26819673

  6. CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST HALTS PROGRESSION OF PANCREATIC CANCER PRECURSOR LESIONS AND FIBROSIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jill P.; Cooper, Timothy K.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Matters, Gail L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved with the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. Methods The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK-receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1mg/ml). Pancreas from mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2 or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Results Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared to controls (p=0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared to vehicle (pitalic>0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Use of CCK-receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high risk subjects, and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment. PMID:25058882

  7. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of (-)-hydroxyclemastine as a versatile intermediate for the H1 receptor antagonist clemastine.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jung Wha; Kim, Hee-Doo

    2007-12-01

    Hydroxyclemastine was targeted as a versatile analogue of clemastine with H1 receptor antagonist activity. Stereoselective synthesis of (-)-hydroxyclemastine was performed in which the key step was chelation-controlled diastereoselective 1,2-addition of Grignard reagent to alpha-alkoxyketone. PMID:18254238

  9. A cross-laboratory preclinical study on the effectiveness of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in stroke.

    PubMed

    Maysami, Samaneh; Wong, Raymond; Pradillo, Jesus M; Denes, Adam; Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari; Orset, Cyrille; Rahman, Mahbubur; Rubio, Marina; Schwaninger, Markus; Vivien, Denis; Bath, Philip M; Rothwell, Nancy J; Allan, Stuart M

    2016-03-01

    Stroke represents a global challenge and is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Despite much effort, translation of research findings to clinical benefit has not yet been successful. Failure of neuroprotection trials is considered, in part, due to the low quality of preclinical studies, low level of reproducibility across different laboratories and that stroke co-morbidities have not been fully considered in experimental models. More rigorous testing of new drug candidates in different experimental models of stroke and initiation of preclinical cross-laboratory studies have been suggested as ways to improve translation. However, to our knowledge, no drugs currently in clinical stroke trials have been investigated in preclinical cross-laboratory studies. The cytokine interleukin 1 is a key mediator of neuronal injury, and the naturally occurring interleukin 1 receptor antagonist has been reported as beneficial in experimental studies of stroke. In the present paper, we report on a preclinical cross-laboratory stroke trial designed to investigate the efficacy of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in different research laboratories across Europe. Our results strongly support the therapeutic potential of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in experimental stroke and provide further evidence that interleukin 1 receptor antagonist should be evaluated in more extensive clinical stroke trials. PMID:26661169

  10. A cross-laboratory preclinical study on the effectiveness of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Maysami, Samaneh; Wong, Raymond; Pradillo, Jesus M; Denes, Adam; Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari; Orset, Cyrille; Rahman, Mahbubur; Rubio, Marina; Schwaninger, Markus; Vivien, Denis; Bath, Philip M; Rothwell, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Stroke represents a global challenge and is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Despite much effort, translation of research findings to clinical benefit has not yet been successful. Failure of neuroprotection trials is considered, in part, due to the low quality of preclinical studies, low level of reproducibility across different laboratories and that stroke co-morbidities have not been fully considered in experimental models. More rigorous testing of new drug candidates in different experimental models of stroke and initiation of preclinical cross-laboratory studies have been suggested as ways to improve translation. However, to our knowledge, no drugs currently in clinical stroke trials have been investigated in preclinical cross-laboratory studies. The cytokine interleukin 1 is a key mediator of neuronal injury, and the naturally occurring interleukin 1 receptor antagonist has been reported as beneficial in experimental studies of stroke. In the present paper, we report on a preclinical cross-laboratory stroke trial designed to investigate the efficacy of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in different research laboratories across Europe. Our results strongly support the therapeutic potential of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in experimental stroke and provide further evidence that interleukin 1 receptor antagonist should be evaluated in more extensive clinical stroke trials. PMID:26661169

  11. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  12. III. Identification of novel CXCR3 chemokine receptor antagonists with a pyrazinyl-piperazinyl-piperidine scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Heon; Anilkumar, Gopinadhan N; Zawacki, Lisa Guise; Zeng, Qingbei; Yang, De-Yi; Shao, Yuefei; Dong, Guizhen; Xu, Xiaolian; Yu, Wensheng; Jiang, Yueheng; Jenh, Chung-Her; Hall, James W; Carroll, Carolyn Diianni; Hobbs, Doug W; Baldwin, John J; McGuinness, Brian F; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Kozlowski, Joseph A; Shankar, Bandarpalle B; Shih, Neng-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The SAR of a novel pyrazinyl-piperazinyl-piperidine scaffold with CXCR3 receptor antagonist activity was explored. Optimization of the DMPK profile and reduction of hERG inhibition is described. Compound 16e with single-digit CXCR3 affinity, good rat PK and hERG profiles has been identified as a lead for further study. PMID:22018463

  13. Orally active vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SRX251, selectively blocks aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F; Lu, Shi-Fang; Messenger, Tara; Guillon, Christophe D; Heindel, Ned; Miller, Marvin; Koppel, Gary; Robert Bruns, F; Simon, Neal G

    2006-02-01

    Arginine vasopressin functions as a neurochemical signal in the brain to affect social behavior. There is an expanding literature from animal and human studies showing that vasopressin, through the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1A), can stimulate aggressive behavior. Using a novel monocylic beta lactam platform, a series of orally active vasopressin V1a antagonists was developed with high affinity for the human receptor. SRX251 was chosen from this series of V1a antagonists to screen for effects on serenic activity in a resident-intruder model of offensive aggression. Resident, male Syrian golden hamsters were given oral doses of SRX251 or intraperitoneal Manning compound, a selective V1a receptor antagonist with reduced brain penetrance, at doses of 0.2 microg, 20 microg, 2 mg/kg or vehicle. When tested 90-120 min later, SRX251, but not Manning compound, caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in offensive aggression toward intruders as measured by latency to bite and number of bites. The reduction in aggression persisted for over 6 h and was no longer present 12 h post treatment. SRX251 did not alter the amount of time the resident investigated the intruder, olfactory communication, general motor activity, or sexual motivation. These data corroborate previous studies showing a role for vasopressin neurotransmission in aggression and suggest that V1a receptor antagonists may be used to treat interpersonal violence co-occurring with such illness as ADHD, autism, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse. PMID:16504276

  14. Molecular modelling of the vasopressin V2 receptor/antagonist interactions.

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, C; Ka?mierkiewicz, R; Ciarkowski, J

    1998-01-01

    We predict some essential interactions between the V2 vasopressin renal receptor (V2R) and its selective peptide antagonist desGly9-[Mca1,D-Ile2,Ile4]AVP, and compare these predictions with the earlier ones for the non-peptide OPC-36120 antagonist- and the [Arg8]vasopressin (AVP) agonist-V2 receptor interactions. V2R controls antidiuresis in mammals and belongs to the superfamily of the heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR)s. V2R was built, the ligands docked and the structures relaxed using advanced molecular modeling techniques. Both the agonist and the antagonists (no matter whether of peptide- or non-peptide type) appear to prefer a common V2R compartment for docking. The receptor amino-acid residues, potentially important in ligand binding, are mainly in the TM3-TM7 helices. A few of these residues are invariant for the whole GPCR superfamily while most of them are conserved in the subfamily of neurohypophyseal receptors, to which V2R belongs. Some of the equivalent residues in a related V1a receptor have been earlier reported as critical for the ligand affinity. PMID:9701492

  15. Binding characteristics of YM087, an AVP receptor antagonist, in rhesus monkey liver and kidney membranes.

    PubMed

    Tahara, A; Tomura, Y; Wada, K; Kusayama, T; Tsukada, J; Ishii, N; Yatsu, T; Uchida, W; Tanaka, A

    1998-01-01

    The binding characteristics of YM087, a nonpeptide vasopressin (AVP) V1A and V2 receptor antagonist, were studied using 3H-AVP binding to rhesus monkey liver and kidney membrane preparations. Both membrane preparations exhibited one class of high-affinity binding sites. However each membrane's receptors were different, with Kd values of 0.57 and 1.11 nM, Bmax values of 59.6 and 147 fmol/mg protein for liver and kidney, respectively. AVP receptor agonist or antagonist binding inhibition studies confirmed that these receptors belong to the V1A (liver) and V2 (kidney) subtypes. YM087 showed high affinity for both liver V1A and kidney V2 receptors with Ki values of 26.3 and 9.89 nM, respectively. These results show that YM087 is a potent, nonpeptide dual AVP V1A and V2 receptor antagonist, and would be a powerful tool for understanding the physiologic roles of AVP. PMID:9622024

  16. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  17. In silico modelling of prostacyclin and other lipid mediators to nuclear receptors reveal novel thyroid hormone receptor antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Perez Diaz, Noelia; Zloh, Mire; Patel, Pryank; Mackenzie, Louise S

    2016-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a key mediator involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, acting predominantly on two receptor types; cell surface IP receptor and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ. Having a very short half-life, direct methods to determine its long term effects on cells is difficult, and little is known of its interactions with nuclear receptors. Here we used computational chemistry methods to investigate the potential for PGI2, beraprost (IP receptor agonist), and GW0742 (PPARβ/δ agonist), to bind to nuclear receptors, confirmed with pharmacological methods. In silico screening predicted that PGI2, beraprost, and GW0742 have the potential to bind to different nuclear receptors, in particular thyroid hormone β receptor (TRβ) and thyroid hormone α receptor (TRα). Docking analysis predicts a binding profile to residues thought to have allosteric control on the TR ligand binding site. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that beraprost and GW0742 display TRβ and TRα antagonistic properties; beraprost IC50 6.3×10(-5)mol/L and GW0742 IC50 4.9×10(-6)mol/L. Changes to triiodothyronine (T3) induced vasodilation of rat mesenteric arteries measured on the wire myograph were measured in the presence of the TR antagonist MLS000389544 (10(-5)mol/L), beraprost (10(-5)mol/L) and GW0742 (10(-5)mol/L); all significantly inhibited T3 induced vasodilation compared to controls. We have shown that both beraprost and GW0742 exhibit TRβ and TRα antagonist behaviour, and suggests that PGI2 has the ability to affect the long term function of cells through binding to and inactivating thyroid hormone receptors. PMID:26686607

  18. Stereoselective synthesis and preliminary evaluation of (+)- and (-)-3-methyl-5-carboxy-thien-2-yl-glycine (3-MATIDA): identification of (+)-3-MATIDA as a novel mGluR1 competitive antagonist.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Gabriele; Marinozzi, Maura; Camaioni, Emidio; Natalini, Benedetto; Sarichelou, Iran; Micheli, Fabrizio; Cavanni, Paolo; Faedo, Stefania; Noe, Christian; Moroni, Flavio; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    The synthesis of the (+)- and (-)-isomers of 3-methyl-5-carboxy-thyen-2-yl-glycine (3-MATIDA), heterocyle isosters of carboxyphenylglycines (CPGs), a known class of competitive metabotropic glutamate receptors, was accomplished by a stereoselective Ugi condensation. The two isomers were tested as potential rat mGluR1 ligand and the (+) isomer was found to be a moderately potent antagonist, while the (-) one was inactive. PMID:14871500

  19. Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein regulation of competitive antagonism: a problem of interpretation

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, David M; Bowie, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Synaptic AMPA receptors are greatly influenced by a family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) which control trafficking, channel gating and pharmacology. The prototypical TARP, stargazin (or ?2), shifts the blocking ability of several AMPAR-selective compounds including the commonly used quinoxalinedione antagonists, CNQX and NBQX. Stargazin's effect on CNQX is particularly intriguing as it not only apparently lowers the potency of block, as with NBQX, but also renders it a partial agonist. Given this, agonist behaviour by CNQX has been speculated to account for its weaker blocking effect on AMPARTARP complexes. Here we show that this is not the case. The apparent effect of stargazin on CNQX antagonism can be almost entirely explained by an increase in the apparent affinity for l-glutamate (l-Glu), a full agonist and neurotransmitter at AMPAR synapses. Partial agonism at best plays a minor role but not through channel gating per se but rather because CNQX elicits AMPAR desensitization. Our study reveals that CNQX is best thought of as a non-competitive antagonist at glutamatergic synapses due to the predominance of non-equilibrium conditions. Consequently, CNQX primarily reports the proportion of AMPARs available for activation but may also impose additional block by receptor desensitization. PMID:21969453

  20. Mesenteric vascular reactivity to histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Walus, K.M.; Fondacaro, J.D.; Jacobson, E.D.

    1981-05-01

    Response patterns of intestinal blood flow, oxygen extraction and consumption, blood flow distribution, and motility were assessed during intraarterial infusions of histamine, histamine after H1 or H2 blockade, dimaprit or dimaprit after H2 blockade. Histamine produced an initial peak response of blood flow with a slow decrease thereafter. Oxygen extraction was evenly depressed throughout the infusion, and oxygen consumption increased at the beginning. All initial responses were blocked by tripelennamine. Ranitidine, a new H2 antagonist, accelerated the decay of all responses. Dimaprit produced effects identical to those of histamine after tripelennamine. Distribution of blood flow was unchanged at the beginning of histamine infusion, but subsequently showed a shift to muscularis which was blocked by tripelennamine. Histamine usually stimulated intestinal contractions and this effect was abolished by tripelennamine. Thus, H1 stimulation, besides producing an initial vasodilation, increases oxygen uptake and redistributes flow to the muscularis.

  1. Characterization of active and inactive states of CB1 receptor and the differential binding state modulation by cannabinoid agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Gullapalli, Srinivas; Amrutkar, Dipak; Gupta, Sangeetha; Kandadi, Machender R; Kumar, Hemant; Gandhi, Maulik; Karande, Vikas; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2010-06-01

    Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors have the ability to change conformation between active (R*) and inactive (R) receptor states. Herein, we further characterize these receptor states using series of saturation radioligand binding studies and their differential displacement binding by various CB1 receptor ligands. Binding experiments were carried out in nave rat/dog whole brain membranes using radioligands [(3)H]CP55,940 (for R* state) & [(3)H]SR141716A (both R* and R states) and various agonist, antagonist & inverse agonist ligands at CB1 receptors. In the saturation binding experiments, of the total number of CB1 receptor binding sites (R* + R) in the rat and dog whole brain membranes, only about 18.3 and 11.6% were in the active (R*) state recognized by [(3)H]CP55,940, respectively. In the competitive binding studies, all the CB1 receptor agonists investigated had significantly very high affinity for the active R* state recognized by [(3)H]CP55,940 and lower affinity for the inactive R state mainly recognized by [(3)H]SR141716A in the presence of a non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP [Gpp(NH)p]. In contrast, various CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists had similar nanomolar affinities at both [(3)H]CP55,940 and [(3)H]SR141716A recognized binding states. These results clearly characterize the significant differences between the active R* and inactive R binding states of CB1 receptors in naive rat and dog brain. In addition, these results also demonstrates that the CB1 agonists and antagonists/inverse agonists can be differentiated by their relative affinities at active (R*) and inactive (R) binding states of the CB1 receptor. PMID:20214912

  2. Current perspectives on selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heidbreder, Christian A.; Newman, Amy H.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces long-term molecular and neurochemical changes that may explain the core features of addiction, such as the compulsive seeking and taking of the drug, as well as the risk of relapse. A growing number of new molecular and cellular targets of addictive drugs have been identified, and rapid advances are being made in relating those targets to specific behavioral phenotypes in animal models of addiction. In this context, the pattern of expression of the dopamine (DA) D3 receptor in the rodent and human brain and changes in this pattern in response to drugs of abuse have contributed primarily to direct research efforts toward the development of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists. Growing preclinical evidence indicates that these compounds may actually regulate the motivation to self-administer drugs and disrupt drug-associated cue-induced craving. This report will be divided into three parts. First, preclinical evidence in support of the efficacy of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists in animal models of drug addiction will be reviewed. The effects of mixed DA D2/D3 receptor antagonists will not be discussed here because most of these compounds have low selectivity at the D3 versus D2 receptor, and their efficacy profile is related primarily to functional antagonism at D2 receptors and possibly interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. Second, major advances in medicinal chemistry for the identification and optimization of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists will be analyzed. Third, translational research from preclinical efficacy studies to so-called proof-of-concept studies for drug addiction indications will be discussed. PMID:20201845

  3. Current perspectives on selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Heidbreder, Christian A; Newman, Amy H

    2010-02-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces long-term molecular and neurochemical changes that may explain the core features of addiction, such as the compulsive seeking and taking of the drug, as well as the risk of relapse. A growing number of new molecular and cellular targets of addictive drugs have been identified, and rapid advances are being made in relating those targets to specific behavioral phenotypes in animal models of addiction. In this context, the pattern of expression of the dopamine (DA) D(3) receptor in the rodent and human brain and changes in this pattern in response to drugs of abuse have contributed primarily to direct research efforts toward the development of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists. Growing preclinical evidence indicates that these compounds may actually regulate the motivation to self-administer drugs and disrupt drug-associated cue-induced craving. This report will be divided into three parts. First, preclinical evidence in support of the efficacy of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists in animal models of drug addiction will be reviewed. The effects of mixed DA D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonists will not be discussed here because most of these compounds have low selectivity at the D(3) versus D(2) receptor, and their efficacy profile is related primarily to functional antagonism at D(2) receptors and possibly interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. Second, major advances in medicinal chemistry for the identification and optimization of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists and partial agonists will be analyzed. Third, translational research from preclinical efficacy studies to so-called proof-of-concept studies for drug addiction indications will be discussed. PMID:20201845

  4. Effects of platelet activating factor receptor antagonists on intracellular platelet activating factor function in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Koike, H; Imanishi, N; Natsume, Y; Morooka, S

    1994-11-15

    We investigated the effects of the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists, SM-12502 ((+)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(pyridyl)- thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride), WEB-2086 (3-(4-(2-chlorphenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno(3,2-f)-(1,2,4)triazolo(4, 3- a)(1,4)diazepin-2-yl)-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone) and RP-48740 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1H,3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazole-7-carboxamide) on the PAF-mediated activation of rat neutrophils. These antagonists inhibited PAF-induced degranulation and chemotaxis in neutrophils at a dose that correlated well with PAF-induced platelet aggregation based on the statistical analyses. N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L- phenylalanin (fMLP)-induced cellular responses were also inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonists, but their inhibitory potencies did not correlate with those for PAF-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, the doses required for inhibition were higher than those required against PAF-induced responses (i.e. IC50 ratio of WEB-2086, SM-12502 and RP-48740 in fMLP-induced/PAF-induced degranulation was 40.0, 2.8 and 5.6, respectively). PAF receptor antagonists inhibited inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production and the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store site after stimulation with PAF. In the fMLP-induced responses, PAF receptor antagonists did not inhibit IP3 production and Ca2+ release, but did inhibit transmembrane Ca2+ influx. These results suggest the presence of distinct PAF receptor subtype, to which exogenously added PAF binds, while endogenously produced PAF binds to the other. Intracellular PAF, which was produced by fMLP-stimulation, may play an important role in the late phase of signal transduction, and may participate in the transmembrane Ca2+ influx. PMID:7895770

  5. APORPHINOID ANTAGONISTS OF 5-HT2A RECEPTORS: FURTHER EVALUATION OF RING A SUBSTITUENTS AND THE SIZE OF RING C

    PubMed Central

    Ponnala, Shashikanth; Kapadia, Nirav; Navarro, Hernán A.; Harding, Wayne W.

    2014-01-01

    A series of ring A modified analogs of nantenine as well as structural variants in ring C were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at 5-HT2A and α1A receptors. Halogenation improves 5-HT2A antagonist potency in molecules containing a C1 methoxyl/C2 methoxyl or C1 methoxyl/C2 hydroxyl moiety. Bromination or iodination (but not chlorination) with the latter moiety also significantly increased α1A antagonist potency. Homologation or contraction of ring C adversely affected antagonist activity at both receptors, implying that a six-membered ring C motif is beneficial for high antagonist potency at both receptors. Molecular docking studies suggest that the improved antagonist activity (by virtue of improved affinity) of C3 halogenated aporphines in this study, is attributable to favorable interactions with the C3 halogen and F339 and/or F340. PMID:24766771

  6. A new class of diacidic nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: candesartan cilexetil.

    PubMed

    Naka, T; Kubo, K

    1999-06-01

    Blockade of the action of angiotensin II (AII) has long been a target for development of novel antihypertensive agents. We recently discovered a novel class of potent nonpeptide AII receptor antagonists, benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acids including candesartan. Candesartan is a highly potent and insurmountable angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1)-selective antagonist. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the adjacent arrangement of a lipophilic substituent, a tetrazolylbiphenylmethyl moiety and a carboxyl group was the important structural requirement for potent AII antagonistic activity. The benzimidazole ring was found to be one of the most suitable templates arranging these three essential components in correct direction. Especially, the presence of a carboxyl group at the 7-position was found to be essential for insurmountable antagonism. Although candesartan is a very potent AII antagonist, it was found to be absorbed rather inefficiently upon oral administration. To improve bioavailability (BA) of candesartan, chemical modification was examined to yield candesartan cilexetil, a prodrug of candesartan. Candesartan cilexetil is a potent and long-acting blocker that provides effective 24 hr blood pressure control. Our alternative research efforts to improve oral BA was performed by replacement of the tetrazole ring in candesartan by other new acidic bioisosteric heterocyclic rings to find the nonprodrug AII antagonist TAK-536, bearing 5-oxo-1,2,4-oxadiazole ring, which was as potent and orally active as candesartan cilexetil. PMID:10390609

  7. Highlights on the development of A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Gloria; Cacciari, Barbara; Dal Ben, Diego; Lambertucci, Catia; Moro, Stefano; Spalluto, Giampiero; Volpini, Rosaria

    2007-03-01

    Although significant progress has been made in the past few decades demonstrating that adenosine modulates a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes through the interaction with four subtypes of a family of cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors, clinical evaluation of some adenosine receptor ligands has been discontinued. Major problems include side effects due to the wide distribution of adenosine receptors, low brain penetration (which is important for the targeting of CNS diseases), short half-life of compounds, or a lack of effects, in some cases perhaps due to receptor desensitization or to low receptor density in the targeted tissue. Currently, three A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists have begun phase III studies. Two of them are therapeutically evaluated as pharmacologic stress agents and the third proved to be effective in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI), while avoiding the adverse effects of steroid agents. On the other hand, the great interest in the field of A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists is related to their application in neurodegenerative disorders, in particular, Parkinson's disease, and some of them are currently in various stages of evaluation. This review presents an update of medicinal chemistry and molecular recognition of A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists, and stresses the strong need for more selective ligands at the A(2A) human subtype. PMID:17177231

  8. N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antagonists Have Variable Affect in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Carbery, Timothy; Geddes, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that excitotoxicity and oxidative stress resulting from excessive activation of glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate) NMDA receptors are major participants in striatal degeneration associated with 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) administration. Although excitotoxic and oxidative mechanisms are implicated in 3NP toxicity, there are conflicting reports as to whether NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate or exacerbate the 3NP-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors in striatal degeneration, protein oxidation and motor impairment following systemic 3NP administration. We examined whether NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, influence the neurotoxicity of 3NP. The development of striatal lesion and protein oxidation following 3NP administration is delayed by memantine but not affected by ifenprodil. However, in behavioral experiments, memantine failed to improve and ifenprodil exacerbated the motor deficits associated with 3NP toxicity. Together, these findings suggest caution in the application of NMDA receptor antagonists as a neuroprotective agent in neurodegenerative disorders associated with metabolic impairment. PMID:18688711

  9. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists have variable affect in 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Payman; Carbery, Timothy; Geddes, James W

    2009-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that excitotoxicity and oxidative stress resulting from excessive activation of glutamate (N-methyl-D-aspartate) NMDA receptors are major participants in striatal degeneration associated with 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) administration. Although excitotoxic and oxidative mechanisms are implicated in 3NP toxicity, there are conflicting reports as to whether NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate or exacerbate the 3NP-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors in striatal degeneration, protein oxidation and motor impairment following systemic 3NP administration. We examined whether NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, influence the neurotoxicity of 3NP. The development of striatal lesion and protein oxidation following 3NP administration is delayed by memantine but not affected by ifenprodil. However, in behavioral experiments, memantine failed to improve and ifenprodil exacerbated the motor deficits associated with 3NP toxicity. Together, these findings suggest caution in the application of NMDA receptor antagonists as a neuroprotective agent in neurodegenerative disorders associated with metabolic impairment. PMID:18688711

  10. Differential effects of NMDA receptor antagonists at lower and higher doses on basal gamma band oscillation power in rat cortical electroencephalograms.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Tetsuaki; Kambe, Daiji; Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenic patients have been shown to exhibit abnormal cortical gamma band oscillation (GBO), which is thought to be related to the symptoms of schizophrenia, including cognitive impairment. Recently, non-competitive NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonists such as MK-801 and ketamine have been reported to increase the basal GBO power in rat cortical electroencephalograms. However, the mechanisms underlying the increase in basal GBO power induced by non-competitive NMDAr antagonists remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized the non-competitive NMDAr antagonists-increased GBO (30-80 Hz) power. MK-801 (0.05-0.2 mg/kg) increased the GBO power, exhibiting an inverted U-shape dose-response curve; at higher doses (0.3-1 mg/kg), the increase in GBO was reversed. The GBO power was closely correlated with the high-frequency oscillation (130-180 Hz) power following MK-801 administration, while the GBO power was inversely correlated with the increase in delta oscillation (0.5-4 Hz) power at higher doses. PCP (1.25-10 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.5-30 mg/kg) also exhibited the inverted U-shape dose-responses for the basal GBO power similar to MK-801. Interestingly, memantine (10-30 mg/kg) dose-dependently and potently increased the GBO power without remarkably affecting the other frequency band. In contrast, other psychotomimetics, such as methamphetamine (1-10 mg/kg) and DOI (0.5-2 mg/kg), did not induce noticeable changes in the basal GBO power even at doses that induce abnormal behaviors, indicating that the increase in GBO power induced by NMDAr antagonists is not necessarily attributed to psychotomimetic effects. In conclusion, the basal GBO power increase in response to non-competitive NMDAr antagonists may reflect the cortical hyperglutamatergic state through GABAergic disinhibition. PMID:24907590

  11. Inhibition of acute nociceptive responses in rat spinal cord by a bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Conley, Rachel K; Wheeldon, Alan; Webb, Janine K; DiPardo, Robert M; Homnick, Carl F; Bock, Mark G; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Chang, Raymond S L; Pettibone, Douglas J; Boyce, Susan

    2005-12-19

    This study used behavioural and in vivo electrophysiological paradigms to examine the effects of systemic and spinal administration of a bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist, compound X, on acute nociceptive responses in the rat. In behavioural experiments, compound X significantly increased the latency to withdraw the hindpaw from a radiant heat source after both intravenous and intrathecal administration, without affecting motor performance on the rotarod. In electrophysiological experiments, both intravenous and direct spinal administration of compound X attenuated the responses of single dorsal horn neurones to noxious thermal stimulation of the hindpaw. These data show that the antinociceptive effects of a bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist are mediated, at least in part, at the level of the spinal cord and suggest a role for spinal bradykinin B1 receptors in acute nociception. PMID:16310181

  12. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. PMID:26959995

  13. Selective sigma-1 (sigma1) receptor antagonists: emerging target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Daz, Jos Luis; Zamanillo, Daniel; Corbera, Jordi; Baeyens, Jos Manuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Perics, Miquel Angel; Vela, Jos Miguel; Torrens, Antoni

    2009-09-01

    A large number of therapeutic roles have been proposed for sigma(1) receptors but the involvement of sigma(1) receptor in non-acute pain had not been well explored up to now. sigma(1) receptor knock-out mice became available offering us the possibility to study the role of sigma(1) receptor in nociception, particularly in models where central sensitization processes play a significant role. Given the attractive therapeutic potential, we have developed a chemical program aimed at the discovery of novel and selective sigma(1) ligands. Herein we discuss the rational basis of this approach and report preliminary pharmacological results of several chemical series and aspects of their structure-activity relationship on sigma(1) receptor. Functional data in pain models are presented mainly on one series that provide evidence to consider selective sigma(1) receptor antagonists an innovative and alternative approach for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:20021351

  14. ?-Lactam estrogen receptor antagonists and a dual-targeting estrogen receptor/tubulin ligand.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Pollock, Jade K; Carr, Miriam; Knox, Andrew J S; Nathwani, Seema M; Wang, Shu; Caboni, Laura; Zisterer, Daniela M; Meegan, Mary J

    2014-11-26

    Twelve novel ?-lactams were synthesized and their antiproliferative effects and binding affinity for the predominant isoforms of the estrogen receptor (ER), ER? and ER?, were determined. ?-Lactams 23 and 26 had the strongest binding affinities for ER? (IC50 values: 40 and 8 nM, respectively) and ER? (IC50 values: 19 and 15 nM). ?-Lactam 26 was the most potent in antiproliferative assays using MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and further biochemical analysis showed that it caused accumulation of cells in G2/M phase (mitotic blockade) and depolymerization of tubulin in MCF-7 cells. Compound 26 also induced apoptosis and downregulation of the expression of pro-survival proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Computational modeling predicted binding preferences for the dual ER/tubulin ligand 26. This series is an important addition to the known pool of ER antagonists and ?-lactam 26 is the first reported compound that has dual-targeting properties for both the ER and tubulin. PMID:25369367

  15. Novel 3-Aryl Indoles as Progesterone Receptor Antagonists for Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of novel 3-aryl indoles as potent and efficacious progesterone receptor (PR) antagonists with potential for the treatment of uterine fibroids. These compounds demonstrated excellent selectivity over other steroid nuclear hormone receptors such as the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). They were prepared from 2-bromo-6-nitro indole in four to six steps using a Suzuki cross-coupling as the key step. Compound 8f was orally active in the complement 3 model of progesterone antagonism in the rat uterus and demonstrated partial antagonism in the McPhail model of progesterone activity. PMID:24900294

  16. Novel 3-aryl indoles as progesterone receptor antagonists for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Timothy I; Clarke, Christian A; Yu, Kuo-Long; Yee, Ying K; Bleisch, Thomas J; Lopez, Jose E; Jones, Scott A; Hughes, Norman E; Muehl, Brian S; Lugar, Charles W; Moore, Terry L; Shetler, Pamela K; Zink, Richard W; Osborne, John J; Montrose-Rafizadeh, Chahrzad; Patel, Nita; Geiser, Andrew G; Galvin, Rachelle J Sells; Dodge, Jeffrey A

    2011-02-10

    We report the synthesis and characterization of novel 3-aryl indoles as potent and efficacious progesterone receptor (PR) antagonists with potential for the treatment of uterine fibroids. These compounds demonstrated excellent selectivity over other steroid nuclear hormone receptors such as the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). They were prepared from 2-bromo-6-nitro indole in four to six steps using a Suzuki cross-coupling as the key step. Compound 8f was orally active in the complement 3 model of progesterone antagonism in the rat uterus and demonstrated partial antagonism in the McPhail model of progesterone activity. PMID:24900294

  17. Effects of systemic, intracerebral, or intrathecal administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist on associative morphine analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    McNally, G P; Westbrook, R F

    1998-08-01

    A flavor paired with morphine shifted to the right the function relating morphine dose to tail-flick latencies and provoked hyperalgesic responses when rats were tested in the absence of morphine. These learned increases in nociceptive sensitivity were not mediated by alterations in tail-skin temperature. Microinjection of the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) into the lateral ventricle reversed the hyperalgesic responses but spared the tolerance to morphine analgesia. By contrast, systemic administration of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or intrathecal infusion of AP-5 reversed the hyperalgesic responses as well as the tolerance to morphine analgesia. The results demonstrate that associatively mediated tolerance to morphine analgesia can co-occur with hyperalgesic responses and are discussed relative to learned activation of endogenous pronociceptive mechanisms. PMID:9733203

  18. Discovery of new SCH 39166 analogs as potent and selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Li; Sasikumar, T K; Burnett, Duane A; Su, Jing; Tang, Haiqun; Ye, Yuanzan; Mazzola, Robert D; Zhu, Zhaoning; McKittrick, Brian A; Greenlee, William J; Fawzi, Ahmad; Smith, Michelle; Zhang, Hongtao; Lachowicz, Jean E

    2010-02-01

    A series of novel dopamine D(1) antagonists derived from functionalization of the D-ring of SCH 39166 were prepared. A number of these compounds displayed subnanomolar D(1) activity and more than 1000-fold selectivity over D(2). We found C-3 derivatization afforded compounds with superior overall profile in comparison to the C-2 and C-4 derivatization. A number of highly potent D(1) antagonists were discovered which have excellent selectivity over other dopamine receptors and improved PK profile compared to SCH 39166. PMID:20061148

  19. Inhibition of human and mouse plasma membrane bound NTPDases by P2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Munkonda, Mercedes N; Kauffenstein, Gilles; Kukulski, Filip; Lvesque, Sbastien A; Legendre, Charlne; Pelletier, Julie; Lavoie, Elise G; Lecka, Joanna; Svigny, Jean

    2007-11-15

    The plasma membrane bound nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)-1, 2, 3 and 8 are major ectonucleotidases that modulate P2 receptor signaling by controlling nucleotides' concentrations at the cell surface. In this report, we systematically evaluated the effect of the commonly used P2 receptor antagonists reactive blue 2, suramin, NF279, NF449 and MRS2179, on recombinant human and mouse NTPDase1, 2, 3 and 8. Enzymatic reactions were performed in a Tris/calcium buffer, commonly used to evaluate NTPDase activity, and in a more physiological Ringer modified buffer. Although there were some minor variations, there were no major changes either in the enzymatic activity or in the profile of NTPDase inhibition between the two buffers. Except for MRS2179, all other antagonists significantly inhibited these ecto-ATPases; NTPDase3 being the most sensitive to inhibition and NTPDase8 the most resistant. Estimated IC(50) showed that human NTPDases were generally more sensitive to the P2 receptor antagonists tested than the corresponding mouse isoforms. NF279 and reactive blue 2 were the most potent inhibitors of NTPDases which almost completely abrogated their activity at the concentration of 100 microM. In conclusion, reactive blue 2, suramin, NF279 and NF449, at the concentrations commonly used to antagonize P2 receptors, inhibit the four major ecto-ATPases. This information may reveal useful for the interpretation of some pharmacological studies of P2 receptors. In addition, NF279 is a most potent non-selective NTPDase inhibitor. Although P2 receptor antagonists do not display a strict selectivity toward NTPDases, their IC(50) values may help to discriminate some of these enzymes. PMID:17727821

  20. Structure-based Discovery of Antagonists of Nuclear Receptor LRH-1*

    PubMed Central

    Benod, Cindy; Carlsson, Jens; Uthayaruban, Rubatharshini; Hwang, Peter; Irwin, John J.; Doak, Allison K.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sablin, Elena P.; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Liver receptor homolog 1 (nuclear receptor LRH-1, NR5A2) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, critical for maintenance of cell pluripotency in early development and imperative for the proper functions of the liver, pancreas, and intestines during the adult life. Although physiological hormones of LRH-1 have not yet been identified, crystallographic and biochemical studies demonstrated that LRH-1 could bind regulatory ligands and suggested phosphatidylinositols as potential hormone candidates for this receptor. No synthetic antagonists of LRH-1 are known to date. Here, we identify the first small molecule antagonists of LRH-1 activity. Our search for LRH-1 modulators was empowered by screening of 5.2 million commercially available compounds via molecular docking followed by verification of the top-ranked molecules using in vitro direct binding and transcriptional assays. Experimental evaluation of the predicted ligands identified two compounds that inhibit the transcriptional activity of LRH-1 and diminish the expression of the receptor's target genes. Among the affected transcriptional targets are co-repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) as well as cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and G0S2 genes that are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation. Treatments of human pancreatic (AsPC-1), colon (HT29), and breast adenocarcinoma cells T47D and MDA-MB-468 with the LRH-1 antagonists resulted in the receptor-mediated inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our data suggest that specific antagonists of LRH-1 could be used as specific molecular probes for elucidating the roles of the receptor in different types of malignancies. PMID:23667258

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of [11C]LY2795050 as a Novel Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist Radiotracer for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Kim, Su Jin; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lin, Shu-fei; Mitch, Charles; Quimby, Steven; Barth, Vanessa; Rash, Karen; Masters, John; Navarro, Antonio; Seest, Eric; Morris, Evan E.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety disorders, drug abuse and alcoholism. To date, only one tracer, the kappa opioid receptor agonist [11C]GR103545, has been reported to be able to image KOR in primates. The goal of the present study was to synthesize the selective KOR antagonist [11C]LY2795050 and evaluate its potential as a PET tracer to image KOR in vivo. METHODS In vitro binding affinity of LY2795050 was measured in radioligand competition binding assays. Ex vivo experiments were conducted using microdosing of the unlabelled ligand in Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as wild-type and KOR knock-out mice, to assess the ligand’s potential as a tracer candidate. Imaging experiments with [11C]LY2795050 in monkeys were carried out on the Focus-220 PET scanner with arterial blood input function measurement. Binding parameters were determined with kinetic modeling analysis. RESULTS LY2795050 displays full antagonist activity and high binding affinity and selectivity for KOR. Microdosing studies in rodents and ex vivo analysis of tissue concentrations with LC/MS/MS identified LY2795050 as an appropriate tracer candidate able to provide specific binding signals in vivo. [11C]LY2795050 was prepared in an average yield of 12% and >99% radiochemical purity. In rhesus monkeys, [11C]LY2795050 displayed a moderate rate of peripheral metabolism, with ∼40% of parent compound remaining at 30 min postinjection. In the brain, [11C]LY2795050 displayed fast uptake kinetics (regional activity peak times < 20 min) and an uptake pattern consistent with the distribution of KOR in primates. Pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, iv) resulted in a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Further, specific binding of [11C]LY2795050 was reduced by the selective KOR antagonist LY2456302 in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION [11C]LY2795050 displayed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and binding profiles in vivo, and therefore is a suitable ligand for imaging the KOR in primates. This newly developed KOR antagonist tracer has since been advanced to PET imaging of KOR in humans and constitutes the first successful KOR antagonist radiotracer. PMID:23353688

  2. Effects of Selective and Non-Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor II Antagonists on Rapid-Onset Diabetes in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, Jacqueline L.; Dunford, Emily C.; Teich, Trevor; Zaharieva, Dessi; Hunt, Hazel; Belanoff, Joseph K.; Riddell, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The blockade of glucocorticoid (GC) action through antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor II (GRII) has been used to minimize the undesirable effects of chronically elevated GC levels. Mifepristone (RU486) is known to competitively block GRII action, but not exclusively, as it antagonizes the progesterone receptor. A number of new selective GRII antagonists have been developed, but limited testing has been completed in animal models of overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, two selective GRII antagonists (C113176 and C108297) were tested to determine their effects in our model of GC-induced rapid-onset diabetes (ROD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼ six weeks of age) were placed on a high-fat diet (60%), surgically implanted with pellets containing corticosterone (CORT) or wax (control) and divided into five treatment groups. Each group was treated with either a GRII antagonist or vehicle for 14 days after surgery: CORT pellets (400 mg/rat) + antagonists (80 mg/kg/day); CORT pellets + drug vehicle; and wax pellets (control) + drug vehicle. After 10 days of CORT treatment, body mass gain was increased with RU486 (by ∼20% from baseline) and maintained with C113176 administration, whereas rats given C108297 had similar body mass loss (∼15%) to ROD animals. Fasting glycemia was elevated in the ROD animals (>20 mM), normalized completely in animals treated with RU486 (6.2±0.1 mM, p<0.05) and improved in animals treated with C108297 and C113176 (14.0±1.6 and 8.8±1.6 mM, p<0.05 respectively). Glucose intolerance was normalized with RU486 treatment, whereas acute insulin response was improved with RU486 and C113176 treatment. Also, peripheral insulin resistance was attenuated with C113176 treatment along with improved levels of β-cell function while C108297 antagonism only provided modest improvements. In summary, C113176 is an effective agent that minimized some GC-induced detrimental metabolic effects and may provide an alternative to the effective, but non-selective, GRII antagonist RU486. PMID:24642683

  3. Formation of an active dimer during storage of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B S; Beauvais, R M; Arakawa, T; Narhi, L O; Dong, A; Aparisio, D I; Carpenter, J F

    1996-01-01

    The degradation products of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) formed during storage at 30 degrees C in aqueous solution were characterized. Cationic exchange chromatography of the stored sample showed two major, new peaks eluting before (P1) and after (L2) the native protein, which were interconvertible. Size-exclusion chromatography and electrophoresis documented that both the P1 and L2 fractions were irreversible dimers, formed by noncovalent interactions. A competition assay with interleukin-1 indicated that on a per monomer basis the P1 and L2 dimers retained about two-thirds of the activity of the native monomer. Infrared and far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopies showed that only minor alterations in secondary structure arose upon the formation of the P1 dimer. However, alteration in the near-UV circular dichroism spectrum suggested the presence of disulfide bonds in the P1 dimer, which are absent in the native protein. Mass spectroscopy and tryptic mapping, before and after carboxymethylation, demonstrated that the P1 dimer contained an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys-66 and Cys-69. Although conversion of native protein to the P1 dimer was irreversible in buffer alone, the native monomer could be regained by denaturing the P1 dimer with guanidine hydrochloride and renaturing it by dialysis, suggesting that the intramolecular disulfide bond does not interfere with refolding. Analysis of the time course of P1 formation during storage at 30 degrees C indicated that the process followed first-order, and not second-order, kinetics, suggesting that the rate-limiting step was not dimerization. It is proposed that a conformational change in the monomer is the rate-limiting step in the formation of the P1 dimer degradation product. Sucrose stabilized the native monomer against this process. This result can be explained by the general stabilization mechanism for this additive, which is due to its preferential exclusion from the protein surface. PMID:8968609

  4. Species differences in the effects of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist zyklophin.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Aldrich, Jane V; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-03-01

    We have shown that dysregulation of the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (DYN/KOR) system contributes to escalated alcohol self-administration in alcohol dependence and that KOR antagonists with extended durations of action selectively reduce escalated alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent animals. As KOR antagonism has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat alcoholism and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, we tested the effect of zyklophin (a short-acting KOR antagonist) on escalated alcohol self-administration in rats made alcohol-dependent using intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following dependence induction, zyklophin was infused centrally prior to alcohol self-administration sessions and locomotor activity tests during acute withdrawal. Zyklophin did not impact alcohol self-administration or locomotor activity in either exposure condition. To investigate the neurobiological basis of this atypical effect for a KOR antagonist, we utilized a κ-, μ-, and δ-opioid receptor agonist-stimulated GTPyS coupling assay to examine the opioid receptor specificity of zyklophin in the rat brain and mouse brain. In rats, zyklophin did not affect U50488-, DAMGO-, or DADLE-stimulated GTPyS coupling, whereas the prototypical KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (norBNI) attenuated U50488-induced stimulation in the rat brain tissue at concentrations that did not impact μ- and δ-receptor function. To reconcile the discrepancy between the present rat data and published mouse data, comparable GTPyS assays were conducted using mouse brain tissue; zyklophin effects were consistent with KOR antagonism in mice. Moreover, at higher concentrations, zyklophin exhibited agonist properties in rat and mouse brains. These results identify species differences in zyklophin efficacy that, given the rising interest in the development of short-duration KOR antagonists, should provide valuable information for therapeutic development efforts. PMID:26992699

  5. SCH 23390-induced hypophagia is blocked by the selective CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide, but not by the CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist L-365,260.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S J; Barber, D J

    1990-04-01

    The selective dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (30 micrograms/kg, SC) significantly reduced palatable food consumption by nondeprived rats in a 30-min test period. Prior administration of the selective CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide (MK 329; L-364,718) blocked the hypophagic effect of SCH 23390. In contrast, prior administration of the selective CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist L-365,260 had no effect. Devazepide did not antagonize a matched hypophagic effect produced by the dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, SC). These data direct attention to possible dopamine-cholecystokinin interactions in relation to the control of ingestional responses, and, more specifically, indicate possible functional relationships between D-1 and CCK-A receptor mechanisms. PMID:2141538

  6. Non-competitive androgen receptor inhibition in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy O; Bolton, Eric C; Huang, Yong; Feau, Clementine; Guy, R Kiplin; Yamamoto, Keith R; Hann, Byron; Diamond, Marc I

    2009-04-28

    Androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors are used to treat multiple human diseases, including hirsutism, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and prostate cancer, but all available anti-androgens target only ligand binding, either by reduction of available hormone or by competitive antagonism. New strategies are needed, and could have an important impact on therapy. One approach could be to target other cellular mechanisms required for receptor activation. In prior work, we used a cell-based assay of AR conformation change to identify non-ligand inhibitors of AR activity. Here, we characterize 2 compounds identified in this screen: pyrvinium pamoate, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, and harmol hydrochloride, a natural product. Each compound functions by a unique, non-competitive mechanism and synergizes with competitive antagonists to disrupt AR activity. Harmol blocks DNA occupancy by AR, whereas pyrvinium does not. Pyrvinium inhibits AR-dependent gene expression in the prostate gland in vivo, and induces prostate atrophy. These results highlight new therapeutic strategies to inhibit AR activity. PMID:19363158

  7. Evidence for antagonist activity of the dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist, BP 897, at human dopamine D3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Wood, M D; Boyfield, I; Nash, D J; Jewitt, F R; Avenell, K Y; Riley, G J

    2000-10-27

    The dopaminergic system has long been implicated in the mechanisms of reward and addiction. 1-(4-(2-Naphthoylamino)butyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1A-piperazine HCl (BP 897) has been claimed to be a selective dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist and has recently been shown to inhibit cocaine-seeking behaviour, suggesting a role for dopamine D3 receptor agonists in the treatment of addiction. We have previously characterised the pharmacological profile of the human dopamine D3 and D2(long) receptors using microphysiometry and radioligand binding and we have now studied the interaction of BP 897 with the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors using these methods. At both human dopamine D3 and D2 receptors, BP 897 lacked agonist activity but was a potent and selective antagonist with pK(b) values of 8.05+/-0.16 (4) and 9.43+/-0.22 (4) at human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, respectively. These results, therefore, suggest that it may be the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist properties of BP 897 which have potential in the treatment of addiction and withdrawal. PMID:11050289

  8. Cloning and expression of canine glucagon receptor and its use to evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Yates, Marla L; Candelore, Mari R; Feeney, William; Hora, Don; Kim, Ron M; Parmee, Emma R; Berger, Joel P; Zhang, Bei B; Qureshi, Sajjad A

    2007-01-19

    Glucose homeostasis is maintained by the combined actions of insulin and glucagon. Hyperglucagonemia and/or elevation of glucagon/insulin ratio have been reported in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. Therefore, antagonizing glucagon receptor function has long been considered a useful approach to lower hyperglycemia. Dogs serve as an excellent model for studying glycemic control and various aspects of glucagon biology in vivo; however, the amino acid sequence of the dog glucagon receptor has not been reported. To better understand the pharmacology of the dog glucagon receptor and to characterize glucagon receptor antagonists, we cloned a cDNA corresponding to the glucagon receptor from dog liver RNA. The dog glucagon receptor shares a significant (>75%) homology at both nucleotide and amino acid levels with the glucagon receptor from human, monkey, mouse, and rat. The protein is highly conserved among all species in areas corresponding to the 7 trans-membrane domains. However, it shows significant divergence at the carboxy terminus such that the receptor from dog has the longest cytoplasmic tail among all species examined. When expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells, the dog glucagon receptor bound [125I]Glucagon with a K(d) of 477+/-106 pM. Glucagon stimulated the rise of intracellular cAMP levels in these cells with an EC(50) of 9.6+/-1.7 nM and such effects could be blocked by known peptidyl and non-peptidyl small molecule antagonists. In addition we show that a small molecule glucagon receptor antagonist with significant activity in cell based assays also blocked the ability of glucagon to induce elevation in blood glucose in beagle dogs. These data demonstrate that the cloned cDNA encodes a functional dog glucagon receptor. The availability of the dog cDNA will facilitate the understanding of glucagon pharmacology and aid in the characterization of novel glucagon antagonists that may serve as anti-hyperglycemic treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:17140563

  9. Discovery and development of orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutics for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Winrow, CJ; Renger, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia persistently affects the quality and quantity of sleep. Currently approved treatments for insomnia primarily target γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptor signalling and include benzodiazepines and GABA-A receptor modulators. These drugs are used to address this sleep disorder, but have the potential for side effects such as tolerance and dependence, making them less attractive as maintenance therapy. Forward and reverse genetic approaches in animals have implicated orexin signalling (also referred to as hypocretin signalling) in the control of vigilance and sleep/wake states. Screening for orexin receptor antagonists using in vitro and in vivo methods in animals has identified compounds that block one or other of the orexin receptors (single or dual orexin receptor antagonists [SORAs and DORAs], respectively) in animals and humans. SORAs have primarily been used as probes to further elucidate the roles of the individual orexin receptors, while a number of DORAs have progressed to clinical development as pharmaceutical candidates for insomnia. The DORA almorexant demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant sleep parameters in animal models and in patients with insomnia but its development was halted. SB-649868 and suvorexant have demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in Phase II and III trials respectively. Furthermore, suvorexant is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the publication of recent non-clinical and clinical data, orexin receptor antagonists potentially represent a targeted, effective and well-tolerated new class of medications for insomnia. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:23731216

  10. A new frontier in the treatment of cancer: NK-1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Muoz, M; Rosso, M; Coveas, R

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an exponential increase in research into cancer. This effort, however, has not been translated into better perspectives as regards the problem, although several fields of research have certainly been promising (the human genome project, gene therapy, the search for new cytostatic agents and stem cell research). New pathways must be opened up to offer future hope to oncologic patients. Thus, there is a need to explore other research initiatives in cancer ways to improve this chronic global problem. Substance P (SP) has a widespread distribution in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is known that after binding to the specific neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, SP regulates biological functions related to cancer, such as tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration of the tumour cells for invasion and metastasis. By contrast, it is also known that after binding to NK-1 receptors, the NK-1 receptor antagonists specifically inhibit tumour cell proliferation (tumour cells die by apoptosis), angiogenesis and the migration of the tumour cells. It is also known that NK-1 receptors are overexpressed in tumours. All these observations suggest that the SP/NK-1 receptor system could play an important role in the development of cancer and metastasis; that the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising target in the treatment of cancer, and that NK-1 receptor antagonists could improve cancer treatment. PMID:20015033

  11. Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. )

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

  12. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 and antagonist SB-242,084 increase mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism through the 5-HT2A receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first report that links 5-HT2A receptor agonism to mitochondrial function. PMID:26787771

  13. Fluorescent agonists and antagonists for vasopressin/oxytocin G protein-coupled receptors: usefulness in ligand screening assays and receptor studies

    PubMed Central

    Mouillac, Bernard; Manning, Maurice; Durroux, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Different series of fluorescent agonists and antagonists have been developed and characterized for arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin G protein-coupled receptors. Both cyclic and linear peptide analogs of the neurohypophysial hormones are useful tools for investigating receptor localization and trafficking, analysing receptor structural organization, and developing new receptor-selective high-throughput ligand screening assays. PMID:18782052

  14. A selective high-affinity antagonist of the P2Y14 receptor inhibits UDP-glucose-stimulated chemotaxis of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Matthew O; Sesma, Juliana I; Ball, Christopher B; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Harden, T Kendall

    2013-07-01

    The nucleotide-sugar-activated P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14-R) is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Although the physiologic functions of this receptor remain undefined, it has been strongly implicated recently in immune and inflammatory responses. Lack of availability of receptor-selective high-affinity antagonists has impeded progress in studies of this and most of the eight nucleotide-activated P2Y receptors. A series of molecules recently were identified by Gauthier et al. (Gauthier et al., 2011) that exhibited antagonist activity at the P2Y14-R. We synthesized one of these molecules, a 4,7-disubstituted 2-naphthoic acid derivative (PPTN), and studied its pharmacological properties in detail. The concentration-effect curve of UDP-glucose for promoting inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in C6 glioma cells stably expressing the P2Y14-R was shifted to the right in a concentration-dependent manner by PPTN. Schild analyses revealed that PPTN-mediated inhibition followed competitive kinetics, with a KB of 434 pM observed. In contrast, 1 ?M PPTN exhibited no agonist or antagonist effect at the P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, or P2Y13 receptors. UDP-glucose-promoted chemotaxis of differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells was blocked by PPTN with a concentration dependence consistent with the KB determined with recombinant P2Y14-R. In contrast, the chemotactic response evoked by the chemoattractant peptide fMetLeuPhe was unaffected by PPTN. UDP-glucose-promoted chemotaxis of freshly isolated human neutrophils also was blocked by PPTN. In summary, this work establishes PPTN as a highly selective high-affinity antagonist of the P2Y14-R that is useful for interrogating the action of this receptor in physiologic systems. PMID:23592514

  15. Identification of spirooxindole and dibenzoxazepine motifs as potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lotesta, Stephen D; Marcus, Andrew P; Zheng, Yajun; Leftheris, Katerina; Noto, Paul B; Meng, Shi; Kandpal, Geeta; Chen, Guozhou; Zhou, Jing; McKeever, Brian; Bukhtiyarov, Yuri; Zhao, Yi; Lala, Deepak S; Singh, Suresh B; McGeehan, Gerard M

    2016-03-15

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists continue to be a prevalent area of research in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein we report the discovery of various spirooxindole and dibenzoxazepine constructs as potent MR antagonists. SAR analysis of our spirooxindole hit led to highly potent compounds containing polar solubilizing groups, which interact with the helix-11 region of the MR ligand binding domain (LBD). Various dibenzoxazepine moieties were also prepared in an effort to replace a known dibenzoxepane system which interacts with the hydrophobic region of the MR LBD. In addition, an X-ray crystal structure was obtained from a highly potent compound which was shown to exhibit both partial agonist and antagonist modes of action against MR. PMID:26897089

  16. Benzylamide antagonists of protease activated receptor 2 with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mei-Kwan; Liu, Ligong; Lim, Junxian; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky Y; Vesey, David A; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders and its inhibition may yield novel therapeutics. Here, we report a series of PAR2 antagonists based on C-terminal capping of 5-isoxazolyl-l-cyclohexylalanine-l-isoleucine, with benzylamine analogues being effective new PAR2 antagonists. 5-Isoxazolyl-l-cyclohexylalanine-l-isoleucine-2-methoxybenzylamine (10) inhibited PAR2-, but not PAR1-, induced release of Ca(2+) (IC50 0.5?M) in human colon cells, IL-6 and TNF? secretion (IC50 1-5?M) from human kidney cells, and was anti-inflammatory in acute rat paw inflammation (ED50 5mg/kg sc). These findings show that new benzylamide antagonists of PAR2 have anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26725028

  17. Recent progress in the development of small-molecule glucagon receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Matthew F; Lee, Esther C Y

    2015-10-01

    The endocrine hormone glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose output via its action at the glucagon receptor (GCGr) in the liver. In the diabetic state, dysregulation of glucagon secretion contributes to abnormally elevated hepatic glucose output. The inhibition of glucagon-induced hepatic glucose output via antagonism of the GCGr using small-molecule ligands is a promising mechanism for improving glycemic control in the diabetic state. Clinical data evaluating the therapeutic potential of small-molecule GCGr antagonists is currently emerging. Recently disclosed clinical data demonstrates the potential efficacy and possible therapeutic limitations of small-molecule GCGr antagonists. Recent pre-clinical work on the development of GCGr antagonists is also summarized. PMID:26271588

  18. Structure based virtual screening of ligands to identify cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Bandaru, Srinivas; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Kasera, Priyadarshani; Kovuri, Purnima; Girdhar, Amandeep; Mittal, Deepti Raj; Ikram, Sabeen; GV, Ravi; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2014-01-01

    Montelukast and Zafirlukast are known leukotriene receptor antagonists prescribed in asthma treatment. However, these fall short as mono therapy and are frequently used in combination with inhaled glucocorticosteroids with or without long acting beta 2 agonists. Therefore, it is of interest to apply ligand and structure based virtual screening strategies to identify compounds akin to lead compounds Montelukast and Zafirlukast. Hence, compounds with structures having 95% similarity to these compounds were retrieved from NCBI?s PubChem database. Compounds similar to lead were grouped and docked at the antagonist binding site of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. This exercise identified compounds UNII 70RV86E50Q (Pub Cid 71587778) and Sure CN 9587085 (Pub Cid 19793614) with higher predicted binding compared to Montelukast and Zafirlukast. It is shown that the compound Sure CN 9587085 showed appreciable ligand receptor interaction compared to UNII 70RV86E50Q. Thus, the compound Sure CN 9587085 is selected as a potent antagonist to cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 for further consideration in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:25489175

  19. Cardiovascular effects of intrathecally administered bradykinin in the rat: characterization of receptors with antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, P.; Regoli, D.; Couture, R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with selective B1 or B2 kinin receptor antagonists were studied on the cardiovascular response to i.t. injection of bradykinin (BK) in conscious freely moving rats. 2. BK (81 pmol) produced an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP: 9-13 mmHg) and decrease in heart rate (HR: 20-30 beats min-1) that reached a maximum 2 min after injection. 3. The BK-induced cardiovascular responses were dose-dependently and reversibly reduced by four antagonists with the following rank order of potency: Tyr, D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7,Leu8]-BK = D-Arg[Tyr3,D-Phe7,Leu8]-BK = D- Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7,Leu8]-BK > D-Arg[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (Hoe 140). These compounds failed to alter the cardiovascular response to i.t. injection of 8.1 nmol of substance P. 4. Other compounds acting on the B2 receptor, namely D-Arg[Hyp3,Gly6,Leu8]-BK, D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7]-BK, D-Arg[Hyp2,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-BK and D-Arg[Hyp3,Gly6,D-Phe7,Leu8]-BK or on the B1 receptor, [Leu8]-desArg9-BK, did not influence the cardiovascular responses to BK at doses devoid of intrinsic activity on MAP and HR. 5. None of the kinin receptor antagonists caused motor impairment, respiratory arrest or persisting cardiovascular changes. 6. These results confirm that the cardiovascular effects induced by i.t. BK are mediated by the activation of a B2 receptor in the rat spinal cord. However, the rank order of potency of antagonists does not conform to the classical B2 functional site characterized in peripheral tissues. PMID:7508324

  20. Discovery of the first nonpeptidic, small-molecule, highly selective somatostatin receptor subtype 5 antagonists: a chemogenomics approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rainer E; Green, Luke G; Guba, Wolfgang; Kratochwil, Nicole; Christ, Andreas

    2007-12-13

    We disclose the first selective, nonpeptidic, small-molecule somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SST5R) antagonists that were identified by a chemogenomics approach based on the analysis of the homology of amino acids defining the putative consensus drug binding site of SST5R. With this strategy, opioid, histamine, dopamine, and serotonine receptors were identified as the closest neighbors of SST5R. The H1 antagonist astemizole was chosen as a seed structure and subsequently transformed into a SST5 receptor antagonist with nanomolar binding affinity devoid of the original target activity. PMID:18020390

  1. The H1-receptor antagonists terfenadine and loratadine inhibit spontaneous growth of neoplastic mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Peter, Barbara; Gleixner, Karoline V.; Schuch, Karina; Pickl, Winfried F.; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Mirkina, Irina; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective In mast cell (MC) neoplasms, clinical problems requiring therapy include i) the local aggressive and sometimes devastating growth of MC and ii) mediator-related symptoms. A key mediator of MC responsible for clinical symptoms is histamine. Therefore, the use of histamine receptor (HR) antagonists is an established approach to block histamine effects in these patients. Methods and Results We screened for additional beneficial effects of HR antagonists and asked whether any of these agents would also exert growth-inhibitory effects on primary neoplastic MC, the human MC line HMC-1, and on two canine MC lines, C2 and NI-1. We found that the HR1 antagonists terfenadine and loratadine suppress spontaneous growth of HMC-1, C2, and NI-1 cells, as well as growth of primary neoplastic MC in all donors tested (human patients, n=5; canine patients, n=8). The effects of both drugs were found to be dose-dependent (IC50: terfenadine, 1-20 μM; loratadine, 10-50 μM). Both agents also produced apoptosis in neoplastic MC and augmented apoptosis-inducing effects of two KIT-targeting drugs, PKC412 and dasatinib. The other HR1 antagonists (fexofenadine, diphenhydramine) and HR2 antagonists (famotidine, cimetidine, ranitidine) tested did not exert substantial growth-inhibitory effects on neoplastic MC. None of the histamine receptor blockers were found to modulate cell cycle progression in neoplastic MC. Conclusions The HR1 antagonists terfenadine and loratadine, in addition to their anti-mediator activity, exert in vitro growth-inhibitory effects on neoplastic MC. Whether these drugs (terfenadine) alone or in combination with KIT-inhibitors, can also affect in vivo neoplastic MC growth remains to be determined. PMID:20570632

  2. Positron tomography of a radiobrominated analog of SCH 23390: A selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, O.T.; Woolverton, W.L.; Van Moffaert, G.J.C.; Goldberg, L.I.; Dinerstein, R.J.; Yasillo, N.J.; Ortega, C.; Cooper, M.D.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-05-01

    Alterations in the central dopaminergic system have been hypothesized to underlie several neuropsychiatric disorders. Dopamine (DA) receptors in the CNS have been classified into two classes based on whether linkage to the enzyme adenylate cyclase exists, the D1 receptors, or not, D2 receptors. To date, studies on cerebral DA system by positron tomography (PET) have utilized the butyrophenones which are predominantly D2 antagonists. We have prepared Br-75 or Br-76 labelled 8-bromo analog of SCH 23390, (BrSCH), a highly selective antagonist for DA D1 receptors and have measured its distribution in the intact monkey brain by PET and by postmortem section of the mouse brain. An anesthesized 8.5 kg male rhesus monkey was given, i.v., ca. 2 mCi BrSCH on two occasions and scanned with The University of Chicago PETT VI system. Results revealed that the drug localized specifically in the basal ganglia. In a similar experiment in the same monkey given Br-76-bromospiroperidol (BrSP), a predominantly D2 antagonist, high uptake in the basal ganglia was also observed but the time course for specific localization of BrSCH was much faster than that of BrSP. These results provide evidence the D1 receptors, like D2 receptors, are localized in the caudate nucleus (CN) although BrSCH, compared to BrSP, appear to localize more in the posterior aspect of the CN. In conclusion, BrSCH should be a useful imaging agent to study dopamine D1 receptors in the CNS.

  3. A PET study comparing receptor occupancy by five selective cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Stephan; Karlsson, Cecilia; Jucaite, Aurelija; Varns, Katarina; Whlby Hamrn, Ulrika; Johnstrm, Peter; Gulys, Balzs; Donohue, Sean R; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2016-02-01

    There is a medical need for safe and efficacious anti-obesity drugs with acceptable side effect profiles. To mitigate the challenge posed by translating target interaction across species and balancing beneficial vs. adverse effects, a positron emission tomography (PET) approach could help guide clinical dose optimization. Thus, as part of a compound differentiation effort, three novel selective CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists, developed by AstraZeneca (AZ) for the treatment of obesity, were compared with two clinically tested reference compounds, rimonabant and taranabant, with regard to receptor occupancy relative to dose and exposure. A total of 42 PET measurements were performed in 6 non-human primates using the novel CB1R antagonist radioligand [(11)C]SD5024. The AZ CB1R antagonists bound in a saturable manner to brain CB1R with invivo affinities similar to that of rimonabant and taranabant, compounds with proven weight loss efficacy in clinical trials. Interestingly, it was found that exposures corresponding to those needed for optimal clinical efficacy of rimonabant and taranabant resulted in a CB1R occupancy typically around ?20-30%, thus much lower than what would be expected for classical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists in other therapeutic contexts. These findings are also discussed in relation to emerging literature on the potential usefulness of 'neutral' vs. 'classical' CB1R (inverse agonist) antagonists. The study additionally highlighted the usefulness of the radioligand [(11)C]SD5024 as a specific tracer for CB1R in the primate brain, though an arterial input function would ideally be required in future studies to further assure accurate quantitative analysis of specific binding. PMID:25791528

  4. Differential effects of MK-801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate non-competitive antagonist, on the dorsal horn neuron hyperactivity and hyperexcitability in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Sotgiu, M L; Biella, G

    2000-04-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) involvement in altered spinal neuron activity following peripheral nerve injury has been investigated in rats with chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve. Extracellular single neuron recordings were performed, in anesthetized, paralyzed rats, from the sciatic spinal cord segments (lumbar, L5-L6) ipsilateral to the constriction, and the effect of iontophoresized MK-801, an NMDA receptor non-competitive antagonist, was tested on baseline hyperactivity and hyperresponsiveness to noxious stimulation. The results show that baseline activity was unaffected whereas the noxious evoked responses were significantly modified, there being amplitude reduction and after-discharges suppression. The different role of NMDA in the abnormal pain states related to the abnormal neuronal activities is discussed. PMID:10739898

  5. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  6. Cucurbitacins are insect steroid hormone antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Dinan, L; Whiting, P; Girault, J P; Lafont, R; Dhadialla, T S; Cress, D E; Mugat, B; Antoniewski, C; Lepesant, J A

    1997-01-01

    Two triterpenoids, cucurbitacins B and D, have been isolated from seeds of Iberis umbellata (Cruciferae) and shown to be responsible for the antagonistic activity of a methanolic extract of this species in preventing the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-induced morphological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster BII permanent cell line. With a 20E concentration of 50 nM, cucurbitacins B and D give 50% responses at 1.5 and 10 microM respectively. Both cucurbitacins are able to displace specifically bound radiolabelled 25-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (ponasterone A) from a cell-free preparation of the BII cells containing ecdysteroid receptors. The Kd values for cucurbitacins B and D (5 and 50 microM respectively) are similar to the concentrations required to antagonize 20E activity with whole cells. Cucurbitacin B (cucB) prevents stimulation by 20E of an ecdysteroid-responsive reporter gene in a transfection assay. CucB also prevents the formation of the Drosophila ecdysteroid receptor/Ultraspiracle/20E complex with the hsp27 ecdysteroid response element as demonstrated by gel-shift assay. This is therefore the first definitive evidence for the existence of antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor. Preliminary structure/activity studies indicate the importance of the Delta23-22-oxo functional grouping in the side chain for antagonistic activity. Hexanorcucurbitacin D, which lacks carbon atoms C-22 to C-27, is found to be a weak agonist rather than an antagonist. Moreover, the side chain analogue 5-methylhex-3-en-2-one possesses weak antagonistic activity. PMID:9581538

  7. T-226296: a novel, orally active and selective melanin-concentrating hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Shiro; Asami, Asano; Ishihara, Yuji; Terauchi, Jun; Kato, Kaneyoshi; Shimomura, Yukio; Mori, Masaaki; Murakoshi, Hitomi; Kato, Koki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Osamu; Fujino, Masahiko

    2002-03-01

    Through the screening of our in-house chemical compound library, we found a novel melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor antagonist, T-226296, a (-) enantiomer of N-[6-(dimethylamino)-methyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl]-4'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide. T-226296 exhibited high affinity for cloned human and rat MCH receptors (SLC-1) in receptor binding assays (IC50=5.5+/-0.12 nM for human SLC-1; 8.6+/-0.32 nM for rat SLC-1). T-226296 had high selectivity over other receptors, including the second subtype of the MCH receptor, SLT (MCH2), transporters and ion channels. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human SLC-1, T-226296 reversed the MCH-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, inhibited MCH-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase, and also inhibited MCH-stimulated arachidonic acid release. In rats, oral administration of T-226296 (30 mg/kg) almost completely suppressed the food intake induced by intracerebroventricular injection of MCH. These results clearly indicate that T-226296 is a novel, orally active and selective MCH receptor antagonist that will be promising for further exploring the physiology and pathophysiology of MCH-SLC-1 signaling. PMID:11909603

  8. Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and docking studies of pyrrole structure-based CB2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Giulio; Gmez-Caas, Mara; Morales, Paula; Hurst, Dow P; Deligia, Francesco; Pazos, Ruth; Pinna, Gerard A; Fernndez-Ruiz, Javier; Goya, Pilar; Reggio, Patricia H; Jagerovic, Nadine; Garca-Arencibia, Moiss; Murineddu, Gabriele

    2015-08-28

    During the last years, there has been a continuous interest in the development of cannabinoid receptor ligands that may serve as therapeutic agents and/or as experimental tools. This prompted us to design and synthesize analogues of the CB2 receptor antagonist N-fenchyl-5-(4-chloro-3-methyl-phenyl)-1-(4-methyl-benzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528). The structural modifications involved the bioisosteric replacement of the pyrazole ring by a pyrrole ring and variations on the amine carbamoyl substituents. Two of these compounds, the fenchyl pyrrole analogue 6 and the myrtanyl derivative 10, showed high affinity (Ki in the low nM range) and selectivity for the CB2 receptor and both resulted to be antagonists/inverse agonists in [(35)S]-GTP?S binding analysis and in an invitro CB2 receptor bioassay. Cannabinoid receptor binding data of the series allowed identifying steric constraints within the CB2 binding pocket using a study of Van der Waals' volume maps. Glide docking studies revealed that all docked compounds bind in the same region of the CB2 receptor inactive state model. PMID:26209834

  9. Characterization of a novel and selective V1B receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Mark; Milne, Rachel; Campbell-Wan, Leigh; Watson, Lynn; Presland, Jeremy; Thomson, Fiona J; Marston, Hugh M; Macsweeney, Clíona P

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major biological abnormality in patients suffering from psychiatric conditions such as major depression. Both arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are responsible for stimulating the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. CRF is thought to be the predominant secretagogue under normal conditions but AVP may play a more important role in situations of aberrant/chronic stress. Studies in patients suffering from melancholic depression indicate a hyper-responsiveness to agonism at the vasopressin receptor type 1B (V(1B)); patients display a heightened ACTH release after challenge with the mixed V(1B)/V(2) (vasopressin receptor type 2) agonist desmopressin in comparison to control subjects. A V(1B) antagonist has been developed which has significant selectivity for the human V(1B) receptor over the other members of the vasopressin receptor sub-family. The compound acts as an effective antagonist at both the human recombinant receptor (stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells) and the native rat V(1B) receptor (using isolated anterior pituitary cells), blocking the induction of luciferase and the release of ACTH, respectively. In vivo the compound can block the release of ACTH after challenge with a variety of V(1B) agonists. It can also attenuate the ACTH response to acute stressors in rats. Interestingly, this compound does not modulate the activity of the HPA axis under normal basal conditions. PMID:18655906

  10. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphins are micro-opioid receptor antagonists lacking inverse agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Li, Tingyou; Bryant, Sharon D; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) binding assays and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cell membranes obtained from vehicle, morphine, and ethanol-treated SK-N-SH cells and brain membranes isolated from naive and morphine-dependent mice; their mode of action was compared with naloxone or naltrexone, which both are standard nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonists. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2 were neutral antagonists under all of the experimental conditions examined, in contrast to naloxone and naltrexone, which behave as neutral antagonists only in membranes from vehicle-treated cells and mice but act as inverse agonists in membranes from morphine- and ethanol-treated cells as well as morphine-treated mice. Both endomorphin analogs inhibited the naloxone- and naltrexone-elicited withdrawal syndromes from acute morphine dependence in mice. This suggests their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse without the adverse effects observed with inverse agonist alkaloid-derived compounds that produce severe withdrawal symptoms. PMID:17626793

  11. Diaryl urea analogues of SB-334867 as orexin-1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, David A.; Gilmour, Brian P.; Runyon, Scott P.; Thomas, Brian F.; Zhang, Yanan

    2011-01-01

    As a part of our program to develop OX1-CB1 bivalent ligands, we required a better understanding of the basic structure-activity relationships (SARs) of orexin antagonists. A series of SB-334867 analogues were synthesized and evaluated in calcium mobilization assays. SAR results suggest that the 2-methylbenzoxazole moiety may be replaced with a disubstituted 4-aminophenyl group without loss of activity and an electron-deficient system is generally preferred at the 1,5-naphthyridine moiety for OX1 antagonist activity. In particular, substitution of larger potential linkers such as n-hexyl provided compound 33 with equivalent activity at the OX1 receptor compared to the lead compound SB-334867. These compounds should be of value in the development of ligands targeting the orexin-1 receptor and its potential heterodimers. PMID:21478014

  12. C-C chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist Compound 22 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kota; Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Ueno, Rino; Nakayama, Takashi; Yoshie, Osamu; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2016-02-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in the immune response. We previously reported the pathogenic role of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we examined whether CCR4 antagonism modulates the disease course of EAE. Wild-type and CCR4-knockout mice were induced EAE and were administered Compound 22, an antagonist of CCR4. Compound 22 significantly ameliorated the severity of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in the CCR4-knockout mice. Compound 22 inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization of antigen-induced T-cell responses. Therefore, CCR4 antagonists might be potential therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857495

  13. Immunoactive effects of cannabinoids: considerations for the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Greineisen, William E.; Turner., Helen

    2013-01-01

    The active constituents of Cannabis sativa have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. Today, marijuana is the most prevalent drug of abuse in the United States and, conversely, therapeutic use of marijuana constituents are gaining mainstream clinical and political acceptance. Given the documented contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to a range of physiological systems, including cognitive function, and the control of eating behaviors, it is unsurprising that cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are showing significant clinical potential. In addition to the neuroactive effects of cannabinoids, an emerging body of data suggests that both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids are potently immunoactive. The central premise of this review article is that the immunological effects of cannabinoids should be considered in the context of each prescribing decision. We present evidence that the immunological effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are highly relevant to the spectrum of disorders for which cannabinoid therapeutics are currently offered. PMID:20219697

  14. Conformational states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica induced by the binding of agonists, antagonists, and local anesthetics. Equilibrium measurements using tritium-hydrogen exchange

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.P.; Stroud, R.M.

    1989-01-10

    The tritium-hydrogen exchange kinetics of Torpedo californica AChR, in native membrane vesicles at pH 7.4 and 0 degrees C, have been analyzed in the presence of agonists, partial agonists, local anesthetics, and competitive antagonists. The agonists carbamylcholine (10 microM-1 mM) and suberyldicholine (10 microM) and the partial agonists decamethonium (25 microM and 1 mM) and hexamethonium (1 mM) have no effect on the exchange kinetics, although at lower concentration carbamylcholine may slightly accelerate exchange. Nondesensitizing local anesthetics do affect the exchange behavior, dependent on concentration. Procaine at 500 microM moderately retards exchange while procaine at 10 mM and tetracaine at 5 mM slightly accelerate exchange. The competitive antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin retards exchange significantly, as does d-tubocurarine although to a lesser extent. These results suggest that the resting and desensitized conformations of the AChR are very similar in overall solvent accessibility and that at lower concentrations noncompetitive blockers such as procaine may stabilize a less solvent-accessible state of the AChR. The competitive antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurare also stabilize a dynamically restricted, less solvent-accessible conformation of the acetylcholine receptor, demonstrating that a large conformational change accompanies binding of these toxins. Any change in conformation which may accompany desensitization is very different from these effects.

  15. Asymmetric Synthesis of Heterocyclic Analogues of a CGRP Receptor Antagonist for Treating Migraine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Conway, Charles M; Kostich, Walter; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2015-12-18

    An asymmetric synthesis of novel heterocyclic analogue of the CGRP receptor antagonist rimegepant (BMS-927711, 3) is reported. The cycloheptane ring was constructed by an intramolecular Heck reaction. The application of Hayashi-Miyaura and Ellman reactions furnished the aryl and the amine chiral centers, while the separable diastereomeric third chiral center alcohols led to both carbamate and urea analogues. This synthetic approach was applicable to both 6- and 5-membered heterocycles as exemplified by pyrazine and thiazole derivatives. PMID:26650258

  16. Discovery and characterization of a potent and selective EP4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Schiffler, Matthew A; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Fisher, Matthew J; Harvey, Anita; Kuklish, Steven L; Wang, Xu-Shan; Warshawsky, Alan M; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2015-08-15

    EP4 is a prostaglandin E2 receptor that is a target for potential anti-nociceptive therapy. Described herein is a class of amphoteric EP4 antagonists which reverses PGE2-induced suppression of TNFα production in human whole blood. From this class, a potent and highly bioavailable compound (6) has been selected for potential clinical studies. EP4 binding and functional data, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties of this compound are included. PMID:26091726

  17. Intrauterine progestins, progesterone antagonists, and receptor modulators: a review of gynecologic applications.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Warden, Meredith; Darney, Philip D

    2010-05-01

    Intrauterine progestins, progesterone receptor modulators, and antagonists have many important current and potential gynecologic applications. This article will describe the evidence for use of intrauterine progestin for common gynecologic conditions beyond its important role in contraception. We will review the evidence for use of intrauterine progestin delivery for menorrhagia, endometriosis management, adenomyosis treatment, uterine fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, and its concurrent use in women on hormone replacement therapy or tamoxifen. PMID:20031112

  18. Pathophysiology of a severe case of Puumala hantavirus infection successfully treated with bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Jskelinen, Anne J; Vapalahti, Olli; Jarva, Hanna; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Antonen, Jaakko; Leppnen, Ilona; Mkel, Satu; Meri, Seppo; Mustonen, Jukka

    2014-11-01

    We recently described a patient with very severe Puumala hantavirus infection manifested by capillary leakage syndrome and shock. He was successfully treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist, icatibant (Antonen et al., 2013). Here we report analysis of the pathophysiology which indicated pronounced complement activation, prolonged leukocytosis, extensive fibrinolysis, circulating histones, and defects in liver function. The patient had an uncommon HLA-phenotype, which may have contributed to the severe course of the disease. PMID:25194993

  19. Structural insights into Resveratrol’s antagonist and partial agonist actions on estrogen receptor alpha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol, a naturally occurring stilbene, has been categorized as a phytoestrogen due to its ability to compete with natural estrogens for binding to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and modulate the biological responses exerted by the receptor. Biological effects of resveratrol (RES) on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) remain highly controversial, since both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties were observed. Results Here, we provide insight into the structural basis of the agonist/antagonist effects of RES on ERα ligand binding domain (LBD). Using atomistic simulation, we found that RES bound ERα monomer in antagonist conformation, where Helix 12 moves away from the ligand pocket and orients into the co-activator binding groove of LBD, is more stable than RES bound ERα in agonist conformation, where Helix 12 lays over the ligand binding pocket. Upon dimerization, the agonistic conformation of RES-ERα dimer becomes more stable compared to the corresponding monomer but still remains less stable compared to the corresponding dimer in antagonist conformation. Interestingly, while the binding pocket and the binding contacts of RES to ERα are similar to those of pure agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES), the binding energy is much less and the hydrogen bonding contacts also differ providing clues for the partial agonistic character of RES on ERα. Conclusions Our Molecular Dynamics simulation of RES-ERα structures with agonist and antagonist orientations of Helix 12 suggests RES action is more similar to Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) opening up the importance of cellular environment and active roles of co-regulator proteins in a given system. Our study reveals that potential co-activators must compete with the Helix 12 and displace it away from the activator binding groove to enhance the agonistic activity. PMID:24160181

  20. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine h(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Norito; Hamada, Takahiro; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. These results suggest that olopatadine can suppress skin symptoms caused by histamine soon after administration. PMID:20886023

  1. Cardiac effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists used for voiding dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik; Campeau, Lysanne; Olshansky, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Antimuscarinic agents are the main drugs used to treat patients with the overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, defined as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Since the treatment is not curative and since OAB is a chronic disease, treatment may be life-long. Antimuscarinics are generally considered to be ‘safe’ drugs, but among the more serious concerns related to their use is the risk of cardiac adverse effects, particularly increases in heart rate (HR) and QT prolongation and induction of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (torsade de pointes). An elevated resting HR has been linked to overall increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases. QT prolongation and its consequences are not related to blockade of muscarinic receptors, but rather linked to inhibition of the hERG potassium channel in the heart. However, experience with terodiline, an antimuscarinic drug causing torsade de pointes in patients, has placed the whole drug class under scrutiny. The potential of the different antimuscarinic agents to increase HR and/or prolong the QT time has not been extensively explored for all agents in clinical use. Differences between drugs cannot be excluded, but risk assessments based on available evidence are not possible. PMID:21595741

  2. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yong; Peng, XiangPing; Liu, Wei; Zhao, FeiYan; Feng, DanDan; Han, JianZhong; Huang, YanHong; Luo, SiWei; Li, Lian; Yue, Shao Jie; Cheng, QingMei; Huang, XiaoTing; Luo, ZiQiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Large amount of glutamate can overstimulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), causing neuronal injury and death. Recently, NMDAR has been reported to be found in the lungs. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of memantine, a NMDAR channel blocker, on bleomycin-induced lung injury mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally injected with bleomycin (BLM) to induce lung injury. Mice were randomized to receive saline, memantine (Me), BLM, BLM plus Me. Lungs and BALF were harvested on day 3 or 7 for further evaluation. Results BLM caused leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary edema and increase in cytokines, and imposed significant oxidative stress (MDA as a marker) in lungs. Memantine significantly mitigated the oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury caused by BLM. Moreover, activation of NMDAR enhances CD11b expression on neutrophils. Conclusions Memantine mitigates oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury in BLM challenged mice. PMID:25942563

  3. Functional characterisation of the putative somatostatin sst2 receptor antagonist CYN 154806.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Caroline; Schoeffter, Philippe; Langenegger, Daniel; Hoyer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The two forms (DTyr8 and LTyr8) of the putative somatostatin sst2 receptor antagonist CYN 154806 (Ac-4NO2-Phe-c(DCys-Tyr-DTrp-Lys-Thr-Cys)-D/LTyr-NH2) were investigated on recombinant human somatostatin receptors and endogenous guinea-pig ileum receptors. In radioligand binding studies using the agonist radioligands [125I]LTT-SRIF-28, [125I][Tyr10]cortistatin-14, [125I]CGP 23996 and [125I][Tyr3]octreotide in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (CCL39) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human somatostatin receptors (hsst1-5), CYN 154806 binds to sst2 receptors with nanomolar affinity (pKD=8.14-8.89), 40- to 4500-fold higher than for sst1, sst3 or sst4. High affinity was also demonstrated for sst5 receptors, particularly for LTyr8CYN 154806 where the sst5 affinity was higher than for sst2 receptors when using [125I]CGP 23996 and [125I][Tyr3]octreotide. Functional properties of the compounds were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human sst2 receptors, in (1) inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase, (2) stimulation of serum response element-driven luciferase expression and (3) [35S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPS) binding. L- and DTyr8CYN 154806 showed full agonism at inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (pEC50=7.73 for both, Emax 104% and 78%, respectively), partial agonism at luciferase expression (pEC50=7.85 and 8.16, Emax=50% and 29%, respectively) and behaved as apparently silent antagonists at [35S]GTPS binding (no agonism observed, pKB=6.88 and 7.50, respectively). The agonist potential was confirmed in isolated guinea-pig ileum preparations via measurement of SRIF-induced inhibition of neurotransmission, where the L-isoform had marked agonism (pEC50=8.23, Emax=32%) whereas the D-isoform was apparently devoid of agonism. The present data suggest that CYN 154806 should be used with caution as an sst2 receptor antagonist tool, since it possesses intrinsic activity at sst2, and high affinity for both sst2 and sst5 receptors. The DTyr form, having lower intrinsic activity, especially in natural tissues, and greater selectivity for sst2 receptors, may be more reliable than LTyr CYN 154806. PMID:12616335

  4. Convergent QSAR studies on a series of NK3 receptor antagonists for schizophrenia treatment.

    PubMed

    Primi, Marina Candido; Maltarollo, Vinícius Gonçalves; Magalhães, Juliana Gallottini; Malta de Sá, Matheus; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota Oliveira; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart

    2016-04-01

    The dopamine hypothesis states that decreased dopaminergic neurotransmission reduces schizophrenia symptoms. Neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3) antagonists reduce dopamine release and have shown positive effects in pre-clinical and clinical trials. We employed 2D and 3D-QSAR analysis on a series of 40 non-peptide NK3 antagonists. Multivariate statistical analysis, PCA and HCA, were performed to rational training/test set splitting and PLS regression was employed to construct all QSAR models. We constructed one highly predictive CoMFA model (q(2)( )= 0.810 and r(2)( )= 0.929) and acceptable HQSAR and CoMSIA models (HQSAR q(2)( )= 0.644 and r(2)( )= 0.910; CoMSIA q(2)( )= 0.691, r(2)( )= 0.911). The three different techniques provided convergent physicochemical results. All models indicate cyclopropane, piperidine and di-chloro-phenyl ring attached to cyclopropane ring and also the amide group attached to the piperidine ring could play an important role in ligand-receptor interactions. These findings may contribute to develop potential NK3 receptor antagonists for schizophrenia. PMID:25856571

  5. Endothelin A receptor antagonist modulates lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration, hyperreactivity and mucus in murine asthma.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Richardt G; Jancar, Sonia

    2008-12-20

    Levels of endothelins are particularly high in the lung, and there is evidence that these peptides are involved in asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with lymphocyte infiltration. In the present study, we used a murine model of asthma to investigate the role of endothelins in lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration into the airway hyperreactivity and mucus secretion. Sensitized C57Bl/6 mice were treated with endothelin ETA receptor antagonist (BQ123) or endothelin ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788) 30 min before an antigen aerosol challenge. After 24 h, dose response curves to methacholine were performed in isolated lungs, FACS analysis of lymphocytes and eosinophil counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and mucus index was determined by histopathology. In sensitized and antigen-challenged mice there is a marked increase in the T CD4+, T CD8+, B220+, Tgammadelta+ and NK1.1+ lymphocyte subsets. Treatment with BQ123 further increased these cell populations. The number of eosinophils, airway hyperreactivity and mucus were all reduced by BQ123 treatment. The BQ 788 had no significant effect on the parameters analyzed. Treatment with BQ123 reduced the endothelin concentration in lung homogenates, suggesting that endothelins exert a positive feedback on their synthesis. We show here that in murine asthma the ETA receptor antagonist up-regulates lymphocyte infiltration and reduces eosinophils, hyperreactivity and mucus. PMID:18793757

  6. Inhibition of leukotriene formation and IL-8 release by the paf-receptor antagonist SM-12502.

    PubMed

    Hilger, R A; Köller, M; König, W

    1996-02-01

    We analyzed the effect of the PAF receptor antagonist (+)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(3-pyridyl)thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride (SM-12502) on the release of leukotriene B4 and IL-8 from human leukocytes. Peripheral blood from healthy donors was separated in two different fractions: polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and a lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil granulocyte cell fraction (LMB). After incubation of the cell population with different concentrations of SM-12502 the cells were subsequently stimulated with either the Ca ionophore A23187, the bacterial derived peptide fMLP, or with an activator of heterotrimetric G-proteins, the sodium fluoride (NaF, in the presence of Al3+). The PAF receptor antagonist led to a concentration and time dependent inhibition of LTB4 formation and IL-8 release from PMN and LMB. Our data clearly indicate an inhibitory effect of the PAF receptor antagonist SM-12502 on the formation of mediators of the lipoxygenase pathway and on the release of IL-8. PMID:8926049

  7. Potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists. 2. 1-(Carboxybenzyl)imidazole-5-acrylic acids.

    PubMed

    Keenan, R M; Weinstock, J; Finkelstein, J A; Franz, R G; Gaitanopoulos, D E; Girard, G R; Hill, D T; Morgan, T M; Samanen, J M; Peishoff, C E

    1993-06-25

    The further evolution of the imidazole-5-acrylic acid series of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists is detailed (for Part 1, see: J. Med. Chem. 1992, 35, 3858). Modifications of the N-benzyl ring substitution were undertaken in an effort to mimic the Tyr4 residue of angiotensin II. Introduction of a p-carboxylic acid on the N-benzyl ring resulted in the discovery of compounds with nanomolar affinity for the receptor and good oral activity. SAR studies of these potent antagonists revealed that the thienyl ring, the (E)-acrylic acid, and the imidazole ring in addition to the two acid groups were important for high potency. Also, overlay comparisons of the parent diacid with both angiotensin II and a representative biphenylyltetrazole nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist are presented. The parent diacid analog, SK&F 108566 or (E)-3-[2-butyl-1-(4-carboxybenzyl)-1H-imidazole-5-yl]-2-[(2- thienyl)methyl]propenoic acid, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:8515425

  8. Ergoline derivatives as highly potent and selective antagonists at the somatostatin sst 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Thomas; Enz, Albert; Hoyer, Daniel; Langenegger, Daniel; Neumann, Peter; Pfffli, Paul; Schoeffter, Philippe; Hurth, Konstanze

    2008-02-01

    Non-peptidic compounds containing the octahydro-indolo[4,3-fg]quinoline (ergoline) structural element have been optimized into derivatives with high affinity (pK(d) r sst(1)>9) and selectivity (>1000-fold for h sst(1) over h sst(2)-h sst(5)) for the somatostatin sst(1) receptor. In functional assays, these ergolines act as antagonists at human recombinant sst(1) receptors. Pharmacokinetic studies in rodents reveal good oral bioavailability and brain penetration for some of these compounds. PMID:18162395

  9. Novel retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists having a dicarba-closo-dodecaborane as a hydrophobic moiety.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kiminori; Iijima, Toru; Kawachi, Emiko; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2004-12-01

    We designed and synthesized novel retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective antagonists bearing a carborane moiety. Compounds 8a-d or 9a-d themselves have no differentiation-inducing activity toward HL-60 cells and no inhibitory activity towards a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist. However, they inhibit the synergistic activity of an RXR agonist, PA024, in the presence of Am80 on the cell differentiation of HL-60. Transactivation assay using RARs and RXRs suggested that the inhibitory activity of 9b resulted from the selective antagonism at the RXR site of RXR-RAR heterodimers. PMID:15501068

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Balanced Dual NK1/NK3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In connection with a program directed at potent and balanced dual NK1/NK3 receptor ligands, a focused exploration of an original class of peptidomimetic derivatives was performed. The rational design and molecular hybridization of a novel phenylalanine core series was achieved to maximize the in vitro affinity and antagonism at both human NK1 and NK3 receptors. This study led to the identification of a new potent dual NK1/NK3 antagonist with pKi values of 8.6 and 8.1, respectively. PMID:24900878

  11. New insights into the stereochemical requirements of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists binding.

    PubMed

    Lupala, Cecylia S; Gomez-Gutierrez, Patricia; Perez, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a member of the kinin family, released in response to inflammation, trauma, burns, shock, allergy and some cardiovascular diseases, provoking vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability among other effects. Their actions are mediated through at least two G-protein coupled receptors, B1 a receptor up-regulated during inflammation episodes or tissue trauma and B2 that is constitutively expressed in a variety of cell types. The goal of the present work is to carry out a structure-activity study of BK B2 antagonism, taking into account the stereochemical features of diverse non-peptide antagonists and the way these features translate into ligand anchoring points to complementary regions of the receptor, through the analysis of the respective ligand-receptor complex. For this purpose an atomistic model of the BK B2 receptor was built by homology modeling and subsequently refined embedded in a lipid bilayer by means of a 600 ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The average structure from the last hundred nanoseconds of the molecular dynamics trajectory was energy minimized and used as model of the receptor for docking studies. For this purpose, a set of compounds with antagonistic profile, covering maximal diversity were selected from the literature. Specifically, the set of compounds include Fasitibant, FR173657, Anatibant, WIN64338, Bradyzide, CHEMBL442294, and JSM10292. Molecules were docked into the BK B2 receptor model and the corresponding complexes analyzed to understand ligand-receptor interactions. The outcome of this study is summarized in a 3D pharmacophore that explains the observed structure-activity results and provides insight into the design of novel molecules with antagonistic profile. To prove the validity of the pharmacophore hypothesized a virtual screening process was also carried out. The pharmacophore was used as query to identify new hits using diverse databases of molecules. The results of this study revealed a set of new hits with structures not connected to the molecules used for pharmacophore development. A few of these structures were purchased and tested. The results of the binding studies show about a 33 % success rate with a correlation between the number of pharmacophore points fulfilled and their antagonistic potency. Some of these structures are disclosed in the present work. PMID:26697880

  12. Nonpeptide urotensin-II receptor antagonists: a new ligand class based on piperazino-phthalimide and piperazino-isoindolinone subunits.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Edward C; Luci, Diane K; Ghosh, Shyamali; Kinney, William A; Reynolds, Charles H; Qi, Jenson; Smith, Charles E; Wang, Yuanping; Minor, Lisa K; Haertlein, Barbara J; Parry, Tom J; Damiano, Bruce P; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2009-12-10

    We have discovered two related chemical series of nonpeptide urotensin-II (U-II) receptor antagonists based on piperazino-phthalimide (5 and 6) and piperazino-isoindolinone (7) scaffolds. These structure types are distinctive from those of U-II receptor antagonist series reported in the literature. Antagonist 7a exhibited single-digit nanomolar potency in rat and human cell-based functional assays, as well as strong binding to the human U-II receptor. In advanced pharmacological testing, 7a blocked the effects of U-II in vitro in a rat aortic ring assay and in vivo in a rat ear-flush model. A discussion of U-II receptor antagonist pharmacophores is presented, and a specifically defined model is suggested from tricycle 13, which has a high degree of conformational constraint. PMID:19731961

  13. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, a class beyond spironolactone--Focus on the special pharmacologic properties of eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Seferovic, Petar M; Pelliccia, Francesco; Zivkovic, Ivana; Ristic, Arsen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Seferovic, Jelena; Simeunovic, Dejan; Milinkovic, Ivan; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be blocked at specific levels by using different classes of pharmacologic agents, including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Broad use of the latter, such as spironolactone, has been limited by significant incidence of gynecomastia and other sex-related adverse effects. These problems can be overcome with use of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Eplerenone has been specifically developed to bind selectively to the mineralocorticoid receptors in order to minimize binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors. In the last decade, multiple scientific evidences have been accumulated showing the efficacy and safety of the drug in multiple clinical conditions, including heart failure and arterial hypertension. Eplerenone is generally well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being hyperkalemia, with sexual adverse events (i.e. gynecomastia) being more uncommon, due to the selectivity of eplerenone. This review focuses on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of eplerenone, thus providing the scientific basis to fully understand drug-to-drug interactions, in particular, and its efficacy and tolerability, in general. Noteworthy, the activity of eplerenone in special conditions and different patient populations is summarized. PMID:26404746

  14. MGS0039: a potent and selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist with antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Ryoko; Hirota, Shiho; Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Maeda, Maoko; Kawashima, Naoya; Yoshimizu, Takao; Yasuhara, Akito; Sakagami, Kazunari; Okuyama, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Shigetada; Nakazato, Atsuro

    2004-03-01

    The present study describes the pharmacological profile of (1R,2R,3R,5R,6R)-2-Amino-3-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxy)-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039), a novel group II mGluR antagonist. MGS0039 showed high affinity for both mGluR2 (Ki = 2.2 nM) and mGluR3 (Ki = 4.5 nM), which are comparable to LY341495, another group II mGluR antagonist. MGS0039 attenuated both glutamate-induced inhibition of forskolin-evoked cyclic AMP formation in CHO cells expressing mGluR2 (IC50 = 20 nM) or mGluR3 (IC50 = 24 nM) and glutamate-increased [35S]GTPgammaS binding to mGluR2 (pA2 = 8.2), which means that MGS0039 acts as an antagonist. MGS0039 shifted the dose-response curve of glutamate-increased [35S]GTPgammaS binding rightward without altering the maximal response, and thereby indicating competitive antagonism. MGS0039 showed no significant effects on other mGluRs as well as the other receptors and transporters we studied. MGS0039 (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as LY341495 (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) had dose-dependent antidepressant-like effects in the rat forced swim test and in the mouse tail suspension test. In contrast, MGS0039 (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.) had no apparent effect in the rat social interaction test and in the rat elevated plus-maze. These results indicate that MGS0039 is a potent and selective antagonist of group II mGluR, and that group II mGluR antagonists, like MGS0039, have an antidepressant-like potential in experimental animal models. PMID:14975669

  15. 5{alpha}-Bile alcohols function as farnesoid X receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko . E-mail: mogami@nihs.go.jp; Kawahara, Yosuke; Tamehiro, Norimasa; Yoshida, Takemi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Ohno, Yasuo; Nagao, Taku; Une, Mizuho

    2006-01-06

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid/alcohol-activated nuclear receptor that regulates lipid homeostasis. Unlike other steroid receptors, FXR binds bile acids in an orientation that allows the steroid nucleus A to face helix 12 in the receptor, a crucial domain for coactivator-recruitment. Because most naturally occurring bile acids and alcohols contain a cis-oriented A, which is distinct from that of other steroids and cholesterol metabolites, we investigated the role of this 5{beta}-configuration in FXR activation. The results showed that the 5{beta}-(A/B cis) bile alcohols 5{beta}-cyprinol and bufol are potent FXR agonists, whereas their 5{alpha}-(A/B trans) counterparts antagonize FXR transactivation and target gene expression. Both isomers bound to FXR, but their ability to induce coactivator-recruitment and thereby induce transactivation differed. These findings suggest a critical role for the A orientation of bile salts in agonist/antagonist function.

  16. Different antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Winand, J.; Christophe, J.

    1987-11-09

    The antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors were compared. In both tissues pirenzepine (PZ) had a low affinity for muscarinic receptors labelled by (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/)NMS) (K/sub D/ values of 140 and 280nM, respectively, in pancreatic and cardiac homogenates). The binding properties of pancreatic and cardiac receptors were, however, markedly different. This was indicated by different affinities for dicyclomine, (11-(/(2-((diethylamino)-methyl)-1-piperidinyl/acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4) benzodiazepin-6-on)(AFDX-116), 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptros also showed different (/sup 3/H)NMS association and dissociation rates. These results support the concept of M2 receptor subtypes have different binding kinetic properties. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Early Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Refractory and Superrefractory Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, F A

    2015-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) pose a difficult clinical challenge. Multiple cerebral receptor and transporter changes occur with prolonged status epilepticus leading to pharmacoresistance patterns unfavorable for conventional antiepileptics. In particular, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor upregulation leads to glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. Targeting these NMDA receptors may provide a novel approach to otherwise refractory seizures. Ketamine has been utilized in RSE. Recent systematic review indicates 56.5% and 63.5% cessation in seizures in adults and pediatrics, respectively. No complications were described. We should consider earlier implementation of ketamine or other NMDA receptor antagonists, for RSE. Prospective study of early implementation of ketamine should shed light on the role of such medications in RSE. PMID:25649724

  18. The combination of glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 with tamoxifen and its active metabolites potentiates their antiproliferative activity in mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Mariana P.C.; Nunes-Correia, Isabel; Santos, Armanda E.; Custódio, José B.A.

    2014-02-15

    Recent reports suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade by MK-801 decreases tumor growth. Thus, we investigated whether other ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists were also able to modulate the proliferation of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) decreases the proliferation of melanoma cells, and is included in combined therapies for melanoma. As the efficacy of TAM is limited by its metabolism, we investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 in combination with TAM and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and endoxifen (EDX). The NMDAR blockers MK-801 and memantine decreased mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cell proliferation. In contrast, the NMDAR competitive antagonist APV and the AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist NBQX did not affect cell proliferation, suggesting that among the iGluR antagonists only the NMDAR channel blockers inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. The combination of antiestrogens with MK-801 potentiated their individual effects on cell biomass due to diminished cell proliferation, since it decreased the cell number and DNA synthesis without increasing cell death. Importantly, TAM metabolites combined with MK-801 promoted cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, the data obtained suggest that the activity of MK-801 and antiestrogens in K1735-M2 cells is greatly enhanced when used in combination. - Highlights: • MK-801 and memantine decrease melanoma cell proliferation. • The combination of MK-801 with antiestrogens inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. • These combinations greatly enhance the effects of the compounds individually. • MK-801 combined with tamoxifen active metabolites induces cell cycle arrest in G1. • The combination of MK-801 and antiestrogens is an innovative strategy for melanoma.

  19. Structural and thermodynamic bases for the design of pure prolactin receptor antagonists: X-ray structure of Del1-9-G129R-hPRL.

    PubMed

    Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Tallet, Estelle; Broutin, Isabelle; Hoos, Sylviane; van Agthoven, Jan; Ducruix, Arnaud; Kelly, Paul A; Kragelund, Birthe B; England, Patrick; Goffin, Vincent

    2007-11-01

    Competitive antagonists of the human prolactin (hPRL) receptor are a novel class of molecules of potential therapeutic interest in the context of cancer. We recently developed the pure antagonist Del1-9-G129R-hPRL by deleting the nine N-terminal residues of G129R-hPRL, a first generation partial antagonist. We determined the crystallographic structure of Del1-9-G129R-hPRL, which revealed no major change compared with wild type hPRL, indicating that its pure antagonistic properties are intrinsically due to the mutations. To decipher the molecular bases of pure antagonism, we compared the biological, physicochemical, and structural properties of numerous hPRL variants harboring N-terminal or Gly(129) mutations, alone or combined. The pure versus partial antagonistic properties of the multiple hPRL variants could not be correlated to differences in their affinities toward the hPRL receptor, especially at site 2 as determined by surface plasmon resonance. On the contrary, residual agonism of the hPRL variants was found to be inversely correlated to their thermodynamic stability, which was altered by all the Gly(129) mutations but not by those involving the N terminus. We therefore propose that residual agonism can be abolished either by further disrupting hormone site 2-receptor contacts by N-terminal deletion, as in Del1-9-G129R-hPRL, or by stabilizing hPRL and constraining its intrinsic flexibility, as in G129V-hPRL. PMID:17785459

  20. Similarities and Distinctions in Actions of Surface-Directed and Classic Androgen Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Ji Ho; Chattopadhyay, Arundhati; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Storer Samaniego, Cheryl; Cox, Marc B.; Webb, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) surface-directed antagonist MJC13 inhibits AR function and proliferation of prostate cancer (PC) cells. These effects are related to arrest of an AR/chaperone complex in the cytoplasm. Here, we compared MJC13 and classic AR antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide. Microarray analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR reveals that MJC13 and flutamide inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent genes in LNCaP PC cells. Both compounds are equally effective on a genome wide basis and as effective as second generation AR antagonists (MDV3100, ARN-509) at selected genes. MJC13 inhibits AR binding to the prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoter more strongly than flutamide, consistent with different mechanisms of action. Examination of efficacy of MJC13 in conditions that reflect aspects castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) reveals that it inhibits flutamide activation of an AR mutant (ART877A) that emerges during flutamide withdrawal syndrome, but displays greatly restricted gene-specific activity in 22Rv1 cells that express a constitutively active truncated AR and is inactive against glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which can co-opt androgen-dependent signaling networks in CRPC. Importantly, MJC13 inhibits AR interactions with SRC2 and β-catenin in the nucleus and, unlike flutamide, strongly inhibits amplification of AR activity obtained with transfected SRC2 and β-catenin. MJC13 also inhibits DHT and β-catenin-enhanced cell division in LNCaP cells. Thus, a surface-directed antagonist can block AR activity in some conditions in which a classic antagonist fails and may display utility in particular forms of CRPC. PMID:26332122

  1. Antitumor activity of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists in MG-63 human osteosarcoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Muoz, Miguel; Berger, Michael; Rosso, Marisa; Gonzalez-Ortega, Ana; Carranza, Andrs; Coveas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Aprepitant is a selective high?affinity antagonist of the human neurokinin?1 (NK?1) receptor (NK1R) with robust antitumor activity. No data exist on the presence of NK1R in osteosarcoma and whether this tumor responds to NK1R antagonists. Here, we analyzed the expression of NK1R in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 with western blot analysis and PCR and found significant expression both at the protein and mRNA levels. We further studied the growth inhibitory capacity of aprepitant and other NK1R antagonists on MG-63 in vitro using an MTS cytotoxicity assay and DAPI staining. All antagonists induced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis. Synergism was observed for the combination of L-733,060 with common cytostatic drugs in MG-63, but not in non-malignant HEK293 cells. Pretreatment of HEK293 with L-733,060 prior to exposure to cytostatic drugs partially protected HEK293 cells from inhibition by these drugs. Furthermore, nanomolar concentrations of substance P (SP), the natural ligand of the NK1R, increased the growth rate of MG?63 cells and micromolar concentrations of aprepitant inhibited SP-induced growth in a dose?dependent manner. In vivo, a xenograft for MG-63 was created in nude mice and treated with peritumoral s.c. injections of fosaprepitant, which resulted in a significant reduction of tumor volume. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the NK1R is expressed in human osteosarcoma cell line MG?63 and that this receptor can be targeted with NK1R antagonists both in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:24190675

  2. Similarities and Distinctions in Actions of Surface-Directed and Classic Androgen Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ji Ho; Chattopadhyay, Arundhati; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Storer Samaniego, Cheryl; Cox, Marc B; Webb, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) surface-directed antagonist MJC13 inhibits AR function and proliferation of prostate cancer (PC) cells. These effects are related to arrest of an AR/chaperone complex in the cytoplasm. Here, we compared MJC13 and classic AR antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide. Microarray analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR reveals that MJC13 and flutamide inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent genes in LNCaP PC cells. Both compounds are equally effective on a genome wide basis and as effective as second generation AR antagonists (MDV3100, ARN-509) at selected genes. MJC13 inhibits AR binding to the prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoter more strongly than flutamide, consistent with different mechanisms of action. Examination of efficacy of MJC13 in conditions that reflect aspects castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) reveals that it inhibits flutamide activation of an AR mutant (ART877A) that emerges during flutamide withdrawal syndrome, but displays greatly restricted gene-specific activity in 22Rv1 cells that express a constitutively active truncated AR and is inactive against glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which can co-opt androgen-dependent signaling networks in CRPC. Importantly, MJC13 inhibits AR interactions with SRC2 and ?-catenin in the nucleus and, unlike flutamide, strongly inhibits amplification of AR activity obtained with transfected SRC2 and ?-catenin. MJC13 also inhibits DHT and ?-catenin-enhanced cell division in LNCaP cells. Thus, a surface-directed antagonist can block AR activity in some conditions in which a classic antagonist fails and may display utility in particular forms of CRPC. PMID:26332122

  3. Chemical function based pharmacophore generation of endothelin-A selective receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Funk, Oliver F; Kettmann, Viktor; Drimal, Jan; Langer, Thierry

    2004-05-20

    Both quantitative and qualitative chemical function based pharmacophore models of endothelin-A (ET(A)) selective receptor antagonists were generated by using the two algorithms HypoGen and HipHop, respectively, which are implemented in the Catalyst molecular modeling software. The input for HypoGen is a training set of 18 ET(A) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging between 0.19 nM and 67 microM. The best output hypothesis consists of five features: two hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI) function. The highest scoring Hip Hop model consists of six features: three hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI). It is the result of an input of three highly active, selective, and structurally diverse ET(A) antagonists. The predictive power of the quantitative model could be approved by using a test set of 30 compounds, whose activity values spread over 6 orders of magnitude. The two pharmacophores were tested according to their ability to extract known endothelin antagonists from the 3D molecular structure database of Derwent's World Drug Index. Thereby the main part of selective ET(A) antagonistic entries was detected by the two hypotheses. Furthermore, the pharmacophores were used to screen the Maybridge database. Six compounds were chosen from the output hit lists for in vitro testing of their ability to displace endothelin-1 from its receptor. Two of these are new potential lead compounds because they are structurally novel and exhibit satisfactory activity in the binding assay. PMID:15139753

  4. Actions of picrodendrin antagonists on dieldrin-sensitive and -resistant Drosophila GABA receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Ozoe, Y.; Koike, K.; Ohmoto, T.; Nikaido, T.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. A series of terpenoid compounds, recently isolated from Picrodendron baccatum, share a picrotoxane skeleton with picrotoxinin, an antagonist of ionotropic GABA receptors. Referred to as picrodendrins, they inhibit the binding of [35S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to rat GABAA receptors. Hitherto, their effects on GABA receptors have not been investigated electrophysiologically. Under two-electrode voltage-clamp, the actions of picrodendrins and related terpenoids have been assayed on homooligomeric GABA receptors formed by the expression of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit (RDLac) in Xenopus oocytes. 2. All the terpenoids tested, dose-dependently antagonized currents induced by 30 microM (EC50) GABA. 3. Tutin and its analogues (dihydrotutin and isohyenanchin) differ in the structure of their axial C4 substituents. Of these compounds, tutin, which bears an isopropenyl group at this carbon atom, was the most potent antagonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, whereas isohyenanchin, which bears a hydroxyisopropyl group, was the least potent antagonist tested. 4. Picrodendrins differ mainly in the structure of their C9 substituents. The IC50s of picrodendrins ranged from 17 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-Q) to 1006 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-O). As such, the most potent picrodendrins (Q, A and B) were approximately equipotent with picrotoxinin as antagonists of RDLac homo-oligomers. 5. Certain picrodendrin compounds effected a use-dependent blockade of RDLac homo-oligomers. Such a biphasic block was not observed with tutin analogues. 6. Picrotoxin-resistant RDLacA3025 homo-oligomers, which have a single amino acid substitution (A302S) in the 2nd transmembrane region, were markedly less sensitive to picrodendrin-O than the wild-type, dieldrin-sensitive, homo-oligomers. 7. The relative potency of tutin analogues demonstrates that the structure-activity relationship of the C4 substituent of picrotoxane-based compounds is conserved in vertebrates and insects. However, the relative order of potency of picrodendrins on RDLac homo-oligomers is distinctly different from that observed in previous radioligand binding studies performed on vertebrate GABAA receptors. As picrodendrin compounds differ in the structure of their C9 substituents, these data suggest that the optimal convulsant pharmacophores of vertebrate GABAA receptors and RDLac homo-oligomers differ with respect to this substituent. PMID:8982503

  5. Pharmacological profile of FK480, a novel cholecystokinin type-A receptor antagonist: comparison to loxiglumide.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Sogabe, H; Nakarai, T; Sato, Y; Tomoi, M; Kadowaki, M; Matsuo, M; Tokoro, K; Yoshida, K

    1994-02-01

    The pharmacological profile of FK480[(S)-(+)-N-<1-(2)-fluorophenyl)-3,4,6,7-tetra hydro-4-oxo-pyrrolo(3,2,1-jk) (1,4)benzodiaze-pine-3-yl>-1H-indole-2- carboxamide], a novel cholecystokinin type-A (CCK-A) receptor antagonist, was compared with that of the CCK-A receptor antagonist, loxiglumide. Both FK480 and loxiglumide inhibited 125I-labeled CCK-8 (125I-CCK-8) binding to rat pancreatic and guinea-pig gallbladder membranes with IC50 values of 0.40 +/- 0.04 and 0.06 +/- 0.02 nM for FK480 and 330 +/- 66 and 66 +/- 10 nM for loxiglumide, respectively. These two agents also inhibited 125I-CCK-8 binding to guinea-pig brain (cerebral cortex) receptors with respective IC50 values of 72 +/- 11 nM and > 10 microM, indicating less affinity to central receptors. Intravenous administration of FK480 (ED50 = 18 micrograms/kg) was 2800 times more potent than that of loxiglumide (ED50 = 50 mg/kg) in inhibiting CCK-8-induced pancreatic amylase secretion in rats. Furthermore, FK480 had ED50 values of 10 and 8.4 micrograms/kg, respectively, in antagonizing CCK-8-induced inhibition of charcoal meal gastric emptying in mice when administered orally 1 or 5 hr before the CCK-8. Loxiglumide (ED50 = 23.5 mg/kg, when administered orally 1 hr before the CCK-8) also antagonized it, but its activity was 2400 times less than that of FK480. We conclude that FK480 is a potent, orally effective CCK-A receptor antagonist with long duration of action. PMID:7509389

  6. IL-1 receptor antagonist improves morphine and buprenorphine efficacy in a rat neuropathic pain model.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Dominika; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    An interesting research and therapeutic problem is the reduced beneficial efficacy of opioids in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The present study sought to investigate the potential role of IL-1 family members in this phenomenon. We studied the time course of changes in IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor type I and IL-1 receptor antagonist mRNA and protein levels experienced by rats after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In CCI-exposed rats, spinal levels of IL-1alpha mRNA were slightly downregulated on the 7th day, and protein levels were not changed on the 7th and 14th days. Levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-1 receptor type I were slightly upregulated in the ipsilateral part of the spinal cord on the 7th and 14th days; however, protein levels were not changed at those time points. Interestingly, we observed that IL-1beta mRNA and protein levels were strongly elevated in the ipsilateral part of the dorsal spinal cord on the 7th and 14th days following CCI. Moreover, in rats exposed to a single intrathecal administration of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (100 ng i.t.) on the 7th and 14th day following CCI, symptoms of neuropathic pain were attenuated, and the analgesic effects of morphine (2.5 g i.t.) and buprenorphine (2.5 g i.t.) were enhanced. In summary, restoration of the analgesic activity of morphine and buprenorphine by blockade of IL-1 signaling suggests that increased IL-1beta responses may account for the decreased analgesic efficacy of opioids observed in the treatment of neuropathy. PMID:26043968

  7. 3D-pharmacophere models for CC chemokine receptor 1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yixi; Andre, Philippe; Wei, Jing; Zhao, Kang

    2009-07-01

    The CC Chemokine Receptor 1 (CCR1) is closely related to various chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and plays a crucial role in transplant rejection. Inhibiting its activity with CCR1 antagonists has been proved to be effective in preventing some diseases. A number of in vivo experiments have been carried out to shed light on the underlying mechanism of the interactions between the CCR1 and its ligands. However, their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is applied as a new and effective way to study the structure-activity relationship of CCR1 antagonists. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were generated for CCR1 antagonists, using both HypoGen and HipHop algorithms in Catalyst software. Two optimal pharmacophore models were defined through careful qualification processes. Both of them have four features: one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one positive ionable and two hydrophobic groups. Additional information was obtained through comparison between the two models. Our results can be valuable tools for the discovery and development of specific, highly potent CCR1 antagonists. For Supplement material, please see the online version of the article. PMID:19689388

  8. Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: chemical feature based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Krovat, Eva M; Langer, Thierry

    2003-02-27

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were elaborated for angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT(1)) antagonists using both a quantitative and a qualitative approach (Catalyst HypoGen and HipHop algorithms, respectively). The training sets for quantitative model generation consisted of 25 selective AT(1) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 nM to 150 microM. Additionally, a qualitative pharmacophore hypothesis was derived from multiconformational structure models of the two highly active AT(1) antagonists 4u (IC(50) = 0.2 nM) and 3k (IC(50) = 0.7 nM). In the case of the quantitative model, the best pharmacophore hypothesis consisted of a five-features model (Hypo1: seven points, one hydrophobic aromatic, one hydrophobic aliphatic, a hydrogen bond acceptor, a negative ionizable function, and an aromatic plane function). The best qualitative model consisted of seven features (Hypo2: 11 points, two aromatic rings, two hydrogen bond acceptors, a negative ionizable function, and two hydrophobic functions). The obtained pharmacophore models were validated on a wide set of test molecules. They were shown to be able to identify a range of highly potent AT(1) antagonists, among those a number of recently launched drugs and some candidates presently undergoing clinical tests and/or development phases. The results of our study provide confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore models to retrieve structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activity by virtual screening. PMID:12593652

  9. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, on rat hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hong-Shan; Li, Ding-Guo; Lu, Han-Ming; Zhan, Yu-Tao; Wang, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Ji-Lin; Xu, Qin-Fang

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effect o f losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, on hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4; and to determine whether or not AT1 receptors are expressed on hepatic stellate cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing (180 20) g, were randomized into five groups (control group, model group, and three los artan treated groups), in which all rats were given the subcutaneous injection o f 40% CCl4 (every 3 days for 6 weeks) except for rats of control group. Rats of losartan-treated groups were treated with losartan (20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, daily gavage). After 6 weeks liver tissue and serum samples of all rats were examined. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen type III (PC III) were detected by radioimmunoassays. van Giesion collagen staining was used to evaluate the extracellular matrix of rats with liver fibrosis. The expression of AT1 receptors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in liver tissue were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. Compared with model group, serum ALT and AST of losartan-treated groups were significantly reduced (t = 4. 20, P < 0.01 and t = 4.57, P < 0.01). Serum HA and PC III also had significant differences (t = 3.53, P < 0.01 and t = 2.20, P < 0.05). The degree of fibrosis was improved by losartan and correlated with the expressions of AT1 receptors, TGF-?, and ?-SMA in liver tissue. CONCLUSION: AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, could limit the progression of the hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4. The mechanism may be relat ed to the decrease in the expression of AT1 receptors and TGF-?, a meliorating the injury of hepatocytes; activation of local renin-angiotensin system might relate to hepatic fibrosis; and during progression of fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells might express AT1 receptors. PMID:11819643

  10. Characterization of mechanisms involved in presynaptic inhibition of sympathetic pressor effects induced by some 5-HT1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M M; Calama, E; Morán, A; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2000-01-01

    1. In a previous study, we showed that the presynaptic inhibitory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists on sympathetic pressor effects obtained in the pithed rats were mainly mediated by activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D receptor subtypes. At the time, we observed that some 5-HT1 receptors antagonists - WAY 100,635 and NAN-190 (both 5-HT1A receptor antagonists), methiothepin (a 5-HT1,2,5,6,7 receptor antagonist) and spiperone (a 5-HT1,2 receptor antagonist) - reduced per se the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the mechanism participating in this inhibitory effect. 2. The inhibition induced by WAY 100,635 (1000 microg kg-1, i.v.) was blocked after i.v. treatment with idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (300 and 1000 microg kg-1) and was not modified after i.v. treatment with propranolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist (1000 microg kg-1) and sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist (1000 microg kg-1). The inhibition induced by spiperone (500 microg kg-1 i.v.) was significantly blocked by sulpiride (1000 microg kg-1) and was not modified by idazoxan or propranolol. 3. Sulpiride (1000 microg kg-1) partially blocked the inhibition induced by methiothepin (50 microg kg-1 i.v.). Only pretreatment with idazoxan (300 microg kg-1) modified the inhibition induced by NAN-190 (100 microg kg-1 i.v.), such inhibition increasing after intravenous administration of idazoxan. 4. All the antagonists used in our experiments failed to inhibit the pressor responses elicited by i.v. noradrenaline administration. 5. The above results suggest that the inhibitory effects of these 5-HT1 receptor antagonists are presynaptic in nature, but not related to the blockade of 5-HT1 receptors subtypes. The simultaneous activation or inhibition of other receptor systems could explain the inhibition produced by each 5-HT1 receptor antagonist studied. PMID:11350497

  11. The role of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor antagonists in inflammatory response and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Agata; Kleniewska, Paulina; Kolodziejczyk, Michal; Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, mainly secreted by endothelial cells. It acts through two types of receptors: ETA and ETB. Apart from a vasoconstrictive action, ET-1 causes fibrosis of the vascular cells and stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. It is claimed that ET-1 induces proinflammatory mechanisms, increasing superoxide anion production and cytokine secretion. A recent study has shown that ET-1 is involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. It has been also indicated that during endotoxaemia, the plasma level of ET-1 is increased in various animal species. Some authors indicate a clear correlation between endothelin plasma level and morbidity/mortality rate in septic patients. These pathological effects of ET-1 may be abrogated at least partly by endothelin receptor blockade. ET-1 receptor antagonists may be useful for prevention of various vascular diseases. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding endothelin receptor antagonists and the role of ET-1 in sepsis and inflammation. PMID:25288367

  12. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of SR 49059, a new, potent, nonpeptide antagonist of rat and human vasopressin V1a receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Serradeil-Le Gal, C; Wagnon, J; Garcia, C; Lacour, C; Guiraudou, P; Christophe, B; Villanova, G; Nisato, D; Maffrand, J P; Le Fur, G

    1993-01-01

    SR 49059, a new potent and selective orally active, nonpeptide vasopressin (AVP) antagonist has been characterized in several in vitro and in vivo models. SR 49059 showed high affinity for V1a receptors from rat liver (Ki = 1.6 +/- 0.2) and human platelets, adrenals, and myometrium (Ki ranging from 1.1 to 6.3 nM). The previously described nonpeptide V1 antagonist, OPC-21268, was almost inactive in human tissues at concentrations up to 100 microM. SR 49059 exhibited much lower affinity (two orders of magnitude or more) for AVP V2 (bovine and human), V1b (human), and oxytocin (rat and human) receptors and had no measurable affinity for a great number of other receptors. In vitro, AVP-induced contraction of rat caudal artery was competitively antagonized by SR 49059 (pA2 = 9.42). Furthermore, SR 49059 inhibited AVP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 value of 3.7 +/- 0.4 nM, while OPC-21268 was inactive up to 20 microM. In vivo, SR 49059 inhibited the pressor response to exogenous AVP in pithed rats (intravenous) and in conscious normotensive rats (intravenous and per os) with a long duration of action (> 8 h at 10 mg/kg p.o). In all the biological assays used, SR 49059 was devoid of any intrinsic agonistic activity. Thus, SR 49059 is the most potent and selective nonpeptide AVP V1a antagonist described so far, with marked affinity, selectivity, and efficacy toward both animal and human receptors. With this original profile, SR 49059 constitutes a powerful tool for exploring the therapeutical usefulness of a selective V1a antagonist. PMID:8392086

  13. Pharmacological properties of FK886, a new, centrally active neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Yoshino-Furukawa, Takako; Maeda, Yasue; Kikuchi, Aya; Sakuma, Hiroyuki; Imazumi, Katsunori; Yamakuni, Hisashi; Sogabe, Hajime; Matsuo, Masahiko; Manda, Toshitaka; Uchida, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological properties of the novel neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonist FK886, ([3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl][(2R)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzyl)-4-{2-[(2S)-2-(methoxymethyl)morpholin-4-yl]ethyl}piperazin-1-yl]methanone dihydrochloride), were studied. FK886 potently inhibited the binding of [(125)I]Bolton-Hunter-labeled substance P ([(125)I]BH-SP; 100?pM) to human NK(1) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (IC(50)=0.70?nM). It also possessed high affinities for dog, ferret, gerbil and guinea pig NK(1) receptors, but not for rat NK(1) receptor. FK886 was highly selective for the NK(1) receptor, with 250- and >20000-fold selectivity for human NK(1) over NK(2) and NK(3), respectively. Further, it did not inhibit radioligand binding at 54 different sites, including receptors, ion channels and transporters. FK886 inhibited substance P (3.2?nM)-induced inositol phosphate formation in human NK(1) receptor-expressing CHO cells (IC(50)=1.4?nM) without stimulating NK(1) receptors. The antagonism exerted by FK886 against human NK(1) receptor was insurmountable in saturation binding experiments, with both the affinity and B(max) of [(125)I]BH-SP being significantly reduced. After intravenous administration, FK886 (0.01-0.1?mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the foot-tapping behavior induced by intracerebroventricular administration of a selective NK(1) receptor agonist, GR73632 (10?pmol), in gerbils, with significant inhibition being observed at doses of 0.032-0.1?mg/kg, indicating excellent brain penetration. The brain penetration of FK886 was further demonstrated by the cerebral distribution of radioactivity after intravenous injection of radiolabeled FK886. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FK886 is a potent, highly selective and centrally active, insurmountable antagonist of the NK(1) receptor, and suggest that FK886 antagonizes various NK(1) receptor-mediated biological effects in the central nervous system. PMID:23302639

  14. Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT? receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Alastair S; Burke, Luke K; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L; Heisler, Lora K

    2014-06-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT? receptor (5-HT?R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT?R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT?R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT?R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT?R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT?R hypophagia. PMID:24566060

  15. Amino acid conjugates of lithocholic acid as antagonists of the EphA2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Incerti, Matteo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Russo, Simonetta; Pala, Daniele; Giorgio, Carmine; Hassan-Mohamed, Iftiin; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B.; Vicini, Paola; Piersanti, Silvia; Rivara, Silvia; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptorephrin system is an emerging target for the development of novel antiangiogenetic agents. We recently identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a small molecule able to block EphA2-dependent signals in cancer cells, suggesting that its (5?)-cholan-24-oic acid scaffold can be used as a template to design a new generation of improved EphA2 antagonists. Here, we report the design and synthesis of an extended set of LCA derivatives obtained by conjugation of its carboxyl group with different ?-amino acids. Structure-activity relationships indicate that the presence of a lipophilic amino acid side chain is fundamental to achieve good potencies. The L-Trp derivative (20, PCM126) was the most potent antagonist of the series disrupting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction and blocking EphA2 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells at low ?M concentrations, thus being significantly more potent than LCA. Compound 20 is among the most potent small molecule antagonists of the EphA2 receptor. PMID:23489211

  16. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  17. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of 6?- and 6?-N-Heterocyclic Substituted Naltrexamine Derivatives as ? Opioid Receptor Selective Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Aschenbach, Lindsey C.; Chen, Jianyang; Cassidy, Michael P.; Stevens, David L.; Gabra, Bichoy H.; Selley, Dana E.; Dewey, William L.; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Opioid receptor selective antagonists are important pharmacological probes in opioid receptor structural characterization and opioid agonist functional study. Thus far, a nonpeptidyl, highly selective and reversible ? opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist is unavailable. On the basis of our modeling studies, a series of novel naltrexamine derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Among them, two compounds were identified as leads based on the results of in vitro and in vivo assays. Both of them displayed high binding affinity for the MOR (Ki = 0.37 and 0.55 nM). Compound 6 (NAP) showed over 700-fold selectivity for the MOR over the ? receptor (DOR) and more than 150-fold selectivity over the ? receptor (KOR). Compound 9 (NAQ) showed over 200-fold selectivity for the MOR over the DOR and approximately 50-fold selectivity over the KOR. Thus these two novel ligands will serve as leads to further develop more potent and selective antagonists for the MOR. PMID:19199782

  18. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinsons disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferr, Sergi; Lanciego, Jos Luis; Mller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinsons disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinsons patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  19. Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Khuder; Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

  20. Repurposing Registered Drugs as Antagonists for Protease-Activated Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijun; Lim, Junxian; Goh, Chai-Yeen; Suen, Jacky Y; Jiang, Yuhong; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Wu, Kai-Chen; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P

    2015-10-26

    Virtual screening of a drug database identified Carvedilol, Loratadine, Nefazodone and Astemizole as PAR2 antagonists, after ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulations using a PAR2 homology model and a putative binding mode of a known PAR2 ligand. The drugs demonstrated competitive binding and antagonism of calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CHO-hPAR2 transfected cells, while inhibiting IL-6 secretion in PAR2 expressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This research highlights opportunities for GPCR hit-finding from FDA-approved drugs. PMID:26445028

  1. CRF Receptor Antagonist Astressin-B Reverses and Prevents Alopecia in CRF Over-Expressing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rivier, Jean; Rivier, Catherine; Craft, Noah; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P.; Tach, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways are involved in the stress response, and there is growing evidence supporting hair growth inhibition of murine hair follicle in vivo upon stress exposure. We investigated whether the blockade of CRF receptors influences the development of hair loss in CRF over-expressing (OE)-mice that display phenotypes of Cushing's syndrome and chronic stress, including alopecia. The non-selective CRF receptors antagonist, astressin-B (5 g/mouse) injected peripherally once a day for 5 days in 49 months old CRF-OE alopecic mice induced pigmentation and hair re-growth that was largely retained for over 4 months. In young CRF-OE mice, astressin-B prevented the development of alopecia that occurred in saline-treated mice. Histological examination indicated that alopecic CRF-OE mice had hair follicle atrophy and that astressin-B revived the hair follicle from the telogen to anagen phase. However, astressin-B did not show any effect on the elevated plasma corticosterone levels and the increased weights of adrenal glands and visceral fat in CRF-OE mice. The selective CRF2 receptor antagonist, astressin2-B had moderate effect on pigmentation, but not on hair re-growth. The commercial drug for alopecia, minoxidil only showed partial effect on hair re-growth. These data support the existence of a key molecular switching mechanism triggered by blocking peripheral CRF receptors with an antagonist to reset hair growth in a mouse model of alopecia associated with chronic stress. PMID:21359208

  2. Combinations of intrathecal gamma-amino-butyrate receptor agonists and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in rats with neuropathic spinal cord injury pain

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Underlying below-level cutaneous hypersensitivity observed following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a concurrent loss of inhibition with an increase in excitation in the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, a dual pharmacological approach, increasing spinal γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition and decreasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitation, could be more beneficial than either approach alone. The current study evaluated the antinociceptive effects of lumbar intrathecal (i.t.) administration of GABA receptor agonists and NMDA receptor antagonists alone and in combination in rats with neuropathic SCI pain. Rats developed markedly decreased hind paw withdrawal thresholds following an acute thoracic spinal cord compression, indicative of below-level hypersensitivity. Separately, i.t. GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and GABAB receptor agonist baclofen demonstrated dose-dependent antinociception, whereas i.t. NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and the endogenous peptide [Ser1]histogranin, a putative NMDA receptor antagonist, demonstrated no efficacy. The combination of baclofen and ketamine resulted in a supra-additive (synergistic) antinociception whereas the combinations with muscimol were merely additive. Intrathecal pretreatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 prevented the antinociceptive effect of the baclofen and ketamine combination. The data indicate that blocking spinal NMDA receptors alone is not sufficient to ameliorate SCI hypersensitivity, whereas a combined approach, simultaneous activation of spinal GABAB receptors and NMDA receptors blockade with ketamine, leads to significant antinociception. By engaging diverse pain modulating systems at the spinal level, combination drug treatment may be a useful approach in treating neuropathic SCI pain. PMID:22449374

  3. Mutational analysis of the alpha 1a-adrenergic receptor binding pocket of antagonists by radioligand binding assay.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maruf; Hossain, Murad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Ishiguro, Masaji; Tanaka, Takashi; Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Nagatomo, Takafumi

    2008-04-01

    Computer simulations of the human alpha 1a-adrenergic receptor (alpha 1a-AR) based on the crystal structure of rhodopsin have been combined with experimental site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of residues in the transmembrane domains in antagonist binding. Previous molecular dynamics studies from our laboratory indicated that the amino acids Asp106 in the third transmembrane domain (TMD), Gln167 in TMD IV of alpha 1a-AR were directly involved in prazosin, tamsulosin and KMD-3213 binding. The Asp106Ala mutant did not exhibit any affinity for [3H]prazosin. On the other hand, the Gln167Phe mutant alpha 1a-AR showed reduced binding affinity for [3H]prazosin. In competition binding experiment the binding affinities of prazosin and tamsulosin were increased 11-fold and 33-fold respectively to Gln167Phe mutant in comparison with wild type receptor. It seems that mutation of this residue by phenylalanine has offered more interaction for the ligands with its aromatic ring. The results provide direct evidence that these amino acid residues are responsible for the interactions between alpha 1a-AR and radioligand [3H]prazosin as well as tamsulosin and KMD-3213. PMID:18379048

  4. 6-Substituted benzimidazoles as new nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: synthesis, biological activity, and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ries, U J; Mihm, G; Narr, B; Hasselbach, K M; Wittneben, H; Entzeroth, M; van Meel, J C; Wienen, W; Hauel, N H

    1993-12-10

    Starting from the recently reported nonpeptidic angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists DuP753 (1) and Exp 7711 (2), we have designed and investigated novel substituted benzimidazoles. Systemic variation of several substituents at the benzimidazole ring positions 4-7 led to the finding that substitution in position 6 with acylamino groups results in highly active AII antagonists. Compounds with 6-membered lactam or sultam substituents in position 6 of benzimidazole showed receptor activities in the low nanomolar range but were only weakly active when given orally to rats. In contrast, analogous substitution of the benzimidazole moiety with basic heterocycles resulted in potent AII antagonists which were also well absorbed after oral application. The most active compound of this series, 33 (BIBR 277), was selected as a candidate for clinical development. On the basis of molecular modeling studies a binding model of this new class of AII antagonists to the AT1 receptor is proposed. PMID:8258826

  5. Identification and optimization of anthranilic sulfonamides as novel, selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Allison BD; Phuong VK; McAtee LC; Rosen M; Morton M; Prendergast C; Barrett T; Lagaud G; Freedman J; Li L; Wu X; Venkatesan H; Pippel M; Woods C; Rizzolio MC; Hack M; Hoey K; Deng X; King C; Shankley NP; Rabinowitz MH

    2006-10-19

    A high throughput screening approach to the identification of selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK-2R) ligands resulted in the discovery of a novel series of antagonists, represented by 1-[2-[(2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-ylsulfonyl)amino]-5-chlorobenzoyl]-piperidine (1; CCK-2R, pK(I) = 6.4). Preliminary exploration of the structure-activity relationships around the anthranilic ring and the amide and sulfonamide moieties led to a nearly 50-fold improvement of receptor affinity and showed a greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the related cholecystokinin-1 receptor. Pharmacokinetic evaluation led to the identification of 4-[4-iodo-2-[(5-quinoxalinylsulfonyl)amino]benzoyl]-morpholine, 26d, a compound that demonstrates promising pharmacokinetic properties in the rat and dog with respect to plasma clearance and oral bioavailability and is a potent inhibitor in vivo of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion in the rat when dosed orally.

  6. Effect of ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor antagonists on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice.

    PubMed

    ?ukawski, Krzysztof; Czuczwar, Stanis?aw Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    Experimental data show that some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonists that are normally used as antihypertensive drugs can exert anticonvulsant-like activity against audiogenic seizures. In the current study, a number of ACE inhibitors (captopril, enalapril, cilazapril, perindopril and zofenopril) and AT(1) antagonists (losartan, telmisartan and candesartan) were examined against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. Captopril (50 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally significantly raised the PTZ threshold (p < 0.05). The remaining drugs were not protective against PTZ-induced convulsions. The current study indicates that captopril decreases PTZ-evoked seizures in mice, which is an animal model of myoclonic convulsions. PMID:25573423

  7. Effect of CCK receptor antagonists on the antinociceptive, reinforcing and gut motility properties of morphine.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, L.; Oles, R. J.; Field, M. J.; Atwal, P.; Woodruff, G. N.; Hunter, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The ability of a selective CCKA receptor antagonist PD 140548 and a selective CCKB receptor antagonist CI-988 (formerly PD 134308) to modulate the various in vivo properties of morphine was investigated in the rat. 2. PD 140548 dose-dependently (0.001-1.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) antagonised the development of conditioned place preference to morphine (2.0 mg kg-1, s.c.). In contrast, CI-988 (0.01-1.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not affect this morphine-induced behaviour. Neither of the CCK receptor antagonists blocked or generalised to the morphine (3.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) discriminative stimulus. 3. CI-988 (0.001-10.0 mg kg-1, s.c.) at doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mg kg-1 (s.c.), potentiated the antinociceptive action of a threshold dose of morphine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) in a radiant heat model of acute nociception, the rat tail flick test. Furthermore, at 0.01 mg kg-1 it potentiated the antinociceptive action of morphine (3.0 mg kg-1) during the acute phase of the rat paw formalin test. And at doses of 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg-1 it also potentiated the antinociceptive action of morphine (1.0 mg kg-1) during the tonic phase of the formalin test. However, in both models, higher doses of CI-988 were ineffective. In contrast, PD 140548 (0.001-10 mg kg-1, s.c.) was only active at a dose of 1.0 mg kg-1 (s.c.) and only in the tonic phase of the formalin test. Neither CI-988 nor PD 140548 possessed any intrinsic antinociceptive action in either of the tests. Chronic treatment with CI-988 (0.01 mg kg-1, s.c.) prevented the development of tolerance to morphine antinociception (4 mg kg-1, s.c.) following a 6 day period of twice daily injections of morphine escalating from 1 to 16 mg kg-1 (i.p.). 4. Morphine dose-dependently (1-10 mg kg-1, s.c.) reduced the distance travelled by a charcoal meal in the rat intestine. Neither PD 140548 (0.01-1.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) nor CI-988 (0.01-1.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) potentiated or suppressed this inhibitory action of morphine. 5. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that CCKA and CCKB receptors modulate different properties of morphine. Thus, whilst a selective CCKA receptor antagonist blocked the rewarding properties of morphine, a selective CCKB receptor antagonist potentiated the antinociceptive action. However, neither compound displayed a potential for modulating the influence of morphine on gastro-intestinal motility. It is suggested that these findings may have important implications for development of CCK receptor antagonists as analgesic adjuncts to the therapeutic use of morphine. PMID:8818359

  8. Competitive receptor binding radioassay for US -1 and US -2 adrenergic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M.N.; Culbreth, W.; Dalrymple, R.; Fung, C.; Ricks, C.

    1987-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive competitive receptor bonding assay for US -1 and US -2 adrenergic binding for adrenergic agents has been developed. The steps that are critical for the success of the assay are given in detail so that the assay can be set up in any routine laboratory with relative ease. The rationale behind the use of specific reagents is discussed. The assay requires microgram quantities of test compound, a radiolabeled specific US adrenergic antagonist (TH)dihydroalprenolol (DHA), and turkey erythrocyte US -1 and rat erythrocyte US -2 receptor membranes. Serial dilutions of sample are incubated with appropriate receptor membranes and DHA for 1 hr at room temperature. After equilibrium is attained, the bound radioligand is separated by rapid filtration under vacuum through Whatman GF/B filters. The amount of bound DHA trapped on the filter is inversely proportional to the degree of US -1 and US -2 adrenergic binding of the sample. Separation of bound from free radioligand by filtration permits rapid determination of a large number of samples. This assay quantitates and differentiates US -1 and US -2 adrenergic binding of synthetic adrenergic agents.

  9. BIIE0246, a potent and highly selective non-peptide neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Yvan; Cadieux, Alain; Doods, Henri; Pheng, Leng Hong; Abounader, Roger; Hamel, Edith; Jacques, Danielle; Regoli, Domenico; Quirion, Rmi

    2000-01-01

    BIIE0246, a newly synthesized non-peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor antagonist, was able to compete with high affinity (8 to 15?nM) for specific [125I]PYY336 binding sites in HEK293 cells transfected with the rat Y2 receptor cDNA, and in rat brain and human frontal cortex membrane homogenates. Interestingly, in rat brain homogenates while NPY, C2-NPY and PYY336 inhibited all specific [125I]PYY336 labelling, BIIE0246 failed to compete for all specific binding suggesting that [125I]PYY336 recognized, in addition to the Y2 subtype, another population of specific NPY binding sites, most likely the Y5 receptor. Quantitative receptor autoradiographic data confirmed the presence of [125I]PYY336/BIIE0246-sensitive (Y2) and-insensitive (Y5) binding sites in the rat brain as well as in the marmoset monkey and human hippocampal formation. In the rat vas deferens and dog saphenous vein (two prototypical Y2 bioassays), BIIE0246 induced parallel shifts to the right of NPY concentration-response curves with pA2 values of 8.1 and 8.6, respectively. In the rat colon (a Y2/Y4 bioassay), BIIE0246 (1??M) completely blocked the contraction induced by PYY336, but not that of [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (a Y1, Y4 and Y5 agonist) and hPP (a Y4 and Y5 agonist). Additionally, BIIE0246 failed to alter the contractile effects of NPY in prototypical Y1 in vitro bioassays. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BIIE0246 is a highly potent, high affinity antagonist selective for the Y2 receptor subtype. It should prove most useful to establish further the functional role of the Y2 receptor in the organism. PMID:10725255

  10. /sup 125/I-labeled 8-phenylxanthine derivatives: antagonist radioligands for adenosine A1 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, J.; Patel, A.; Earl, C.Q.; Craig, R.H.; Daluge, S.M.

    1988-04-01

    A series of 8-phenylxanthine derivatives has been synthesized with oxyacetic acid on the para phenyl position to increase aqueous solubility and minimize nonspecific binding and iodinatable groups on the 1- or 3-position of the xanthine ring. The structure-activity relationship for binding of these compounds to A1 adenosine receptors of bovine and rat brain and A2 receptors of human platelets was examined. The addition of arylamine or photosensitive aryl azide groups to the 3-position of xanthine had little effect on A1 binding affinity with or without iodination, whereas substitutions at the 1-position caused greatly reduced A1 binding affinity. The addition of an aminobenzyl group to the 3-position of the xanthine had little effect on A2 binding affinity, but 3-aminophenethyl substitution decreased A2 binding affinity. Two acidic 3-(arylamino)-8-phenylxanthine derivatives were labeled with /sup 125/I and evaluated as A1 receptor radioligands. The new radioligands bound to A1 receptors with KD values of 1-1.25 nM. Specific binding represented over 80% of total binding. High concentrations of NaCl or other salts increased the binding affinity of acidic but not neutral antagonists, suggesting that interactions between ionized xanthines and receptors may be affected significantly by changes in ionic strength. On the basis of binding studies with these antagonists and isotope dilution with the agonist (/sup 125/I)N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine, multiple agonist affinity states of A1 receptors have been identified.

  11. Effect of neuropeptide S receptor antagonists and partial agonists on palatable food consumption in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cifani, Carlo; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Cannella, Nazzareno; Fedeli, Amalia; Guerrini, Remo; Calo, Girolamo; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand for the previously orphan G-protein-coupled-receptor, now termed NPS receptor (NPSR). NPS has both anxiolytic and pro-arousal properties and decreases food intake. In this work we use a rat model of palatable food intake to test in vivo different analogs of human NPS developed in our laboratories and characterized in previous in vitro experiments as partial agonists ([Ala(3)]NPS and [Aib(5)]NPS), or antagonists ([D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)]NPS and [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS). Our results confirmed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NPS (1 nmol) decreases standard chow intake in food restricted rats as well as in freely feeding animals fed with standard or palatable food diets. [Aib(5)]NPS (30 and 60 nmol), like NPS, reduced palatable food intake, thus confirming in vivo its ability to activate NPSR. [Ala(3)]NPS (60 nmol) did not affect palatable food intake per se but blocked the anorectic effect of NPS, thus suggesting its ability to function as an antagonist in this model. Finally, [D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)]NPS (20-60 nmol) and [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS (10-30 nmol), described in previous in vitro studies as pure NPSR antagonists, did not affect palatable food intake when given alone, but fully blocked the anorectic effect of NPS. These results provide an important characterization of the pharmacological properties of these NPS analogs in vivo. Of particular relevance are the data showing that [D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)]NPS and [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS behave as pure antagonists at NPSR regulating food intake, indicating that these molecules are suitable tools for further investigation of the physiopharmacology of the NPS/NPSR system. PMID:20971145

  12. Arginine Vasopressin V1a Receptor Antagonist Impairs Maternal Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Bridges, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Primiparous female rats rapidly respond to foster pups following an extended separation from pups after an initial maternal experience. This consolidation of maternal behavior has been referred to as maternal memory. The neurochemical regulation of maternal memory is not clearly understood. One neuropeptide that may mediate maternal memory is arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide which is modulated around the time of parturition and has an established role in learning and memory processes. Thus, the present studies examine the possible involvement of AVP in the establishment of maternal memory in female rats. Pregnant rats were implanted with chronic cannulae connected to subcutaneous osmotic minipumps filled with a V1a receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP, 0.1–12.5 ng/hr] or saline vehicle which were chronically infused either into the lateral ventricles or bilaterally into the medial amygdala beginning on day 18 of gestation. Both the osmotic pumps and the newborn pups were removed 24 hours following parturition. The effects of the V1a antagonist treatments on social recognition and maternal behavior were measured following parturition and maternal memory was assessed following a ten day separation from pups. Whereas none of the AVP treatments affected the initial establishment of maternal behavior postpartum, maternal memory was impaired in rats infused into the amygdala with the AVP antagonist (1.25 and 12.5 ng/hr). Social recognition was not impaired by intracerebroventricular infusion of either the 0.1 or 1.0 ng/hr dose of the V1a antagonist. The present results suggest a role for medial amygdaloid V1a receptors in the establishment of maternal memory. PMID:18620713

  13. PG01037, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, inhibits the effects of methamphetamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Higley, Amanda E; Spiller, Krista; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy Hauck; Kiefer, Stephen W; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists SB-277011A or NGB 2904 significantly attenuate cocaine self-administration under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and cocaine-, methamphetamine- or nicotine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. However, the poor bioavailability of SB-277011A has limited its potential use in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the novel D3 receptor antagonist PG01037 on methamphetamine self-administration, methamphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking and methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. Rats were allowed to intravenously self-administer methamphetamine under fixed-ratio 2 and progressive-ratio reinforcement conditions, and then the effects of PG01037 on methamphetamine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement were assessed. Additional groups of rats were trained for intracranial electrical brain stimulation reward and the effects of PG01037 and methamphetamine on brain stimulation reward were assessed. Acute intraperitoneal administration of PG01037 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg) failed to alter methamphetamine or sucrose self-administration under fixed-ratio 2 reinforcement, but significantly lowered the break-point levels for methamphetamine or sucrose self-administration under progressive-ratio reinforcement. In addition, PG01037 significantly inhibited methamphetamine-associated cue-triggered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior and methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. These data suggest that the novel D3 antagonist PG01037 significantly attenuates the rewarding effects as assessed by progressive-ratio self-administration and brain stimulation reward, and inhibits methamphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior These findings support the potential use of PG01037 or other selective D3 antagonists in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. PMID:20142301

  14. Predicting the relative binding affinity of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists by density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Roos, Katarina; Hogner, Anders; Ogg, Derek; Packer, Martin J; Hansson, Eva; Granberg, Kenneth L; Evertsson, Emma; Nordqvist, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of binding affinity ahead of synthesis to aid compound prioritization is still hampered by the low throughput of the more accurate methods and the lack of general pertinence of one method that fits all systems. Here we show the applicability of a method based on density functional theory using core fragments and a protein model with only the first shell residues surrounding the core, to predict relative binding affinity of a matched series of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Antagonists of MR are used for treatment of chronic heart failure and hypertension. Marketed MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, are also believed to be highly efficacious in treatment of chronic kidney disease in diabetes patients, but is contra-indicated due to the increased risk for hyperkalemia. These findings and a significant unmet medical need among patients with chronic kidney disease continues to stimulate efforts in the discovery of new MR antagonist with maintained efficacy but low or no risk for hyperkalemia. Applied on a matched series of MR antagonists the quantum mechanical based method gave an R(2)=0.76 for the experimental lipophilic ligand efficiency versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional in gas phase and an R(2)=0.64 for experimental binding affinity versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional including an implicit solvation model. The quantum mechanical approach using core fragments was compared to free energy perturbation calculations using the full sized compound structures. PMID:26572910

  15. Identification of a proliferator-activated receptor-? antagonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    WANG, REN; DAI, LIHUA; CHEN, JINJIN

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a novel antagonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) was screened and identified, and a cell-based evaluation of the biological activity of this PPAR? antagonist was conducted. The aim of the study was to produce results that may provide a foundation for the development of a novel compound in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since obesity is the main cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, identifying a new reagent that is able to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation is a feasible method of developing novel anti-diabetes drugs. The PPAR? antagonist was screened using a mammalian one-hybrid system and transcriptional activation. The effects of the compound on adipocyte differentiation were investigated by staining the preadipocytes with Oil Red O. In addition, the effects of the compound on the expression levels of genes associated with lipid metabolism were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As a PPAR? antagonist, N-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl) aniline (Compound Q) was shown to depress the transcriptional activity and coactivator recruitment of PPAR?, as well as preadipocyte differentiation, in a concentration-dependent manner. The compound was also shown to decrease the expression levels of genes associated with PPAR?-regulated lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the compound screening platform was demonstrated to be valid, and the present study identified a novel PPAR? antagonist that was shown to effectively reduce the rate of adipocyte differentiation and the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism. PMID:25574213

  16. Crystal Structure and Pharmacological Characterization of a Novel N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Antagonist at the GluN1 Glycine Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, Trine; Steffensen, Thomas Bielefeldt; Greenwood, Jeremy R.; Mehrzad Tabrizi, Fatemeh; Hansen, Kasper B.; Gajhede, Michael; Pickering, Darryl S.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Bruner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. They are tetrameric complexes composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits together with glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits. Subunit-selective antagonists that discriminate between the glycine sites of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits would be valuable pharmacological tools for studies on the function and physiological roles of NMDA receptor subtypes. In a virtual screening for antagonists that exploit differences in the orthosteric binding site of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits, we identified a novel glycine site antagonist, 1-thioxo-1,2-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-one (TK40). Here, we show by Schild analysis that TK40 is a potent competitive antagonist with Kb values of 2163 nm at the GluN1 glycine-binding site of the four recombinant GluN1/N2A-D receptors. In addition, TK40 displayed >100-fold selectivity for GluN1/N2 NMDA receptors over GluN3A- and GluN3B-containing NMDA receptors and no appreciable effects at AMPA receptors. Binding experiments on rat brain membranes and the purified GluN1 ligand-binding domain using glycine site GluN1 radioligands further confirmed the competitive interaction and high potency. To delineate the binding mechanism, we have solved the crystal structure of the GluN1 ligand-binding domain in complex with TK40 and show that TK40 binds to the orthosteric binding site of the GluN1 subunit with a binding mode that was also predicted by virtual screening. Furthermore, the structure reveals that the imino acetamido group of TK40 acts as an ?-amino acid bioisostere, which could be of importance in bioisosteric replacement strategies for future ligand design. PMID:24072709

  17. Effects of YM218, a nonpeptide vasopressin V1A receptor-selective antagonist, on human vasopressin and oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Atsuo; Tsukada, Junko; Tomura, Yuichi; Kusayama, Toshiyuki; Wada, Koh-Ichi; Ishii, Noe; Taniguchi, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yatsu, Takeyuki; Uchida, Wataru; Shibasaki, Masayuki

    2005-03-01

    The binding and signal transduction characteristics of YM218 ((Z)-4'-{4,4-difluoro-5-[2-oxo-2-(4-piperidinopiperidino)ethylidene]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-1-benzoazepine-1-carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-furanilide hemifumarate), a newly synthesized, potent arginine vasopressin (AVP) V(1A) receptor-selective antagonist, were examined using cloned human AVP receptors (V(1A), V(1B) and V(2)) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human uterine smooth muscle cells (USMCs) expressing oxytocin receptors. YM218 potently inhibited specific binding of [(3)H] AVP to V(1A) receptors, exhibiting a K(i) value of 0.30 nM. In contrast, YM218 exhibited much lower affinity for V(1B), V(2) and oxytocin receptors, exhibiting K(i) values of 25,500 nM, 381 nM and 71.0 nM, respectively. In CHO cells expressing V(1A) receptors, YM218 potently inhibited the AVP-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), exhibiting an IC(50) value of 0.25 nM. However, in human USMCs expressing oxytocin receptors, YM218 exhibited a much lower potency in inhibiting the oxytocin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase, showing an IC(50) value of 607 nM, and had no effect on the AVP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in CHO cells expressing V(1B) receptors. Furthermore, in CHO cells expressing V(2) receptors, YM218 did not potently inhibit the production of cAMP stimulated by AVP, showing an IC(50) value of 62.2 nM. In all assays used, YM218 did not exhibit any agonistic activity. These results demonstrate that YM218 is a potent, nonpeptide human V(1A) receptor-selective antagonist, and that YM218 will be a valuable new tool to gain further insight into the physiologic and pharmacologic actions of AVP. PMID:15661579

  18. P2X7 receptor antagonist activity of the anti-allergic agent oxatomide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Ito, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Isao

    2015-11-15

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP is associated with various immune responses including allergic inflammation. Anti-allergic agents, such as H1-antihistamines, are known to inhibit the effects of different chemical mediators such as acetylcholine and platelet-activating factor. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anti-allergic agents might affect P2X7 receptor function. Using N18TG2 and J774 cells, which express functional P2X7 receptors, the effects of several anti-allergic agents on P2X7 receptor function were investigated by monitoring the ATP-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i). Among the various agents tested, oxatomide significantly inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)]i elevation in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the P2Y2 receptor-mediated response in both N18TG2 and J774 cells. Consistently, oxatomide inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated membrane current and downstream responses such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, inflammation-related gene induction, and cell death. In addition, oxatomide inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated degranulation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Whole cell patch clamp analyses in HEK293 cells expressing human, mouse, and rat P2X7 receptors revealed that the inhibitory effect of oxatomide on ATP-induced current was most prominent for the human P2X7 receptor and almost non-existent for the rat P2X7 receptor. The potent inhibitory effects of oxatomide on human P2X7 receptor-mediated function were confirmed in RPMI8226 human B cell-like myeloma cells, which endogenously express the P2X7 receptor. Our results demonstrated that the antihistamine oxatomide also acts as a P2X7 receptor antagonist. Future studies should thus evaluate whether P2X7 receptor antagonism contributes to the anti-allergic effects of oxatomide. PMID:26463039

  19. Inverse antagonist activities of parabens on human oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ): In vitro and in silico studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Hu, Ying; Jiao, Jian; Hu, Jianying

    2013-07-01

    Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters that have been used extensively as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, drugs and toiletries. These intact esters are commonly detected in human breast cancer tissues and other human samples, thus arousing concern about the involvement of parabens in human breast cancer. In this study, an in vitro nuclear receptor coactivator recruiting assay was developed and used to evaluate the binding activities of parabens, salicylates and benzoates via antagonist competitive binding on the human oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ), which is known as both a diagnostic biomarker and a treatment target of breast cancer. The results showed that all of the test parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben) possessed clear inverse antagonist activities on ERRγ, with a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 10{sup −7} M and the 50% relative effective concentrations (REC50) varying from 3.09 × 10{sup −7} to 5.88 × 10{sup −7} M, whereas the salicylates possessed much lower activities and the benzoates showed no obvious activity. In silico molecular docking analyses showed that parabens fitted well into the active site of ERRγ, with hydrogen bonds forming between the p-hydroxyl group of parabens and the Glu275/Arg316 of ERRγ. As the paraben levels reported in breast cancer tissues are commonly higher than the LOELs observed in this study, parabens may play some role via ERRγ in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer. In addition, parabens may have significant effects on breast cancer patients who are taking tamoxifen, as ERRγ is regarded as a treatment target for tamoxifen. - Highlights: • An oestrogen-related receptor γ coactivator recruiting assay was developed. • Strong binding activities of parabens with oestrogen-related receptor γ were found. • The paraben levels reported in breast cancer tissues were higher than their LOELs. • Parabens may play some role via ERRγ in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer. • Parabens may have significant effects in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen.

  20. Selective small molecule angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists for neuropathic pain: preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maree T; Anand, Praveen; Rice, Andrew S C

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain affects up to 10% of the general population, but drug treatments recommended for the treatment of neuropathic pain are associated with modest efficacy and/or produce dose-limiting side effects. Hence, neuropathic pain is an unmet medical need. In the past 2 decades, research on the pathobiology of neuropathic pain has revealed many novel pain targets for use in analgesic drug discovery programs. However, these efforts have been largely unsuccessful as molecules that showed promising pain relief in rodent models of neuropathic pain generally failed to produce analgesia in early phase clinical trials in patients with neuropathic pain. One notable exception is the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor that has clinical validity on the basis of a successful double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of EMA401, a highly selective, orally active, peripherally restricted AT2 receptor antagonist in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. In this study, we review research to date on target validation, efficacy, and mode of action of small molecule AT2 receptor antagonists in rodent models of peripheral neuropathic pain and in cultured human sensory neurons, the preclinical pharmacokinetics of these compounds, and the outcome of the above clinical trial. PMID:26785154

  1. Effect of inhaled H1 and H2 receptor antagonist in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, N C; Kerr, J W

    1980-01-01

    The effects on airflow resistance of an inhaled H1 receptor antagonist, clemastine, and an H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, have been investigated in normal and asthmatic subjects. No significant changes in specific conductance (sGaw) were seen in six normal subjects. In eight asthmatic subjects a significant increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred at 60 min (< 0.02), and 120 (< 0.05) after the inhalation of clemastine, whereas inhaled cimetidine had no effect on airflow resistance. Clemastine and cimetidine were tested on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in eight normal and eight asthmatic subjects. Clemastine significantly reduced the fall in sGaw in normal subjects and the fall in FEV1 in asthmatic subjects, whereas cimetidine had no protective effect. Clemastine and ipratropium bromide were tested on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in eight normal subjects. Ipratropium bromide, but not clemastine, significantly reduced the fall in sGaw after methacholine. These results suggest that in normal and asthmatic subjects histamine-induced bronchoconstriction is mediated predominantly via H1 rather than H2 receptors in the airways. PMID:6449094

  2. Ghrelin Receptor Ligands Reaching Clinical Trials: From Peptides to Peptidomimetics; from Agonists to Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Vodnik, M; trukelj, B; Lunder, M

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, great progress has been made in the development of ghrelin receptor ligands. The discovery of the first in vitro only active peptide growth hormone secretagogue derived from Met-enkephalin was the foundation for later discoveries of the receptor and the endogenous ligand ghrelin. Since then, the scope of peptides, peptidomimetics, and small-molecules targeting the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, has expanded dramatically. Numerous agonists have been tested in animals and several in humans, and a handful have progressed to clinical trials for indications such as growth hormone release, gastric emptying, and cachexia. However, with the exception of the approval of GHRP-2 for diagnostic purposes in Japan, none of the candidates have been successfully introduced into the market. More recently, the attention of researchers has been concentrated on developing antagonists and inverse agonists for pharmacological treatment of the ever-expanding obese and overweight population. In this review, we describe the development of GHS-R1a targeting agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists. We focus on current and completed clinical trials and the therapeutic potential of currently available ligands. PMID:26551992

  3. Synthesis, structural activity-relationships, and biological evaluation of novel amide-based allosteric binding site antagonists in NR1A/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors?

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Cara A.; Myers, Scott J.; Murray, Ernest E.; Santangelo, Rose; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Kurtkaya, Natalie; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Yuan, Hongjie; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Le, Phuong; Wilson, Lawrence J.; Yepes, Manuel; Dingledine, Ray; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Liotta, Dennis C.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis and structureactivity relationship analysis of a novel class of amide-based biaryl NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists are presented. Some of the studied compounds are potent, selective, non-competitive, and voltage-independent antagonists of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. Like the founding member of this class of antagonists (ifenprodil), several interesting compounds of the series bind to the amino terminal domain of the NR2B subunit to inhibit function. Analogue potency is modu-lated by linker length, flexibility, and hydrogen bonding opportunities. However, unlike previously described classes of NR2B-selective NMDA antagonists that exhibit off-target activity at a variety of monoamine receptors, the compounds described herein show much diminished effects against the hERG channel and ?1-adrenergic receptors. Selections of the compounds discussed have acceptable half-lives in vivo and are predicted to permeate the bloodbrain barrier. These data together suggest that masking charged atoms on the linker region of NR2B-selective antagonists can decrease undesirable side effects while still maintaining on-target potency. PMID:19648014

  4. Effects of the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 in animal models of psychosis and cognition.

    PubMed

    Waters, Kerry A; Stean, Tania O; Hammond, Beverley; Virley, David J; Upton, Neil; Kew, James N C; Hussain, Ishrut

    2012-03-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (5-HT7) receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor for serotonin that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders including anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate the potential role of the 5-HT7 receptor in schizophrenia by utilising genetic or pharmacological tools but to date these have provided conflicting results. Here we investigate the effect of a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, in in vivo psychosis and cognition models and relate efficacy to brain exposures of the compound. SB-269970 significantly attenuated amphetamine-induced rearing and circling in rats. A similar effect was observed in an N-methyl d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist driven psychosis model, where SB-269970 significantly reversed phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion, rearing and circling; although the effect was not as robust as with the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist positive control, MDL100,907. SB-269970 also attenuated a temporal deficit in novel object recognition (NOR), indicative of an improvement in recognition memory. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma and brain samples taken after behavioural testing confirmed that efficacy was achieved at doses and pre-treatment times where receptor occupancy was substantial. These findings highlight the anti-psychotic and pro-cognitive potential of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists and warrant further studies to explore their therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. PMID:22189656

  5. Neuroprotection afforded by antagonists of endothelin-1 receptors in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Octavio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Agulla, Jesús; Barral, David; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Castillo, José

    2012-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved on the development of cerebral edema in acute ischemic stroke. As edema is a therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia, our aim was to study the effect of antagonists for ET-1 receptors (Clazosentan® and BQ-788, specific antagonists for receptors A and B, respectively) on the development of edema, infarct volume and sensorial-motor deficits in rats subjected to ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). We used Wistar rats (280-320 g) submitted to ischemia by intraluminal transient (90 min) MCAO. After ischemia, rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6) treated with; 1) control group (saline), 2) Clazosentan® group (10 mg/kg iv), 3) BQ-788 group (3 mg/kg iv), and 4) combined treatment (Clazosentan® 10 mg/kg plus BQ-788 3 mg/kg iv). We observed that rats treated with Clazosentan® showed a reduction of edema, measured by MRI, at 72 h (hours) and at day 7 (both p < 0.0001), and a decrease in the serum levels of ET-1 at 72 h (p < 0.0001) and at day 7 (p = 0.009). The combined treatment also induced a reduction of edema at 24 h (p = 0.004), 72 h (p < 0.0001) and at day 7 (p < 0.0001), a reduction on infarct volume, measured by MRI, at 24 and 72 h, and at day 7 (all p < 0.01), and a better sensorimotor recovery at 24 and 72 h, and at day 7 (all p < 0.01). Moreover, Clazosentan® induced a decrease in AQP4 expression, while BQ-788 induced an increase in AQP9 expression. These results suggest that antagonists for ET-1 receptors may be a good therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia. PMID:22975409

  6. Clinical and preclinical characterization of the histamine H(4) receptor antagonist JNJ-39758979.

    PubMed

    Thurmond, Robin L; Chen, Bin; Dunford, Paul J; Greenspan, Andrew J; Karlsson, Lars; La, David; Ward, Peter; Xu, Xie L

    2014-05-01

    The histamine H4 receptor (H(4)R) has been shown to have preclinical involvement in both inflammatory and pruritic responses. JNJ-39758979 [(R)-4-(3-amino-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-6-isopropyl-pyrimidin-2-ylamine] is a potent and selective H(4)R antagonist with a Ki at the human receptor of 12.5 2.6 nM and greater than 80-fold selectivity over other histamine receptors. The compound also exhibited excellent selectivity versus other targets. JNJ-39758979 showed dose-dependent activity in models of asthma and dermatitis consistent with other H(4)R antagonists. Preclinical toxicity studies of up to 6 months in rats and 9 months in monkeys indicated an excellent safety profile, supporting the clinical testing of the compound. An oral formulation of JNJ-39758979 was studied in a phase 1 human volunteer study to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. The compound was well tolerated, with the exception of dose-dependent nausea, and no safety issues were noted in the phase 1 study. JNJ-39758979 exhibited good pharmacokinetics upon oral dosing with a plasma half-life of 124-157 hours after a single oral dose. In addition, dose-dependent inhibition of histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was detected, suggesting that the H4R was inhibited in vivo. In conclusion, JNJ-39758979 is a potent and selective H(4)R antagonist that exhibited good preclinical and phase 1 safety in healthy volunteers with evidence of a pharmacodynamics effect in humans. PMID:24549371

  7. Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human Pregnane X-Receptor in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Emma Jane; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shen, Danny D.; Tracy, Julia; Shuhart, Margaret C.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Eaton, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), is an effective in vitro antagonist of ligand activation of the human pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR). PXR mediated CYP3A4 up-regulation is implicated in adverse drug-drug interactions making identification of small molecule antagonists a desirable therapeutic goal. SFN is not an antagonist to mouse or rat PXR in vitro; thus, normal rodent species are not suitable as in vivo models for human response. To evaluate whether SFN can effectively antagonize ligand activation of human PXR in vivo, a three-armed, randomized, crossover trial was conducted with 24 healthy adults. The potent PXR ligand – rifampicin (300 mg/d) was given alone for 7 days in arm 1, or in daily combination with 450 µmoles SFN (Broccoli Sprout extract) in arm 2; SFN was given alone in arm 3. Midazolam as an in vivo phenotype marker of CYP3A was administered before and after each treatment arm. Rifampicin alone decreased midazolam AUC by 70%, indicative of the expected increase in CYP3A4 activity. Co-treatment with SFN did not reduce CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with SFN alone also did not affect CYP3A4 activity in the cohort as a whole, although in the subset with the highest basal CYP3A4 activity there was a statistically significant increase in midazolam AUC (i.e., decrease in CYP3A4 activity). A parallel study in humanized PXR mice yielded similar results. The parallel effects of SFN between humanized PXR mice and human subjects demonstrate the predictive value of humanized mouse models in situations where species differences in ligand-receptor interactions preclude the use of a native mouse model for studying human ligand-receptor pharmacology. PMID:23153560

  8. Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2013-06-01

    The use of muscarinic receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established. More recently, the potential for long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) in the treatment of asthma has also been investigated. While LAMAs offer advantages over short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists, in terms of a reduced dosing frequency, there remains a need for therapies that improve symptom control throughout both the day and night, provide better management of exacerbations and deliver improved health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the potential for unwanted anticholinergic side effects, particularly cardiovascular effects, remains a concern for this class of compounds. Novel LAMAs in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory disease include: aclidinium bromide, NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), GP-MDI, EP-101, CHF-5259, umeclidinium bromide, CHF-5407, TD-4208, AZD8683 and V-0162. These compounds offer potential advantages in terms of onset of action, symptom control and safety. In addition, a number of LAMAs are also being developed as combination treatments with long-acting ?2-agonists (LABAs) or inhaled glucocorticosteroids, potentially important treatment options for patients who require combination therapy to achieve an optimal therapeutic response as their disease progresses. More recently, compounds such as GSK961081 and THRX-198321 have been identified that combine LAMA and LABA activity in the same molecule, and have the potential to offer the benefits of combination therapy in a single compound. Here, we review novel LAMAs and dual action compounds in clinical development, with a particular focus on how they may address the current unmet clinical needs in the treatment of respiratory disease, particularly COPD. PMID:23274274

  9. Pharmacological characterization of a novel centrally permeable P2X7 receptor antagonist: JNJ-47965567

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Wang, Qi; Ao, Hong; Shoblock, James R; Lord, Brian; Aluisio, Leah; Fraser, Ian; Nepomuceno, Diane; Neff, Robert A; Welty, Natalie; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Wickenden, Alan D; Letavic, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An increasing body of evidence suggests that the purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2X7) in the CNS may play a key role in neuropsychiatry, neurodegeneration and chronic pain. In this study, we characterized JNJ-47965567, a centrally permeable, high-affinity, selective P2X7 antagonist. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We have used a combination of in vitro assays (calcium flux, radioligand binding, electrophysiology, IL-1? release) in both recombinant and native systems. Target engagement of JNJ-47965567 was demonstrated by ex vivo receptor binding autoradiography and in vivo blockade of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release in the rat brain. Finally, the efficacy of JNJ-47965567 was tested in standard models of depression, mania and neuropathic pain. KEY RESULTS JNJ-47965567 is potent high affinity (pKi 7.9 0.07), selective human P2X7 antagonist, with no significant observed speciation. In native systems, the potency of the compound to attenuate IL-1? release was 6.7 0.07 (human blood), 7.5 0.07 (human monocytes) and 7.1 0.1 (rat microglia). JNJ-47965567 exhibited target engagement in rat brain, with a brain EC50 of 78 19 ngmL?1 (P2X7 receptor autoradiography) and functional block of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release. JNJ-47965567 (30 mgkg?1) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and exhibited modest, yet significant efficacy in the rat model of neuropathic pain. No efficacy was observed in forced swim test. Conclusion and Implications JNJ-47965567 is centrally permeable, high affinity P2X7 antagonist that can be used to probe the role of central P2X7 in rodent models of CNS pathophysiology. PMID:23889535

  10. KW-3902, a selective high affinity antagonist for adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, H.; Ichimura, M.; Takeda, M.; Kanda, T.; Shimada, J.; Suzuki, F.; Kase, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. We demonstrate that 8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KW-3902) is a very potent and selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, assessed by radioligand binding and cyclic AMP response in cells. 2. In rat forebrain adenosine A1 receptors labelled with [3H]-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), KW-3902 had a Ki value of 0.19 nM, whereas it showed a Ki value of 170 nM in rat striatal A2A receptors labelled with [3H]-2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoad enosine (CGS21680), indicating 890 fold A1 receptor selectivity versus the A2A receptor. KW-3902 at 10 microM showed no effect on recombinant rat A3 receptors expressed on CHO cells. 3. Saturation studies with [3H]-KW-3902 revealed that it bound with high affinity (Kd = 77 pM) and limited capacity (Bmax = 470 fmol mg-1 of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. A high positive correlation was observed between the pharmacological profile of adenosine ligands inhibiting the binding of [3H]-KW-3902 and that of [3H]-CHA. 4. KW-3902 showed potent A1 antagonism against the inhibition of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in DDT1 MF-2 cells by the A1-selective agonist, cyclopentyladenosine with a dissociation constant (KB value) of 0.34 nM. KW-3902 antagonized 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine-elicited cyclic AMP accumulation via A2B receptors with a KB value of 52 nM. 5. KW-3902 exhibited marked species-dependent differences in the binding affinities. The highest affinity was for the rat A1 receptor (ki = 0.19 nM) and these values for guinea-pig and dog A1 receptors were 1.3 and 10 nM, respectively. PMID:8732272

  11. Adenosine A2A Receptor Binding Profile of Two Antagonists, ST1535 and KW6002: Consideration on the Presence of Atypical Adenosine A2A Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Teresa; Leonardi, Fabiana; Borsini, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors seem to exist in typical (more in striatum) and atypical (more in hippocampus and cortex) subtypes. In the present study, we investigated the affinity of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, ST1535 [2 butyl -9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol 2-yl)-9H-purin-6-xylamine] and KW6002 [(E)-1,3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,dione] to the “typical” and “atypical” A2A binding sites. Affinity was determined by radioligand competition experiments in membranes from rat striatum and hippocampus. Displacement of the adenosine analog [3H]CGS21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethyl-amino-5’-N-ethylcarbox-amidoadenosine] was evaluated in the absence or in the presence of either CSC [8-(3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine], an adenosine A2A antagonist that pharmacologically isolates atypical binding sites, or DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist that pharmacologically isolates typical binding site. ZM241385 [84-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl) [1,2,4]-triazol[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl amino]ethyl) phenol)] and SCH58261 [(5-amino-7-(β-phenylethyl)-2-(8-furyl)pyrazolo(4,3-e)-1,2,4-triazolo(1,5-c) pyrimidine], two other adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, which were reported to differently bind to atypical and typical A2A receptors, were used as reference compounds. ST1535, KW6002, ZM241385 and SCH58261 displaced [3H]CGS21680 with higher affinity in striatum than in hippocampus. In hippocampus, no typical adenosine A2A binding was detected, and ST1535 was the only compound that occupied atypical A2A adenosine receptors. Present data are explained in terms of heteromeric association among adenosine A2A, A2B and A1 receptors, rather than with the presence of atypical A2A receptor subtype. PMID:21423433

  12. The Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist Almorexant Induces Sleep and Decreases Orexin-Induced Locomotion by Blocking Orexin 2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Graldine M.; Drst, Thomas; Brki, Hugo; Imobersteg, Stefan; Abramowski, Dorothee; Schuepbach, Edi; Hoyer, Daniel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Orexin peptides activate orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R), regulate locomotion and sleep-wake. The dual OX1R/OX2R antagonist almorexant reduces activity and promotes sleep in multiple species, including man. The relative contributions of the two receptors in locomotion and sleep/wake regulation were investigated in mice. Design: Mice lacking orexin receptors were used to determine the contribution of OX1R and OX2R to orexin A-induced locomotion and to almorexant-induced sleep. Setting: N/A. Patients or Participants: C57BL/6J mice and OX1R+/+, OX1R-/-, OX2R+/+, OX2R-/- and OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Interventions: Intracerebroventricular orexin A; oral dosing of almorexant. Measurements and Results: Almorexant attenuated orexin A-induced locomotion. As in other species, almorexant dose-dependently increased rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and nonREM sleep in mice. Almorexant and orexin A were ineffective in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Both orexin A-induced locomotion and sleep induction by almorexant were absent in OX2R-/- mice. Interestingly, almorexant did not induce cataplexy in wild-type mice under conditions where cataplexy was seen in mice lacking orexins and in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Almorexant dissociates very slowly from OX2R as measured functionally and in radioligand binding. Under non equilibrium conditions in vitro, almorexant was a dual antagonist whereas at equilibrium, almorexant became OX2R selective. Conclusions: In vivo, almorexant specifically inhibits the actions of orexin A. The two known orexin receptors mediate sleep induction by almorexant and orexin A-induced locomotion. However, OX2R activation mediates locomotion induction by orexin A and antagonism of OX2R is sufficient to promote sleep in mice. Citation: Mang GM; Drst T; Brki H; Imobersteg S; Abramowski D; Schuepbach E; Hoyer D; Fendt M; Gee CE. The dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant induces sleep and decreases orexin-induced locomotion by blocking orexin 2 receptors. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1625-1635. PMID:23204605

  13. Discovery of MK-3697: a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (2-SORA) for the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Anthony J; Reger, Thomas S; Mattern, M Christa; Mercer, Swati P; Bergman, Jeffrey M; Schreier, John D; Cube, Rowena V; Cox, Christopher D; Li, Dansu; Lemaire, Wei; Bruno, Joseph G; Harrell, C Meacham; Garson, Susan L; Gotter, Anthony L; Fox, Steven V; Stevens, Joanne; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Cabalu, Tamara D; Cui, Donghui; Stellabott, Joyce; Hartman, George D; Young, Steven D; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Coleman, Paul J

    2014-10-15

    Orexin receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical utility for the treatment of insomnia. The majority of clinical efforts to date have focused on the development of dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs), small molecules that antagonize both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. Our group has recently disclosed medicinal chemistry efforts to identify highly potent, orally bioavailable selective orexin 2 receptor antagonists (2-SORAs) that possess acceptable profiles for clinical development. Herein we report additional SAR studies within the 'triaryl' amide 2-SORA series focused on improvements in compound stability in acidic media and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. These studies resulted in the discovery of 2,5-disubstituted isonicotinamide 2-SORAs such as compound 24 that demonstrated improved stability and TDI profiles as well as excellent sleep efficacy across species. PMID:25248679

  14. Simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and several angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hillaert, S; Van den Bossche, W

    2003-02-26

    We have investigated the capability of the capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic (MEKC) methods to simultaneously separate hydrochlorothiazide and six angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (ARA-IIs): candesartan, eprosartan mesylate, irbesartan, losartan potassium, telmisartan, and valsartan. The CZE and MEKC methods are suitable for the qualitative and quantitative determination of combined HCT/ARA-IIs in pharmaceutical formulations. Depending on the ARA-II, at least one of the two methods can be used for each combination. The two methods have been validated in terms of their linearity of response, reproducibility, and accuracy. PMID:12609672

  15. N',2-diphenylquinoline-4-carbohydrazide based NK3 receptor antagonists II.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jason M; Carling, Robert W; Chicchi, Gary G; Crawforth, James; Hutson, Peter H; Jones, A Brian; Kelly, Sarah; Marwood, Rose; Meneses-Lorente, Georgina; Mezzogori, Elena; Murray, Fraser; Rigby, Michael; Royo, Inmaculada; Russell, Michael G N; Shaw, Duncan; Sohal, Bindi; Tsao, Kwei Lan; Williams, Brian

    2006-11-15

    Introduction of selected amine containing side chains into the 3-position of N',2-diphenylquinoline-4-carbohydrazide based NK3 antagonists abolishes unwanted hPXR activation. Introduction of a fluorine at the 8-position is necessary to minimize unwanted hI(Kr) affinity and a piperazine N-tert-butyl group is necessary for metabolic stability. The lead compound (8m) occupies receptors within the CNS following oral dosing (Occ(90) 7 mg/kg po; plasma Occ(90) 0.4 microM) and has good selectivity and excellent PK properties. PMID:16950617

  16. Novel oxazolidinone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Brendan M; Stump, Craig A; Nguyen, Diem N; Potteiger, Craig M; McWherter, Melody A; Paone, Daniel V; Quigley, Amy G; Bruno, Joseph G; Cui, Dan; Culberson, J Christopher; Danziger, Andrew; Fandozzi, Christine; Gauvreau, Danny; Kemmerer, Amanda L; Menzel, Karsten; Moore, Eric L; Mosser, Scott D; Reddy, Vijay; White, Rebecca B; Salvatore, Christopher A; Kane, Stefanie A; Bell, Ian M; Selnick, Harold G; Fraley, Mark E; Burgey, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to develop CGRP receptor antagonists as backups to MK-3207, 2, we employed a scaffold hopping approach to identify a series of novel oxazolidinone-based compounds. The development of a structurally diverse, potent (20, cAMP+HS IC50=0.67 nM), and selective compound (hERG IC50=19 μM) with favorable rodent pharmacokinetics (F=100%, t1/2=7h) is described. Key to this development was identification of a 3-substituted spirotetrahydropyran ring that afforded a substantial gain in potency (10 to 35-fold). PMID:26231160

  17. Design and optimization of quinazoline derivatives as melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sanjita; Balaji, Gade; Kanna Reddy, Hariprasada R; Balasubrahmanyam, D; Srinivas, Gujjary; Kyasa, Shivakumar; Sasmal, Pradip K; Khanna, Ish; Talwar, Rashmi; Suresh, J; Jadhav, Vikram P; Muzeeb, Syed; Shashikumar, Dhanya; Harinder Reddy, K; Sebastian, V J; Frimurer, Thomas M; Rist, ystein; Elster, Lisbeth; Hgberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is an important mediator of energy homeostasis and plays a role in metabolic and CNS disorders. The modeling-supported design, synthesis and multi-parameter optimization (biological activity, solubility, metabolic stability, hERG) of novel quinazoline derivatives as MCHR1 antagonists are described. The in vivo proof of principle for weight loss with a lead compound from this series is exemplified. Clusters of refined hMCHR1 homology models derived from the X-ray structure of the ?2-adrenergic receptor, including extracellular loops, were developed and used to guide the design. PMID:22487182

  18. Potent P2X7 Receptor Antagonists: Tyrosyl Derivatives Synthesized Using a Sequential Parallel Synthetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, R. Gnana; Kertesy, Sylvia B.; Dubyak, George R.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel analogs of 1-(N,O-bis[5-isoquinolinesulfonyl]-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl)-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-62,1) were synthesized and found to be potent antagonists in a functional assay, inhibition of ATP-induced K+ efflux in HEK293 cells expressing recombinant human P2X7 receptors. Antagonism of murine P2X7 receptors was also observed. The analogs consisted of L-tyrosine derivatives, of the general structure R1-Tyr(OR2)-piperazinyl-R3, in which three positions were systematically varied in structure through facile acylation reactions. Each of the three positions was optimized in sequence through parallel synthesis alternating with biological evaluation, leading to the identification and optimization of potent P2X7 antagonists. The optimal groups at R1 were found to be large hydrophobic groups, linked to the α-amino position through carbamate, amide, or sulfonamide groups. The benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz) group was preferred over most sulfonamides and other acyl groups examined, except for quinoline sulfonyl. At R2, an arylsulfonate ester was preferred, and the order of potency was p-tolyl, p-methoxyphenyl, phenyl > α-naphthyl, β-naphthyl. A benzoyl ester was of intermediate potency. Aliphatic esters and carbonate derivatives at the tyrosyl phenol were inactive, while a tyrosyl O-benzyl ether was relatively potent. The most potent P2X7 receptor antagonists identified in this study contained Cbz at the R1 position, an aryl sulfonate at the R2 position, and various acyl groups at the R3 position. At R3, t-butyloxycarbonyl- and benzoyl groups were preferred. The opening of the piperazinyl ring to an ethylene diamine moiety abolished antagonism. In concentration-response studies, a di-isoquinolinyl, Boc derivative, 4 (MRS2306), displayed an IC50 value of 40 nM as an antagonist of P2X7 receptor-mediated ion flux and was more potent than the reference compound 1. Nα-Cbz, Boc-piperazinyl derivatives, 11 (MRS2317), 22 (MRS2326), and 41 (MRS2409) were less potent than 1, with IC50 values of 200–300 nM.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 Antagonists Based on Fenobam().

    PubMed

    Gichinga, Moses G; Olson, Jeremy P; Butala, Elizabeth; Navarro, Hernn A; Gilmour, Brian P; Mascarella, S Wayne; Carroll, F Ivy

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to discover potent and selective metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) antagonists, 15 tetrahydropyrimidinone analogues of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-urea (fenobam) were synthesized. These compounds were evaluated for antagonism of glutamate-mediated mobilization of internal calcium in an mGluR5 in vitro efficacy assay. The IC(50) value for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(1-methyl-4-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine)urea (4g) was essentially identical to that of fenobam. PMID:22523618

  20. [Using process of refolding the protein to obtain recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist].

    PubMed

    Li, Shugang; Deng, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Xiudong; Yu, Tinghe; Cheng, Yong; Dan, Guoping

    2007-10-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was expressed in E. coli as an insoluble inclusion body. The inclusion body was dissolved in the 8 M urea and then the solution was diluted untill the concentration of urea became 2 M. By ion exchange chromatography the protein in the solution of 2 M urea was refolded and purified. At last the purity of product is more than 95% and its bioactivity is more than 1 x 10(5) IU/mg while it has little endotoxin. Western-Blotting also indicates that recombinant protein can react with antibodies against anti-hIL-1ra. PMID:18027711

  1. Discovery of 3-aryl-5-acylpiperazinyl-pyrazoles as antagonists to the NK3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hoveyda, Hamid R; Roy, Marie-Odile; Blanc, Sebastien; Nol, Sophie; Salvino, Joseph M; Ator, Mark A; Fraser, Graeme

    2011-04-01

    A series of 3-aryl-5-acylpiperazinyl-pyrazoles (e.g., 3a-b) initially identified through a high-throughput screening campaign using the aequorin Ca(2+) bioluminescence assay as novel, potent small molecule antagonists of the G protein-coupled human tachykinin NK(3) receptor (hNK3-R) is described. Preliminary profiling revealed poor plasma and metabolic stability for these structures in rodents. Further optimization efforts resulted in analogs with improved potency, stability, and pharmacokinetic properties as well as good brain permeability, for example, compounds 26 and 42. Unexpected cytotoxicity was observed in such N-Me pyrazole structures as compounds 41-42. PMID:21376585

  2. Selective blockade and recovery of cell surface alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Studies with the irreversible antagonist benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Strickland, W.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors are present on human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells, both on the cell surface and in a sequestered compartment. In the current study we show that benextramine, a hydrophilic irreversible antagonist, can be used to investigate alpha 2-adrenergic receptor compartmentation in these cells. In membranes prepared from HEL cells, benextramine competed for all alpha 2-adrenergic receptors ( (/sup 3/H)yohimbine sites). In intact cells, at 4 degrees, benextramine exhibited a biphasic competition curve for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, with EC50 values of approximately 10 microM and greater than 1 mM for the high and low affinity components, respectively. We propose that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptors preferentially blocked by benextramine are those on the surface of the cell, whereas those with low affinity are sequestered receptors because: 1) only epinephrine-accessible sites are removed by prior treatment of cells with benextramine, 2) a preparation enriched with surface membranes is also enriched in receptors with a high affinity for benextramine; and 3) after blockade of cell surface receptors (54 +/- 6% of total sites, n = 7) by benextramine, the ability of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists epinephrine and UK-14,304 to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation is lost. The latter result implies that only cell surface and not sequestered receptors are functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase. The return of receptors from the sequestered compartment to the cell surface and the recovery of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor function were measured after HEL cells were treated with benextramine (50 microM for 1 hr at 4 degrees). The recovery of receptor binding (t1/2 = 25 min) was somewhat slower than the recovery of function (t1/2 approximately 8 min).

  3. Androgen receptor silences thioredoxin-interacting protein and competitively inhibits glucocorticoid receptor-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Katsuki, Takahiro; Takahashi, Yuji; Masuda, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Adachi, Tetsuya; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is known to bind to the same cis-element that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to. However, the effects of androgen signaling on glucocorticoid signaling have not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of testosterone on dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid)-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in males. We used INS-1 #6 cells, which were isolated from the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line and which express high levels of AR. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by DEX in INS-1 #6 cells. AR knockdown and the AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide each diminished the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone. AR was localized in the nucleus of both INS-1 #6 cells and pancreatic β-cells of male rats. Induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is known to cause pro-apoptotic effects in β-cells. Testosterone suppressed the DEX-induced increase of TXNIP at the transcriptional level. A Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that both AR and GR competitively bound to the TXNIP promoter in ligand-dependent manners. Recombinant DNA-binding domain of AR bound to the same cis-element of the TXNIP promoter that GR binds to. Our results show that AR and GR competitively bind to the same cis-element of TXNIP promoter as a silencer and enhancer, respectively. These results indicate that androgen signaling functionally competes with glucocorticoid signaling in pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. PMID:25639671

  4. Theoretical evaluation of antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for prevention of vomiting induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Takayanagi, Risa; Yoshimoto, Koichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Iwase, Osamu; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2015-03-01

    5-HT(3) receptor antagonists are widely used as antiemetic agents in clinical setting, of which palonosetron, with a long elimination half life (t(1/2)), has recently become available. It is important to evaluate the concentration of serotonin when investigating the antiemetic effects of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, as those effects are not based solely on the t(1/2) value. We theoretically evaluated the antiemetic effects of three 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists (granisetron, azasetron, palonosetron) on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting by estimating the time course of the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. We estimated the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine, based on the time course of plasma concentration of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and the time course of concentration of serotonin near the 5-HT(3) receptor in the small intestine after administration of cisplatin. The antiemetic effect of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was evaluated based on the normal level of 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. Our results suggest that an adequate antiemetic effect will be provided when a dose of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin is given to patients along with any single administration of granisetron, azasetron, or palonosetron at a usual dose. On the other hand, the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin was found to be significantly lower than normal for several days after administration of palonosetron, as compared to granisetron and azasetron, indicating that constipation may be induced. Our results show that granisetron, azasetron, and palonosetron each have an adequate antiemetic effect after administration of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. PMID:24470169

  5. Discovery and SAR of 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines as histamine H? receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Savall, Brad M; Chavez, Frank; Tays, Kevin; Dunford, Paul J; Cowden, Jeffery M; Hack, Michael D; Wolin, Ronald L; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P

    2014-03-27

    This report discloses the discovery and SAR of a series of 6-alkyl-2-aminopyrimidine derived histamine H4 antagonists that led to the development of JNJ 39758979, which has been studied in phase II clinical trials in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Building on our SAR studies of saturated derivatives from the indole carboxamide series, typified by JNJ 7777120, and incorporating knowledge from the tricyclic pyrimidines led us to the 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidine series. A focused medicinal chemistry effort delivered several 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines that behaved as antagonists at both the human and rodent H4 receptor. Further optimization led to a panel of antagonists that were profiled in animal models of inflammatory disease. On the basis of the preclinical profile and efficacy in several animal models, JNJ 39758979 was selected as a clinical candidate; however, further development was halted during phase II because of the observation of drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIAG) in two subjects. PMID:24495018

  6. Dissociation constants for GABA(A) receptor antagonists determined with neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Sabnam O; Gross, Guenter W

    2008-08-30

    Changes in spontaneous spike activities from murine frontal cortex networks grown on microelectrode arrays were used to determine the dissociation constants of three GABA(A) antagonists: gabazine, bicuculline, and trimethylolpropane phosphate (TMPP). Networks were treated with fixed concentrations of antagonists and titrated with the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. Muscimol decreased spike activity in a concentration-dependent manner with full efficacy (100% spike inhibition). A sigmoidal curve fit provided a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 0.14+/-0.05muM (mean+/-S.D., n=5). Increasing concentrations of the three antagonists shifted the muscimol concentration response curves (CRCs) to the right with the same efficacy. Schild plot analyses with linear regressions resulted in slopes that are statistically not different from unity and provided X-intercepts (dissociation constants) of 0.23, 0.61, and 3.98muM for gabazine, bicuculline, and TMPP, respectively. Corresponding pA2 values (-logK(B)) were 6.64, 6.21, and 5.40. The dissociation constants for gabazine and bicuculline agree well with those obtained with other methods. The TMPP K(B) has not yet been reported in the literature. The data suggest that spontaneously active networks on microelectrode arrays can be used as reliable platforms for rapid quantitative pharmacological investigations. PMID:18590768

  7. Quantitative toxicoproteomic analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to a retinoid X receptor antagonist UVI3003.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Yu, Jianlan; Shi, Huahong; Xia, Liang; Xin, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Heng; Luo, Ji; Jin, Wenhai; Li, Daoji; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists, including some environmental endocrine disruptors, have a teratogenic effect on vertebrate embryos. To investigate the toxicological mechanism on the protein expression level, a quantitative proteomic study was conducted to analyze the proteome alterations of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to gradient concentrations of a representative RXR antagonist UVI3003. Using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling coupled nano high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano HPLC-MS/MS), in total 6592 proteins were identified, among which 195 proteins were found to be differentially expressed by more than a two-fold change in exposed groups compared with the control. Gene ontology analysis showed that these differential proteins were mostly involved in anatomical structure development, biosynthetic process, ion binding and oxidoreductase activity. Moreover, the biological pathways of translation, lipoprotein metabolism, cell survival and gluconeogenesis were intensively inhibited after exposure. Some significantly downregulated proteins such as apolipoprotein A-I and vitellogenin and upregulated proteins such as calcium activated nucleotidase 1b, glutathione S-transferase and glucose 6-dehydrogenases showed a strong dose-dependent response. The results provided new insight into the molecular details of RXR antagonist-induced teratogenicity and added novel information of pathways and potential biomarkers for evaluation of RXR interfering activity. PMID:25581642

  8. Design and Synthesis of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonists and their Effect on Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jaikhan, Pattaporn; Boonyarat, Chantana; Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Taylor, Palmer; Vajragupta, Opa

    2016-01-01

    Structure modification of a lead compound (NSC13378) was accomplished in the present work by an in silico target-based design aimed at ligands acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) for neurodegenerative diseases. A 187-compound focused library derived from the scaffold of the lead compound was screened against acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs). Six compounds were identified and synthesized for binding and biological evaluations. Five compounds were found to bind with AChBPs. Among these compounds, QN1 and BZ1 showed the highest affinity binding with AChBP, with Kd values of 260 and 10nm, respectively. Functional assays on isolated cell lines containing ligand-gated ion channels revealed that QN1 and BZ1 are ?4?2-nAChR antagonists. QN1 and BZ1 significantly alleviated the memory impairment caused by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (p<0.05) in mice. Our findings demonstrate the potential of nAChR antagonists in drug development for cognitive impairments. PMID:26235313

  9. Finerenone, a novel selective nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist protects from rat cardiorenal injury.

    PubMed

    Kolkhof, Peter; Delbeck, Martina; Kretschmer, Axel; Steinke, Wolfram; Hartmann, Elke; Brfacker, Lars; Eitner, Frank; Albrecht-Kpper, Barbara; Schfer, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) ameliorates end-organ damage in chronic heart failure. However, the clinical use of available steroidal MR antagonists is restricted because of concomitant hyperkalemia especially in patients with diminished kidney function. We have recently identified a novel nonsteroidal MR antagonist, finerenone, which uniquely combines potency and selectivity toward MR. Here, we investigated the tissue distribution and chronic cardiorenal end-organ protection of finerenone in comparison to the steroidal MR antagonist, eplerenone, in 2 different preclinical rat disease models. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography revealed that [C]-labeled finerenone equally distributes into rat cardiac and renal tissues. Finerenone treatment prevented deoxycorticosterone acetate-/salt-challenged rats from functional as well as structural heart and kidney damage at dosages not reducing systemic blood pressure. Finerenone reduced cardiac hypertrophy, plasma prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and proteinuria more efficiently than eplerenone when comparing equinatriuretic doses. In rats that developed chronic heart failure after coronary artery ligation, finerenone (1 mgkgd), but not eplerenone (100 mgkgd) improved systolic and diastolic left ventricular function and reduced plasma prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels. We conclude that finerenone may offer end-organ protection with a reduced risk of electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24621652

  10. Behavioral response profiles following drug challenge with dopamine receptor subtype agonists and antagonists in developing rat.

    PubMed

    Sobrian, Sonya K; Jones, Barbara L; Varghese, Shiny; Holson, R Robert

    2003-01-01

    As part of an investigation into the effects of gestational ethanol (ETOH) exposure on the developing dopamine (DA) system, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three conditions: ETOH, pair-fed (PF) to the ETOH group, or ad libitum lab chow controls (LC). In this paper we report behavioral drug challenge effects for offspring of the two control groups (PF and LC). Male and female pups between postnatal days (PNDs) 21 and 23 in age were exposed to one of three intraperitoneal/subcutaneous doses of one of eight drugs chosen to assess the functional status of the DA D(1), D(2), and D(3) receptor subtype, or a saline control. Agonists were SKF 38393, apomorphine (APO), quinpirole (QUIN), and 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-amino-tetralin [7-OH-DPAT (DPAT)]; antagonists were spiperone (SPIP), SCH 23390, and two recently developed D(3) antagonists nafadotride (NAF) and PD 152255. Immediately following drug injection, pups were placed in observation cages, where eight behaviors (square entries, grooming, circling, rearing, sniffing, head and oral movements, and yawning) were scored at 3-min intervals for 30 min. Classic behavioral profiles were generally obtained for the high-dose mixed agonists APO, DPAT, and QUIN, which potently increased square entries, rearing, and sniffing, while reducing grooming and head movements. However, low-dose APO had no effect on behavior. The D(1) agonist, SKF 38393, had a strikingly different behavioral profile; it had no effect on square entries at any dose, while increasing grooming and sniffing at the medium dose. The D(1) antagonist, SCH 23390, profoundly decreased all behaviors except oral and head movements, especially at high doses. In contrast, the effects of the D(2) antagonist, SPIP, were limited to increasing sniffing at the medium dose. The two putative D(3) antagonists, NAF and PD 152255, presented strikingly different profiles. NAF induced a pattern of behavioral suppression that resembled the profile of high-dose SCH, while high-dose PD 152255 stimulated behavior. The failure of low-dose APO to have any effect on behavior suggests that the D(2) autoreceptor is not functional in preweanling rats. This hypothesis is further supported by the lack of behavioral suppression seen with low-dose QUIN and DPAT. Failure of NAF to produce behavioral activation at low doses and the stimulatory effects seen with PD 152255 suggests that either the D(3) autoreceptor, the postsynaptic D(3) receptor, or both are not fully functional at this age as well. PMID:12757828

  11. Discovery of tripeptide-derived multifunctional ligands possessing delta/mu opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities.

    PubMed

    Nair, Padma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Cowell, Scott; Kulkarni, Vinod; Moye, Sharif; Navratilova, Edita; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Vanderah, Todd W; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-09-01

    Several bifunctional peptides were synthesized and characterized based on the pentapeptide-derived ligand NP30 (1: Tyr-DAla-Gly-Phe-Gly-Trp-O-[3',5'-Bzl(CF3)2]). Modification and truncation of amino acid residues were performed, and the tripeptide-derived ligand NP66 (11: Dmt-DAla-Trp-NH-[3',5'-(CF3)2-Bzl]) was obtained based on the overlapping pharmacophore concept. The Trp(3) residue of ligand 11 works as a message residue for both opioid and NK1 activities. The significance lies in the observation that the approach of appropriate truncation of peptide sequence could lead to a tripeptide-derived chimeric ligand with effective binding and functional activities for both mu and delta opioid and NK1 receptors with agonist activities at mu and delta opioid and antagonist activity at NK1 receptors, respectively. PMID:26212775

  12. Recent progress in the development of agonists and antagonists for melatonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Zlotos, D P

    2012-01-01

    The various physiological actions of the neurohormone melatonin are mediated mainly by two G-protein-coupled MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. The melatoninergic drugs on the market, ramelteon and agomelatine, as well as the most advanced drug candidates under clinical evaluation, tasimelteon and PD-6735, are high-affinity nonselective MT(1) and MT(2) agonists. However, exploring the exact physiological role of the MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors requires subtype selective MT(1) and MT(2) ligands. This review covers novel melatoninergic agonists and antagonists published since 2010, focusing on high-affinity and subtype selective agents. Additionally, compounds not mentioned in the previous review articles and ligands selective for the MT(3) binding site are included. PMID:22680635

  13. Recent advances in the development of dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio

    2011-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) D(3) receptor antagonism might play a significant role in different therapeutic areas. A high number of preclinical studies on DA D(3) receptor antagonists have shown efficacy in animal models of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug dependence. This Review covers the activities of medicinal chemists in this field over the last ten years towards the identification of truly selective compounds. Both primary and patent literature is reviewed here. Since the original discoveries, a clear trend towards the optimization of the developability properties of the new scaffold has clearly emerged with time, from both academic and industrial researchers. Examples of advanced leads from academia and industry are described. The latest potential therapeutic applications are reported too. PMID:21425240

  14. Novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonists/D2 receptor partial agonists targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ko?aczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; ?niecikowska, Joanna; Paw?owski, Maciej; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Jastrz?bska-Wi?sek, Magdalena; Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Weso?owska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Pawe?; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel class of designed multiple ligands (DMLs) combining serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonism with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonism. Prototype hybrid molecules were designed using docking to receptor homology models. Diverse pharmacophore moieties yielded 3 series of hybrids with varying invitro properties at 5-HT6R and D2R, and at M1 receptor and hERG channel antitargets. 4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-indole derivatives showed highest antagonist potency at 5-HT6R, with 7-butoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one and 2-propoxybenzamide derivatives having promising D2R partial agonism. 2-(3-(4-(1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)benzamide (47) exhibited nanomolar affinity at both 5-HT6R and D2R and was evaluated in rat models. It displayed potent antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity in the Porsolt and Vogel tests, respectively, more pronounced than that of a reference selective 5-HT6R antagonist or D2R partial agonist. In addition, 47 also showed antidepressant-like activity (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic-like activity (open field test) in aged (>18-month old) rats. In operant conditioning tests, 47 enhanced responding for sweet reward in the saccharin self-administration test, consistent with anti-anhedonic properties. Further, 47 facilitated extinction of non-reinforced responding for sweet reward, suggesting potential procognitive activity. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMLs combining 5-HT6R antagonism and D2R partial agonism may successfully target affective disorders in patients from different age groups without a risk of cognitive deficits. PMID:25557493

  15. AMPA receptor stimulation mediates the antidepressant-like effect of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Kawashima, Naoya; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2005-04-25

    (1R,2R,3R,5R,6R)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxy)-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039), a selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, exhibits antidepressant-like activities in rodent models. In the present studies, to clarify the involvement of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor activation in exhibition of the antidepressant-like properties of MGS0039, we examined the effect of an AMPA receptor antagonist, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), on the antidepressant-like effect of MGS0039 in the mouse tail suspension test. We also examined the effects of NBQX on increased serotonin release after treatment with MGS0039 in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using in vivo microdialysis evaluation. In the tail suspension test, MGS0039 (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment dose-dependently and significantly reduced immobility time. Pretreatment with NBQX (10 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly prevented the antidepressant-like effect of MGS0039 in the tail suspension test, while NBQX itself had no effect on immobility time. In the microdialysis evaluation, administration of MGS0039 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased serotonin levels in mPFC in freely moving rats, while NBQX (1 mg/kg, i.p.) itself had no effect on serotonin release in this region. Pretreatment with NBQX significantly attenuated the increase in serotonin release by MGS0039. These findings suggest that stimulation of postsynaptic AMPA receptors plays a role in mediating the pharmacological effects of MGS0039. PMID:15823257

  16. Development of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity in vitro and improved therapeutic efficacy in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dahln, Eva; Barchan, Karin; Herrlander, Daniel; Hjman, Patrik; Karlsson, Marie; Ljung, Lill; Andersson, Mats; Bckman, Eva; Hager, Ann-Christin Malmborg; Walse, Bjrn; Joosten, Leo; van den Berg, Wim

    2008-04-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1-mediated activation of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R). Although wild-type IL-1Ra is used for treatment of inflammatory diseases, its effect is moderate and/or short-lived. The objective of this study was to generate IL-1Ra mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity for potential therapeutic use. Using a directed evolution approach in which libraries of IL-1Ra gene mutants were generated and screened in functional assays, mutants with desired properties were identified. Initially, diversity was introduced into the IL-1Ra using random mutagenesis. Mutations resulting in enhanced antagonistic activity were identified by screening in a reporter cell assay. To further enhance the antagonistic activity, selected mutations were recombined using the DNA recombination technology Fragment-INduced Diversity (FIND). Following three rounds of FIND recombination, several mutants with up to nine times enhanced antagonistic activity (mean IC50 +/- SEM value: 0.78 +/- 0.050 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for mutant and wild-type, respectively) were identified. Sequence analysis identified the mutations D47N, E52R and E90Y as being most important for this effect, however, the mutations P38Y, H54R, Q129L and M136N further enhanced the antagonistic function. Analysis of identified mutations in protein models based on the crystal structure of the IL-1Ra/IL-1R complex suggested that mutations found to enhance the antagonistic activity had a stabilizing effect on the IL-1Ra mutants or increased the affinity for the IL-1R. Finally, the therapeutic effect of one mutant was compared to that of wild-type IL-1Ra in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Indeed, the enhanced antagonistic effect of the mutants observed in vitro was also seen in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that directed evolution of IL-1Ra is an effective means of generating highly potent therapeutic proteins. PMID:18569390

  17. Decahydroisoquinoline derivatives as novel non-peptidic, potent and subtype-selective somatostatin sst(3) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Thomas; Hurth, Konstanze; Schuh, Karl-Heinrich; Schoeffter, Philippe; Langenegger, Daniel; Enz, Albert; Hoyer, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Starting from non-peptidic sst(1)-selective somatostatin receptor antagonists, first compounds with mixed sst(1)/sst(3) affinity were identified by directed structural modifications. Systematic optimization of these initial leads afforded novel, enantiomerically pure, highly potent and sst(3)-subtype selective somatostatin antagonists based on a (4S,4aS,8aR)-decahydroisoquinoline-4-carboxylic acid core moiety. These compounds can efficiently be synthesized and show promising PK properties in rodents. PMID:20137944

  18. Design and optimization of quinazoline derivatives as melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists: part 2.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sanjita; Balasubrahmanyam, D; Kanna Reddy, Hariprasada R; Balaji, Gade; Srinivas, Gujjary; Cheera, Srisailam; Abbineni, Chandrasekhar; Sasmal, Pradip K; Khanna, Ish; Sebastian, V J; Jadhav, Vikram P; Singh, Manvendra P; Talwar, Rashmi; Suresh, J; Shashikumar, Dhanya; Harinder Reddy, K; Sihorkar, V; Frimurer, Thomas M; Rist, ystein; Elster, Lisbeth; Hgberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists have potential for the treatment of obesity and several CNS disorders. In the preceding article, we have described a novel series of quinazolines as MCHR1 antagonists and demonstrated in vivo proof of principle with an early lead. Herein we describe the detailed SAR and SPR studies to identify an optimized lead candidate having good efficacy in a sub-chronic DIO model with a good cardiovascular safety window. PMID:22497763

  19. The endothelin ETA receptor-specific effect of 50-235, a nonpeptide endothelin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Mihara, S; Fujimoto, M

    1993-06-15

    We characterized the endothelin receptor antagonist 27-O-caffeoyl myricerone (50-235), isolated from the bayberry Myrica cerifera, using rat aortic smooth muscle A7r5 cells that express ETA receptors and human Girardi heart cells that express ETB receptors. 50-235 concentration-dependently inhibited 125I-ET-1 binding to A7r5 cells with Ki of 51 +/- 12 nM, while it had no effect on 125I-ET-1 and 125I-ET-3 bindings to Girardi heart cells. Also in affinity cross-linking studies with 125I-ET-1, 50-235 inhibited labeling of a protein of M(r) = 67,000 in A7r5 cells, but did not inhibit labeling of two proteins with M(r) values of 70,000 and 46,000 in Girardi heart cells. Functionally, 50-235 inhibited the ET-1-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 11 +/- 2 nM) in A7r5 cells. On the other hand, this compound had no effect on the basal level of [Ca2+]i and the high K(+)- and bombesin-induced increases in [Ca2+]i in A7r5 cells, nor on the ET-1-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in Girardi heart cells. Also, 50-235 inhibited ET-1-promoted mitogenesis of A7r5 cells. Thus, we conclude that 50-235 is a specific endothelin A receptor antagonist that could be very useful for elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological significance of ET. PMID:8354341

  20. Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, attenuates liver fibrosis in bile duct ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, M R; Kiani, S; Oakley, F; Kendall, T; Shariftabrizi, A; Tavangar, S M; Moezi, L; Payabvash, S; Karoon, A; Hoseininik, H; Mann, D A; Moore, K P; Mani, A R; Dehpour, A R

    2006-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the opioid system is involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Methods The effect of naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) on hepatic fibrosis in bile duct ligated (BDL) or sham rats was assessed by histology and hepatic hydroxyproline levels. Liver matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP‐2) was measured by zymography, and α smooth muscle actin (α‐SMA) and CD45 (leucocyte common antigen) by immunohistochemistry. The redox state of the liver was assessed by hepatic glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and S‐nitrosothiol levels. Subtypes of opioid receptors in cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were characterised by reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction, and the effects of selective δ opioid receptor agonists on cellular proliferation, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP‐1), and procollagen I expression in HSCs determined. Results Naltrexone markedly attenuated the development of hepatic fibrosis as well as MMP‐2 activity (p<0.01), and decreased the number of activated HSCs in BDL rats (p<0.05). The development of biliary cirrhosis altered the redox state with a decreased hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio and increased concentrations of hepatic S‐nitrosothiols, which were partially or completely normalised by treatment with naltrexone, respectively. Activated rat HSCs exhibited expression of δ1 receptors, with increased procollagen I expression, and increased TIMP‐1 expression in response to δ1 and δ2 agonists, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that administration of an opioid antagonist prevents the development of hepatic fibrosis in cirrhosis. Opioids can influence liver fibrogenesis directly via the effect on HSCs and regulation of the redox sensitive mechanisms in the liver. PMID:16543289

  1. Structural modification of H/sub 2/-receptor antagonists provide post-H/sub 2/-receptor gastric antisecretory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, S.T.; Dove, P.A.; Strike, D.P.; Schiehser, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    In the course of investigations into the gastric antisecretory activity of potential H/sub 2/-receptor antagonists, examples were discovered in which structural modification of the molecule altered a) antisecretory activity in the pylorus-ligated rat and b) the response to various stimulants of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine (AP) uptake in isolated rat gastric mucosal cell preparations. Wy-45,662 (N-(3-(3-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy)propyl)thieno(3,4-d) isothiazol-3-amine 1, 1-dioxide)), a very potent histamine H/sub 2/-antagonist and antisecretory agent in the rat (ED/sub 50/ (approx.) 0.3 mg/kg), had no effect in vitro at 1 ..mu..M on forskolin-induced (/sup 14/C)AP uptake while 10 nM Wy-45,662 completely suppressed histamine-stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP uptake. In contrast, the N-benzylated form of Wy-45,662, Wy-46,499 dose-dependently (10/sup -7/-10/sup -6/M) suppressed forskolin-stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP uptake while retaining modest antisecretory activity (ED/sub 50/approx.8 mg/kg) in vivo. Wy-46,499's modest antisecretory activity was thus attributable to inhibition via a post-histamine H/sub 2/-receptor mechanism.

  2. Synergistic antiemetic interactions between serotonergic 5-HT3 and tachykininergic NK1-receptor antagonists in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Amos, Barry; Alkam, Tursun

    2011-10-01

    Significant electrophysiological and biochemical findings suggest that receptor cross-talk occurs between serotonergic 5-HT(3)- and tachykininergic NK(1)-receptors in which co-activation of either receptor by ineffective doses of their corresponding agonists (serotonin (5-HT) or substance P (SP), respectively) potentiates the activity of the other receptor to produce a response. In contrast, selective blockade of any one of these receptors attenuates the increase in abdominal vagal afferent activity caused by either 5-HT or SP. This interaction has important implications in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) since 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptor antagonists are the major classes of antiemetics used in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the discussed interaction produces effects at the behavioral level in a vomit-competent species, the least shrew. Our results demonstrate that pretreatment with either a 5-HT(3) (tropisetron)- or an NK(1) (CP99,994)-receptor specific antagonist, attenuates vomiting caused by a selective agonist (2-methyl 5-HT or GR73632, respectively) of both emetic receptors. In addition, relative to each antagonist alone, their combined doses were 4-20 times more potent against vomiting caused by each emetogen. Moreover, combined sub-maximal doses of the agonists 2-methyl 5-HT and GR73632, produced 8-12 times greater number of vomits relative to each emetogen tested alone. However, due to large variability in vomiting caused by the combination doses, the differences failed to attain significance. The antiemetic dose-response curves of tropisetron against both emetogens were U-shaped probably because larger doses of this antagonist behave as a partial agonist. The data demonstrate that 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptors cross-talk to produce vomiting, and that synergistic antiemetic effects occur when both corresponding antagonists are concurrently used against emesis caused by each specific emetogen. PMID:21683089

  3. Reversal of trauma-induced amnesia in mice by a thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Itzekson, Zeev; Maggio, Nicola; Milman, Anat; Shavit, Efrat; Pick, Chaim G; Chapman, Joab

    2014-05-01

    Minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with the existence of retrograde amnesia and microscopic bleeds containing activated coagulation factors. In an mTBI model, we report that thrombin induces amnesia through its receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). Thrombin activity was significantly elevated (32 %, p?antagonist (SCH79797) completely blocked the amnestic effects of mTBI, thrombin, and the PAR-1 agonist. Long-term potentiation, measured in hippocampal slices 24 h after mTBI, ICV thrombin or the PAR-1 agonist, was significantly impaired and this effect was completely reversed by the PAR-1 antagonist. The results support a crucial role for PAR-1 in the generation of amnesia following mTBI, revealing a novel therapeutic target for the cognitive effects of brain trauma. PMID:24352712

  4. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Theron, A. J.; Steel, H. C.; Tintinger, G. R.; Gravett, C. M.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1) antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5′-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies. PMID:24971371

  5. H1-receptor antagonist, tripelennamine, does not affect arterial hypoxemia in exercising Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Murli; Goetz, Thomas E; Humphrey, Sarah; Depuy, Tracy

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that pulmonary injury and inflammation-induced histamine release from airway mast cells may contribute to exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). Because stress failure of pulmonary capillaries and EIAH are routinely observed in exercising horses, we examined whether preexercise administration of an H1-receptor antagonist may mitigate EIAH. Two sets of experiments, placebo (saline) and antihistaminic (tripelennamine HCl at 1.10 mg/kg iv, 15 min preexercise) studies, were carried out on seven healthy, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses in random order 7 days apart. Arterial and mixed venous blood-gas and pH measurements were made at rest before and after saline or drug administration and during incremental exercise leading to maximal exertion at 14 m/s on 3.5% uphill grade for 120 s. Galloping at this workload elicited maximal heart rate and induced exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in all horses in both treatments, thereby indicating that capillary stress failure-related pulmonary injury had occurred. In both treatments, EIAH, desaturation of hemoglobin, hypercapnia, and acidosis of a similar magnitude developed during maximal exertion, and statistically significant differences between the placebo and antihistaminic studies could not be demonstrated. The failure of the H1-receptor antagonist to modify EIAH significantly suggests that pulmonary injury-induced histamine release may not play a major role in bringing about EIAH in Thoroughbred horses. PMID:11896018

  6. Lack of association between an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, U T; Gomolka, M; Keller, E; Eigler, A; Folwaczny, C; Fricke, H; Albert, E; Loeschke, K; Endres, S

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the association of a polymorphism in the gene coding for the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with ulcerative colitis has been reported. This was interpreted as a possible genetic predisposition for severity of the inflammatory response. AIMS: To examine this polymorphism in a southern German population. SUBJECTS: The study included 234 healthy controls, 57 patients with ulcerative colitis, including 31 patients with pancolitis, 44 first degree healthy relatives of patients with ulcerative colitis, and 65 patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction amplification of the intron 2 fragment harbouring a variable number of tandem repeat nucleotide sequences. Amplification products were separated on a 2% agarose gel. RESULTS: The allele frequency for allele 2 was 27% in healthy controls, 28% in Crohn's disease, and 21% in patients with ulcerative colitis. The same allele frequency (21%) was found in a subgroup of patients with ulcerative colitis affecting the whole colon. Thus for allele 2 as well as for all other alleles, genotypes, or carriage rates no significant differences were found compared with controls. All allele frequencies in the control population were similar to those in earlier studies. CONCLUSIONS: No association of a polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene with ulcerative colitis could be identified in this southern German population. The findings of an earlier study reporting an increased frequency of allele 2, particularly in patients with pancolitis, could not be confirmed. Images PMID:9203941

  7. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  8. Identification of Darmstoff analogs as selective agonists and antagonists of lysophosphatidic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gududuru, Veeresa; Zeng, Kui; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Makarova, Natalia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Pigg, Kathryn R; Baker, Daniel L; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2006-01-15

    Darmstoff describes a family of gut smooth muscle-stimulating acetal phosphatidic acids initially isolated and characterized from the bath fluid of stimulated gut over 50 years ago. Despite similar structural and biological profiles, Darmstoff analogs have not previously been examined as potential LPA mimetics. Here, we report a facile method for the synthesis of potassium salts of Darmstoff analogs. To understand the effect of stereochemistry on lysophosphatidic acid mimetic activity, synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of selected Darmstoff analogs was achieved starting with chiral methyl glycerates. Each Darmstoff analog was evaluated for subtype-specific LPA receptor agonist/antagonist activity, PPARgamma activation, and autotaxin inhibition. From this study we identified compound 12 as a pan-antagonist and several pan-agonists for the LPA(1-3) receptors. Introduction of an aromatic ring in the lipid chain such as analog 22 produced a subtype-specific LPA(3) agonist with an EC(50) of 692 nM. Interestingly, regardless of their LPA(1/2/3) ligand properties all of the Darmstoff analogs tested activated PPARgamma. However, these compounds are weak inhibitors of autotaxin. The results indicate that Darmstoff analogs constitute a novel class of lysophosphatidic acid mimetics. PMID:16290140

  9. Brain changes associated with thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ 29,548 treatment in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rebel, Andrew A; Urquhart, Siri A; Puig, Kendra L; Ghatak, Atreyi; Brose, Stephen A; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Combs, Colin K

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize behavioral and physiological effects of a selective thromboxane (TP) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548, in the C57Bl/6 mouse model. At 6 months of age, male mice were given either sham or drug i.p. injections for 3 days at a dose of 2 mg/kg each day. On the day after the final injection, mice were subjected to behavioral testing before brain collection. Left hemisphere hippocampi were collected from all mice for protein analysis via Western blot. Right brain hemispheres were fixed and embedded in gelatin and then serially sectioned. The sections were immunostained with anti-c-Fos antibodies. Prostaglandin analysis was performed from remaining homogenized brain samples, minus the hippocampi. Injection of SQ 29,548 decreased selective brain prostaglandin levels compared with sham controls. This correlated with robust increases in limbic-region c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SQ 29,548-injected mice. However, drug-treated mice demonstrated no significant changes in relevant hippocampal protein levels compared with sham treatments, as determined from Western blots. Surprisingly, injection of SQ 29,548 caused mixed changes in parameters of depression and anxiety-like behavior in the mice. In conclusion, the results indicate that administration of peripheral TP receptor antagonists alters brain levels of prostanoids and influences neuronal activity, with only minimal alterations of behavior. Whether the drug affects neurons directly or through a secondary pathway involving endothelium or other tissues remains unclear. PMID:25703023

  10. Structure-Based Discovery of Novel Chemotypes for Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Lane, J.Robert; Lin, Judy; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Yeager, Mark; Kufareva, Irina; Stevens, Raymond C.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The recent progress in crystallography of G-protein coupled receptors opens an unprecedented venue for structure-based GPCR drug discovery. To test efficiency of the structure-based approach, we performed molecular docking and virtual ligand screening (VLS) of more than 4 million commercially available drug-like and lead-like compounds against the A2AAR 2.6 resolution crystal structure. Out of 56 high ranking compounds tested in A2AAR binding assays, 23 showed affinities under 10 M, eleven of those had sub-M affinities, and two compounds had affinities under 60 nM. The identified hits represent at least 9 different chemical scaffolds and are characterized by very high ligand efficiency (0.30.5 kcal/mol per heavy atom). Significant A2AAR antagonist activities were confirmed for 10 out of 13 ligands tested in functional assays. High success rate, novelty and diversity of the chemical scaffolds and strong ligand efficiency of the A2AAR antagonists identified in this study suggest practical applicability of receptor-based VLS in GPCR drug discovery. PMID:20095623

  11. A novel Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes neurite regeneration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongqing; Dai, Xiaoyong; Li, Yu; Jiang, Shuwen; Lou, Guofeng; Cao, Qiaoyu; Hu, Rendong; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian; Chen, Meiwan; Luo, Huanmin; Lin, Xi; Sun, Jun; Xiao, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1), a receptor for Nogo-A, contributes to the inhibition of axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system after traumatic injuries. Thus, NgR1 has been considered a critical target in axon regeneration therapy. Here, we identified a specific NgR1 antagonist peptide (HIYTALV, named NAP2) which promotes neurite regeneration in vitro from a phage display heptapeptide library. NAP2 was co-localized with NgR1 on the surface of PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) by immunofluorescence assay. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-streptavidin-biotin assay further showed that NAP2 binds to NgR1 and the dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.45?M Functional analyses indicated that NAP2 could reduce the inhibitory effects of Nogo-66 on neurite outgrowth in differentiated PC12 cells and CGCs by blocking the Nogo-66-induced activation of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and myosin light chain (MLC). Taken together, the small molecule NgR1 antagonist peptide NAP2 (MW: 815.98Da) has a potential ability in crossing blood brain barrier and will be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26711806

  12. Almorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, David N

    2010-01-01

    Almorexant (ACT-078573) is an orally active dual orexin receptor antagonist that is being developed by Actelion Ltd, in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline plc, for the treatment of primary insomnia. Almorexant is a first-in-class compound that targets the orexin system, which plays a key role in wake promotion and stabilization, in addition to having other regulatory functions. Decreasing orexin activity was hypothesized to have a sleep-promoting effect. Preclinical studies and phase I clinical trials have demonstrated that almorexant decreases alertness and increases sleep in healthy rats, dogs and humans when administered during the active phase of the circadian cycle, at peak endogenous orexin tone. No significant toxicological or safety concerns have been identified in studies in animals and humans, including no evidence of cataplexy, a sudden postural muscle tone weakening that is triggered by emotional stimuli and is considered unique to narcolepsy. The reported efficacy and safety data for almorexant support the continued development of the compound. At the time of publication, phase III clinical trials were underway, but no results had been reported; Actelion and GlaxoSmithKline were also investigating almorexant for other orexin-related neurological disorders. The use of an orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of sleep disorders appears to be an approach that may provide unique benefits. PMID:20047164

  13. Enhancement of alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia by H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, A; Lao, B; Szutowski, M; Szczepanik, Z; Muszy?ski, J

    1997-06-01

    The oral ethanol loading test (0.5 g/kg body mass) was carried out in 3 groups with 10 healthy male volunteers each before and after 7 days of administration of either cimetidine (CAS 51481-61-9), ranitidine (CAS 66357-59-3), or famotidine (CAS 76824-35-6). The parameters determined during 6 h comprised the blood levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, glucose, lactate, pyruvate and bicarbonates, as well as blood pH, PCO2 and PO2. Only ranitidine significantly increased the mean blood ethanol concentration and none of the drugs modified the blood acetaldehyde concentration. Hypoglycaemia following alcohol ingestion was significantly enhanced by all H2-receptor antagonists, but was most pronounced after famotidine. The alcohol-induced rise in blood pyruvate and lactate rather had a tendency to decrease during the second test. The presented results suggest that the evident enhancement of alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia by H2-receptor antagonists is not dependent on the increase of ethanol absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, but represents rather a specific effect of these drugs on glucose metabolism. PMID:9239453

  14. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and mortality in patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    ARNALICH, F; LÓPEZ-MADERUELO, D; CODOCEO, R; LOPEZ, J; SOLIS-GARRIDO, L M; CAPISCOL, C; FERNANDEZ-CAPITÁN, C; MADERO, R; MONTIEL, C

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the polymorphism within the intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL-1RN*) on the outcome of severe sepsis, and to assess its functional significance by correlating this polymorphism with the total production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) protein determined in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A group of 78 patients with severe sepsis (51 survivors and 27 nonsurvivors) was compared with a healthy control group of 130 blood donors, and 56 patients with uncomplicated pneumonia. We found a significant association between IL-1RN* polymorphism and survival. Thus, after adjusting for age and APACHE II score, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patients homozygotes for the allele *2 had a 6·47-fold increased risk of death (95% CI 1·01–41·47, P = 0·04). Besides, compared with patients homozygous or heterozygous for the allele *1, IL-1RN*2 homozygotes produced significantly lower levels of IL-1Ra from their PBMC. Our results suggest that insufficient production of this cytokine might contribute, among other factors, to the higher mortality rate found in severe sepsis patients with the IL-1RN*2 homozygous genotype. PMID:11876758

  15. Evidence for a distinct Ca2+ antagonist receptor for the novel benzothiazinone compound HOE 166.

    PubMed

    Striessnig, J; Meusburger, E; Grabner, M; Knaus, H G; Glossmann, H; Kaiser, J; Schlkens, B; Becker, R; Linz, W; Henning, R

    1988-03-01

    The pharmacological and binding properties of the novel enantiomerically pure benzothiazinone (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydro-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-2-[2-[4-[4-[2-(3,4,5-tri- methoxyphenyl)-ethyl]-piperazinyl]-butoxyl-phenyl]-2H-1,4- benzothiazine-3-one dihydrochloride (HOE 166), are described. HOE 166 stereoselectively inhibited KCl-but not noradrenaline-induced contractions of guinea-pig pulmonary arteries, rabbit aorta, rat mesenteric artery preparations and k-strophantin-induced enhancement of guinea-pig papillary muscle contraction in a dose-dependent manner. KCl-induced smooth muscle contraction was inhibited by HOE 166 with IC50-values of approximately 70 nM (5-11 times less potent than nifedipine, 2-16 times more potent than verapamil), the respective S-(-)-enantiomer being approximately 10-fold less potent. HOE 166 decreased the upstroke velocity of the slow action potential in partially depolarized guinea-pig papillary muscle at similar concentrations than nifedipine. To investigate possible interactions with the calcium channel, HOE 166 and its S-(-)-enantiomer were characterized by radioligand binding studies in heart, brain and skeletal muscle transverse-tubule membranes. HOE 166 was a 4-15 times more potent inhibitor of reversible (+)-[3H]PN200-110, (-)-[3H]desmethoxyverapamil and d-cis [3H]diltiazem binding compared to its pharmacologically less active (S)-(-)-enantiomer, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. Extensive equilibrium and kinetic studies suggest that HOE 166 exerts its Ca2+-antagonistic effect by binding to a Ca2+-channel-associated drug receptor which is distinct from the 1,4-dihydropyridine, phenylalkylamine or benzothiazepine-selective domain. This HOE 166-selective site is, however, allosterically linked to the other sites of the Ca2+ antagonist receptor complex. We conclude that HOE 166 is a novel calcium antagonist. PMID:2839780

  16. Evaluation of the abuse potential of AM281, a new synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Pea, June Bryan; Dela Pena, Irene Joy; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Seo, Joung-Wook; Jeong, Eun Ju; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-11-01

    AM281 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) is a new synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. Similar to other cannabinoid antagonists, AM281 has been suggested to have therapeutic indications. However, recent reports have suggested that cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may share similar behavioral effects with other drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine. These reports cast doubts on the safety profile of AM281. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the abuse potential (rewarding and reinforcing effects) of AM281 through two of the most widely used animal models for assessing the abuse potential of drugs: the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Experiments were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats in various dosages [CPP (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg), SA (0.005, 0.025 or 0.1mg/kg/infusion)]. We also delved into the consequences of repeated drug exposure on the subsequent response to the drug. Thus, parallel experiments were carried out in rats pretreated with AM281 for 7 or 14 days. Our findings indicated that AM281, at any dose, did not induce CPP and SA in drug-nave rats. Interestingly, significant CPP (0.5mg/kg of AM281), but not SA, was observed in 14 days pretreated rats. These observations suggest that AM281 per se has no or minimal rewarding and reinforcing properties, but alterations in neuronal functions and behavior due to repeated AM281 exposure may contribute in part to the abuse potential of this drug. In view of this finding, we advocate the careful use, monitoring, and dispensation of AM281. PMID:26450088

  17. The Dual Hypocretin Receptor Antagonist Almorexant is Permissive for Activation of Wake-Promoting Systems.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory S; Warrier, Deepti R; Dittrich, Lars; Schwartz, Michael D; Palmerston, Jeremiah B; Neylan, Thomas C; Morairty, Stephen R; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-03-01

    The dual hypocretin receptor (HcrtR) antagonist almorexant (ALM) may promote sleep through selective disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems, whereas benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs) such as zolpidem (ZOL) induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. Previous studies have indicated that HcrtR antagonists cause less-functional impairment than BzRAs. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these differential profiles, we compared the effects of ALM and ZOL on functional activation of wake-promoting systems at doses equipotent for sleep induction. Sprague-Dawley rats, implanted for EEG/EMG recording, were orally administered vehicle (VEH), 100 mg/kg ALM, or 100 mg/kg ZOL during their active phase and either left undisturbed or kept awake for 90 min after which their brains were collected. ZOL-treated rats required more stimulation to maintain wakefulness than VEH- or ALM-treated rats. We measured Fos co-expression with markers for wake-promoting cell groups in the lateral hypothalamus (Hcrt), tuberomammillary nuclei (histamine; HA), basal forebrain (acetylcholine; ACh), dorsal raphe (serotonin; 5HT), and singly labeled Fos(+) cells in the locus coeruleus (LC). Following SD, Fos co-expression in Hcrt, HA, and ACh neurons (but not in 5HT neurons) was consistently elevated in VEH- and ALM-treated rats, whereas Fos expression in these neuronal groups was unaffected by SD in ZOL-treated rats. Surprisingly, Fos expression in the LC was elevated in ZOL- but not in VEH- or ALM-treated SD animals. These results indicate that Hcrt signaling is unnecessary for the activation of Hcrt, HA, or ACh wake-active neurons, which may underlie the milder cognitive impairment produced by HcrtR antagonists compared to ZOL. PMID:26289145

  18. Molecular Recognition of Agonist and Antagonist for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyuan; Wang, Lushan; Zhao, Xian; Sun, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays important roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this work is to find residues which selectively recognize PPAR-? agonists and antagonists. To achieve this aim, PPAR-?/13M and PPAR-?/471 complexes were subjected to perform molecular dynamics simulations. This research suggests that several key residues only participate in agonist recognition, while some other key residues only contribute to antagonist recognition. It is hoped that such work is useful for medicinal chemists to design novel PPAR-? agonists and antagonists. PMID:24837836

  19. Potency enhancement of the ?-opioid receptor antagonist probe ML140 through sulfonamide constraint utilizing a tetrahydroisoquinoline motif.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Kevin J; Slauson, Stephen R; Lovell, Kimberly M; Phillips, Angela M; Streicher, John M; Zhou, Lei; Whipple, David A; Schoenen, Frank J; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Bohn, Laura M; Aub, Jeffrey

    2015-07-15

    Optimization of the sulfonamide-based kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist probe molecule ML140 through constraint of the sulfonamide nitrogen within a tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety afforded a marked increase in potency. This strategy, when combined with additional structure-activity relationship exploration, has led to a compound only six-fold less potent than norBNI, a widely utilized KOR antagonist tool compound, but significantly more synthetically accessible. The new optimized probe is suitably potent for use as an in vivo tool to investigate the therapeutic potential of KOR antagonists. PMID:25593096

  20. Direct demonstration of D1 dopamine receptors in the bovine parathyroid gland using the D1 selective antagonist (/sup 125/I)-SCH 23982

    SciTech Connect

    Monsma, F.J. Jr.; Sibley, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of D1 dopamine receptors in the parathyroid gland has been proposed based on the demonstration of dopaminergic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity and parathyroid hormone release in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Using a radioiodinated D1 selective antagonist (125I)-SCH 23982, we have now directly labeled and characterized the D1 dopamine receptors in bovine parathyroid gland membranes. (125I)-SCH 23982 binds in a saturable manner with high affinity and low nonspecific binding to membranes prepared from bovine parathyroid glands. D1 dopamine receptors are present in this preparation at a concentration of approximately 130 fMoles/mg protein and (125I)-SCH 23982 binding increases with increasing protein concentration in a linear fashion. Determination of the Kd using the association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants revealed good agreement with the Kd determined by saturation analysis (390 pM vs. 682 pM, respectively). Inhibition of 0.3 nM (125I)-SCH 23982 binding by a series of dopaminergic antagonists verified the D1 nature of this binding site, exhibiting appropriate affinities and rank order of potency. The competition curves of all antagonists exhibited Hill coefficients that were not significantly different from 1. Inhibition of (125I)-SCH 23982 binding by dopamine and other dopaminergic agonists revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Addition of 200 microM GppNHp effected a complete conversion of high affinity dopamine binding sites to a homogeneous population of low affinity dopamine sites. The D1 receptors identified in the parathyroid gland with (125I)-SCH 23982 appear to be pharmacologically identical with those previously characterized in the central nervous system.

  1. Tolvaptan, an orally active vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist - pharmacology and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Shigeki; Mori, Toyoki

    2007-01-01

    Tolvaptan is an orally effective nonpeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) V(2)-receptor antagonist synthesized by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. In in vitro receptor-binding studies, tolvaptan blocked the binding of [(3)H]AVP to human V(2) receptors with 29-fold greater selectivity than that for V(1a) receptors, and showed no inhibition of V(1b) receptors. Tolvaptan inhibited not only the binding of [(3)H]AVP but also the AVP-induced production of cyclic AMP in human V(2)-receptor-expressing HeLa cells. In addition, tolvaptan has no intrinsic V(2) receptor agonistic effect. In in vivo studies, tolvaptan showed marked aquaresis in healthy and diseased animals. In rat models with acute and chronic hyponatremia, tolvaptan improved hyponatremia, resulting in the prevention of death, and improved organ water retention. Tolvaptan reduced cardiac preload without unfavorable effects on renal functions, systemic hemodynamics, or circulating neurohormones in dogs with heart failure (HF). Furthermore, in animal models of human polycystic kidney disease (PKD), tolvaptan showed a decrease in kidney weight as well as in cyst and fibrosis volume. In clinical trials including the "ACTIV in CHF" study, tolvaptan in addition to standard therapy increased fluid loss resulting in decreased body weight, and improved edema and serum sodium without affecting blood pressure, heart rate, or renal functions in patients with HF. In patients with hyponatremia, treatment with tolvaptan without fluid restriction appeared to be more effective than fluid restriction alone at correcting hyponatremia without an increase in adverse events. A phase III trial EVEREST is currently being conducted to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in hospitalized patients with severe HF. In conclusion, tolvaptan offers the possibility of a useful therapy in hyponatremia, congestive heart failure, and various other diseases that are associated with volume overload. Furthermore, tolvaptan is also expected to be effective in the treatment of PKD. PMID:17445084

  2. Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Joanna E; Liu, Jianghua; Chen, Shao-Nong; Fabricant, Daniel S; Piersen, Colleen E; Barker, Eric L; Pezzuto, John M; Mesecar, Andrew; Van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Bolton, Judy L

    2003-09-10

    Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L., formerly called Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.] were evaluated for potential mechanisms of action in the alleviation of menopausal hot flashes. Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a 40% 2-propanol extract of black cohosh [4, 40, and 400 mg/(kg.day)] by gavage for 2 weeks with or without estradiol [50 microg/(kg.day)] to determine if black cohosh could act as an estrogen or antiestrogen on the basis of an increase in uterine weight or vaginal cellular cornification. No effects were observed on uterine weight or on vaginal cellular cornification in rats treated with black cohosh alone or in combination with 17beta-estradiol, indicating this black cohosh extract had no estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties in the ovariectomized rat model. To evaluate other potential pathways by which black cohosh might reduce menopausal hot flashes, serotonin activity was first assessed by the inhibition of radioligand binding to cell membrane preparations containing recombinant human serotonin receptor (5-HT) subtypes. A 40% 2-propanol extract of black cohosh was tested against 10 subtypes of the serotonin receptor, revealing the presence of compounds with strong binding to the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1D), and 5-HT(7) subtypes. Subsequent binding studies were carried out using 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors because of their association with the hypothalamus, which has been implicated in the generation of hot flashes. The black cohosh 40% 2-propanol extract inhibited [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding to the human 5-HT(7) receptor (IC(50) = 2.4 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) with greater potency than binding of [(3)H]-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin to the rat 5-HT(1A) receptor (IC(50) = 13.9 +/- 0.6 microg/mL). Analysis of ligand binding data indicated that components of a black cohosh methanol extract functioned as a mixed competitive ligand of the 5-HT(7) receptor. In addition, a black cohosh methanol extract elevated cAMP levels in 293T-5-HT(7)-transfected HEK cells, suggesting the extract acted as a partial agonist at the receptor. The elevation in cAMP mediated by the black cohosh extract could be reversed in the presence of the antagonist methiothepin, indicating a receptor-mediated process. These data suggest that reductions in hot flashes in some women taking black cohosh may not be due to estrogenic properties. This study identifies other possible biological targets of black cohosh that could account for reported biological effects. PMID:12952416

  3. Naturally-Occurring Glucosinolates, Glucoraphanin and Glucoerucin, are Antagonists to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor as Their Chemopreventive Potency.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2015-01-01

    As a cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor is involved in several patho- physiological events leading to immunosuppression and cancer; hence antagonists of the Ah receptor may possess chemoprevention properties. It is known to modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzymes, for instance the CYP1 family of cytochromes P450 and quinone reductase, both important in the biotransformation of many chemical carcinogens via regulating phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Utilising chemically-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay it was revealed that intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, isolated from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica and Eruca sativa ripe seeds, respectively, are such antagonists. Both glucosinolates were poor ligands for the Ah receptor; however, they effectively antagonised activation of the receptor by the avid ligand benzo[a]pyrene. Indeed, intact glucosinolate glucoraphanin was a more potent antagonist to the receptor than glucoerucin. It can be concluded that both glucosinolates effectively act as antagonists for the Ah receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency. PMID:26320454

  4. Pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel, highly potent and selective non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyoshi; Homma, Tsuyoshi; Morikawa, Yuka; Ubukata, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Hiyoyuki; Aoki, Kazumasa; Ishikawa, Hirokazu; Mizuno, Makoto; Sada, Toshio

    2015-08-15

    The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In the radioligand-binding assay, CS-3150 inhibited (3)H-aldosterone binding to mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 9.4nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 36 and 713nM, respectively. CS-3150 also showed at least 1000-fold higher selectivity for mineralocorticoid receptor over other steroid hormone receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor. In the reporter gene assay, CS-3150 inhibited aldosterone-induced transcriptional activation of human mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 3.7nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 66 and 970nM, respectively. CS-3150 had no agonistic effect on mineralocorticoid receptor and did not show any antagonistic or agonistic effect on glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor even at the high concentration of 5?M. In adrenalectomized rats, single oral administration of CS-3150 suppressed aldosterone-induced decrease in urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio, an index of in vivo mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and this suppressive effect was more potent and longer-lasting than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. Chronic treatment with CS-3150 inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-loading to rats, and this antihypertensive effect was more potent than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. These findings indicate that CS-3150 is a selective and highly potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with long-lasting oral activity. This agent could be useful for the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders. PMID:26073023

  5. The C5a receptor antagonist PMX205 ameliorates experimentally induced colitis associated with increased IL-4 and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Jain, U; Woodruff, TM; Stadnyk, AW

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anti-complement therapies have not been advanced for treating the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) despite a growing body of evidence that blocking C5a protects against induced colitis in rodents. The purpose of this study was to further build on this evidence by examining the efficacy, mechanism and specificity of a potent, non-competitive and orally active C5a receptor (CD88) antagonist, PMX205, in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of murine innate colitis. Experimental Approach Mice with DSS added to their drinking water were orally administered 100 or 200 μg day−1 PMX205 in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. Clinical illness, colon histology and local generation of inflammatory mediators were measured to evaluate the impact of PMX205 on disease. Key Results PMX205 significantly prevented DSS-induced colon inflammation in both regimens, associated with lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production and nitrotyrosine staining in colon sections. Additionally, the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were increased. PMX205 had no significant effect on C5a levels. The beneficial effect of PMX205 was seen in two strains of mice of differing sensitivities to DSS inflammation, but was inactive in mice lacking CD88. Conclusions and Implications Pharmacological inhibition of C5a activity by PMX205 is efficacious in preventing DSS-induced colitis, providing further evidence that targeting CD88 in IBD patients could be a valuable therapeutic option. PMID:22924972

  6. Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr6.63 forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr6.63 to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr3566.63 allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R.

  7. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F.; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  8. Impaired effect of activation of rat hippocampal 5-HT7 receptors,